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Sample records for welded joints

  1. Studies of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krupa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of a welded joint were described. The joint was made as a result of the reconstruction of a truss and one of the possible means to make a repair. The studies were of a simulation character and were targeted at the detection of welding defects and imperfections thatshould be eliminated in a real structure. A model was designed and on this model the tests and examinations were carried out. The modelwas made under the same conditions as the conditions adopted for repair. It corresponded to the real object in shape and dimensions, and in the proposed technique of welding and welding parameters. The model was composed of five plates joined together with twelve beads.The destructive and non-destructive tests were carried out; the whole structure and the respective welds were also examined visually. Thedefects and imperfections in welds were detected by surface methods of inspection, penetration tests and magnetic particle flaw detection.The model of the welded joint was prepared by destructive methods, a technique that would never be permitted in the case of a realstructure. For the investigations it was necessary to cut out the specimens from the welded joint in direction transverse to the weld run. The specimens were subjected to metallographic examinations and hardness measurements. Additionally, the joint cross-section was examined by destructive testing methods to enable precise determination of the internal defects and imperfections. The surface methods were applied again, this time to determine the severity of welding defects. The analysis has proved that, fabricated under proper conditions and with parameters of the welding process duly observed, the welded joint has good properties and repairs of this type are possible in practice.

  2. Jointed Holder For Welding Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Adjustable-angle holder enables use of standard straight electrode with custom-fabricated bent gas cup for welding in difficult-to-reach places. Electrode replaced easily, without removing cup, with aid of tool loosening miniature collet nut on holder. Consumes fewer electrodes for given amount of welding. Angle of holder continuously adjustable to fit angle of gas cup or geometry of part welded. Holder made double-jointed to accommodate gas cup having compound angles.

  3. Recent Corrosion Research Trends in Weld Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The increasing interest in the corrosion properties of weld joints in the corrosive environment is placing stringent demands on the manufacturing techniques and performance requirements, and the manufacture employs the high quality and efficiency welding process to produce welds. Welding plays an important role in the fabrication of chemical plants, nuclear power plant, ship construction, and this has led to an increasing attention to the corrosion resistant weld joints. This paper covers recent technical trends of welding technologies for corrosion resistance properties including the COMPENDEX DB analysis of welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrications

  4. Polyimide weld bonding for titanium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Kurland, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two weld bonding processes were developed for joining titanium alloy; one process utilizes a weld-through technique and the other a capillary-flow technique. The adhesive used for the weld-through process is similar to the P4/A5F system. A new polyimide laminating resin, BFBI/BMPM, was used in the capillary-flow process. Static property information was generated for weld-bonded joints over the temperature range of 219 K (-65 F) to 561 K (+550 F) and fatigue strength information was generated at room temperature. Significant improvement in fatigue strength was demonstrated for weld-bonded joints over spot-welded joints. A demonstration was made of the applicability of the weld-through weld-bonding process for fabricating stringer stiffened skin panels.

  5. Materials participation in welded joints manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2016-08-01

    Management of materials dilution to form a joint with higher features asked by complex metallic structures is a problem that took attention and efforts of welding processes researchers and this communication will give a little contribution presenting some scientific and experimental results of dilution processes studied by Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department. Liquid state welding processes have a strong dependence related to dilution of base and filler materials, the most important are for automatic joining using welding. The paper presents a review of some scientific works already published and their contributions, results of dilution coefficient evaluation using weighing, graphics and software applied for shielded metal arc welding process. Paper results could be used for welders’ qualification, welding procedure specification and other welding processes researchers’ activities. The results of Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department, show dilution coefficient values between 20-30 % of base material and 70-80 % of filler material for studied welding process.

  6. Microstructures of 2219 twin wire welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Gao Na; Fang Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    With thick plates of 2219 high-strength alloy, the microstructures of welded joints with twin wire MIG welding were analyzed. Experimental results show that no hot crack was found in the weld due to discontinuous distribution of cocrystallization with low melting temperature, but porosity is serious in the first weld seam that is mainly composed of equiaxial grains with uneven sizes. As the poor position of the whole welded joint, fusion zone has big and coarse grains,uneven microstructures ; In quenching zone, there exist a lot of soaked microstructures that cocrystallization with low melting temperature solute into matrix, thus strengthening the metal in this zone; In excessive aging zone, much more phases that distribute evenly will be separated from the matrix; Outside this zone, properties and microstructures of the metal are basically similar to matrix due to the relatively low temperature or unaffected heat in the zone during welding.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Weld Joint Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxin; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Xu, Lianyong

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model is presented in this work that predicts the corrosion rate of weld joint. The model is able to track moving boundary of the corroding constituent of weld joint. The corrosion rates obtained from the model are compared with those estimated from mixed potential theory and two experimental techniques, namely immersion test and constant potential polarization test. The corrosion rate predicted using the model is within 10% of the estimate from the mixed potential theory, within 20% of that got from the immersion experiment and within 10% of that got from the constant potential polarization experiment for weld joint.

  8. Effect of Welding Methods on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints of Screw Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, N. I.; Sidorov, M. M.; Stepanova, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical properties and characteristics of the structure of welded joints of screw piles are studied. It is shown that cast tips from steel 25L do not meet the performance specifications for operation in the Northern climatic zone. Quality welded joints of screw piles can be obtained by semiautomatic welding in an environment of CO2 with Sv-08G2S welding wire.

  9. Effect of Multi-repair Welding on Fatigue Performance of Aluminum Alloy Profile Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, You-De; Shi, Chun-Yuan; Tian, Hong-Lei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum alloy profile has been widely used in the manufacture of the rail vehicles. But it's necessary for the repair welding of the welded joints to be conducted because some defects exist in the weld such as porosity, inclusions and incomplete penetrations in the welding processes. In this paper, the influence of the multi-repair welding of 6005A aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints on the fatigue performance are investigated based on the results of fatigue tests. The parameters of curves and the fatigue strength of the welded joints are calculated, and Goodman fatigue limit diagram is also obtained. The results show that fatigue strength of aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints, in condition of 107 cycle life, meet the standard requirement for the as-welded, repair welded state one time or two times respectively.

  10. Micro-mechanical properties of 2219 welded joints with twin wire welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Fang Hongyuan; Gao Na

    2006-01-01

    Nanoindentation method was adopted to investigate the distribution regularities of micro-mechanical properties of 2219 twin wire welded joints, thus providing the necessary theoretical basis and guidance for joint strengthening and improvement of welding procedure.Experimental results show that in weld zone, micro-mechanical properties are seriously uneven.Both hardness and elastic modulus distribute as uneven sandwich layers, while micro-mechanical properties in bond area are much more uniform than weld zone;In heat-affected zone of 2219 twin wire welded joint, distribution regularity of hardness is similar to elastic modulus.The average hardness in quenching zone is higher than softening zone, and the average elastic modulus in solid solution zone is slightly higher than softening zone.As far as the whole welded joint is concerned,metal in weld possesses the lowest hardness.For welded specimens without reinforcement, fracture position is the weld when tensioning.While for welded specimens with reinforcement, bond area is the poorest position with joint strength coefficient of 61%.So, it is necessary to strengthen the poor positions-weld and bond area of 2219 twin wire welded joint in order to solve joint weakening of welding this kind of alloy.

  11. Fatigue assessment of load-carrying welded cruciform joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Petinov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available T-form and cruciform joints in which the stress flow is transferred via weld material are widely applied in welded structures. A special type of these joints is presented by fillet-welded joints with incomplete penetration used by economical and manufacturing reasons. At a certain width of the cavity it becomes an active notch which in current design rules is regarded as an initial crack. In that way, fatigue life of the joint is characterized by the crack extensions towards the outer surface of weld bead. Fatigue assessment of these joints requires reliable data on the stress intensity factors values along the crack path. The results of systematic FEA-based calculations of stress intensity factors and respective S-N curves for the considered welded joints are presented. Main results obtained during this investigation can be used in solution of engineering tasks in reference to the fatigue assessment of welded cruciform joints with incomplete penetration.

  12. Predicting effects of diffusion welding parameters on welded joint properties by artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 祝美丽; 牛济泰; 张忠典

    2001-01-01

    The static model for metal matrix composites in diffusion welding was established by means of artificial neural network method. The model presents the relationship between weld joint properties and welding parameters such as welding temperature, welding pressure and welding time. Through simulating the diffusion welding process of SiCw/6061Al composite, the effects of welding parameters on the strength of welded joint was studied and optimal technical parameters was obtained. It is proved that this method has good fault-tolerant ability and versatility and can overcome the shortage of the general experiment. The established static model is in good agreement with the actual welding process, so it becomes a new path for studying the weldability of new material.

  13. Effect of weld schedule variation on the weldability and durability of AHSS spot weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, Eric Raymond

    Tensile strength testing and high cycle fatigue testing of advanced high strength steel spot welded shear lap joints were performed for the various weld conditions. The materials used in this study were DP 980, DP 780 and TRIP 780. The microstructure and microhardness of the shear lap joints were examined in an effort to identify the effect of microstructural changes on the strength and fatigue durability of the spot weld specimens. The occurrence of interfacial failure was recorded for the differing weld processes. Several weld schedules were examined and used to produce shear lap spot weld joints, specifically varying the squeeze force and the average current. The weld force used to produce a spot weld does not have a significant effect on the fracture mode of the specimen given the average current is constant. The average current used to produce a spot weld has a significant effect on the fracture mode of the spot weld for several squeeze forces. Interfacial failure of spot welded TRIP 780 can be mitigated using a certain range of currents when welding. This appears to come as a tradeoff for sacrificing the strength of the joint. Higher values of weld strength were obtainable; however, welds that failed with higher strengths also experienced interfacial failure. A fracture mechanics approach to estimating the high cycle fatigue life of the shear lap specimen is also proposed and represents a conservative estimate of the shear lap specimen durability.

  14. EVALUATION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY OF DISSIMILAR WELD JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šohaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural changes occurring in the weld joint P92/316Ti during his long-term exposure at high temperature were studied. In parallel to experiments were carried out calculations of phase equilibria for the base materials and the weld joint using the ThermoCalc software. Based on the experimental results and computational modeling results were evaluated a microstructural stability and the application of the base materials and the weld joint.

  15. EVALUATION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY OF DISSIMILAR WELD JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šohaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural changes occurring in the weld joint P92/316Ti during his long-term exposure at high temperature were studied. In parallel to experiments were carried out calculations of phase equilibria for the base materials and the weld joint using the ThermoCalc software. Based on the experimental results and computational modeling results were evaluated a microstructural stability and the application of the base materials and the weld joint.

  16. EVALUATION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY OF DISSIMILAR WELD JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Šohaj

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural changes occurring in the weld joint P92/316Ti during his long-term exposure at high temperature were studied. In parallel to experiments were carried out calculations of phase equilibria for the base materials and the weld joint using the ThermoCalc software. Based on the experimental results and computational modeling results were evaluated a microstructural stability and the application of the base materials and the weld joint.

  17. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  18. The impact of welding wire on the mechanical properties of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mazur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the mechanical properties of Hardox 450 steel welded joints. These welded joints were made in accordance with welding procedure specifications (WPS, which was prepared and  applied in the Wielton company. Fillers were provided by welding wires with two different diameters. The welding wire was G4Sil with diameter of 1.0 mm and 1.2 mm. The aim of this study was to examine whether the thickness of the welding wire has a direct effect on the properties of welded joints. Test specimens were made in similar parameters of the welding process. Then they were subjected to macroscopic research, tensile strength, impact strength and hardness

  19. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  20. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding

    OpenAIRE

    Torres López, Edwar A.; Ramirez, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized u...

  1. Numerical analysis of welded joint treated by explosion shock waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jianjun; CHEN Huaining

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of welding residual stresses and the action of explosion shock waves on welding residual stresses. Firstly, the distributions of welding temperature field and residual stress on a butt joint were numerically simulated with the sequentially coupled method. Secondly, the effect of explosion shock waves, produced by plastic strip-like explosive, on welding residual stress distri-bution was predicted with coupled Lagrange-ALE algorithm.It was implicated that explosion treatment could effectively reduce welding residual stresses. The simulation work lays a foundation for the further research on the rule of explosion treatment's effect on welding residual stresses and the factors that may influence it.

  2. Influence of Specific Features of Twin Arc Welding on Properties of Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhov, M. A.; Melnikov, A. U.; Fiveyskiy, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The present article covers the influence of standard and narrow gap twin arc welding on properties of weld joints from high-strength steels. While analyzing microsections we established that distribution of micro structure and phase terms, as well the distribution of micro-hardness, were more homogeneous under narrow gap twin arc welding.

  3. Study the Factors Effecting on Welding Joint of Dissimilar Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam J. Ebraheam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the factors that affect the welding joint of dissimilar metals. Austenitic stainless steel-type AISI (316L with a thickness of (2mm was welded to carbon steel (1mm using an MIG spot welding. The filler metal is a welding wire of the type E80S-G (according to AWS is used with (1.2mm diameter and CO2 is used as shielding gas with flow rate (7L/min for all times was used in this work. The results indicate that the increase of the welding current tends to increase the size of spot weld, and also increases the sheer force. Whereas the sheer force increased inversely with the time of welding. Furthermore, the results indicate that increasing the current and time of welding increases the diameter of weld zone, and decreases the sheer force.

  4. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints

  5. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  6. Models for selecting GMA Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Properties of Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Ramachandran, Pragash; Jebaraj, S.

    2016-02-01

    During the process of Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) welding, the weld joints mechanical properties are influenced by the welding parameters such as welding current and arc voltage. These parameters directly will influence the quality of the weld in terms of mechanical properties. Even small variation in any of the cited parameters may have an important effect on depth of penetration and on joint strength. In this study, S45C Constructional Steel is taken as the base metal to be tested using the parameters wire feed rate, voltage and type of shielding gas. Physical properties considered in the present study are tensile strength and hardness. The testing of weld specimen is carried out as per ASTM Standards. Mathematical models to predict the tensile strength and depth of penetration of weld joint have been developed by regression analysis using the experimental results.

  7. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  8. Modelling of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    This thesis focuses on numerical analysis of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints. Two types of welds are investigated here. First, a study of the localization of plastic flow and failure in aluminum sheets, welded by the relatively new Friction Stir (FS) Welding method, has been...... conducted ([P1], [P2], [P7]-[P9]). The focus in the thesis is on FS-welded 2xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys, which are attractive, for example, to the aerospace industry, since the 2024 aluminum in particular, is typically classified as un-weldable by conventional fusion welding techniques. Secondly......, a study of the damage development in Resistance SpotWelded joints, when subject to the commonly used static shear-lab or cross-tension testing techniques, has been carried out ([P3]-[P6]). The focus in thesis is on the Advanced High Strength Steels, Dual-Phase 600, which is used in for example...

  9. Microstructure development of welding joints in high Cr ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubushiro, Keiji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morishima, Keiko [IHI Corporation (Japan). Research Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Creep failure in high Cr ferritic steels welding joints are Type IV failure. Type IV-failure was ruptured in fine grained region of heat affected zone, microstructure and phase transformation process at welding in fine grained region were very important to clarify. Microstructure difference of heat affected zone was investigated in Gr.91, Gr.92, Gr.122 welding joint. The fraction of 60 degree block boundary, packet boundary, random boundary (including prior gamma boundary) length was compared in three ferritic steels by EBSP(Electron Backscatter Diffraction Pattern) analysis. HAZ was almost fully martensite phase in Gr.122 weld joint. On the other hand, HAZ in Gr.91 welding joint were some equiaxial grain and martensite structure. (orig.)

  10. Corrosion resistance of «tube – tubesheet» weld joint obtained by friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZVANOV Rif Garifovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are widely applied for implementation of various processes at ventures of fuel and energy complex. Cost of production and reliability of heat exchangers of this type is to a wide extent determined by corresponding characteristics of tube bundle, «tube – tubesheet» is its typical joint in particular when welding operations are used in order to attach tubes to tubesheet in addition to expansion. When manufacturing such equipment of heat-resistant chrome-bearing or chromium-molybdenum steels including steel 15H5M, the process of fixed joint manufacturing gets significantly more complicated and costly due to the necessity to use thermal treatment before, during and after welding (this problem is particularly applicable for manufacturing of large-size equipment. One of the options to exclude thermal treatment from manufacturing process is to use «non-arc» welding methods – laser welding, explosion welding as well as friction welding. Use of each of the welding methods mentioned above during production of heat-exchange equipment has its process challenges and peculiarities. This article gives a comparative analysis of weld structure and distribution of electrode potentials of welded joints and parent metal of the joints simulating welding of tube to tubesheet of steel 15H5M using the following welding methods: shielded manual arc welding, tungsten-arc inert-gas welding and friction welding. Comparative analysis of macro- and microstructures of specific zones of the studied welded joints showed that the joints produced by arc welding methods do not exhibit evident inhomogeneity of the structure after application of thermal treatment which is explained by the correctness of thermal treatment. Joints obtained via friction welding are characterized by structural inhomogeneity of the welded joint zone metal microstructure. The ultra-fine-grained structure obtained as a result of friction welding makes it possible to

  11. Mechanical behavior study of laser welded joints for DP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2008-03-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining considerable market shares in the automotive industry. The development and application of Dual Phase (DP) steel is just a consistent step towards high-strength steel grades with improved mechanical behavior. Tailor welded blanks with DP steel are promoted in the application of Body-In-White (BIW) structure by the automotive industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that are laser welded together before stamping. Applied cases of tailor welded blanks of high strength steels on the automotive structural parts are investigated in this paper. The mechanical behavior of laser welded joints for DP steel is studied. Microstructure of laser welded joints for DP steel was observed by SEM. Martensite in the weld seam explains the higher strength of welded joints than the base metal. Results show that the strain safety tolerance of laser welded seam for high strength steel can meet the requirement of automobile parts for stamping if the location of laser welded seam is designed reasonably.

  12. Moiré method analysis for tensile strain field of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文立; 魏艳红; 刘雪松; 方洪渊; 赵敏; 田锡唐

    2003-01-01

    Using experimental mechanics method of moiré analysis, strain field distributions of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joints under different conditions were investigated. The results show that moiré stripes of welded joint without trailing peening just before fracture are not only few and scattered but also uneven, and the stress mainly concentrates on the poor position-welded toes during the tensioning process with the relatively poor mechanical properties of welded joints; When the method of welding with trailing peening is adopted, moiré stripes of welded joint just before fracture are relatively thick and even due to the strengthening welded toes during the welding process, and fracture position transfers from the welded toes to weld, at the same time the mechanical properties of welded joints are improved greatly than conventional welding which can show that the technology of trailing peening is effective to strengthen welded joints of aluminum alloy with high strength.

  13. Inspection of thick welded joints using laser-ultrasonic SAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, D; Asaumi, Y; Lord, M; Bescond, C; Hatanaka, H; Tagami, M; Monchalin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The detection of defects in thick butt joints in the early phase of multi-pass arc welding would be very valuable to reduce cost and time in the necessity of reworking. As a non-contact method, the laser-ultrasonic technique (LUT) has the potential for the automated inspection of welds, ultimately online during manufacturing. In this study, testing has been carried out using LUT combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on 25 and 50mm thick butt welded joints of steel both completed and partially welded. EDM slits of 2 or 3mm height were inserted at different depths in the multi-pass welding process to simulate a lack of fusion. Line scans transverse to the weld are performed with the generation and detection laser spots superimposed directly on the surface of the weld bead. A CCD line camera is used to simultaneously acquire the surface profile for correction in the SAFT processing. All artificial defects but also real defects are visualized in the investigated thick butt weld specimens, either completed or partially welded after a given number of passes. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the LUT with SAFT for the automated inspection of arc welds or hybrid laser-arc welds during manufacturing.

  14. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    squares has been used with the back-propagation algorithm for training the network, while a Bayesian regularization technique has been successfully applied for minimizing the risk of inexpedient over-training. Finally, a predictive closed-loop control strategy based on a so-called single-neuron self......This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...

  15. Control of GMA Butt Joint Welding Based on Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    variations from 0.5 mm to 2.3 mm - scanned 10 mm in front of the electrode location. In this research, the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a static multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, for non...

  16. Control of GMA Butt Joint Welding Based on Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    in the challenging field of butt joint welding with full penetration under stochastically changing boundary conditions, e.g. major gap width variations. GMAW experiments performed on mild-steel plates (3 mm of thickness), show that high quality welds with uniform back-bead geometry are achievable for gap width...

  17. Numerical evaluation of multipass welding temperature field in API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nóbrega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the metallurgical changes suffered by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, promoting a considerable influence on the welded structures thermo mechanical properties. In project phase, one alternative for evaluating the welding cycle variable, would be the employment of computational methods through simulation. So, this paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field in a multipass welding of API 5L X80 steel used for oil and gas transportation, using the ABAQUS ® software, based on Finite Elements Method (FEM. During the simulation complex phenomena are considerable including: Variation in physical and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature, welding speed and the different mechanisms of heat exchange with the environment (convection and radiation were used. These considerations allow a more robust mathematical modeling for the welding process. An analytical heat source proposed by Goldak, to model the heat input in order to characterize the multipass welding through the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process on root and the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes were used. So, it was possible to evaluate the effect of each welding pass on the welded joint temperature field, through the temperature peaks and cooling rates values during the welding process.

  18. Weld Decay Recovery by Laser Beam Surfacing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welded Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Isao, MASUMOTO; Takeshi, SHINODA; Toshimasa, HIRATE; Nagoya University, currently at Gifu Vocational Training College; Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University; Nagoya University, currently at Toshiba Co. Ltd.

    1990-01-01

    This study is an attempt to improve corrosion resistance by laser beam surface treatment. AISI 304 type stainless steel welds were surface treated by laser and the effectivenesses of various treatment conditions were evaluated by acidic corrosion tests and metallurgical observation. It was found that laser treatment changed the morphology of carbide precipitates in the heat affected zone of AISI 304 austenitic steel MIG welded joints, and that it is possible to effect revovery from weld decay...

  19. MODELLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER WELDED INCOLOY 800 HT JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Paulraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding the effect of laser welding speed on incoloy 800 HT. This alloy is one of the potential materials for Generation IV nuclear plants. Laser welding has several advantages over arc welding such as low fusion zone, low heat input and concentrated heat intensity. Three different welding speeds were chosen and CO2 laser welding was performed. 2D modeling and simulation were done using ANSYS 15 to find out the temperature distribution at different welding speeds and it was found that an increase in the welding speed decreased the temperature. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, toughness and hardness were evaluated. The effect of welding speed on metallurgical characteristics was studied using optical microscopy (OM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM with EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD technique and fractographic analysis. From the results it was found that high welding speed (1400 mm/min decreased the joint strength. The M23C6 and Ni3Ti carbides were formed in a discrete chain and in a globular form along the grain boundaries of the weld region which increased the strength of the grain boundaries. Fractographic evaluations of the tested specimens for welding speed (1000 and 1200 mm/min showed deep and wide dimples indicating ductile failures.

  20. A Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Concept for Welded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The present paper presents the necessary crack growth statistics and suggests stochastic models for a reliability analysis of the fatigue fracture of welded steel plate joints. The reliability levels are derived from extensive testing with fillet-welded joints for which the entire crack growth hi...... is to provide data for the variables used in a MCS and to develop a Markov chain for fast reliability calculation, especially when predicting the most likely influence of numerous future inspections....

  1. New Developed Welding Electrode for Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new welding electrode, low transformation temperatur e electrode (LTTE), was introduced in this paper. It was described in design principle, mechanics, chemical compositions of their deposited metal and manufacturing methods.It was proved that the best transformation starting temperature from austenite to martensite of the deposited metal of LTTE was at about 191℃ and it was obtained by adding alloying elements such as Cr, Ni, Mn and Mo. The microstructure of the weld metal of the LTTE was low carbon martensite and residual austenite. The compressive residual stress was induced around the weld of the LTTE and the -145 MPa in compression could be obtained in middle of weld metal. The fatigue tests showed that the fatigue strength of the longitudinal welded joints welded with the LTTE at 2×106 cycles was improved by 59% compared with that of the same type of welded joints welded with conventional E5015 and the fatigue life was increased by 47 times at 162 MPa. It is a very valuable method to improve the fatigue performance of welded joints.

  2. OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS OF VIBRATION DURING WELDING ON THE PROPERTIES OF WELDED JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rizvanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches of influence of vibrating processing regimes on mechanical and other properties of the welded joints received by fusion welding are carried out on the basis of the literary analysis of the works devoted to influence of vibrating oscillations on melted and crystallizing metal.

  3. Influence of Welding Current and Joint Design on the Tensile Properties of SMAW Welded Mild Steel Joints Prof. Rohit Jha1 , Dr. A.K. Jha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rohit Jha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study includes welding characteristics of weldment with respect to different types of weld design and welding current. Mild steel plates of 6mm were welded using different joint designs. Single V, Double V and Flat surfaces were joined by Shielded Metal Arc Welding process. Welding current was varied in all the cases. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percentage elongation were evaluated. Results indicated that the single V joint design depict maximum UTS in comparison to other welding joints and also weld properties of joints (weldment increases to some extent up-to a particular current level, after which the strength decreases. Welding current also affect the welding speed.

  4. Improved design bases of welded joints in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús

    The presented work aims to investigate and establish a precise, thorough and detailed database from series of experimental testing of submerged arc welded, SAW, specimens of various thicknesses typically applied in offshore structures and foundations. Additionally, the testing was performed in two...... welded joints were thereafter compared directly to the traditional SAW specimens in order to investigate the two different welding techniques. The laser hybrid welding technique offers great potential in lowering the cost of energy associated with offshore structures....... therefore received much attention from universities, research institutions along with industry as it is of significant practical importance for all fatigue loaded structures, such as e.g. marine structures. As-welded SAW specimens of three different thicknesses, manufactured by Lindoe Welding Technology A...

  5. Residual stress simulation of circumferential welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicher R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses are an important consideration in the component integrity and life assessment of welded structure. The welding process is very complex time dependent physical phenomenon with material nonlinearity. The welding is a thermal process with convection between fluid flow and welding body, between welding bodyand environment. Next type of boundary conditions is radiation and thermo-mechanical contact on the outer surface of gas pipe in the near of weld. The temperature variation so obtained is utilised to find the distribution of the stress field.In this paper, a brief review of weld simulation and residual stress modelling using the finite element method (FEM by commercial software ANSYS is presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic formulations using a von Mises yield criterion with nonlinear kinematics hardening has been employed. Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis have been shown. The commercial FEM code ANSYS was used for coupled thermalmechanical analysis.

  6. Influence of welding parameters and post-weld aging on tensile properties and fracture location of AA2139-T351 friction-stir-welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Prisco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties and fracture location of AA2139-T351 friction stir welded joints are studied in the as-welded and post-weld aged condition. The experimental results show that when the joints are free of welding defects, they fail on the advancing side of the HAZ exhibiting a large amount of plastic deformation. When the revolutionary pitch exceeds a threshold value, some micro-defects are formed in the weld nugget due to insufficient heat input. In this case, the joints fail near the weld center, and the fracture occurs in a mixed mode, both ductile and brittle. However, being less ductile, post-weld aged joints are less defect-tolerant and, then, they fracture closer to the weld center, showing a reduced elongation at fracture and an UTS within the order of magnitude of the as-welded joints.

  7. Modeling and design of energy concentrating laser weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [OptiCad Corp., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The application of lasers for welding and joining has increased steadily over the past decade with the advent of high powered industrial laser systems. Attributes such as high energy density and precise focusing allow high speed processing of precision assemblies. Other characteristics of the process such as poor coupling of energy due to highly reflective materials and instabilities associated with deep penetration keyhole mode welding remain as process limitations and challenges to be overcome. Reflective loss of laser energy impinging on metal surfaces can in some cases exceed ninety five percent, thus making the process extremely inefficient. Enhanced coupling of the laser beam can occur when high energy densities approach the vaporization point of the materials and form a keyhole feature which can trap laser energy and enhance melting and process efficiency. The extreme temperature, pressure and fluid flow dynamics of the keyhole make control of the process difficult in this melting regime. The authors design and model weld joints which through reflective propagation and concentration of the laser beam energy significantly enhance the melting process and weld morphology. A three dimensional computer based geometric optical model is used to describe the key laser parameters and joint geometry. Ray tracing is used to compute the location and intensity of energy absorption within the weld joint. Comparison with experimentation shows good correlation of energy concentration within the model to actual weld profiles. The effect of energy concentration within various joint geometry is described. This method for extending the design of the laser system to include the weld joint allows the evaluation and selection of laser parameters such as lens and focal position for process optimization. The design of narrow gap joints which function as energy concentrators is described. The enhanced laser welding of aluminum without keyhole formation has been demonstrated.

  8. Weld Joint Design for SFR Metallic Fuel Element Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system is among the six systems selected for Gen-IV promising systems and expected to become available for commercial introduction around 2030. In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the joint designs for endplug welding were investigated. For the irradiation test of SFR metallic fuel element, the TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed based on the welding conditions and parameters established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the weld joint design was developed based on the TIG welding technique.

  9. Inspection of plastic weld joints with terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Krumbholz, N.; Jördens, C.; Baudrit, B.; Bastian, M.; Koch, M.

    2007-06-01

    Polymers cover the whole range from commodities to high-tech applications. Plastic products have also gained in importance for construction purposes. This draws the attention to joining techniques like welding. Common evaluation of the weld quality is mostly mechanical and destructive. Existing non-destructive techniques are mostly not entirely reliable or economically inefficient. Here, we demonstrate the potential of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy imaging as a non-destructive testing tool for the inspection of plastic weld joints. High-density polyethylene sheets welded in a lap joint with varying quality serve as samples for terahertz transmission measurements. Imperfections within the weld contact area can clearly be detected by displaying the transmitted intensity in a limited frequency range. Contaminations such as metal or sand are identified since they differ significantly from the polymer in the terahertz image. Furthermore, this new and promising technique is capable of detecting the boundaries of a weld contact area. Aside from revealing a contrast between a proper weld joint and no material connection, the size of an air gap between two plastic sheets can be determined by considering the characteristic frequency-dependent transmission through the structure: The spectral positions of the maxima and minima allow for the calculation of the air layer thickness.

  10. Research on the properties of laser welded joints of aluminum killed cold rolled steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎启; 曹能; 俞宁峰

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum killed cold rolled steel used for automobiles was welded shows that high quality of welding can be realized at welding speed of laser welded joints for aluminum killed cold rolled steel increased compared to those of the base metal while the formability decreased. Forming limit diagram of joint material indicated that the laser weld seam should avoid the maximum deformation area of automobile parts during the designing period for the position of weld seam.

  11. Degradation Processes of Al-Zn Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding of metal materials belongs to non-demountable joints. Current trend especially in an automotive industry is to join materials with a different melting temperature. Most of all, there are dural profiles with ferrite or austenite steel. The reason for this is the effort to lower the weight of the whole construction and at the same time preserve sufficient mechanical characteristics. However, there is a big risk of different electrical potentials of both of these metals in this type of non-demountable joints. The experimental part of this paper brings evaluation of mechanical-corrosion processes of overlapped joints produced by the CMT (cold metal transfer method. The base material for weld bead is dural sheet AlMg3 and dural sheet with a surface treatment aluzinc DX51D+AZ 150. Material AlSi5 in the form of a wire was used as an additional material for a welding bath. Method CMT was used in order to create a weld bead. Initial analysis of weld bead was done visually using a binocular microscope. Further, a metallographic analysis of weld bead and base material was processed. The aim was to identify the heat affected area around the welded joint. Microhardness of intermetallic aluminium phases was measured, after the identification of intermetallic phases a chemical analysis EDS was processed. Prepared samples underwent corrosion degradation in a salt spray environment in compliance with the norm ČSN EN ISO 9227. Visual and metallographic evaluation of the individual samples was processed after every week of exposition to the salt spray environment. The goal of this experiment was to record the initial impulse of galvanic corrosion which consists in corrosion degradation in the area of welded joint.

  12. Fatigue behaviour of welded joints assembled by longitudinal corrugated plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宇; 王清远; 刘永杰; 孙美

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is usually the cause for the cracks identified at bridge elements in service. With an increase in the introduction of corrugated steel web girders in recent highway bridge construction, the understanding of the fatigue behaviour of welded details in such structures becomes an important issue for the design. The typical welded details were represented as welded joints assembled by longitudinal corrugated plates. All the experiments were performed under fatigue loading using a servo-control testing machine. The test results from the failure mode observation with the aid of infrared thermo-graph technology show that the failure manner of these welded joints is comparable to that of the corrugated steel web beams reported previously. It is indicated from the stiffness degradation analysis that the welded joints with larger corrugation angle have higher stiffness and greater stiffness degradation in the notable stiffness degradation range. It is shown from the testS−N relations based on the free regression and forced regression analyses that there is a good linear dependence between lg(N) and lg(ΔS). It is also demonstrated that the proposed fracture mechanics analytical model is able to give a prediction slightly lower but on the safe side for the mean stresses at 2 million cycles of the test welded joints.

  13. The Investigation of Structure Heterogeneous Joint Welds in Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubimova Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding joints of dissimilar steels don’t withstand design life. One of the important causes of premature destructions can be the acceleration of steel structural degradation due to cyclic mechanical and thermal gradients. Two zones of tube from steel 12H18N9T, exhibiting the structural instability at early stages of the decomposition of a supersaturated solid austenite solution, were subjected to investigation. Methods of x-ray spectral and structure analysis, micro hardnessmetry were applied for the research. Made the following conclusions, inside and outside tube wall surfaces of hazardous zones in welding joint have different technological and resource characteristics. The microhardness very sensitive to changes of metal structure and can be regarded as integral characteristic of strength and ductility. The welding processes are responsible for the further fibering of tube wall structure, they impact to the characteristics of hot-resistance and long-term strength due to development of ring cracks in the welding joint of pipeline. The monitoring of microhardness and structural phase conversions can be used for control by changes of mechanical properties in result of post welding and reductive heat treatment of welding joints.

  14. Technology of Welding Joints Mixed with Duplex Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Słania J.; Krawczyk R.; Masłoń D.

    2016-01-01

    Results of the examinations of sample plates of mixed joints with the duplex steel were discussed. Examinations were taken on the sample plates of mixed joints of sheet plates type P355NL1 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 welded by the flux-cored wire DW-329A by the Kobelco company of the following category T 22 9 3 NL RC/M3 in the gas shroud M21 (Ar+18%CO2) (plate no.1), and nickel covered electrodes E Ni 6082 by the Böhler company (plate no. 2). Results of the side bend test of welded joint, transverse ...

  15. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Propagation through Welded Lap Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Jankauskas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research presented here is the investigation of ultrasonic guided wave (UGW propagation through the lap joint welded plates used in the construction of a storage tank floors. The investigations have been performed using numerical simulation by finite element method (FEM and tested by measurement of the transmission losses of the guided waves transmitted through the welded lap joints. Propagation of the symmetric S0 mode in the welded stainless steel plates in the cases of different lap joint overlap width, operation frequency, and additional plate bonding caused by corrosion were investigated. It was shown that the transmission losses of the S0 mode can vary in the range of 2 dB to 8 dB depending on the ratio between lap joint width and wavelength. It was also demonstrated that additional bonding in the overlap zone caused by corrosion can essentially reduce transmission losses.

  16. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  17. Development of simplified finite element models for welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seong Il; Ahn, Sung Wook; Kim, Young Geul; Kim, Hyun Gyu [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we develop simplified finite element (FE) models for butt-, lap- and T-welded joints by performing numerical and experimental experiments. Three-point bending tests of butt- and lap-welded specimens are performed to obtain the stiffness of the specimens and the strains at points near the welding beads. Similarly the stiffness and strains of T-welded specimen are measured by applying a point load at the end of the specimen. To develop simplified FE models, we consider the shape parameters of width, thickness and the angle of weld elements in the numerical simulations. The shape parameters of the simplified FE models are determined by building linear regression models for the experimental data sets.

  18. Development of Simplified Finite Element Models for Welded Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seong Il; Ahn, Sung Wook; Kim, Young Geul; Kim, Hyun Gyu [Seoul National Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we develop simplified finite element (FE) models for butt-, lap- and T-welded joints by performing numerical and experimental experiments. Three-point bending tests of butt- and lap-welded specimens are performed to obtain the stiffness of the specimens and the strains at points near the welding beads. Similarly the stiffness and strains of T-welded specimen are measured by applying a point load at the end of the specimen. To develop simplified FE models, we consider the shape parameters of width, thickness and the angle of weld elements in the numerical simulations. The shape parameters of the simplified FE models are determined by building linear regression models for the experimental data sets.

  19. FE MODELING & ANALYSIS OF ARC WELDED T-JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.Pilare

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arc welded structures are widely used in automobiles, constructions & power plants. As the main cause of weldment failure is design defect & overload, hence it is necessary to analyze the maximum stresses inthe weldment. In this paper an experimentation is carried out on welded T-joint to determine the breaking stress in the weldment. The FE analysis & analytical estimation of breaking stress is also carried out to verify the experimental results. The stress distribution along weld size & throat thickness is evaluated and also compared with reported findings. Further T-joint weld is analyzed under static tensile & bending load by varying the gap between parent plates with and without chamfer at weldment edges. The fatigue analysis under alternating tensile and bending load is also carried out and fatigue life of weldment is predicted with variation in the gap between parent plates.

  20. Fatigue Reliability Assessment of Correlated Welded Web-frame Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Huang; Y. Garbatov; C. Guedes Soares

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the fatigue reliability of complex welded structures composed of multiple web-frame joints, accounting for correlation effects. A three-dimensional finite element model using the 20-node solid elements is generated. A linear elastic finite element analysis was performed, hotspot stresses in a web-frame joint were analyzed and fatigue damage was quantified employing the S-N approach. The statistical descriptors of the fatigue life of a non-correlated web-frame joint containing several critical hotspots were estimated. The fatigue reliability of a web-frame joint wasmodeled as a series system of correlated components using the Ditlevsen bounds. The fatigue reliability of the entire welded structure with multiple web-frame joints, modeled as a parallel system of non-correlated web-frame joints was also calculated.

  1. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses in Linear Friction Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikiforov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-mechanical model of linear friction welding has been developed. The temperature distribution during the heating process was determined using a one-dimensional model. The distribution of temperature and stress field during the forging phase was determined by solving the coupled problem in ANSYS. The model allows to predict the effect of welding parameters on the stress field, whereas modeling data are consistent with the residual stresses in welded joints of the Ti6Al4V alloy obtained during the experiment.

  3. Equalization of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy welded joint by scanning electron beam welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The equalization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded joint with base metal on corrosion resistance, strength and ductility was studied. The solidification microstructure is transformed from 650 μm columnar grains to 100 μm equiaxed grains by scanning electron beam welding. The anodic polarization curve of 150 μm equiaxed grains coincides with that of base metal. Equal corrosion resistance between weld metal and base metal was ob tained. Uniform microstructure and solutedistribution are the basis of equalization. Corrosion rate of weld with 150 μm equiaxed grains is the lowest, 2.45 times lower than that of 650 μm columnar grains. Weld strength is 98% as much as that of base metal, yield-strength ratio is 99.5%, which is 3.6% higher than that of base metal.

  4. Technology of Welding Joints Mixed with Duplex Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słania J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of the examinations of sample plates of mixed joints with the duplex steel were discussed. Examinations were taken on the sample plates of mixed joints of sheet plates type P355NL1 and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 welded by the flux-cored wire DW-329A by the Kobelco company of the following category T 22 9 3 NL RC/M3 in the gas shroud M21 (Ar+18%CO2 (plate no.1, and nickel covered electrodes E Ni 6082 by the Böhler company (plate no. 2. Results of the side bend test of welded joint, transverse tensile test, stretching of the weld metal, impact strength, micro and macroscopic metallographic examinations, and measurements of the delta ferrite content were presented.

  5. Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng

    2016-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.

  6. The Effect of Welding Energy on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic-Welded Copper Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld interfaces was observed and had an ultra-fine grain structure. With an increase in welding energy, the weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal, and eventually turned into a convoluted wavy pattern, bearing similarities to shear instabilities, as observed in fluid dynamics. The lap shear load of the joints initially increased and then remained stable as the welding energy increased. The tensile characteristics of the joints significantly depended on the development of plastic deformation at the interface. The influence of the microstructure on the hardness was also discussed.

  7. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin E.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetallic compounds. Because of the significant influence that intermetallic compound formation has on mechanical and ballistic behavior, the characterization of the specific intermetallic phases and the degree to which they are formed in the weld microstructure is critical to predicting weld performance. This study used electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Vickers micro-hardness indentation to explore and characterize the microstructures of lap friction stir welds between an applique 6061-T6 aluminum armor plate alloy and a RHA homogeneous armor plate steel alloy. Macroscopic defects such as micro-cracks were observed in the cross-sectional samples, and binary intermetallic compound layers were found to exist at the aluminum-steel interfaces of the steel particles stirred into the aluminum weld matrix and across the interfaces of the weld joints. Energy dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis identified the intermetallic layer as monoclinic Al3Fe. Dramatic decreases in grain size in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and weld zones that evidenced grain refinement through plastic deformation and recrystallization. Crystallographic grain orientation and texture were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. Striated regions in the orientations of the aluminum alloy were determined to be the result of the severe deformation induced by the complex weld tool geometry. Many of the textures observed in the weld

  8. Explosive Welding of Tubular Configurated Joints for Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, R.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive welding can provide the answer to problems of permanently joining metals typically used in the aerospace industry. The explosive bonding process is a solid state bonding process enabling material incompatibility problems associated with fusion welding to be overcome. In addition, heat affected zones are eliminated thus, enhancing joint strength, properties and performance. The process requires the parts being joined to be impelled, by means of explosives, to collide with each other. Certain critical collision parameters must be met and controlled and these parameters are defined. Various component geometries which satisfy the collision parameters are described. Examples of transition joints used in the aerospace industry are described and illustrated.

  9. Research of the Resistance of Contact Welding Joint of R65 Type Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Dauskurdis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the R65 type rail joints that were welded by resistance welding are analysed. Survey methodology of the research consists of the following parts: visual inspection of welded joint, ultrasonic rail inspection, hardness test of upper part of the rail, fusion area research, the measurement hardness test of heat-softened area, the measurement microhardness test, microstructure research of the welded joint, impact strength experiments, chemical analysis of welded joint, wheel-rail interaction research using the finite element method (FEM. The results of the research are analysed and the quality of weld is evaluated. The conclusion is based on the results of this research.

  10. Laser Shock Processing of Metal Sheet and Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Shi-kun; TAN Yong-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-bin; LIU Fang-jun

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the application of laser shock processing(LSP) as a post weld treatment technology and a strengthening technology, a series experiments and analysis were taken in this paper. The hardness of the laser shock processed zone of Al-Li alloy was measured, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints of the Ni-based superalloy GH30 and the Austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were compared with those without LSP in this paper. The results showed that the size of strengthened zone was similar to that of laser spot and strengthened layer was about 1mm deep, and the high intense dislocations and twins produced in the shocked zone. Plastic strain also gained surface residual compress stress, which is benefit for the fatigue properties of welded zones. In this test, the surface hardness of welding zone of the superalloy GH30 improved obviously and tensile strength increased by 12%, but the improvement of fatigue life was not obvious; Martensite phase is formed in plasma welding 1Cr18Ni9Ti, which reduced the effect of strain deformation martensite induced by laser shock processing, but the surface residual compress stress gained by laser shock processing can obviously improve the fatigue life of 1Cr1 8Ni9Ti welded joints.

  11. Laser Shock Processing of Metal Sheet and Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUShi-kun; TANYong-sheng; ZHANGXiao-bin; LIUFang-jun

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the application of laser shock processing(LSP) as a post weld treatment technology and a strengthening technology, a series experiments and analysis were taken in this paper. The hardness of the laser shock processed zone of A1-Li alloy was measured, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints of the Ni-based superalloy GH30 and the Austenitic stainless steel 1Crl8Ni9Ti were compared with those without LSP in this paper. The results showed that the size of strengthened zone was similar to that of laser spot and strengthened layer was about lmm deep, and the high intense dislocations and twins produced in the shocked zone. Plastic strain also gained surface residual compress stress, which is benefit for the fatigue properties of welded zones. In this test, the surface hardness of welding zone of the superalloy GH30 improved obviously and tensile strength increased by 12%, but the improvement of fatigue life was not obvious; Martensite phase is formed in plasma welding 1Crl8Ni9Ti, which reduced the effect of strain deformation martensite induced by laser shock processing, but the surface residual compress stress gained by laser shock processing can obviously improve the fatigue life of 1Crl 8Ni9Ti welded joints.

  12. Mechanical properties of a dissimilar aluminum alloy joint welded by hybrid laser-MIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Zongtao; Cui, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Two dissimilar Al alloys, 5083-H111 and 6005A-T6, were joined by hybrid laser-MIG welding method. Mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated and compared. The results show that the tensile strength of the dissimilar joint is 219.8 MPa, 11.7% higher than that of 6005A-T5 joint. After statistical analysis of the fatigue data, the P-S-N curves of the dissimilar joint were obtained. The mean fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint is 112.5 MPa. The fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint for a given 10% probability of failure, at a confidence level of 95%, is 101.4 MPa. The fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint is almost same as that of the 6005A-T6 joint. In welded structure designing, different P-S-N curves should be chosen according to the different service conditions and reliability requirements.

  13. Investigation of Welded Joints with Linear Turned Beech Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŽUPČIĆ, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding of wood is a process where chemical and physical reactions take place, heat isformed during the friction, which melts and softens the structure of wood, and a firm joint is formedby cooling of the melt.The paper discusses the present knowledge about wood welding and the results of wood weldingresearch obtained in the Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb. The results were obtained onsamples (solid beech wood with tapered entrance holes 9 mm in diameter, the bottom of the hole7 mm in diameter and dowel lengths of 20 mm and 30 mm, as well as samples with 8 mm holediameters and dowel lengths of 20 mm and 30 mm. The tensile strength of welded joints was analysed.The analysis results show that there is a big difference in tensile strength between the samples with 20and 30 mm long dowels and profile holes. 30 mm long dowels give better results than the 20 mmdowels.

  14. A Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Concept for Welded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The first part of this paper presented the required statistics and stochastic models for reliability analysis of the fatigue fracture of welded plate joints. This present Part 2 suggests a probabilistic damage tolerance supplement to the design S–N curves for welded joints. The goal is to provide...... the practising engineer with simple tools that predict the reliability against fatigue fracture during service life. The impact of the chosen fatigue design factors (FDF) and the uncertainty in the applied stresses is revealed. The effect of an in-service inspection programme is also predicted. The results...... and target service life (TSL). This is obtained by introducing the FDF as a key parameter to the results. This parameter is defined as the ratio of predicted fatigue life over TSL. FDF is always calculated in the S–N approach which is mandatory in fatigue life prediction. Various welded details (classes...

  15. Designing aluminium friction stir welded joints against multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Susmel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating multiaxial fatigue strength of aluminium friction stir (FS welded joints. Having developed a bespoke joining technology, circumferentially FS welded tubular specimens of Al 6082-T6 were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out using the experimental results have demonstrated that the MWCM applied in terms of nominal stresses, notch stresses, and also the Point Method is accurate in predicting the fatigue lifetime of the tested FS welded joints, with its use resulting in life estimates that fall within the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  16. Multiaxial fatigue of aluminium friction stir welded joints: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hattingh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to check the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating the fatigue strength of friction stir (FS welded tubular joints of Al 6082-T6 subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase multiaxial fatigue loading. The welded samples being investigated were manufactured by equipping an MTS I-STIR process development system with a retracting tool that was specifically designed and optimised for this purpose. These specimens were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out by using the generated experimental results allowed us to prove that the MWCM (applied in terms of nominal stresses is highly accurate in predicting the fatigue strength of the tested FS welded joints, its usage resulting in estimates falling with the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  17. Defect detection in wire welded joints using thermography investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatczak, T., E-mail: tomasz.swiatczak@p.lodz.pl [Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Tomczyk, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering Systems, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Wiecek, B. [Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Pawlak, R. [Institute of Electrical Engineering Systems, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Olbrycht, R. [Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    The formation of gas voids inside the wire joints during laser welding may cause internal defects (cracks and porosity), that are invisible from outside. Authors propose the application of active thermography for detection of such defects. Thermal camera was used to acquire sequences of thermograms showing the joints during transient heating. Fourier analysis enabled phase value calculation, which is different for defective and non-defective samples. Laboratory results were confirmed by simulations on prepared two-dimensional model.

  18. Investigation of the Microstructure of Joints of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Special features of the microstructure of joints of aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-copper alloys produced by friction stir welding are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a layered structure with ultradisperse grains is produced by friction stir welding at the center of the weld joint. An analogy is drawn between the microstructures of joints produced by friction stir welding and surface layer produced by sliding friction.

  19. Comparison of Post Weld Treatment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints in Medium Cycle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    the stress range can exceed the yield-strength of ordinary structural steel, especially when considering positive stress ratios (R > 0). Fatigue experiments and qualitative evaluation of the different post-weld treatments leads to the selection of TIG dressing. The process of implementing TIG dressing......This paper presents a comparison of three post-weld treatments for fatigue life improvement of welded joints. The objective is to determine the most suitable post-weld treatment for implementation in mass production of certain crane components manufactured from very high-strength steel....... The processes investigated are: burr grinding, TIG dressing and ultrasonic impact treatment. The focus of this investigation is on the so-called medium cycle area, i.e. 10 000-500 000 cycles and very high stress ranges. In this area of fatigue design, the use of very high strength steel becomes necessary, since...

  20. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance of Friction Stir Welded Joints for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, H.J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a young welding process with high potential to replace riveted joints in aerospace structures like the fuselage. Friction stir welding is a robust process and capable of welding high strength aluminum alloys. Therefore it can lead to both costs and weight savings. To substit

  1. Virtual Welded-Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Babu, S.; Olson, G.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-04-15

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the fatigue life of a welded-joint by 10 times and to reduce energy use by 25% through product performance and productivity improvements using an integrated modeling approach. The fatigue strength of a welded-joint is currently the bottleneck to design high performance and lightweight welded structures using advanced materials such as high strength steels. In order to achieve high fatigue strength in a welded-joint it is necessary to manage the weld bead shape for lower stress concentration, produce preferable residual stress distribution, and obtain the desired microstructure for improved material toughness and strength. This is a systems challenge that requires the optimization of the welding process, the welding consumable, the base material, as well as the structure design. The concept of virtual welded-joint design has been proposed and established in this project. The goal of virtual welded-joint design is to develop a thorough procedure to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, property, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatigue strength by a systematic modeling approach. The systematic approach combines five sub-models: weld thermal-fluid model, weld microstructure model, weld material property model, weld residual stress model, and weld fatigue model. The systematic approach is thus based on interdisciplinary applied sciences including heat transfer, computational fluid dynamics, materials science, engineering mechanics, and material fracture mechanics. The sub-models are based on existing models with further development. The results from modeling have been validated with critical experiments. The systematic modeling approach has been used to design high fatigue resistant welds considering the combined effects of weld bead geometry, residual stress, microstructure, and material property. In particular, a special welding wire has been developed in this project to introduce

  2. EFFECT OF CARBON MIGRATION ON CREEP PROPERTIES OF Cr5Mo DISSIMILAR WELDED JOINTS WITH Ni-BASED AND AUSTENITIC WELD METAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M. Gong; Y. Jiang; S.T. Tu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of carbon migration on creep properties of Cr5Mo dissimilar welded joints with Ni-based (Inconel 182) and Cr23Ni13 (A302) austenitic weld metal was investigated. Carbon migration near the weld metal/ferritic steel interface of Cr5Mo dissimilar welded joints was analyzed by aging method. Local creep deformations of the dissimilar welded joints were measured by a long-term local creep deformation measuring technique. The creep rupture testing was performed for Cr5Mo dissimilar welded joints with Inconel 182 and A302 weld metal. The research results show that the maximum creep strain rate occurs in the decarburized zone located on heat affect zone (HAZ) of Cr5Mo ferritic steel. The creep rupture life of Cr5Mo dissimilar welded joints with A302 weld metal decreases due to carbon migration and is about 50% of that welded with Inconel 182 weld metal.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Dissimilar Material Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mechanical testing and the microstructure analysis of dissimilar welded joint of the R350HT steel and the high-manganese (Hadfield cast steel using Cr-Ni cast steel spacer. The simulation tests of the welded joint surface deformation were carried out. The macroscopic and microscopic investigation were made using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Content of the magnetic phase was measured using magnetoscope. The quantitative metallographic investigation was used for assessment of ferrite and martensite contents and X-ray diffraction phase analysis was carried out. The results showed that during cooling of the spacer after welding, the transformation of metastable austenite into martensite proceeded. In addition to work hardening, the phase transformation of austenite into martensite occurs during the process of the superficial deformation of the spacer while simulated exploitation. This leads to a substantial increase of hardness, and at the same time, causes the increase of wear resistance of the welded joints of crossovers.

  4. Mechanical characteristics of welded joints between different stainless steels grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of mechanical characteristics of welded joints is one of the most important tasks that allow determining their functional properties. Due to the very high, still rising, cost of some stainless steels it is justified, on economic grounds, welding austenitic stainless steel with steels that are corrosion-resistant like duplex ones. According to forecasts the price of corrosion resistant steels stil can increase by 26 ÷ 30%. For technical reasons welded joints require appropriate mechanical properties such as: tensile strength, bending, ductility, toughness, and resistance to aggressive media. Such joints are applied in the construction of chemical tankers, apparatus and chemical plants and power steam stations. Using the proper binder makes possible the welds directly between the elements of austenitic stainless steels and duplex ones. It causes that such joits behave satisfactorily in service in such areas like maritime constructions and steam and chemical plants. These steels have high mechanical properties such as: the yield strength, the tensile strength and the ductility as well as the resistance to general corrosion media. They are resistant to both pitting and stress corrosions. The relatively low cost of production of duplex steels, in comparison with standard austenitic steels, is inter alia, the result of a reduced amount of scarce and expensive Nickel, which is seen as a further advantage of these steels.

  5. Friction Stir Lap Welding: material flow, joint structure and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.W. Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding has been studied intensively in recent years due to its importance in industrial applications. The majority of these studies have been based on butt joint configuration and friction stir lap welding (FSLW has received considerably less attention. Joining with lap joint configuration is also widely used in automotive and aerospace industries and thus FSLW has increasingly been the focus of FS research effort recently. number of thermomechancal and metallurgical aspects of FSLW have been studied in our laboratory. In this paper, features of hooking formed during FSLW of Al-to-Al and Mg-to-Mg will first be quantified. Not only the size measured in the vertical direction but hook continuity and hooking direction have been found highly FS condition dependent. These features will be explained taking into account the effects of the two material flows which are speed dependent and alloy deformation behaviour dependent. Strength values of the welds will be presented and how strength is affected by hook features and by alloy dependent local deformation behaviours will be explained. In the last part of the paper, experimental results of FSLW of Al-to-steel will be presented to briefly explain how joint interface microstructures affect the fracturing process during mechanical testing and thus the strength. From the results, tool positioning as a mean for achieving maximum weld strength can be suggested.

  6. Automated thresholding in radiographic image for welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Haniza; Arof, Hamzah; Yazid, Hafizal

    2012-03-01

    Automated detection of welding defects in radiographic images becomes non-trivial when uneven illumination, contrast and noise are present. In this paper, a new surface thresholding method is introduced to detect defects in radiographic images of welding joints. In the first stage, several image processing techniques namely fuzzy c means clustering, region filling, mean filtering, edge detection, Otsu's thresholding and morphological operations method are utilised to locate the area in which defects might exist. This is followed by the implementation of inverse surface thresholding with partial differential equation to locate isolated areas that represent the defects in the second stage. The proposed method obtained a promising result with high precision.

  7. The study of measuring technology on the dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint with high strain rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, to meet the needs of studying work of dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint, the dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint were measured by means of SHPB(Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar).The dynamic mechanical property's curves of every part of welded joint were obtained. For studying the dynamic behavior of mechanical heterogeneity of welded joint, important data were offered. The method of test creates a new way of studying dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint.

  8. Microstructure of AA 2024 fixed joints formed by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welded butt joints on 2024T3 alloy have been obtained using different process parameters. The microstructures of all the weld joint zones have been examined and such structural parameters as grain size, particle size and volume content of particles have been determined in order to find correlations with the microhardness of the corresponding zones of the weld.

  9. Influence of the gas shielding method upon the properties of the weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinakhov, D. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The authors consider the influence of the gas shielding method under consumable electrode welding and double-jet gas shielding together with its influence upon the processes in the arc zone and the properties of weld joints from high-strength alloyed 30HGSA steel. The authors provide the results of recent experimental research on weld joints properties improvement through changing the gas dynamics of the active shielding gas. It was established that the jet of active shielding gas has a considerable gas-dynamic influence upon weld joints formation, chemical composition, structure and properties of the weld joints from high-strength alloyed steels.

  10. GTAW penetration based on electrode tip location versus weld joint center line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumeyer, G. J., III

    1992-11-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is often the chosen process for final enclosure welds of heat sensitive electrical and electronic product. GTAW is used to produce welds that satisfy design requirements (usually a penetration requirement) and not expose the product to such high heat that would cause unwanted damage. An important variable in the GTAW process is the location of the Electrode tip over the weld joint center line. This study shows the tolerance of positional location over a narrow scope. Using coupons which represent the W88 container weld joint geometry, penetration vs. electrode tip positional location (offset) is investigated. Results indicate a positional location tolerance of +/- 0.008 in. is acceptable. Several different major components (MC's) supporting various weapons programs require low heat input GTA welds. The electrode tip positional location tolerance is determined by each MC's weld joint tolerances and heat sensitivity. For this short study, the weld joint geometry of a container weld was used. These coupons were welded with the specified weld schedule and one additional weld schedule in order to show the relationship based on both travel speed and gap. Multiple coupon welds were made to eliminate error in the results. Within the scope of this research, a positional tolerance of +/- 0.008 in. of the electrode center over the weld joint center is required. For other MC's this tolerance may be tighter or more relaxed depending upon the specific considerations.

  11. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  12. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  13. On-line evaluating on quality of mild steel joints in resistance spot welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed to realize quality evaluation on every weld-spot in resistance spot welding based on information processing of artificial intelligent. Firstly, the signals of welding current and welding voltage, as information source, were synchronously collected. Input power and dynamic resistance were selected as monitoring waveforms. Eight characteristic parameters relating to weld quality were extracted from the monitoring waveforms. Secondly, tensile-shear strength of the spot-welded joint was employed as evaluating target of weld quality. Through correlation analysis between every two parameters of characteristic vector, five characteristic parameters were reasonably selected to found a mapping model of weld quality estimation. At last, the model was realized by means of the algorithms of Radial Basic Function neural network and sample matrixes. The results showed validations by a satisfaction in evaluating weld quality of mild steel joint on-line in spot welding process.

  14. Study of Microstructure and Properties of Non-Electric Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shi-ning; LUO Lin; HU Jun-zhi; XU Xiao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Non-electric welding, which combines the advantages of traditional welding and Self-propagating Hightemperature Synthesis (SHS), is a newly developed technology because of its simple process and no energy supplement during welding. In this paper, two pieces of 45 steel sheets were welded by Non-electric welding, and the properties of joints were studied. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated by SEM, EDAX, hardness tester and tensile tester.The interfaces of the joints and matrix show excellent metallurgical bonding, and the elements of joints have diffused into substrate. Welded joints have high mechanical properties. The bonding strength can reach 348 MPa, and the impact toughness is 44 J/cm2. Non-electric welding technology also can weld non-ferrous, and this technology especially suited to be used at the emergent maintenance of field.

  15. Subsection method of fatigue design for welded joints treated by ultrasonic peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting; Wang Dongpo; Huo Lixing; Zhang Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    Concerning the notable difference between the S-N curve slope of welded joints treated by ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT) and that of as-welded joints, the subsection method is put forward for fatigue design of welded joints treated by UPT, using the design method of nominal S-N curves. Results show that, in medium life zone, strength grade of the fatigue design curves for UPT welded joints is two grades higher than that for as-welded joints. Furthermore, in medium life zone, strength grade of the fatigue design curves for UPT welded joints is three grades lower than that in long life zone.Conclusion of the comparison is that as for different joint types in different life zones, fatigue design should be processed according to different S-N curves respectively.

  16. Tensile properties and mechanical heterogeneity of friction stir welded joints of 2014 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-hua; LIN San-bao; WU Lin; QU Fu-xing

    2005-01-01

    2014 Al alloy of 8mm in thickness was successfully welded by friction stir welding method. The experimental results show that the tensile properties of the joints are significantly affected by the welding parameters. When the weld pitch is 0.25mm/r corresponding to the rotation speed of 400r/min and the welding speed of 100mm/min, the maximum ultimate strength of the joints is 78% that of the base material. For a certain weld joint, different parts possess different mechanical properties. In the three parts of the joint, the upper part is strongest and the middle part is poorest in mechanical properties. The mechanical properties and fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the microstructure variation and micro-hardness distributions of the joints, which attributes to the different thermo-mechanical actions on the different parts of the joints.

  17. Microstructural Investigation and Evaluation of Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Properties in Friction Stir Welded Joints BRIAN JUSTUSSON MENTORS: DR. CONSTANTINE FOUNTZOULAS AND DR. CHIAN-FONG YEN U.S. ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microstructural Investigation And Evaluation Of Mechanical Properties In Friction Stir Welded Joints 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...of the weldment can be costly and needs to be addressed. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique, which involves local softening

  18. Effect of Nd:YAG laser beam welding on weld morphology and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaev, Nikolai; Ventzke, Volker; Fomichev, Vadim; Fomin, Fedor; Riekehr, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    A Nd:YAG single-sided laser beam welding process study for Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints was performed to investigate joining techniques with regard to the process-weld morphology relationship. An alloy compatible filler wire was used to avoid underfills and undercuts. The quality of the butt joints and T-joints was characterized in terms of weld morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties. Joints with regular shapes, without visible cracks, pores, and geometrical defects were achieved. Tensile tests revealed high joint integrity in terms of strength and ductility for both the butt joint and T-joint geometries. Both the butt joints and T-joints showed base material levels of strength. The mechanical performance of T-joints was also investigated using pull-out tests. The performance of the T-joints in such tests was sensitive to the shape and morphology of the welds. Fracture always occurred in the weld without any plastic deformation in the base material outside the weld.

  19. Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xu, Zhixin; Shu, Yang; Ma, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.

  20. Diffusion welding process and joint's microstructure behavior of SiCw/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liming; DONG Changfu; GAO Zhenkun

    2004-01-01

    The rules such as process parameters affecting joint properties and the evolution principle of weld's microstructure have been researched by adopting diffusion welding process to connect SiCw/6061Al composite. Experimental results show that there exists a critical temperature region between solid and liquid phase line of SiCw/6061Al composite, and the region will shrink with the increasing of welding pressure. When diffusion welding occurred under the critical temperature region, welding joint exhibits bad property of bonding, and the matrix and the reinforcement can't bond effectively. When diffusion welding occurred in the critical temperature region, the strength of welding joint changes widely with the variation of welding temperature. When welding temperature varies in 10℃, the strength of welding joint will change obviously.Only when welding temperature is higher than the critical temperature region, stable joint properties can be obtained. Simultaneously the matrix and the reinforcement has better interfacial bonded in diffusion welding interface, and no obvious interface reaction occurred, and thus diffusion welding of SiCw/6061Al composite can be successfully realized.

  1. Influence of Spot Welding on Welding Fatigue Properties of CR340 Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-bin GOU; Wen-jiao DAN; Wei-gang ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Total 72 lapped specimens including six different kinds of CR340 steel structures were prepared to study the influence of the spot welding technology on their fatigue characteristics.Fatigue test and group method were em-ployed and performed on each sample to obtain the fatigue experimental data of each structure under four stress lev-els.The results show that the spot welding technology had a notable impact on the fatigue performance of both the shear and tensile joints.It can significantly improve the fatigue strength of the structure,the consistency and repeat-ability of experimental data,as well as the stability and reliability of the structure under dynamic load environment. The shear spot welding structure demonstrates the best fatigue performance which is very important for wide appli-cation in engineering of this method.

  2. Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filacchioni, G. E-mail: gianni.filacchioni@casaccia.enea.it; Montanari, R.; Tata, M.E.; Pilloni, L

    2002-12-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program.

  3. Material test data of SUS304 welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Tai [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kawakami, Tomohiro [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    This report summarizes the material test data of SUS304 welded joints. Numbers of the data are as follows: Tensile tests 71 (Post-irradiation: 39, Others: 32), Creep tests 77 (Post-irradiation: 20, Others: 57), Fatigue tests 50 (Post-irradiation: 0), Creep-fatigue tests 14 (Post-irradiation: 0). This report consists of the printouts from 'the structural material data processing system'. (author)

  4. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  5. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9132

  6. Verification of Strength of the Welded Joints by using of the Aramis Video System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pała Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the results of strength analysis for the two types of the welded joints made according to conventional and laser technologies of high-strength steel S960QC. The hardness distributions, tensile properties and fracture toughness were determined for the weld material and heat affect zone material for both types of the welded joints. Tests results shown on advantage the laser welded joints in comparison to the convention ones. Tensile properties and fracture toughness in all areas of the laser joints have a higher level than in the conventional one. The heat affect zone of the conventional welded joints is a weakness area, where the tensile properties are lower in comparison to the base material. Verification of the tensile tests, which carried out by using the Aramis video system, confirmed this assumption. The highest level of strains was observed in HAZ material and the destruction process occurred also in HAZ of the conventional welded joint.

  7. Microstructural characteristics of the laser welded joint of ITER correction coil sub case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chao, E-mail: fangchao@ipp.ac.cn [ASIPP, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Wei, Jing; Xin, Jijun [ASIPP, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Hekki; Salminen, Antti [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland); Li, Hongwei [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Libeyre, Paul; Dolgetta, Nello [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The multi-pass laser welding was developed for the ITER CC case manufacture. • The laser welding procedure was studied and optimized. • The microstructural characteristic of the welded joint was discussed. - Abstract: The ITER correction coil (CC) case reinforces the winding packs against the electromagnetic loads, minimizes stresses and deformations to the winding pack. The cases are made of high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel (316LN) hot rolled heavy plate and have a thickness of 20 mm. Considering the small cross-section and large dimensions of the case, deformation of the case when welding becomes a challenge in the case manufacturing. Therefore, laser welding was developed as the main welding technology for manufacturing. In this paper, multi-pass laser welding technology is used, the laser weldability of a 20 mm thick 316LN austenitic stainless steel plate is studied and the microstructure of the welded joint is analyzed. The welding experiment used an YLS-6000 fiber laser (IPG) and weld filler of 316LMn to match the base metal was used. The result shows that the welded joint has no obvious surface and internal defects based on the optimized welding parameters. The weld joint have a fine austenite microstructure and display columnar dendrites and cellular grains with strong directional characteristics. No apparent heat affected zone is observed and approximately 2 μm an austenite microstructure of the fusion line is clearly presented.

  8. Model-Free 3D Reconstruction of Weld Joint Using Laser Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Keshmiri, Soheil; Ahmed, Syeda Mariam; Wu, Yue; Chew, Chee Meng; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel utilization of the concept of entropy in information theory to model-free 3D reconstruction of weld joint in presence of noise. We show that our formulation attains its global minimum at the upper edge of this joint. This property significantly simplifies the extraction of this welding joint. Furthermore, we present an approach to compute the volume of this extracted space to facilitate the monitoring of the progress of the welding task. Moreover, we provide a pr...

  9. MICROSTRUCTURE AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR SPOT WELDED JOINTS OF AISI 304 AND AISI 1008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel and stainless steel composites are being more frequently used for applications requiring a corrosion resistant and attractive exterior surface and a high strength structural substrate. Spot welding is a potentially useful and efficient jointing process for the production of components consisting of these two materials. The spot welding characteristics of weld joints between these two materials are discussed in this paper. The experiment was conducted on dissimilar weld joints using carbon steel and 304L (2B austenitic stainless steel by varying the welding currents and electrode pressing forces. Throughout the welding process; the electrical signals from the strain sensor, current transducer and terminal voltage clippers are measured in order to understand each and every millisecond of the welding process. In doing so, the dynamic resistances, heat distributions and forging forces are computed for various currents and force levels within the good welds’ regions. The other process controlling parameters, particularly the electrode tip and weld time, remained constant throughout the experiment. The weld growth was noted for the welding current increment, but in the electrode force increment it causes an adverse reaction to weld growth. Moreover, the effect of heat imbalance was clearly noted during the welding process due to the different electrical and chemical properties. The welded specimens finally underwent tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterise the weld growth.

  10. Investigation on edge joints of Inconel 625 sheets processed with laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, F.; Alfieri, V.; Cardaropoli, F.; Sergi, V.

    2017-08-01

    Laser welding of Inconel 625 edge joint beads in square groove configuration was investigated. The use of different weld geometries in new aerospace solutions explains research on edge joints. A structured plan was carried out in order to characterize the process defining the influence of laser power and welding speed and to study possible interactions among the governing factors. As weld pool protection is crucial in order to obtain sound joints when processing superalloys, a special glove box for gas supply was designed to upgrade the welding head. Welded joints were characterized referring to bead profile, microstructure and X-rays. It was found that heat input plays an important role as it affects welding stability, porosity content and bead shape. Results suggest operating with low values of heat input to reduce porosity and guarantee stable bead conformation. Furthermore, a decrease in the grain size has been observed as a consequence of decreasing heat input.

  11. STUDY ON DYNAMIC J-INTEGRAL OF MECHANICAL HETEROGENEOUS WELDED JOINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Q. Tian; D.Y. He; X.Y. Li; Y.W. Shi; D. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Welded joint is a mechanical heterogeneous body, and mechanical heterogeneity has great effect on dynamic fracture behaviour of welded joints. In the present investigation, dynamic response curve and dynamic J-integral of practical undermatched welded joint and whole base and whole weld three-point-bend (TPB) models containing longitudinal crack are computed. Dynamic J-integral is evaluated using virtual crack extension (VCE) method and the computation is performed using MARC finite element code. Because of the effect of inertia,dynamic load response curve of computed model waves periodically. Dynamic J-integral evaluated by VCE method is path independent. The effect of inertia has little influence on dynamic J-integral curve. The value of dynamic J-integral of undermatched welded joint is lower than that of whole base metal and higher than that of whole weld metal. The results establish the foundation of safety evaluation for dynamic loaded welded structures.

  12. Simulation of hydrogen diffusion in welded joint of X80 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严春妍; 刘翠英; 张根元

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients of different regions in the welded joint of X80 pipeline steel were measured using the electro-chemical permeation technique. Using ABAQUS software, hydrogen diffusion in X80 pipeline steel welded joint was studied in consideration of the inhomogeneity of the welding zone, and temperature-dependent thermo-physical and mechanical properties of the metals. A three dimensional finite element model was developed and a coupled thermo-mechanical-diffusion analysis was performed. Hydrogen concentration distribution across the welded joint was obtained. It is found that the postweld residual hydrogen exhibits a non-uniform distribution across the welded joint. A maximum equivalent stress occurs in the immediate vicinity of the weld metal. The heat affected zone has the highest hydrogen concentration level, followed by the weld zone and the base metal. Simulation results are well consistent with theoretical analysis.

  13. Evaluation of cold crack susceptibility on HSLA steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio-Freire Júnior, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an evaluation of the effect of several welding parameters on cold cracking formation in welded joints of High Strength and Low Alloy steels, as well as the resulting microstructures and hardness values. The main parameters studied include the variation of the preheating temperature, drying time of the electrode, chemical composition and thickness of the base metal. The presence of cold cracking in the joints was analyzed from Tekken tests using steel plates made of SAR 80 T, 100 T and 120 T with of various thickness. The plates were welded by Shielded Metal Arc Welding either with or without pre-heating. Different preheating temperatures were studied, i.e., 375, 455 and 525 K. AWS E 12018 G and 11018 G electrodes were used under different conditions, i.e., not dried or dried up to 2, 3 and 4 h at 515 K. The results indicated the presence of cracks in the welded metals with the combination of hardness values above 230 HV and the formation of high contents of acicular ferrite (above 93 % in the welds without preheating. Higher crack susceptibility was also observed in the thick welded metal plates.

    Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la variación de temperatura de precalentamiento, del tiempo de secado del electrodo, de la composición química y del espesor del metal base sobre la formación de fisuras en frío, inducidas por el hidrógeno en juntas soldadas de aceros de alta resistencia y baja aleación y su relación con la microestructura y dureza resultante. Para esto, se analizó la presencia de fisuras en frío en probetas para ensayos Tekken, fabricadas a partir de chapas de aceros SAR 80 T, 100 T y 120 T, con diferentes espesores y soldados por proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido, sin precalentamiento y con precalentamiento, a 375, 455 y 525 K, empleando electrodos AWS E 12018 G y 11018 G no secados y secados durante 2, 3 y 4 h. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de fisuras

  14. CHARACTERISATION OF SPOT WELD GROWTH ON DISSIMILAR JOINTS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A sound weld from spot welding is what most manufacturers desire and prefer for mechanical assemblies in their systems. The robustness is mainly attributed to the joining mechanism of mechanical parts. This paper focuses on the effect of parametric changes for dissimilar joints using 304 austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel of two different thicknesses. A pneumatic-based spot welder was used to accomplish the entire welding process. The parameters varied during the experiments are the welding current and welding time, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tip size are kept constant. The welding process began from a poor weld and moved on to a better weld by increasing the process parameters. However, this study is limited to the basic parametric variation to find the optimum parametric setup for 1 and 2 mm base metals. The welded specimens are subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical tests to characterise the spot weld growth for both thicknesses.

  15. Structure and properties of joints produced by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, A. P.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Kuz'min, E. V.; Dorodnikov, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the effect of ultrasound on explosion welded materials. It has been established that simultaneous treatment with ultrasonic vibrations and explosion welding of the materials to be welded has a significant effect on the structure and properties of the heat-affected zone of formed joints.

  16. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full p......-learning PSD control algorithm has been proposed....

  17. A study on welded joint toughness of X-60 steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Charpy impact test and COD test were performed on the specimens subjected to simulated welded thermal cycle and the specimens taken from welded joint. The optical microscope, TEM, SEM, EDAX and XRD analysis have been used to investigate the behaviors of second phase particles and the effects of microstructure on toughness separately. The results are as follows. The dispersed second phase particles can effectively retard the growth of austenite grain in the coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ), and improve the toughness. When t8/5 is different, the behaviors of the particles are also different in dissolving, coarsening and re-precipitating. The ability of retarding the growth of austenite grain will be affected. When t8/5 increases from 10 s to 70 s, the microstructure of CGHAZ will transform from upper bainite and granular bainite to granular bainite, and the size of austenite grain will grow a little, thus the toughness of the materials decreases slightly.

  18. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of steel weld joints after long time exposures at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, D.; Kasl, J.; Rek, A.

    2010-02-01

    The structural changes of three trial weld joints of creep resistant modified 9Cr-1Mo steels and low alloyed chromium steel after post-weld heat treatment and long-term creep tests were investigated. Smooth cross-weld specimens ruptured in different zones of the weld joints as a result of different structural changes taking place during creep exposures. The microstructure of the weld joint is heterogeneous and consequently microstructural development can be different in the weld metal, the heat affected zone, and the base material. Precipitation reactions, nucleation and growth of some particles and dissolution of others, affect the strengthening of the matrix, recovery at high temperatures, and the resulting creep resistance. Therefore, a detailed study of secondary phase's development in individual zones of weld joints can elucidate mechanism of cracks propagation in specific regions and the causes of creep failure. Type I and II fractures in the weld metal and Type IV fractures in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones occurred after creep tests at temperatures ranging from 525 to 625 °C and under stresses from 40 to 240 MPa. An extended metallographic study of the weld joints was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and wave-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were prepared from individual weld joint regions and quantitative evaluation of dislocation substructure and particles of secondary phases has been performed.

  19. Modeling and validation of multiple joint reflections for ultra- narrow gap laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.; Keel, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [Opticad Corp., Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The effects of multiple internal reflections within a laser weld joint as a function of joint geometry and processing conditions have been characterized. A computer model utilizing optical ray tracing is used to predict the reflective propagation of laser beam energy focused into the narrow gap of a metal joint for the purpose of predicting the location of melting and coalescence which form the weld. The model allows quantitative analysis of the effects of changes to joint geometry, laser design, materials and processing variables. This analysis method is proposed as a way to enhance process efficiency and design laser welds which display deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios, reduced occurrence of defects and enhanced melting. Of particular interest to laser welding is the enhancement of energy coupling to highly reflective materials. The weld joint is designed to act as an optical element which propagates and concentrates the laser energy deep within the joint to be welded. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to produce welds using multiple passes to achieve deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios without the use of filler material. The enhanced laser melting and welding of aluminum has been demonstrated. Optimization through modeling and experimental validation has resulted in the development of a laser welding process variant we refer to as Ultra-Narrow Gap Laser Welding.

  20. Joint Performance for Laser Cutting-welding of Zinc-coated Tailored Blanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunming; HU Lunji; LIU Jianhua; HU Xiyuan; DU Hanbin

    2005-01-01

    The process of laser butt welding of zinc-coated steel ( SGCD3 and WLZn ) blanks was presented, whose edges were prepared by laser cutting. The properties of the butt joints, such as tensile strength, bending, stamping, weld shape, and corrosion- resistant were tested. The experiments of laser cutting and welding were carried out on a custom-made system designed, which is a set of equipment for wide sheet butt welding based on a laser cutting-welding combination process. The experiments proved the technological feasibility of laser butt welding for thin zinc coated steel sheets whose edges were prepared by laser cutting on the same equipment.

  1. Strength and microstructure of 2091 Al-Li alloy TIG welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of TIG welding joints of 2091 Al-Li alloy were investigated both in as-welded and different postweld heat treatment condition. The results show that solution strengthening played an important role in the as-welded condition, though the precipitation strengthening δ' phase formed already in the as-welded weld metal, but its effect was not apparent due to the lower volume fraction of δ' phase. So the strength coefficient (φ) of the welded joint/base metal was 64%. After artificially aging heat treatment, the precipitation strengthening effect increased much due to the formation of more δ' phase and s' phase. Its φ value was increased up to 89%. The highest strength of the welded joints was obtained after solid solution and then artificially aged heat treatment. Due to the proper size of precipitation strengthening phases and their well distribution, the φ value was increased up to 98%.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld-bonded and resistance spot welded magnesium-to-steel dissimilar joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Liu, L.; Mori, H.; Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adhesive reduces shrinkage porosity and stress concentration around the weld nugget. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adhesive promotes the formation of intermetallic compounds during weld bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Mg/steel joints fusion zone appears only at the Mg side with dendritic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld-bonded Mg/steel joints are considerably stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatigue strength is three-fold higher for weld-bonded joints than for RSW joints. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) magnesium-to-magnesium (Mg/Mg) similar joints and magnesium-to-steel (Mg/steel) dissimilar joints, in comparison with resistance spot welded (RSW) Mg/steel dissimilar joints. In the WB Mg/Mg joints, equiaxed dendritic and divorced eutectic structures formed in the fusion zone (FZ). In the dissimilar joints of RSW and WB Mg/steel, FZ appeared only at Mg side with equiaxed and columnar dendrites. At steel side no microstructure changed in the WB Mg/steel joints, while the microstructure in the RSW Mg/steel joints consisted of lath martensite, bainite, pearlite and retained austenite leading to an increased microhardness. The relatively low cooling rate suppressed the formation of shrinkage porosity but promoted the formation of MgZn{sub 2} and Mg{sub 7}Zn{sub 3} in the WB Mg/steel joints. The added adhesive layer diminished stress concentration around the weld nugget. Both WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints were significantly stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints in terms of the maximum tensile shear load and energy absorption, which also increased with increasing strain rate. Fatigue strength was three-fold higher for WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints than for RSW Mg/steel joints. Fatigue failure in the RSW Mg/steel joints occurred from the heat-affected zone near the notch root at lower load levels, and

  3. Ultrasonic C-scanning imaging inspection of superplastic solid-state welded joint quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯柯; 陈怀东; 杨蕴林; 薛锦

    2002-01-01

    Based on a large amount of dissection at welded interface and quantitative microscopic examination of welded rate, the suitable limit grey scale value was determined, and the welded rate of superplastic solid-state welding interface of heterogeneous steel was systematically studied by means of self-made ultrasonic C-scanning imaging inspection system. The experimental results show: the welded state of superplastic solid-state welding interface of heterogeneous steel can be conducted to be more accurately, reliably and quickly inspected by means of this system, and the ultrasonic testing results are good consistent with actual examination results of the interface defective distribution. Within the extent of the suitble welded rate,the welded rate in 40Cr/T10A superplastic welding process tested by this system is linear with its tensile strength of joint.

  4. High-cycle Fatigue Properties of Alloy718 Base Metal and Electron Beam Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Nagashima, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Hideshi; Ogata, Toshio; Nagao, Naoki

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Alloy 718 plate and its electron beam (EB) welded joint were investigated at 293 K and 77 K under uniaxial loading. At 293 K, the high-cycle fatigue strength of the EB welded joint with the post heat treatment exhibited somewhat lower values than that of the base metal. The fatigue strengths of both samples basically increased at 77 K. However, in longer life region, the EB welded joint fractured from a blow hole formed in the welded zone, resulting in almost the same fatigue strength at 107 cycles as that at 293 K.

  5. Butt Welding of 2205/X65 Bimetallic Sheet and Study on the Inhomogeneity of the Properties of the Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ning-Nian; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jian-Long; Bi, Zong-Yue

    2017-03-01

    The explosively welded 2205 duplex stainless steel/X65 pipe steel bimetallic sheets were butt jointed by multilayer and multi-pass welding (gas tungsten arc welding for the flyer and gas metal arc welding for the transition and parent layers of the bimetallic sheets). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The results showed that in the thickness direction, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint exhibited obvious inhomogeneity. The microstructures of parent filler layers consisted of acicular ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, and a small amount of blocky ferrite. The microstructure of the transition layer and flyer layer consisted of both austenite and ferrite structures; however, the transition layer of weld had a higher volume fraction of austenite. The results of the microhardness test showed that in both weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent filler layers, the average hardness decreased with the increasing (from parent filler layer 1 to parent filler layer 3) welding heat input. The results of hardness test also indicated that the hardness of the WM and the HAZ for the flyer and transition layers was equivalent. The tensile test combined with Digital Specklegram Processing Technology demonstrated that the fracturing of the welded joint started at the HAZ of the flyer, and then the fracture grew toward the base metal of the parent flyer near the parent HAZ. The stratified impact test at -5 °C showed that the WM and HAZ of the flyer exhibited lower impact toughness, and the fracture mode was ductile and brittle mixed fracture.

  6. Application of welding simulation to block joints in shipbuilding and assessment of welding-induced residual stresses and distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During ship design, welding-induced distortions are roughly estimated as a function of the size of the component as well as the welding process and residual stresses are assumed to be locally in the range of the yield stress. Existing welding simulation methods are very complex and time-consuming and therefore not applicable to large structures like ships. Simplified methods for the estimation of welding effects were and still are subject of several research projects, but mostly concerning smaller structures. The main goal of this paper is the application of a multi-layer welding simulation to the block joint of a ship structure. When welding block joints, high constraints occur due to the ship structure which are assumed to result in accordingly high residual stresses. Constraints measured during construction were realized in a test plant for small-scale welding specimens in order to investigate their and other effects on the residual stresses. Associated welding simulations were successfully performed with fine-mesh finite element models. Further analyses showed that a courser mesh was also able to reproduce the welding-induced reaction forces and hence the residual stresses after some calibration. Based on the coarse modeling it was possible to perform the welding simulation at a block joint in order to investigate the influence of the resulting residual stresses on the behavior of the real structure, showing quite interesting stress distributions. Finally it is discussed whether smaller and idealized models of definite areas of the block joint can be used to achieve the same results offering possibilities to consider residual stresses in the design process.

  7. Application of the local approach to the fatigue assessment for welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东坡; 张玉凤; 霍立兴; 陈俊梅; 王文先

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of welded structures is currently determined by means of recommendations defined in terms of S-N curve corresponding to the detail classes of welded joints without taking account of the actual geometry of the weld. A new fatigue strength assessment method based on Dang Van multiaxial fatigue limit criterion was introduced, which is named the local approach and presented by Institut de Soudure recently. The local approach has advantages in taking welding residual stresses and the geometry of the weld toe and weld root into consideration. The application of the local approach to the fatigue strength assessment of low carbon steel Q235B welded joints was studied. The fatigue tests and finite element analysis results show that the local approach parameters recommended by Institut de Soudure were incorrectly for low carbon steel Q235B welded joints. With aluminum alloy welded joints being used widely, the parameters of the local approach used for aluminum alloy welded joints were obtained and verified on bases of the fatigue tests and finite element analysis.

  8. The Cracking Induced by Oxidation-Hydriding in Welding Joints of Zircaloy-4 Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周邦新; 姚美意; 苗志; 李强; 刘文庆

    2003-01-01

    The welding joints of Zircaloy-4 plates obtained by diffusion welding at 800℃ under pressure in vacuum were cracked during autoclave tests at 400℃ superheated steam after exposure longer than 150 days. The section of specimens was examined by optical microscopy and the composition at the tips of cracking was analyzed by electron microprobe. The result shows that the combination of oxidation and hydriding induced cracking is responsible for this failure of the welding joints.

  9. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  10. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154.524... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. Pipe... warmer. (d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  11. Mechanical properties of type 316L stainless steel welded joint for ITER vacuum vessel (1). Experiment of unirradiated welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Kouichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In design activity of ITER, the vacuum vessel (VV) is ranked as one of the most important components in core reactor from the view point of first barrier to tritium release from the reactor. The VV of ITER is designed as double walled structure so that some parts of them are not qualified in the conventional design standards. So it is necessary to prepare the new design standards to be applied them. JAERI has executed the preparation activity of the new design standards and the technical data to support them. In this study, the results of metallographic observation and mechanical properties of unirradiated type 316L stainless steel welded joint were reported. (author)

  12. Joint performance of CO2 laser beam welding 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Junfeng; Zhang Dongyun; Xiao Rongshi; Chen Kai; Zuo Tiechuan

    2007-01-01

    Laser beam welding of aluminum alloys is expected to offer good mechanical properties of welded joints. In this experimental work reported, CO2 laser beam autogenous welding and wire feed welding are conducted on 4mm thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy sheets at different welding variables. The mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics of the welds are evaluated through tensile tests, micro-hardness tests, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that both the tensile strength and hardness of laser beam welds are affected by the constitution of filler material, except the yield strength. The soften region of laser beam welds is not in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The tensile fracture of laser beam welded specimens takes place in the weld zone and close to the weld boundary because of different filler materials. Some pores are found on the fracture face, including hydrogen porosities and blow holes, but these pores have no influence on the tensile strength of laser beam welds. Tensile strength values of laser beam welds with filler wire are up to 345.57MPa, 93% of base material values, and yield strengths of laser beam welds are equivalent to those of base metal (264.50MPa).

  13. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Friction Welded Tube Yoke and Tube Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Işık

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the friction welding of the tube yoke and the tube of the drive shaft used in light commercial vehicles. Tube yoke made from hot forged microalloyed steel and the tube made from cold drawn steel, with a ratio (thickness/outside diameter ratio of less than 0.1, were successfully welded by friction welding method. Hardness distributions on both sides of the welded joint across the welding interface were determined and the microstructure of the joint was investigated. Furthermore, joint strength was tested under tensile, static torsional, and torsional fatigue loadings. The tested data were analyzed by Weibull distribution. The maximum hardness value along the welded joint was detected as 553 Hv1. The lowest detected tensile strength of the joint was 13% less than the base materials’ tensile strength. The torsional load carrying capacity of the friction welded thin walled tubular joint without any damage was obtained as 4.252,5 Nm in 95% confidence interval. After conducting fully reversed torsional fatigue tests, the fatigue life of friction welded tubular joints was detected as 220.066,3 cycles.

  14. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing of Superplastic Solid-State Welding Joint for Different Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on quantitative microscopic examinations of welds and welding rate for different steels (40Cr and T10A) joint, which possess the ultra-fine microstructure after high frequency hardening (HFH) and salt-bath cyclic quenching (SCQ), the suitable defect grey scale threshold value was determined, and the welding rate of superplastic solid-state welding of different steels (40Cr and T10A steel) was systematically inspected and analyzed by means of self-made ultrasonic imaging inspection system. The experimental results showed that the superplastic solid-state weld of different steels can be inspected more accurately, reliably and quickly by this system, and the results were in good accordance with that of metallographic observation. The welding rate of superplastic welding is in linear relation with tensile strength of joint.

  15. Application of thermal methods for characterization of steel welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galietti, U.; Palumbo, D.

    2010-06-01

    Despite the large number of proposals in the field of fatigue prediction of welded joints, a globally accepted and unified theory, which applies easily to any load condition, does not exist. Real life components, indeed, differ in geometry and/or type of load from the structural design for which they are regarded by Standards, so that a lot of precautionary safety factors are used that lead to an underestimation of the actual fatigue life of joints. Infrared thermography has a great potential in this field, both from structural and thermomechanical points of view. It enables a full field stress analysis with a sufficient spatial resolution so that the complexity of the stress state at the weld toe and its time evolution are taken into account, emphasizing anomalies that may predict structural failure. A new methods for evaluation fatigue limit damage is presented in this paper and in particular interesting results derived from analysis of the evolution of thermoelastic signal phase. Variations in the value of signal phase indicate a not elastic behaviour and plastic dissipation in the material.

  16. Application of thermal methods for characterization of steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of proposals in the field of fatigue prediction of welded joints, a globally accepted and unified theory, which applies easily to any load condition, does not exist. Real life components, indeed, differ in geometry and/or type of load from the structural design for which they are regarded by Standards, so that a lot of precautionary safety factors are used that lead to an underestimation of the actual fatigue life of joints. Infrared thermography has a great potential in this field, both from structural and thermomechanical points of view. It enables a full field stress analysis with a sufficient spatial resolution so that the complexity of the stress state at the weld toe and its time evolution are taken into account, emphasizing anomalies that may predict structural failure. A new methods for evaluation fatigue limit damage is presented in this paper and in particular interesting results derived from analysis of the evolution of thermoelastic signal phase. Variations in the value of signal phase indicate a not elastic behaviour and plastic dissipation in the material.

  17. Wear Resistance Analysis of A359/SiC/20p Advanced Composite Joints Welded by Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuevas Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Advancement in automotive part development demands new cost-effective materials with higher mechanical properties and improved wear resistance as compared to existing materials. For instance, Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC shows improved mechanical properties as wear and abrasion resistance, high strength, chemical and dimensional stability. Automotive industry has focused in AMC for a variety of applications in automotive parts in order to improve the fuel economy, minimize vehicle emissions, improve design options, and increase the performance. Wear resistance is one of the most important factors in useful life of the automotive components, overall in those components submitted to mechanical systems like automotive brakes and suspensions. Friction Stir Welding (FSW rises as the most capable process to joining AMC, principally for the capacity to weld without compromising their ceramic reinforcement. The aim of this study is focused on the analysis of wear characteristics of the friction-stir welded joint of aluminum matrix reinforced with 20 percent in weight silicon carbide composite (A359/SiC/20p. The experimental procedure consisted in cut samples into small plates and perform three welds on these with a FSW machine using a tool with 20 mm shoulder diameter and 8 mm pin diameter. The wear features of the three welded joints and parent metal were analyzed at constant load applying 5 N and a rotational speed of 100 rpm employing a Pin-on - Disk wear testing apparatus, using a sapphire steel ball with 6 mm diameter. The experimental results indicate that the three welded joints had low friction coefficient compared with the parent metal. The results determine that the FSW process parameters affect the wear resistance of the welded joints owing to different microstructural modifications during welding that causes a low wear resistance on the welded zone.

  18. Dissimilar Al/steel friction stir welding lap joints for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, D.; Spena, P. Russo; Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.

    2016-10-01

    A widespread usage of aluminum alloys for the fabrication of car-body parts is conditional on the employment of appropriate welding methods, especially if dissimilar welding must be performed with automotive steel grades. Dissimilar welding of aluminum alloys and steel grades poses some issues concerning the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, difference in physical and chemical properties of the parent metals, and poor wetting behavior of aluminum. Friction stir welding is considered to be a reasonable solution to obtain sound aluminum/steel joints. A study on the join quality of dissimilar lap joints of steel and aluminum alloy sheets after friction stir welding is proposed here. A low carbon steel is joined with AA6016 aluminum alloy to study preliminarily the feasibility to assembly car-body parts. The joints, welded with tool rotation and feed rate varying in a wide range, have been studied from a visual examination and microstructural point of view. Optical microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructure of the examined sheets in as-received and welded conditions. Micro-hardness measurements have been carried out to quantitatively analyze the local hardness of the welded joints. Set welding process parameters are identified to assemble without the presence of macroscopic defects the examined steel and aluminum welded parts.

  19. Towards the problem of forming full strength welded joints on aluminum alloy sheets. Part II: AA7475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Tatiana; Tarasov, Sergey; Eliseev, Alexander; Fortuna, Anastasiya

    2016-11-01

    The microstructural evolution in welded joint zones obtained both by friction stir welding and ultrasonic- assisted friction stir welding on dispersion hardened 7475 aluminum alloy has been examined together with the analysis of mechanical strength and microhardness. It was established that ultrasonic-assisted friction stir provided leveled microhardness profiles across the weld zones as well as higher joint strength as compared to those of standard friction stir welding.

  20. Effect of welding process on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar weld joints between low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Min-xu; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Wei; Xu, Li-ning; Hu, Li-hua

    2012-06-01

    To obtain high-quality dissimilar weld joints, the processes of metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding for duplex stainless steel (DSS) and low alloy steel were compared in this paper. The microstructure and corrosion morphology of dissimilar weld joints were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the chemical compositions in different zones were detected by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); the mechanical properties were measured by microhardness test, tensile test, and impact test; the corrosion behavior was evaluated by polarization curves. Obvious concentration gradients of Ni and Cr exist between the fusion boundary and the type II boundary, where the hardness is much higher. The impact toughness of weld metal by MIG welding is higher than that by TIG welding. The corrosion current density of TIG weld metal is higher than that of MIG weld metal in a 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Galvanic corrosion happens between low alloy steel and weld metal, revealing the weakness of low alloy steel in industrial service. The quality of joints produced by MIG welding is better than that by TIG welding in mechanical performance and corrosion resistance. MIG welding with the filler metal ER2009 is the suitable welding process for dissimilar metals jointing between UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel and low alloy steel in practical application.

  1. Effects of Sealing Run Welding with Defocused Laser Beam on the Quality of T-joint Fillet Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, Anna; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    Fillet weld is the predominant weld type used for connecting different elements e.g. in shipbuilding, offshore and bridge structures. One of prevalent research questions is the structural integrity of the welded joint. Post weld improvement techniques are being actively researched, as high stress areas like an incomplete penetration on the root side or fluctuations in penetration depth cannot be avoided. Development of laser and laser-arc hybrid welding processes have greatly contributed to increase of production capacity and reduction of heat-induced distortions by producing single pass full penetration welds in thin- and medium thickness structural steel parts. Present study addresses the issue of how to improve the quality of the fillet welds by welding the sealing run on the root side with defocused laser beam. Welds having incomplete or excessive penetration were produced with several beam angles and laser beam spot sizes on surface. As a conclusion, significant decrease or even complete elimination of the seam irregularities, which act as the failure starting points during service, is achieved.

  2. Microstructures and Plane Energy Spectra of X80 Pipeline Steel Welded Joints by Submerged Arc Automatic Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Dejun; YE Cundong; GUO Wei; WU Yongzhong; LONG Dan

    2014-01-01

    X80 pipeline steel was welded with submerged arc automatic welding, the microstructures, cavity sizes, fusion depths and plane scanning of chemical elements in the welded zone, fusion zone, heat affected zone and base steel were observed with OM (optical microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope), respectively. The experimental results show that there is main acicular ferrite in the base steel and welded zone, the microscopic structure of fusion zone is a blocked bainite, and the heat affected zone is composed of multilateral ferrite and pearlite. M-A unit of the welded zone is the main factor to strengthen the welded zone, composed of acicular ferrites. The percentage of cavities in the welded joint is less than that in the base steel, which is beneficial to increasing its mechanical performance and corrosion resistance. The fusion depth in the fusion zone and welded zone is 101.13μm and 115.85μm, respectively, and the distribution of chemical elements in the welded zone is uniform, no enrichment phenomena.

  3. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari, S. Sree; Balasubramanian, V.; Malarvizhi, S.; Reddy, G. Madusudhan

    2015-12-01

    AA 2519-T87 is an aluminium alloy that principally contains Cu as an alloying element and is a new grade of Al-Cu alloy system. This material is a potential candidate for light combat military vehicles. Fusion welding of this alloy leads to hot cracking, porosity and alloy segregation in the weld metal region. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which can overcome the above mentioned problems. However, the FSW of age hardenable aluminium alloys results in poor tensile properties in the as-welded condition (AW). Hence, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is used to enhance deteriorated tensile properties of FSW joints. In this work, the effect of PWHT, namely artificial ageing (AA) and solution treatment (ST) followed by ageing (STA) on the microstructure, tensile properties and microhardness were systematically investigated. The microstructural features of the weld joints were characterised using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tensile strength and microhardness of the joints were correlated with the grain size, precipitate size, shape and its distribution. From the investigation, it was found that STA treatment is beneficial in enhancing the tensile strength of the FSW joints of AA2519-T87 alloy and this is mainly due to the presence of fine and densely distributed precipitates in the stir zone.

  4. Modeling Stress-Strain State in Butt-Welded Joints after TIG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Atroshenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical model was developed for definition of thermal-welding cycle influence on welding deformations distribution in flat samples of austenitic steels after TIG welding and developed recommendations to reduce the welding deformation on o the machinery for welding with a copper backing.

  5. Analysis on the joint tensile strength and fractography of TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵熹华; 韩立军; 赵蕾

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies mechanical property and fractography of the welded joints obtained in different welding parameters such as welding heat and welding press with/without gas shield in TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding using tensile strength test, XRD, SEM and TEM measures. The optimum welding parameters obtaining high tensile strength welded joint are got. On the condition of welding press magneting current 2 A and welding heat 75%, the joint strength is the highest. This is important for to study other properties of TiNi shape memory alloy further. The experimental results state that argon gas shield have different effects on different welding parameters, less on welding press, but great on welding heat. But excessive welding press and welding heat have great effects on joint tensile strength. Too high welding heat can produce the new intermetallic compound, this intermetallic compound lead to dislocation density to increase and form the potential crack initiation, which can easily make the joint fracture under stress effect and decrease the shape memory ratio of joint for high density dislocation groups existing in the twinned martensite.

  6. Effect of Laser Heat Treatment on Microstructures of 1Cr5Mo Steel Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of 1Cr5Mo heat-resistant steel welded joint was treated with CO2 laser,the microstructure and grain size grades of welded joints before and after laser heat treatment (LHT were analyzed with 4XC type optical microscope (OM,and the distribution of residual stress and retained austenite content in the surface of the welded joints were measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD stress tester.The results show that the grains of 1Cr5Mo steel welded joints are refined by LHT,and the microstructure uniformity improves significantly,the grain levels of welded zone,fusion zone,overheated zone and normalized zone increase from level 9,level 9.8,level 8 and level 10.7 to level 10,level 10.2,level 8.5 and level 11 respectively,the mechanical weak areas reduce from overheated zone,welded zone and fusion zone to the overheated zone.The tensile residual stress in the welded joint surface is eliminated by LHT and a layer of compressive residual stress with thickness of about 0.28mm is formed.The residual austenite content in the welded joint surface increases after LHT,of which the distribution is more uniform and conducive to the improvement of mechanical properties.

  7. Improving the fatigue performance of longitudinal welded joints by low transformation temperature electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文先; 霍立兴; 王东坡; 张玉凤; 荆洪阳; 杨新岐

    2003-01-01

    For a longitudinal welded joint, the tensile residual stresses are as high as the yield stress of the metal, so that the weld toes are sensitive to fatigue load. In this case a low transformation temperature electrode (LTTE) is one of the most useful methods used to improve the fatigue strength of the longitudinal welded joint, because the tensile residual stress is reduced or changed into compressive stress. Three kinds of longitudinal welded joints were selected to conduct fatigue tests. The tests results show that the fatigue strengths at 2×106 cycles of the joints welded with LTTE were improved by 41%, 47% and 59% respectively compared with those of the joints welded with E5015, and the fatigue lives at 162 MPa were improved by 9.9 times, 9.6 times and 46.8 times respectively. Furthermore, the LTTE method is not necessary to add process after welding and so that it can be valuable method to improve the fatigue performance of longitudinal welded joints.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser-arc hybrid welding joint of GH909 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Yan, Fei; Liu, Sang; Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Chunming; Hu, Xiyuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, laser-arc hybrid welding of 10 mm thick low-thermal-expansion superalloy GH909 components was carried out to obtain a joint with good performance. This investigation was conducted using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy diffraction spectrum and other methodologies. The results showed that weld joints with a desirable wineglass-shaped weld profile can be obtained employing appropriate process parameters. The different grains in between the upper central seam and the bottom seam were associated with the temperature gradient, the pool's flow and the welding thermal cycle. MC-type carbides and eutectic phases (γ+Laves) were produced at grain boundaries due to the component segregation during the welding process. In addition, γ‧ strengthening phase presented in the interior of grains, which kept a coherent relationship with the matrix. The lowest hardness value occurred in the weld center, which indicated that it was the weakest section in the whole joint. The average tensile strength of the joints reached to 632.90 MPa, nearly 76.84% of the base metal. The fracture analysis revealed that the fracture mode of the joint was ductile fracture and the main reason for joint failure was as a result of the occurrence of porosities produced in the weld during the welding process.

  9. The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening Treatment on Fatigue Performance of Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT as a method of severe plastic deformation was used to treat cruciform welded joints of Q345 steel. The application of UPT achieves material surface nanocrystallization of the peening zone, reduces stress concentration, and produces residual compressive stresses at the welded toe. Micro-structure, hardness, stress relief, S-N curve, and the fatigue fracture mechanism of cruciform welded joint of Q345 steel, both before and after UPT, were analyzed in detail. The main results show that: stress concentration and residual tensile stress are the main reasons to reduce fatigue strength of cruciform welded joints. The fatigue life of cruciform welded joints is improved for surface hardening, compressive stress, and grain refinement by UPT. Residual compressive stress caused by UPT is released with the increase of fatigue life. A very significant fatigue strength improvement happens when UPT is replenished repeatedly after a certain number of cycles.

  10. Macrostructural and microstructural features of 1 000 MPa grade TRIP steel joint by CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenquan; Sun Daqian; Kang Chungyun

    2008-01-01

    Bead-on-plate CO2 laser welding of 1 000 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was conducted under different welding powers, welding speeds and shield gases. The macrostructural and microstructural features of the welded joint were investigated. The increase of welding speed reduced the width of the weld bead and the porosities in the weld bead resulting from the different flow mode of melted metal in weld pool. The decrease of welding power or use of shield gas of helium also contributed to the reduction of porosity in the weld bead due to the alleviation of induced plasma formation, thus stabilizing the keyhole. The porosity formation intimately correlated with the evaporation of alloy element Mn in the base metal. The laser welded metal had same martensite microstructure as that of water-quenched base metal. The welding parameters which increased cooling rate all led to fine microstructures of the weld bead.

  11. Precipitation of Niobium Boride Phases at the Base Metal/Weld Metal Interface in Dissimilar Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výrostková, Anna; Kepič, Ján; Homolová, Viera; Falat, Ladislav

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the analysis of failure mechanism in the heat affected zone is described in dissimilar weld joints between advanced martensitic steel T92 and Ni-base weld metal. The joints were treated with two different post-weld heat treatments and tested. For the creep, tensile, and Charpy impact tests, the samples with interfacially located notch were used. Moreover long term aging at 625 °C was applied before the tensile and notch toughness tests. Decohesion fractures ran along carbides at the T92 BM/WM interfaces in case of the modified PWHT, whereas type IV cracking was the prevailing failure mechanism after the classical PWHT in the creep test. In the notch tensile and Charpy impact tests, with the notch at T92 base metal/weld metal interface, fractures ran along the interface with a hard phase on the fracture surface along with the ductile dimple and brittle quasi-cleavage fracture. The phase identified as niobium boride (either NbB and/or Nb3B2) was produced during welding at the end of the solidification process. It was found in the welds regardless of the post-weld heat treatment and long-term aging.

  12. Crack propagation analysis of welded thin-walled joints using boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiri, F. R.; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Grundy, P.

    Tube-to-plate nodal joints under cyclic bending are widely used in the road transport and agricultural industry. The square hollow sections (SHS) used in these constructions are thin-walled and cold formed, and they have thicknesses of less than 4mm. Some fatigue failures have been observed. The weld undercut may affect the fatigue life of welded tubular joints especially for thin-walled sections. The undercut dimensions were measured using the silicon imprint technique. Modelling of thin-walled cruciform joints, as a simplification of welded tubular joints, is described in this paper to determine the effect of weld undercut on fatigue propagation life. The Boundary Element Analysis System Software (BEASY) is used. The results of the effect of weld toe undercut from this analysis are compared with results from previous research to determine the comparative reduction in fatigue life between thin-walled joints (T=3mm) and those made of thicker sections (T=20mm). The loss in fatigue strength of the thin-walled joints is found to be relatively more than that for thicker walled joints. A 3D model of a tube to plate T-joint is also modelled using the boundary element software, BEASY. The nodal joint consists of a square hollow section, 50×50×3 SHS, fillet welded to a 10-mm thick plate, and subjected to cyclic bending stress. Fatigue analyses are carried out and the results are compared with the only available S-N design curve.

  13. Distortion and residual stresses in laser beam weld shaft-hub joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Hofmann, M.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In laser beam welding, a serious challenge is to control the distortion during the process. Understanding the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials applied in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. Every manufacturing step induces residual stresses in the component which can be released by the heat of the welding process, while further residual stresses are introduced into the welded parts upon cooling. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow seams. Thus the thermal strains of the joined parts are expected to be minimized. Especially axial welded shaft-hub joints show an irregular distribution of bending deformation, which is caused by the self-influencing welding gap. This work deals with the investigation of different laser beam sources and their effect on the welding distortion in axial welded shafthub joints made of steel (20MnCr5). The aim of the work done was to achieve minimal distortion after the welding process. To characterize the influences on the distortion behaviour of the welded parts, residual stresses have been determined by neutron diffraction.

  14. Effect of post weld heat treatment on the mechanical and corrosion behaviour of welded Al-Fe-Si alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Fe-Si alloy was joined by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW process and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on the mechanical (tensile and hardness properties, corrosion behaviour and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated. The welded samples were divided into as-weld (AW, PWHT, base metal (BM and heat treated base metal (HT BM samples. Artificial aging was carried out on part of the welded sample at 177 °C with holding time of 8 hours to obtain the PWHT samples. The various samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and corrosion tests while microstructures of the fractured surfaces were viewed under optical microscope. From the results, it was observed that corrosion susceptibility of the alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was highly reduced after PWHT. The hardness was reduced after PWHT while the yield strength and joint efficiency was improved compared to the AW sample. The improvement in corrosion resistance, yield strength and joint efficiency are 78, 8.4 and 8.7 %, respectively.

  15. On some other preferred method for optimizing the welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an example of performed optimization of sizes in terms of welding costs in a characteristic loaded welded joint. Hence, in the first stage, the variables and constant parameters are defined, and mathematical shape of the optimization function is determined. The following stage of the procedure defines and places the most important constraint functions that limit the design of structures, that the technologist and the designer should take into account. Subsequently, a mathematical optimization model of the problem is derived, that is efficiently solved by a proposed method of geometric programming. Further, a mathematically based thorough optimization algorithm is developed of the proposed method, with a main set of equations defining the problem that are valid under certain conditions. Thus, the primary task of optimization is reduced to the dual task through a corresponding function, which is easier to solve than the primary task of the optimized objective function. The main reason for this is a derived set of linear equations. Apparently, a correlation is used between the optimal primary vector that minimizes the objective function and the dual vector that maximizes the dual function. The method is illustrated on a computational practical example with a different number of constraint functions. It is shown that for the case of a lower level of complexity, a solution is reached through an appropriate maximization of the dual function by mathematical analysis and differential calculus.

  16. SIMULATION ON TEMPERATURE FIELD OF FRICTION STIR WELDED JOINTS OF 2024-T4 Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.X. Lü; J.C. Yan; W.G. Li; S.Q. Yang

    2005-01-01

    e thermal model of FSW based on the thermal elastic-plastic finite element method, and the transient temperature distribution of FS welded joints of 2024-T4 Al was simulated by using this model, which provides useful information for the investigation of FSW process. Simulation results show that the temperature distribution of the weld gradually decreases toward periphery in a radiate format, whose center is the probe, and the highest temperature in the weld can reach about 400℃. The initial terminal of the weld is a zone, in which the temperature gradient is great, and defects of the welding are easily produced in this zone. Temperature change at the end of the welded joint is as layer variation, the local serious defects are not easy to produce in this zone.

  17. Bending Properties and Fracture Behavior of Ti-23Al-17Nb Alloy Laser Beam Welding Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoqing; WU Aiping; ZOU Guisheng; ZHAO Yue; CHEN Qiang; REN Jialie

    2009-01-01

    Ti-23Al-17Nb alloy is an important high temperature structural material used in the space and aerospace fields. Welding of this alloy is an indispensable processing method, so the microstructures and mechanical properties of these welded joints must be studied to improve the welds. Longitudinal three-point bending tests were conducted to measure the bending ductility of laser beam welded joints. The crack dis-tribution and fracture surface were investigated to further analyze the fracture behavior. The results indicate that the bending ductility decreases as the heat input by the laser beam welding increases. The crack in-ducing strain reaches 4.24%, while the fracturing strain exceeds 5% when the heat input is below 316 J/cm. If the columnar crystal grain of the weld metal exhibits a uniform orientation, the bending ductility is worse. The fractography analysis shows that the cracking propagates transgranularly and the fracture surface has a cleavage mode.

  18. Effect of welding parameters on the mechanical and microstructural properties of friction stir welded AA- 2014 joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R.; Bhatty, M. B.; Iqbal, F.; Zaigham, H.; Salam, I.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the effect of processing parameters on the mechanical and microstructural properties of aluminum AA2014-T6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analyzed. Friction stir welding was carried out on a milling machine. Different samples were produced by varying the tool rotational rates (700, 1000 rpm) and travel speeds (45-105 mm/min). Tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyze the microstructural evolution of the material, the welds’ cross-sections were observed under optical microscope. The results shows that the resulting microstructure is free of defects and tensile strength of the welded joints is upto 75% of the base metal strength.

  19. Combined Cycle Fatigue Testing with Ultrasonic Frequency Component of S350 Steel Welded Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳阳; 王东坡; 邓彩艳; 吴良晨; 尹丹青; 龚宝明

    2014-01-01

    A combined cycle fatigue (CCF) testing system with ultrasonic frequency component was developed to evaluate the CCF properties of S350 steel welded joints in this study. The fatigue testing results indicated that the S-N curves of CCF did not have fatigue limit, which agreed with those of pure high frequency fatigue of welded joints. The S-N curves showed that the CCF strength of welded joints dropped greatly with the increasing interaction between high and low frequency fatigue loading. An approximation design method of CCF was presented using amplitude envelope as the stress range.

  20. Surrogate modeling for initial rotational stiffness of welded tubular joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Garifullin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, buildings and structures erected in Russia and abroad have to comply with stringent economic requirements. Buildings should not only be reliable and safe, have a beautiful architectural design, but also meet the criteria of rationality and energy efficiency. In practice, this usually means the need for additional comparative analysis in order to determine the optimal solution to the engineering task. Usually such an analysis is time-consuming and requires huge computational efforts. In this regard, surrogate modeling can be an effective tool for solving such problems. This article provides a brief description of surrogate models and the basic techniques of their construction, describes the construction process of a surrogate model to calculate initial rotational stiffness of welded RHS joints made of high strength steel (HSS.

  1. Optimization of parameters and study of joint microstructure of resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yarong; Zhang Zhongdian; Li Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the DC spot welding of Mg alloy AZ31B are presented. Experiments are carried out to study the influence of spot welding parameters (electrode force, welding heat input and welding time) on the tensile shear load and the diameter of nugget, based on an orthogonal test and analysis method. The optimum parameters are as follows:electrode force is 2 000 N, welding heat input is 80% and welding time is 6 cycles. The microstructure of spot weld is single fine equiaxed crystals in the nugget, of which the structure is β-Mg17Al12 precipitated on α-Mg boundaries induced by nonequilibrium freezing. And the surface condition of the workpiece has great influence on the joint quality.

  2. Joint performance of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-bin; MIAO Yu-gang; LI Li-qun; WU Lin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy was investigated. The results show that the weld cross-sectional shape has an intimate relation with the mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds. The symmetrical "X" cross-section possesses a relatively higher tensile strength and elongation than the others, about 91% and 58% of those of base metal, respectively. The good weld profiles and free defects are responsible for the improvement of tensile properties. Due to low hardness of the fusion zone, this region is the weakest area in the tensile test and much easier to fracture. The loss of Mg element is responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of the joints. The microstructure of "X" cross-section has an obvious difference along the direction of weld depth, and that of the "H" cross-section is consistent and coarse.

  3. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Kanchanbag (P.O), Hyderabad 560 058 (India)

    2008-07-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit.

  4. Numerical simulation of temperature fields for T-joint during TIG welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Dong Zhibo; Yu Lan; Wei Yanhong

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element model was established to simulate temperature fields of T-joint titanium sheets during TIG welding with finite element method (FEM) software. Temperature dependent material properties and the effect of latent heat were considered. A technique of element birth and death was used to simulate the process of welded metal filling. Dynamic variation process of temperature fields during TIG welding was achieved. The simulated results agreed well with the measured results.

  5. CHARACTERISATION OF SPOT WELD GROWTH ON DISSIMILAR JOINTS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-01-01

    A sound weld from spot welding is what most manufacturers desire and prefer for mechanical assemblies in their systems. The robustness is mainly attributed to the joining mechanism of mechanical parts. This paper focuses on the effect of parametric changes for dissimilar joints using 304 austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel of two different thicknesses. A pneumatic-based spot welder was used to accomplish the entire welding process. The parameters varied during the experiments are the...

  6. Characterization on strength and toughness of welded joint for Q550 steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiang Qinglei; Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhang Lei

    2011-02-01

    Q550 high strength steel was welded using gas shielded arc welding and three different welding wires without pre- or post-heat treatments. The paper investigates the influence of welding wire on the microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness of Q550 steel weld joints. Results showed that the microstructure of the weld metal of joints produced using ER50-6 wire was a mixture of acicular ferrite and grain boundary ferrite including pro-eutectoid ferrite and ferrite side plate. Acicular ferrite was mainly obtained in the weld metal of the joints produced using MK.G60-1 wire. Pro-eutectoid ferrite was present along the boundary of prior austenite. Crack initiation occurred easily at pro-eutectoid ferrite when the joint was subjected to tensile. Tensile strength and impact toughness were promoted with increasing acicular ferrite. Tensile strength of the joint fabricated using MK.G60-1 wire was close to that of base metal. And tensile samples fractured at location of the fusion zone, which had lower toughness and thus became the weak region in the joint. Impact absorbing energy was the highest in the heat affected zone. Fibrous region in fracture surfaces of impact specimens was characterized as transgranular fracture with the mechanism of micro-void coalescence. Acicular ferrite microstructure region corresponded to relatively large dimples while boundary ferrite microstructure corresponded to small dimples.

  7. Different types of cracking of P91 steel weld joints after long-term creep tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Chvostova, E. (SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic))

    2010-05-15

    This paper deals with creep testing and microstructural investigation of trial weld joints prepared of wrought and cast 9Cr-1Mo-V steels using GTAW & SMAW method. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 degC to 625 degC, the longest time to rupture of 45 811 hrs was achieved. The creep strengths of weld joints for 100 000 hrs were calculated. Different types of cracking were observed in dependency on conditions of creep test and the type of weld joint. Type 1 and Type 2 fractures occurred at high applied stress at relatively low temperatures in the tube weld joint and also in two speciments of the cast plate weld joint after creep test at the lowest temperature and the highest temperature. All other fractures were of the Type 4. Causes of different fracture location in tested weld joints were elucidated on the base of substructure evolution in individual zones - the weld metal, the heat affected zone and the base material. Two processes occur simultaneously, which result in the creep damage: (i) softening of solid solution as a result of Laves phase precipitation and (ii) formation and coalescence of cavities in the soft fine grained parts of heat affected zone. (orig.)

  8. Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded Joints Repaired by Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C.; Infante, V.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue is undoubtedly the most important design criterion in aeronautic structures. Although friction stir-welded joints are characterized by a high mechanical performance, they can enclose some defects, especially in their root. These defects along with the relatively low residual stresses of the friction stir-welding thermomechanical cycle can turn into primary sources of crack initiation. In this context, this article deals with the fatigue behavior of friction stir-welded joints subjected to surface smoothing by grinding improvement technique. The 4-mm-thick aluminum alloy 2024-T351 was used in this study. The fatigue strength of the base material, joints in the as-welded condition, and the sound and defective friction stir-welded joints improved by grinding were investigated in detail. The tests were carried out with a constant amplitude loading and with a stress ratio of R = 0. The fatigue results show that an improvement in fatigue behavior was obtained in the joints repaired by superficial grinding technique. The weld grinding technique is better especially for lower loads and increases the high cycle fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of the improved welded joints was higher than that of the base material.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Welded Joints with Laser and CO2-Shielded Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, M.; Mizutani, M.; Katayama, S.

    2016-07-01

    With the objective of reducing the operating costs, argon-rich shielding gas was replaced by 100% CO2 gas in hybrid laser-arc welding of shipbuilding steel. The welding parameters were optimized to obtain buried-arc transfer in order to mitigate spatter formation. Sound butt joints could be successfully produced for plates of 14 and 17 mm thickness in one welding pass. Subsequently, the welded joints were subjected to different tests to evaluate the influence of CO2 shielding gas on the mechanical properties of the welded joints. All tensile-tested specimens failed in the base material, indicating the higher strength of the welded joints. The impact toughness of the welded joints, measured at -20 °C, reached approximately 76% of that of the base material, which was well above the limit set by the relevant standard. The microstructure of the fusion zone consisted of grain boundary ferrite and acicular ferrite uniformly over the plate thickness except for the joint root where the microstructure was chiefly ferrite with an aligned second phase. This resulted in higher hardness in the root region compared with the top and middle parts of the fusion zone.

  10. Process of friction-stir welding high-strength aluminum alloy and mechanical properties of joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大勇; 冯吉才; 郭德伦; 孙成彬; 栾国红; 郭和平

    2004-01-01

    The process of friction-stir welding 2A12CZ alloy has been studied. And strength and elongation tests have been performed, which demonstrated that the opportunity existed to manipulate friction-stir welding parameters in order to improve a range of material properties. The results showed that the joint strength and elongation arrived at their parameters changing, joint tensile strength and elongation had similar development. Hardness measurement indicated that the weld was softened. However, there was considerable difference in softening degree for different joint zone. The weld top had lower hardness and wider softening zone than other zone of the weld. And softening zone at advancing side was wider than that at retreating side.

  11. Effect of Autogenous Arc Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of autogeneous arc welding processes on tensile and impact properties of ferritic stainless steel conformed to AISI 409M grade is studied.Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded jointa.Tensile and impact properties,microhardness,microstructure,and fracture surface morphology of continuous current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW),pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW),and plasma arc welding (PAW) joints are evaluated and the results are compared.It is found that the PAW joints of ferritic stainless steel show superior tensile and impact properties when compared with CCGTAW and PCGTAW joints,and this is mainly due to lower heat input,finer fusion zone grain diameter,and higher fusion zone hardness.

  12. Liquid-Phase-Impacting Diffusion Welding Mechanism and Microstructure of Welded Joint of Al Matrix Composite SiCp/101A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitai NIU; Wei GUO; Qingchang MENG; Xinmei ZHANG; Xingqiu LIU; Guangtao ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    The liquid-phase-impacting (LPI) diffusion welding mechanism and microstructure of welded joint of aluminum matrixcomposite SiCp/101A have been studied. It shows that by LPl diffusion welding, the interface state between SiCparticle and matrix is prominen

  13. Influence of temperature on strength and failure mechanisms of resistance welded thermoplastic composites joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutras, N.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Benedictus, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature exposure on the strength of resistance welded joints is analysed. Glass fibre polyphenylene sulphide (GF/PPS) laminates were joined using the resistance welding technique and a stainless steel metal mesh as the heating element. Single lap shear tests at temper

  14. Tensile Fracture Location Characterizations of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Different Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJII; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2004-01-01

    The tensile fracture location characterizations of the friction stir welded joints of the AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6Al alloys were evaluated in this study. The experimental results show that the fracture locations of the joints are different for the different Al alloys, and they are affected by the FSW parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured in the HAZ and TMAZ on the AS and the fracture parts undergo a large amount of plastic deformation, while the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured in the HAZ on the RS and the fracture surfaces are inclined a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When some welding defects exist in the joints, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured on the RS or AS, the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured on the RS, and all the fracture locations are near to the weld center. The fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained by the microhardness profiles and defect morphologies of the joints.

  15. Research into the Reliability of the Overlap Joint of Bituminous Heat Welded Roofing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Balčiūnas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The conducted analysis has revealed that the most common reason of leaks in bituminous roofs is caused by a lack of adhesion between two nearby sheets of roof cover. Regarding the above mentioned problems, reliability, testing methods and data analysis methods of the overlap joint is observed more closely. The research conducted by different scientists worldwide has showed difficulties in evaluating the obtained data due to a lack of information on how these samples were produced. Therefore, it is proposed to evaluate the influence of welding time analyzing the mechanical properties of the joints of bituminous heat welded roofing materials. The influence of welding time, when the samples are produced, and mechanical properties of overlap joints are practically proved according to LST standards. The test results have showed that welding time does not have a significant influence on the shear resistance of overlap joints but is important regarding its limited deformation.

  16. TEM Observation of Martensite Layer at the Weld Interface of an A508III to Inconel 82 Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. R.; Lu, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A lenticular martensite layer at the weld interface in an A508III/Inconel 82 dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint was studied by TEM. The martensite/weld metal boundary was observed as the fusion boundary. There was a K-S orientation relationship between martensite and weld metal. The formation of the martensite was mainly determined by the distribution of alloy elements. The martensite was responsible for the hardness peak in the DMW.

  17. EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF FRICTION STIR WELDED DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PADMANABAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is one of the recent solid state joining processes that has drawn the attention of the metal joining community. In this work the effects of tool rotation speed (TRS and welding speed (WS on the tensile strength of dissimilar friction stir welded AA2024-AA7075 joints are investigated. Response surface methodology is used for developing a mathematical model for the tensile strength of the dissimilar aluminum alloy joints. The model is used to investigate the effect of TRS and WS on the tensile strength of the joints. It is seen that the tensile strength of the joint increases with the increase in TRS up to a limit of 1050 rpm and decreases thereafter. The tensile strength of the joints is also seen increasing with the WS up to 15 mm/min. Further increase in WS results in a reduction of the tensile strength of the joints.

  18. Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Laser Welded DP590 Dual-Phase Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaojie; Yang, Shanglei; Liu, Haobo; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, cold-rolled DP590 dual-phase steel sheets with 1.5 mm thickness were butt-welded by a fiber laser, and the evolution and effect on microhardness, tensile property and fatigue property of the welded joint microstructure were studied. The results showed that the base metal is composed of ferrite and martensite, with the martensite dispersed in the ferrite matrix in an island manner. The microstructure of the weld zone was lath-shaped martensite that can be refined further by increasing the welding speed, while the heat-affected zone was composed of ferrite and tempered martensite. The microhardness increased with increasing welding speed, and the hardness reached its highest value—393.8 HV—when the welding speed was 5 m/min. Static tensile fracture of the welded joints always occurred in the base metal, and the elongation at break was more than 16%. The conditional fatigue limits of the base metal and the weld joints were 354.2 and 233.6 MPa, respectively, under tension-tension fatigue tests with a stress rate of 0.1. After observation of the fatigue fracture morphology, it was evident that the fatigue crack of the base metal had sprouted into the surface pits and that its expansion would be accelerated under the action of a secondary crack. The fatigue source of the welded joint was generated in the weld zone and expanded along the martensite, forming a large number of fatigue striations. Transient breaking, which occurred in the heat-affected zone of the joint as a result of the formation of a large number of dimples, reflected the obvious characteristics of ductile fracture.

  19. Tension fracture behaviors of welded joints in X70 steel pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The surface of welded joints in X70 steel pipeline was processed by laser shock wave, its mechanical behaviors of tension fracture were analyzed with tension test,and the fracture morphologies and the distributions of chemical element were observed with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum,respectively.The experimental results show that the phenomenon of grain refinement occurs in the surface of welded joints in X70 steel pipeline after the laser shock processing,and compressive re...

  20. Numerical analysis of thermal stresses in welded joint smade of steels X20 and X22

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Saša M.; Šijački-Zeravčić Vera M.; Bakić Gordana M.; Lozanović-Šajić Jasmina V.; Rakin Marko P.; Đurđević Andrijana A.; Đukić Miloš B.

    2014-01-01

    Stress calculation of steam pipeline is presented, focused on the welded joint. Numerical calculation was performed using the finite element method to obtain stress distribution in the welded joint made while replacing the valve chamber. Dissimilar materials were used, namely steel 10CrMoV9-10 according to EN 10216-2 for the valve chamber, the rest of steam pipeline was steel X20, whereas the transition piece material was steel X22. Residual stresses were c...

  1. Re-analysis of fatigue data for welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental fatigue data for welded joints have been collected and subjected to re-analysis using the notch stress approach according to IIW recommendations. This leads to an overview regarding the reliability of the approach, based on a large number of results (767 specimens). Evidently......-welded joints agree quite well with the FAT 225 curve; however a reduction to FAT 200 is suggested in order to achieve approximately the same safety as observed in the nominal stress approach....

  2. X-ray online detection for laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Bu, Xing; Qin, Tao; Yu, Haisong; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-05-01

    In order to detect weld defects in laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy, a real-time X-ray image system is set up for quality inspection. Experiments on real-time radiography procedure of the weldment are conducted by using this system. Twin fillet welding seam radiographic arrangement is designed according to the structural characteristics of the weldment. The critical parameters including magnification times, focal length, tube current and tube voltage are studied to acquire high quality weld images. Through the theoretical and data analysis, optimum parameters are settled and expected digital images are captured, which is conductive to automatic defect detection.

  3. A review on TIG welding for optimizing process parameters on dissimilar joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG is relatively high strength welding technique. This technique are mostly used in fabrication and other industries to join the either similar or dissimilar materials. In particular, it can be used to join high-quality strength of metal and alloys.In this paper we discuss abouttheTungsten Inert Gas welding of joining heat treatableof stainless steel and mild steel.These welded joints have higher tensile strength to weight ratio and finer micro structure. Tungsten Inert Gas Weldingofdissimilar material such as stainless steel and mild steel have the potential to hold good mechanical and metallurgical properties.

  4. Multi-Response Optimization of Friction-Stir-Welded AA1100 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2012-06-01

    AA1100 aluminum alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures. Friction stir welding process (FSW) is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. The process and tool parameters of FSW play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics. In this research, the relationships between the FSW parameters (rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, shoulder diameter, pin diameter, and tool hardness) and the responses (tensile strength, hardness, and corrosion rate) were established. The optimal welding conditions to maximize the tensile strength and minimize the corrosion rate were identified for AA1100 aluminum alloy and reported here.

  5. JOINTING PROCESS OF THE SAE 1020 WITH MAG WELD'S REGION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND FACTOR OF MISMATCH DETERMINED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the jointing process of the SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been done by the MAG weld method. The aim of this study is to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the jointing process, mechanical and metalographical properties of the weld region, HAZ, and the weld metal of the samples considered here were searched, and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement was identified.

  6. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Laser+GMAW Hybrid Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxiang XU; Chuansong WU; Xuezhou MA; Xuyou WANG

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model is developed to predict the temperature field and thermally induced residual stress and distortion in laser+GMAW hybrid welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy T-joint.And the characteristics of residual stress distribution and deformation are numerically investigated.In the simulation,the heat source model takes into account the effect of joint geometric shape and welding torch slant on the heat flux distribution and a sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical method is used.The calculated results show that higher residual stress is distributed in and surround the weld zone.Its peak value is very close to the yield strength of base metal.Besides,a large deformation appears in the middle and rear part of the weldment.

  8. Influence of Material Model on Prediction Accuracy of Welding Residual Stress in an Austenitic Stainless Steel Multi-pass Butt-Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dean; Zhang, Chaohua; Pu, Xiaowei; Liang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Both experimental method and numerical simulation technology were employed to investigate welding residual stress distribution in a SUS304 steel multi-pass butt-welded joint in the current study. The main objective is to clarify the influence of strain hardening model and the yield strength of weld metal on prediction accuracy of welding residual stress. In the experiment, a SUS304 steel butt-welded joint with 17 passes was fabricated, and the welding residual stresses on both the upper and bottom surfaces of the middle cross section were measured. Meanwhile, based on ABAQUS Code, an advanced computational approach considering different plastic models as well as annealing effect was developed to simulate welding residual stress. In the simulations, the perfect plastic model, the isotropic strain hardening model, the kinematic strain hardening model and the mixed isotropic-kinematic strain hardening model were employed to calculate the welding residual stress distributions in the multi-pass butt-welded joint. In all plastic models with the consideration of strain hardening, the annealing effect was also taken into account. In addition, the influence of the yield strength of weld metal on the simulation result of residual stress was also investigated numerically. The conclusions drawn by this work will be helpful in predicting welding residual stresses of austenitic stainless steel welded structures used in nuclear power plants.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welding Joints of Carbonitrided Low-Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweejun, Nipon; Poapongsakorn, Piyamon; Kanchanomai, Chaosuan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonitrided low-carbon steels are resistance welded in various engineering components. However, there are no reports on the microstructure and mechanical properties of their resistance spot welding (RSW) joints. Therefore, various carbonitridings were performed on the low-carbon steel sheets, and then various RSWs were applied to these carbonitrided sheets. The metallurgical and mechanical properties of the welding joint were investigated and discussed. The peak load and failure energy increased with the increases of welding current and fusion zone (FZ) size. At 11 kA welding current, the carbonitrided steel joint had the failure energy of 16 J, i.e., approximately 84 pct of untreated steel joint. FZ of carbonitrided steel joint consisted of ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite, and untempered martensite, i.e., the solid-state transformation products, while the microstructure at the outer surfaces consisted of untempered martensite and retained austenite. The surface hardening of carbonitrided steel after RSW could be maintained, i.e., approximately 810 HV. The results can be applied to carbonitriding and RSW to achieve a good welding joint.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan WEI; Yan-chang QI; Zhi-ling TIAN; Yun PENG

    2016-01-01

    E32 grade corrosion resistant steel was welded with welding wires with three different S contents.The mi-crostructure,mechanical properties,inclusions,and corrosion behavior of welded joint were investigated.The joint coupon corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization test were carried out under the simulated corrosion environ-ment of the inner bottom plates of cargo oil tanks.The pitting initiation and propagation mechanism of the weld metal were studied by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus.The results indicated that the microstructures of three kinds of weld metals are all composed of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.The micro-structure of heat-affected zone is composed predominantly of bainite.Joint welded with low S filler wire has good me-chanical properties.S can decrease free corrosion potential and increase the corrosion tendency.The pitting initiation is oxide inclusion or sulfide-oxide inclusion complex.S can induce the formation of occluded area and promote the corrosion propagation.The chemical compositions of weld metal is similar to base metal,which can limit the galvanic corrosion between weld metal and base metal,and avoid formation of corrosion step.

  11. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of 7050-T7451 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Wang, T.; Zhou, W. L.; Li, Z. Y.; Huang, Y. X.; Feng, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    The ultra-high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, 7050-T7451, was friction stir welded at a constant tool rotation speed of 600 rpm. Defect-free welds were successfully obtained at a welding speed of 100 mm/min, but lack-of-penetration defect was formed at a welding speed of 400 mm/min. The as-received material was mainly composed of coarse-deformed grains with some fine recrystallized grains. Fine equiaxed, dynamic, recrystallized grains were developed in the stir zone, and elongated grains were formed in the thermomechanically affected zone with dynamic recovered subgrains. Grain sizes in different regions of friction stir-welded joints varied depending on the welding speed. The sizes and distributions of precipitates changed in different regions of the joint, and wider precipitation free zone was developed in the heat-affected zone compared to that in the base material. Hardness of the heat-affected zone was obviously lower than that of the base material, and the softening region width was related to the welding speed. The tensile strength of the defect-free joints increased with the increasing welding speed, while the lack-of-penetration defect greatly reduced the tensile strength. The tensile fracture path was significantly influenced by the position and orientation of lack-of-penetration defect.

  12. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  13. Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for improved corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rambabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium alloy AA2219 (Al–Cu–Mg alloy is widely used in the fabrication of lightweight structures with high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Welding is main fabrication method of AA2219 alloy for manufacturing various engineering components. Friction stir welding (FSW is a recently developed solid state welding process to overcome the problems encountered in fusion welding. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat on the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters, such as tool pin profile, rotational speed, welding speed and axial force, play major role in determining the microstructure and corrosion resistance of welded joint. The main objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model to predict the corrosion resistance of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. In this work a central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the experimental conditions. Dynamic polarization testing was carried out to determine critical pitting potential in millivolt, which is a criteria for measuring corrosion resistance and the data was used in model. Further the response surface method (RSM was used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model was optimized using the simulated annealing algorithm optimizing technique to maximize the corrosion resistance of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  14. Evaluation of Laser Braze-welded Dissimilar Al-Cu Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalen, Pascal; Plapper, Peter

    The thermal joining of Aluminum and Copper is a promising technology towards automotive battery manufacturing. The dissimilar metals Al-Cu are difficult to weld due to their different physicochemical characteristics and the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC), which have reduced mechanical and electric properties. There is a critical thickness of the IMCs where the favored mechanical properties of the base material can be preserved. The laser braze welding principle uses a position and power oscillated laser-beam to reduce the energy input and the intermixture of both materials and therefore achieves minimized IMCs thickness. The evaluation of the weld seam is important to improve the joint performance and enhance the welding process. This paper is focused on the characterization and quantification of the IMCs. Mechanical, electrical and metallurgical methods are presented and performed on Al1050 and SF-Cu joints and precise weld criteria are developed.

  15. Acoustic emission detection of 316L stainless steel welded joints during intergranular corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-yu Chai; Quan Duan; Wen-jie Bai; Zao-xiao Zhang; Xu-meng Xie

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes acoustic emission (AE) signals during the intergranular corrosion (IGC) process of 316L stainless steel welded joints under different welding currents in boiling nitric acid. IGC generates several AE signals with high AE activity. The AE tech-nique could hardly distinguish IGC in stainless steel welded joints with different welding heat inputs. However, AE signals can effectively distinguish IGC characteristics in different corrosion stages. The IGC resistance of a heat-affected zone is lower than that of a weld zone. The initiation and rapid corrosion stages can be distinguished using AE results and microstructural analysis. Moreover, energy count rate and am-plitude are considered to be ideal parameters for characterizing different IGC processes. Two types of signals are detected in the rapid corro-sion stage. It can be concluded that grain boundary corrosion and grain separation are the AE sources of type 1 and type 2, respectively.

  16. Numerical analysis of thermal stresses in welded joint smade of steels X20 and X22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Saša M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress calculation of steam pipeline is presented, focused on the welded joint. Numerical calculation was performed using the finite element method to obtain stress distribution in the welded joint made while replacing the valve chamber. Dissimilar materials were used, namely steel 10CrMoV9-10 according to EN 10216-2 for the valve chamber, the rest of steam pipeline was steel X20, whereas the transition piece material was steel X22. Residual stresses were calculated, in addition to design stresses, indicating critical regions and necessity for post-weld heat treatment.

  17. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Welded Joint Made of Supermartensitic Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Sulfane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonšta P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on evaluation of resistance of the welded joint made of supermartensitic 13Cr6Ni2.5Mo stainless steel to sulfide stress cracking. Testing method A and solution B in accordance with NACE TM 0177 were used. All the testing samples were ruptured in a very short time interval but welded joint samples were fractured primarily in the weld metal or in heat affected zone and not in the basic material. Material analysis of samples were made with use of a ZEISS NEOPHOT 32 light microscope and a JEOL 6490LV scanning electron microscope.

  18. The effects of dynamic load on behaviour of welded joint A-387 Gr. 11 alloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-service behaviour of alloyed steel A-387 Gr. 11 Class 1, for pressure vessels, used for high temperature applications, depends on the properties of its welded joint, with parent metal (BM, heat-affected-zone (HAZ and weld metal (WM, as constituents. Charpy testing of BM, WM and HAZ, together with, determination of the parameters of fatigue-crack growth and fatigue threshold ΔKth was used, in order to understand, how heterogeneity of structure and different mechanical properties of welded joint constituents affect on crack initiation and propagation.

  19. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Zhai, Guofu; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jianqi; Ren, Gang

    2008-09-01

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  20. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwei [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)], E-mail: jingweiwu.hit@gmail.com; Zhai Guofu [Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Chen Qing; Wang Jianqi; Ren Gang [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  1. Measurement and Analysis of the Diffusible Hydrogen in Underwater Wet Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusible hydrogen in steel weldments is one of the main reasons that led to hydrogen assisted cracking. In this paper, the results of literatures survey and preliminary tests of the diffusible hydrogen in underwater wet welding joint were presented. A fluid-discharge method of for measuring the diffusible hydrogen in weldment was introduced in detail. Two kinds of underwater welding electrode diffusible hydrogen are 26.5 mL/100g and 35.5 mL/100g by fluid-discharge method, which are high levels. The diffusible hydrogen of underwater welding is higher than atmospheric welding, and the result is closely related to welding material. The best way to control the diffusible hydrogen is adjusting welding material and improving fluidity of slag.

  2. Role of heat equation in lap joint for welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Rohit, Sooraj

    2017-07-01

    Welding is predominantly used in industrial purposes and growth in their industry, which gives exact welding and more efficient. The major advantage of using this welding technique at initial stage it takes very low heat to weld the portion and gives a good result of low distortion in modules. In this context, two dissimilar metals copper and nickel are chosen for analysis in tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) in which length is 300 mm and breadth is 100 mm thickness 15 mm welded at room temperature a welded portion zone is formed simulation analysis has done on CATIA® and ANSYS®and MATLAB® code is generated for calculating temperatures at each node to calculate temperature at each node a new technique is used tri-diagonal matrix algorithm is used (TDMA) Steady state one dimension heat is calculated results compared between simulation analysis and analytical analysis temperature at each node is calculated both the temperatures are equal with error.

  3. Comparison of joint designs for laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare joint designs for the laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wire, and to evaluate the welded area internally using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT). Cast metal plates (Ti, Co-Cr) and wrought wires (Ti, Co-Cr) were welded using similar metals. The specimens were welded using four joint designs in which the wrought wires and the parent metals were welded directly (two designs) or the wrought wires were welded to the groove of the parent metal from one or both sides (n = 5). The porosity and gap in the welded area were evaluated by micro-CT, and the maximum tensile load of the welded specimens was measured with a universal testing machine. An element analysis was conducted using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The results included that all the specimens fractured at the wrought wire when subjected to tensile testing, although there were specimens that exhibited gaps due to the joint design. The wrought wires were affected by laser irradiation and observed to melt together and onto the filler metal. Both Mo and Sn elements found in the wrought wire were detected in the filler metal of the Ti specimens, and Ni was detected in the filler metal of the Co-Cr specimens. The four joint designs simulating the designs used clinically were confirmed to have adequate joint strength provided by laser welding.

  4. Relation between hardness and ultrasonic velocity on pipeline steel welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, H.; Barrera, G.; Natividad, C.; Salazar, M.; Contreras, A.

    2016-04-01

    In general, the ultrasonic techniques have been used to determine the mechanical properties of materials based on their relationship with metallurgical characteristics. In this research work, the relationship between ultrasonic wave velocity, hardness and the microstructure of steel pipeline welded joints is investigated. Measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity were made as a function of the location across the weld. Hardness measurements were performed in an attempt to correlate with ultrasonic response. In addition, the coarse and dendritic grain structure of the weld material is extreme and unpredictably anisotropic. Thus, due to the acoustic anisotropy of the crystal, weld material of studied joints is anisotropic too. Such structure is no longer direction-independent to the ultrasonic wave propagation; therefore, the ultrasonic beam deflects and redirects and the wave front becomes distorted. Thus, the use of conventional ultrasonic testing techniques using fixed beam angles is very limited and the application of conventional ultrasonic phased array techniques becomes desirable. This technique is proposed to assist pipeline operators in estimating the hardness through ultrasonic measures to evaluate the susceptibility to stress sulphide cracking and hydrogen-induced cracking due to hard spots in steel pipeline welded joints in service. Sound wave velocity and hardness measurements have been carried out on a steel welded joint. For each section of the welding, weld bead, fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal were found to correspond particular values of the ultrasound velocity. These results were correlated with electron microscopy observations of the microstructure and sectorial scan view of welded joints by ultrasonic phased array.

  5. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  6. Pinless Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Joint and Its Failure Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文亚; 李锦锋; 张志函; 高大路; 王卫兵; 栾国红

    2014-01-01

    The joining of aluminum alloy sheets with thickness less than 2.0 mm is difficult via conventional friction stir welding owing to the defects in the joint, such as root flaw, keyhole and lazy S. In the present research, a newly designed pinless tool with involute grooves on its shoulder surface was applied to weld 1.5 mm thick AA2024-T3. The effects of the rotating speed and welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were ana-lyzed. The experimental results showed that the root flaw and keyhole were successfully eliminated. The lazy S was also eliminated under the optimized welding parameters. The maximum tensile strength of the joints was 326 MPa, which is about 74.1% that of the base material. Moreover, all the tensile samples fractured from the retreating side. Two fracture modes were observed during the tensile tests, which are related with the lazy S.

  7. Experimental analysis of dissimilar metal weld joint: Ferritic to austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Prasad, Rajesh [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 ferritic steel and SS304LN using Inconel 82/182 consumables was required in the nuclear power plants. The joint integrity assessment of these welds requires mechanical and metallurgical properties evaluation in weldment regions. The joint was subjected to 100% radiography test and bend test and transverse tensile test. Welding and testing were carried out as per the requirements of ASME Sec-IX and acceptance criteria as per ASME Sec-III. The transverse tensile test results indicated the failure from the weld metal although it satisfies the minimum strength requirement of the ASME requirements; therefore, the DMW joint was analyzed in detail. Straight bead deposition technique, fine slag inclusion, less reliable radiograph technique, plastic instability stress, yield strength ratio and metallurgical deteriorations have been contributed to failure of the DMW joint from the weld region. In the present work, the factors contributing to the fracture from weld metal have been discussed and analyzed.

  8. Prediction of Weld Quality of A Tungsten Inertr Gas Welded Mild Steel Pipe Joint Using Response Surface Methodology (Rsm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Abhulimen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The weld quality of tungsten inert gas (TIG welded joint has been investigated to identify the most economical weld parameters that will bring about optimum properties. Response surface methodology has been used in the optimization of the tungsten inert gas weld of mild steel pipes. Response surface methodology, based on the central composite face centered design was generated for the purpose of optimization of the weld quality.All the process parameters have desirability of 1. Tensile strength response for this solution have a desirability of 0.910595 and the yield strength of 0.59. Result showed that minimizing current and voltage an average tensile strength of 535.452MPa and yield strength of up to 408.74MPa can be achieved, while keeping gas flow rate and electrode diameter within the range of test. It was also deduced that tensile elongation of the TIG weld is not influenced by the process parameters selected for the purpose of this study.

  9. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance of brazed and laser-welded cobalt-chromium alloy joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Rok; Legat, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad

    2006-10-01

    The longevity of prosthodontic restorations is often limited due to the mechanical or corrosive failure occurring at the sites where segments of a metal framework are joined together. The purpose of this study was to determine which joining method offers the best properties to cobalt-chromium alloy frameworks. Brazed and 2 types of laser-welded joints were compared for their mechanical and corrosion characteristics. Sixty-eight cylindrical cobalt-chromium dental alloy specimens, 35 mm long and 2 mm in diameter, were cast. Sixteen specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in an artificial saliva solution and divided into 4 groups (n=4). In the intact group, the specimens were left as cast. The specimens of the remaining 3 groups were sectioned at the center, perpendicular to the long-axis, and were subsequently rejoined by brazing (brazing group) or laser welding using an X- or I-shaped joint design (X laser and I laser groups, respectively). Another 16 specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in a more acidic artificial saliva solution. These specimens were also divided into 4 groups (n=4) as described above. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were used to assess corrosion potentials, breakdown potentials, corrosion current densities, total impedances at lowest frequency, and polarization charge-transfer resistances. The remaining 36 specimens were used for tensile testing. They were divided into 3 groups in which specimen pairs (n=6) were joined by brazing or laser welding to form 70-mm-long cylindrical rods. The tensile strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. Differences between groups were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05). The fracture surfaces and corrosion defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The average tensile strength of brazed joints was 792 MPa and was significantly greater (P<.05) than the tensile strength of both types of

  10. The Influence of Modes of Deposition of Coatings on the Corrosion Resistance of Welded Joints of Steels in Acidic Media;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraev, Yu N.; Bezborodov, V. P.; Selivanov, Y. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, effect of welding on corrosion of welded joints of austenitic steel 12KH18N10T. It is shown that the use of pulsed - arc welding steel 12KH18N10T allows you to create a protective coating with dispersed structure with less thermal impact on the zone of the welded joint. Coating is of such structure allows 1.5 to 6 times to reduce the corrosion rate of welded joints of steel 12KH18N10T in active chemical environments. Pulse the process of deposition of coatings on welded joint of steels can be effectively used for the protection against corrosion in the repair of equipment of chemical industry. The results obtained can be recommended for use when welding a protective corrosion - resistant coatings on working surfaces of equipment of chemical productions.

  11. Ti–6Al–4V welded joints via electron beam welding: Microstructure, fatigue properties, and fracture behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoguang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Shaolin [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qi, Hongyu, E-mail: qhy@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microstructural characteristics on the fatigue properties of electron beam-welded joints of forged Ti–6Al–4V and its fracture behavior were investigated. Tensile tests and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature in air atmosphere. The test data were analyzed in relation to microstructure, high-cycle fatigue properties, low-cycle fatigue properties, and fatigue crack propagation properties. The high-cycle fatigue test results indicated that the fatigue strength of the joint welded via electron beam welding was higher than that of the base metal because the former had a high yield strength and all high-cycle fatigue specimens were fractured in the base metal. Although the joint specimens had a lower low-cycle fatigue life than the base metal, they mainly ruptured at the fusion zone of the joint specimen and their crack initiation mechanism is load-dependent. The fatigue crack propagation test results show that the joint had a slower crack propagation rate than the base metal, which can be attributed to the larger grain in the fusion zone.

  12. Numerical and microstructural evaluation of 9%Cr welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Bauer, M.; Kauffmann, F.; Klenk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2008-07-01

    Microstructural changes after creep at 600 C were investigated on E911 welded joints, focusing on the influence of multiaxiality of stress on microstructure of the fine-grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ). In FGHAZ, more creep voids were observed in the interior portion of the specimen, compared with the outer surface. This is due to the higher multiaxiality of stress in the interior portion. There was no significant growth of VX particles during creep because of their higher thermal stability in base metal and FGHAZ. For M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, the growth during creep in FGHAZ was faster than in the base metal. There was no large difference in the growth rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} between the interior portion and near the outer surface. The number of Z-phase particles after creep in the base metal was higher than that in the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the number of Z-phase particles was higher in the interior portion of the specimen in contrast with near the outer surface. Increase in subgrain size and decrease in dislocation density were observed after creep in the base metal and the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the subgrain size and dislocation density after creep in the interior portion were almost the same as near the outer surface. (orig.)

  13. FE analysis of cruciform welded joints considering different mechanical properties for base material, heat affected zone and weld metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Corigliano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific work was to investigate the behaviour of cruciform welded joints under static loading using a full-field technique: Digital Image Correlation. The material curves, relative to different zones (base material, heat affected zone, weld, were obtained by hardness measurements, which were done by means of a fully automated hardness scanner with high resolution. This innovative technique, based on the UCI method, allowed to identify the different zones and to assess their different mechanical properties, which were considered in the finite element model. Finally the finite element model was validated experimentally, comparing the results with the measurements obtained using the Digital Image Correlation technique.

  14. Rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; FENG Ji-cai; H. Fujii; M. Maeda; K. Nogi

    2005-01-01

    The tensile rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined. The experiments show that the rupture locations of the joints are different for the two aluminum alloys, which are influenced by the welding parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld nugget adjacent to the thermo-mechanically affected zone on the advancing side and the rupture surfaces appear as oval contours of the weld nugget, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured in the heat affected zone on the retreating side and the rupture surfaces are inclined at a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When welding defects are present in the joints, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld center, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured on the retreating side near the weld center. The rupture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained through them.

  15. Long-term creep testing and microstructure evaluation of P91 steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Kanta, V. [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    Trial weld joints were made from wrought and cast modified 9Cr-lMo-V steel using GTAW and SMAW methods. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 deg C to 625 deg C and stresses from 50 to 240 MPa. Time to rupture of welds made from tube segments and cast plates reached almost 30 000 hours and 20 000 hours respectively. Creep strength was evaluated according the Larson-Miller parametric equation and microstructure was investigated using both light and electron microscopy. Creep rupture strength of both weld joints tested at temperatures below 600 deg C falls into the {+-}20% scatter band of the creep rupture strength of the parent material. At 600 deg C and 625 deg C the creep strength dropped by 27% and 30% for the plate weld and the tube weld respectively. All ruptures occurred in fine grain and intercritically reheated heat affected zones either in the parent material or in the weld metal. Observation of thin foils prepared from selected regions of the weld joints revealed differences in precipitation processes and the structure recovery causing decrease of dislocation density in some regions. Fine ferritic grains with low density of fine carbonitride precipitate occurred in critical localities. Soft grains were deformed and cavities at grain boundaries initiated the crack propagation. (orig.)

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  17. Fatigue behaviour of infrared welded joints in fibre reinforced thermoplastics

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Ives; Allaer, Klaas; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing interest in fibre reinforced thermoplastics, there is also a need for a reliable means of bonding them. As thermoplastics have a high chemical inertness, adhesive bonding is not always an option and thus, fusion bonding might prove an interesting solution. This manuscript presents an infrared welding process for a carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. A one sided and a two sided welding process is described and the welding parameters are optimised by performin...

  18. Investigation of aluminum-steel joint formed by explosion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Coskun, T.; Volgyi, B.; Sikari-Nagl, I.

    2015-04-01

    Explosion welding is a solid state welding process that is used for the metallurgical joining of metals. Explosion cladding can be used to join a wide variety of dissimilar or similar metals [1]. This process uses the controlled detonation of explosives to accelerate one or both of the constituent metals into each other in such a manner as to cause the collision to fuse them together [2]. In this study, bonding ability of aluminum and steel with explosion welding was investigated. Experimental studies, microscopy, microhardness, tensile and bend test showed out that, aluminum and steel could be bonded with a good quality of bonding properties with explosion welding.

  19. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  20. Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Cast LM6 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Jayaraman; R.Sivasubramanian; V. Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters on tensile strength of cast LM6 aluminium alloy. Joints were made by using different combinations of tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force each at four levels. The quality of weld zone was investigated using macrostructure and microstructure analysis. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure. The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 900 r/min, a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 3 kN showed superior tensile strength compared with other joints. The tensile strength and microhardness of the welded joints for the optimum conditions were 166 MPa and 64.8 Hv respectively.

  1. Structure and properties of fixed joints formed by ultrasonic-assisted friction-stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@ispms.ru; Ivanov, K. V., E-mail: ikv@ispms.ru; Eliseev, A. A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Ivanov, A. N., E-mail: ivan@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru; Kolubaev, E. A., E-mail: eak@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper deals with structure and properties of aluminum alloy 7475 and its joints obtained by friction stir welding including under ultrasonic action. Microhardness measurements show that ultrasonic action increases strength properties of the joints. Optical and transmission electron microscopy reveals that this effect is related to the precipitation of tertiary coherent S-and T-phase particles.

  2. Finite element modelling and updating of friction stir welding (FSW joint for vibration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari Siti Norazila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys widely used in automotive and aerospace application due to its advanced and lightweight properties. The behaviour of FSW joints plays a significant role in the dynamic characteristic of the structure due to its complexities and uncertainties therefore the representation of an accurate finite element model of these joints become a research issue. In this paper, various finite elements (FE modelling technique for prediction of dynamic properties of sheet metal jointed by friction stir welding will be presented. Firstly, nine set of flat plate with different series of aluminium alloy; AA7075 and AA6061 joined by FSW are used. Nine set of specimen was fabricated using various types of welding parameters. In order to find the most optimum set of FSW plate, the finite element model using equivalence technique was developed and the model validated using experimental modal analysis (EMA on nine set of specimen and finite element analysis (FEA. Three types of modelling were engaged in this study; rigid body element Type 2 (RBE2, bar element (CBAR and spot weld element connector (CWELD. CBAR element was chosen to represent weld model for FSW joints due to its accurate prediction of mode shapes and contains an updating parameter for weld modelling compare to other weld modelling. Model updating was performed to improve correlation between EMA and FEA and before proceeds to updating, sensitivity analysis was done to select the most sensitive updating parameter. After perform model updating, total error of the natural frequencies for CBAR model is improved significantly. Therefore, CBAR element was selected as the most reliable element in FE to represent FSW weld joint.

  3. Morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints in GH909 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunming; Cai, Yuanzheng; Hu, Chongjing; Zhang, Xiong; Yan, Fei; Hu, Xiyuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    The experimental laser welding of GH909 alloy was conducted in this study. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction spectroscopy, and other techniques. Results revealed that the microstructure of the welded joints mainly consisted of tiny cellular structures, dendritic structures, and equiaxed crystals. Pores appeared in the interdendritic regions because of the insufficient local feeding of molten metal during solidification. Nb segregation in the heat-affected zone caused liquation cracking, whereas C segregation further induced the formation of carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries during the welding thermal cycle. The instability of the keyhole significantly promoted the escape of the metal vapor/plasma from the hole; as a result, porosity defects formed in the weld. The average tensile strength of the test joints was 756 MPa, which is 93.1 % of that of the base metal. The average microhardness of the weld zone (250 HV) was higher than that of the GH909 alloy substrate (208 HV), peaking at 267 HV. Microcracks appeared along the grain boundaries, proving that the grain boundaries were the weakest areas in the joint.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of MIG Brazed and MIG Welded Joints of Automotive DP600-GI Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Sushovan; Das, Hrishikesh; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Shome, Mahadev

    2016-12-01

    Galvanized dual-phase steel sheets are extensively used by the auto industry for their corrosion resistance property. Welding by the metal inert gas (MIG) process causes degradation of the steel in the vicinity of the joint due to excessive zinc evaporation. In order to minimize Zn loss, the MIG brazing process has been tried out in lap joint configuration over a heat input range of 136-204 J mm-1. The amount of zinc loss, intermetallic formation and corrosion properties in the joint area has been evaluated for both MIG brazing and MIG welding. Corrosion rate of 21 mm year-1 has been reduced to 2 mm year-1 by adopting MIGB in place MIGW. Impedance study has shown that the corrosion mechanism in base metal, MIG brazed and MIG welded joints is dominated by charge transfer, diffusion and mixed mode control processes, respectively.

  5. Initial testing for the recommendation of improved gas metal arc welding procedures for HY-80 steel plate butt joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Veronika J.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Hull cut welding proficiency is an essential skill maintained by personnel at naval shipyards. This thesis explores arc weld theory to develop ideal submarine hull butt joint designs and recommends preliminary testing to be used to develop improved butt joint welding procedures at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) is the ideal process for shipboard hull welding applications, theoretically. Butt joint samples...

  6. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres López, Edwar A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 °C. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters.La unión de juntas aluminio-acero, sin la formación de fases deletéreas del tipo FexAly, ha sido, por décadas, un desafío para los procesos de soldadura. La soldadura por fricción-agitación ha sido empleada para intentar reducir el aporte térmico y evitar la formación de compuestos intermetálicos. Usando esta técnica fueron soldadas juntas disimilares de aluminio 6063-T5 y acero AISI-SAE 1020. La soldadura fue acompañada de medidas de temperatura durante su ejecución. La interfase de las juntas soldadas fue caracterizada utilizando microscopía óptica, electrónica de barrido y electrónica de transmisión. Adicionalmente fueron realizadas medidas puntuales X-EDS y DRX. Los resultados experimentales revelan que la temperatura máxima en la junta es inferior a 360 °C. La caracterización microestructural en la interfase aluminio-acero demostró la ausencia de compuestos intermetálicos, condición atribuida al uso de parámetros de soldadura con bajo aporte térmico.

  7. Microstructural and electrochemical characterization of a thin-section dissimilar stainless steel weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala Srinivasan, P. [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, D 21502, Geesthacht (Germany)], E-mail: bala.srinivasan@gkss.de; Satish Kumar, M.P. [Mabani Steel, Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-05-15

    A dissimilar weld joint consisting of an austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and a martensitic stainless steel (MSS) was obtained under optimized welding conditions by autogenous gas tungsten arc welding technique. The weld metal was found to be dual-phased, and was constituted with an austenite matrix containing interdendritic ferrite of about 3-8 EFN, with over-matching mechanical properties. Electrochemical behaviour assessment of the composite zone comprising the weld metal, HAZ of both ASS and MSS showed different general corrosion behaviour in neutral and acidic chloride solutions. However, in both the electrolytes, the pitting susceptibility of this region was the highest, and the MSSHAZ of this composite zone was the observed to be more vulnerable to localized damage.

  8. Laser Beam Oscillation Strategies for Fillet Welds in Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Goecke, Sven-F.; Sievi, Pravin; Albert, Florian; Rethmeier, Michael

    Laser beam oscillation opens up new possibilities of influencing the welding process in terms of compensation of tolerances and reduction of process emissions that occur in industrial applications, such as in body-in-white manufacturing. The approaches are to adapt the melt pool width in order to generate sufficient melt volume or to influence melt pool dynamics, e.g. for a better degassing. Welding results are highly dependent on the natural frequency of the melt pool, the used spot diameter and the oscillation speed of the laser beam. The conducted investigations with an oscillated 300 μm laser spot show that oscillation strategies, which are adjusted to the joining situation improve welding result for zero-gap welding as well as for bridging gaps to approximately 0.8 mm. However, a complex set of parameters has to be considered in order to generate proper welding results. This work puts emphasize on introducing them.

  9. Predictive Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Based on Dynamic Fuzzy RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yongzhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fuzzy RBF neural network model was built to predict the mechanical properties of welded joints, and the purpose of the model was to overcome the shortcomings of static neural networks including structural identification, dynamic sample training and learning algorithm. The structure and parameters of the model are no longer head of default, dynamic adaptive adjustment in the training, suitable for dynamic sample data for learning, learning algorithm introduces hierarchical learning and fuzzy rule pruning strategy, to accelerate the training speed of model and make the model more compact. Simulation of the model was carried out by using three kinds of thickness and different process TC4 titanium alloy TIG welding test data. The results show that the model has higher prediction accuracy, which is suitable for predicting the mechanical properties of welded joints, and has opened up a new way for the on-line control of the welding process.

  10. Modelling of ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT of welded joints and its effect on fatigue strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT is a remarkable post-weld technique applying mechanical impacts in combination with ultrasound into the welded joints. In the present work, a 3D simulation method including welding simulation, numerical modelling of UIT-process and an evaluation of fatigue crack growth has been developed. In the FE model, the actual treatment conditions and local mechanical characteristics due to acoustic softening are set as input parameters. The plastic deformation and compressive stress layer are found to be more pronounced when acoustic softening takes place. The predicted internal residual stress distributions of welded joint before and after UIT are compared with experimental results, showing a fairly good agreement with each other. Finally, simulated results of fatigue crack growth in various residual stress fields are well compared with test results, so that the proposed model may provide an effective tool to simulate UIT-process in engineering structures.

  11. Effect of welding processes on mechanical and microstructural characteristics of high strength low alloy naval grade steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ragu Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naval grade high strength low alloy (HSLA steels can be easily welded by all types of fusion welding processes. However, fusion welding of these steels leads to the problems such as cold cracking, residual stress, distortion and fatigue damage. These problems can be eliminated by solid state welding process such as friction stir welding (FSW. In this investigation, a comparative evaluation of mechanical (tensile, impact, hardness properties and microstructural features of shielded metal arc (SMA, gas metal arc (GMA and friction stir welded (FSW naval grade HSLA steel joints was carried out. It was found that the use of FSW process eliminated the problems related to fusion welding processes and also resulted in the superior mechanical properties compared to GMA and SMA welded joints.

  12. Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Microwave Welded and Post-weld Heat-Treated Inconel-718 Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Amit; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, corrosion behavior of microwave welded Inconel-718 at various conditions was investigated. Welding of Inconel-718 in 980 °C solution-treated condition was performed using microwave hybrid heating technique. The microwave welds were subjected to post-heat treatment for improving its microstructure and mechanical properties by solubilizing the Nb-enriched Laves phase. The microstructural features of the fabricated welds at various conditions were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical testing results revealed that Inconel-718 welds were galvanic corroded when they were anodically polarized in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 28 °C. The difference in the corrosion potentials between the base metal (BM) and fusion zone (FZ) in an Inconel-718 weld was the main factor for galvanic corrosion. The highest corrosion was occurred in the as-welded/aged weldments, followed by 980 °C solution-treated and aged weldments, as-welded specimen, and 1080 °C solution-treated and aged (1080STA) weldments. The least galvanic corrosion was occurred in the 1080STA specimens due to almost uniform microstructure developed in the weldment after the treatment. Thus, it was possible to minimize the galvanic corrosion in the microwave welded Inconel-718 by 1080STA treatment which resulted in reducing the difference in corrosion potentials between the BM and the FZ.

  13. Research of Technological Properties of Steel X6CRNITI18-10 Welded Joints Exploited in Nitric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Mikalauskas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chemical industry equipments often requires to replace long time operated pipes or welded inserts with the simi-lar chemical composition. During the study the joints from corro-sion resistant steel X6CrNiTi18-10 were welded by manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes (MMA process 111 and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG process 141 at different welding parameters. The visual, radiographic, penetrant control and ferrite content analysis were carried out. The transverse tensile and bending samples were produced from welded samples; also the macroscopic and microscopic analyse were carried out.

  14. Autogeneous Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of T-joint Low Alloy Steel with Fiber Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, A.; Lappalainen, E.; Salminen, A.

    This paper is focused on the welding of low alloy steels S355 and AH36 in thicknesses 6, 8 and 10 mm in T-joint configuration using either autogeneous laser welding or laser-arc hybrid welding (HLAW) with high power fiber lasers. The aim was to obtain understanding of the factors influencing the size of the fillet and weld geometry through methodologically studying effects of laser power, welding speed, beam alignment relative to surface, air gap, focal point position and order of processes (in case of HLAW) and to get a B quality class welds in all thicknesses after parameter optimization.

  15. The influences of precrack orientations in welded joint of Ti-6Al-4V on fatigue crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuedong, E-mail: wxue2004@yeah.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Qingyu; Wang Xin; Zhang Zenglei [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Ti-6Al-4V lamella microstructure obtained by {beta} annealing, which had slow fatigue crack propagation rate and high propagation resistance, was used as base metal and welded by tungsten-inert-gas welding (TIG). Three kinds of orientations were designed to study the influences of precrack orientations and locations on fatigue crack growth rate in as-weld welded joints. In comparison, the classical total-life fatigue performances of the joints were also studied. The results showed that, no matter the precrack was initiated in the center of the weld, near the fusion-line or in HAZ, the fatigue crack propagation rates in the initial stage were all slower than that of the base metal. The fatigue crack in the central region of the weld seam propagated by striation mechanism in the initial propagation stage, and the weld metal exhibited lower fatigue crack propagation rate and higher threshold stress intensity than the base metal and the other joint specimens.

  16. Mechanical properties and long-range behaviour of TZM-welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobeit, W.; Bulla, W.; Eck, R.; Ullrich, G.

    1987-05-01

    In order to utilize the known excellent high temperature properties of TZM (Mo-0,5Ti-0,08Zr) for construction of components with thick sections (sheets of 8 mm wall thickness, bars of 25 mm diameter) the testing of suitable joining techniques was necessary. Based on the present state of the art the EB- and TIG-welding as well as the friction welding seemed to be the qualified methods. The investigations of the welded specimens covered non-destructive tests and metallographic evaluations as well as tensile tests, long term creep rupture tests at 850/sup 0/C and fatigue tests unter tension-compression stresses at room temperature and 850/sup 0/C. EB- and TIG-weldments showed coarse grained weld and heat affected zones. Due to higher gas contents, the EB-welded specimens produced by P/M process were interspersed with pores while the joints of the ARC-cast TZM material were uniform. However, TIG-welds of both variants were affected with porosity and cracks. The friction welds were almost perfect. In the tensile tests, all the joints containing recrystallized microstructure zones ruptured in the welds at strength values equivalent to recrystallized TZM. The strength of friction welds exhibited significant higher values. At room temperature the tensile ductility of all weldments was inadequate, the friction welded specimens showed the lowest values. At 850/sup 0/C the tensile ductility was adequate in all variants. The creep rupture tests at 850/sup 0/C exhibit up to 10,000 h that the strength of the friction weldments exceed those of the EB-weldments. (orig./IHOE).

  17. Mechanical behaviour of Astm A 297 grade Hp joints welded using different processes; Comportamento mecanico de juntas de aco ASTM A297 grau HP soldadas por diferentes processos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emygdio, Paulo Roberto Oliveira; Zeemann, Annelise [Tecmetal Consultoria S/C Ltda (Brazil); Almeida, Luiz Henrique de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The influence of different arc welding processes on mechanical behaviour was studied for cast heat resistant stainless steel welded joints, in the as welded conditions. ASTM A 297 grade HP with niobium and niobium/titanium additions were welded following three different welding procedures, using shielded metal arc welding gas tungsten arc welding and plasma arc welding, in six welded joints. The welded joint mechanical behaviour was evaluated by ambient temperature and 870 deg C tensile tests; and creep tests at 900 deg C and 50 MPa. Mechanical test results showed that the welding procedure qualification following welding codes is not suitable for high temperature service applications. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  19. Fatigue crack initiation for Al-Zn-Mg alloy welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHANG; Xuesong LIU; Linsen WANG; Ping WANG; Hongyuan FANG

    2012-01-01

    To investigate fatigue crack initiation characteristics of A1-Zn-Mg alloy welded joint,notched specimens were used in fatigue test for the base metal,welding bead and heat affected zone (HAZ).The fatigue fracture surface near the fatigue crack initiation site was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results show that the differences of fatigue crack initiation life among base metal,welding bead and HAZ are not obvious.Inhomogeneity in microstructure and mechanical performance of HAZ influences the fatigue crack initiation life.The ratio of fatigue crack initiation life (Ni) to fatigue failure life (Nf) for the base metal,welding bead and HAZ of A7N01 aluminium alloy welded joint are 26.32%,40.21% and 60.67%,respectively.Fatigue crack initiation life can be predicted using a uniform model.Observation of fatigue fracture surfaces shows that for the welding bead a fatigue crack initiates from the smooth surface due to the welding process,the blowhole in HAZ causes fatigue crack and the crushed second phase particles play an important role in fatigue crack initiation for the base metal.

  20. Optimizing friction stir welding parameters to maximize tensile strength of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S.; Elangovan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2009-04-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Mn alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of lightweight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. In contrast to the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural aluminium alloys, the friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force etc., and the tool pin profile play a major role in determining the joint strength. An attempt has been made here to develop a mathematical model to predict the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. A central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. The response surface method (RSM) has been used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model has been optimized using the Hooke and Jeeves search technique to maximize the tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  1. A non-conventional technique for evaluating welded joints based on the electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.G.; Sorger, G., E-mail: telmo.santos@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lgs18243@campus.fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Vilaca, P., E-mail: pedro.vilaca@aalto.fi [Aalto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Miranda, R., E-mail: rmiranda@fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Recent studies showed that electrical conductivity is a valuable technique to identify the different zones of solid-state welded joints with a good correlation with the microstructure and hardness. This is a relevant result since this technique is fast and, in some cases, non destructive, The concept was applied to other welding processes such as the ones involving fusion to a wide range of materials, For this, a comprehensive study was performed using friction stir welding, tungsten inert gas (TlG) and gas metal arc (MAG) welding processes in either bead on plate or butt joints in: carbon steel, magnesium and titanium, Eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT) was used to measure the electrical conductivity at different depths in transverse sections of the processed materials. The profiles were compared to the hardness profiles in the same sections. As a result, a correlation was observed in most materials welded by solid state and by fusion processes. The variation of the electrical conductivity closely follows that measured in the hardness. Another interesting conclusion is that, even for fusion welding of carbon steels, the technique has potential to complement the hardness measurements and microstructural observations, allowing the identification of the distinct zones of welds in materials commonly used in industry. (author)

  2. Friction Stir Spot Welding: A Review on Joint Macro- and Microstructure, Property, and Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir spot welding (FSSW is a very useful variant of the conventional friction stir welding (FSW, which shows great potential to be a replacement of single-point joining processes like resistance spot welding and riveting. There have been many reports and some industrial applications about FSSW. Based on the open literatures, the process features and variants, macro- and microstructural characteristics, and mechanical properties of the resultant joints and numerical simulations of the FSSW process were summarized. In addition, some applications of FSSW in aerospace, aviation, and automobile industries were also reviewed. Finally, the current problems and issues that existed in FSSW were indicated.

  3. Structure and Properties of Thick-Walled Joints of Alloy 1570s Prepared by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. V.; Ivanov, S. Yu.; Karkhin, V. A.; Lopota, V. A.; Makhin, I. D.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of thick-walled joints of Al - Mg - Sc alloy 1570S, prepared by friction stir welding are studied. Joint microstructural and mechanical inhomogeneity are revealed.

  4. Structure formation and properties of a copper-aluminum joint produced by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, E. V.; Peev, A. P.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of ultrasound-assisted explosive welding on the structure formation and the properties of copper-aluminum joints is studied. Ultrasound-assisted explosive welding improves the quality of formed copper-aluminum joints, i.e., enhances their strength and significantly reduces the amount of fused metal over the entire weldability range. It is shown that ultrasound-assisted explosive welding can noticeably extend the weldability range of the copper-aluminum pair to obtain equal-in-strength joints with minimum structural heterogeneity in the wide welding range.

  5. Measurement of the stressed state of welded joints in the NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Trofimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical justification and an experimental research for a method to measure the stressed state of welded joints in the nuclear power plant (NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory, as well as for ways to implement them technically. Devices for measuring the stressed state of welded joints in the NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory allow online measurement of residual stresses along the weld height and detection of crack formation points. The use of such devices will enable early crack detection in welded joints for an increased safety of the NPP operation.

  6. Comparative study on fatigue properties of friction stir and MIG-pulse welded joints in 5083 Al-Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cai-zhi; YANG Xin-qi; LUAN Guo-hong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the fatigue properties of friction stir welds with those of MIG-pulse welds. The 5083 Al-Mg alloy was welded by single pass friction stir welding(FSW) and double-sided MIG-pulse welding. The results show that friction stir(FS) welds have a better appearance than MIG-pulse welds for the lack of voids, cracks and distortions. Compared with the parent plate, FSW welds exhibit similar fine grains, while MIG-pulse welds display a different cast microstructure due to the high heat input and the addition of welding wire. The S-N curves of FSW and MIG-pulse joints show that the fatigue life of FS welds is 18 - 26 times longer than that of MIG-pulse welds under the stress ratio of 0.1 and the calculated fatigue characteristic values of each weld increase from 38.67 MPa for MIG-pulse welds to 53.59 MPa for FSW welds.

  7. Effect of Welding Parameters on Microstructure, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Friction-Stir Welded Joints of AA7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Nourouzi, Salman

    2014-06-01

    A high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy AA7075-T6 was friction-stir welded with various process parameter combinations incorporating the design of the experiment to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties. A three-factors, five-level central composition design (CCD) has been used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. The friction-stir welding parameters have significant influence on the heat input and temperature profile, which in turn regulates the microstructural and mechanical properties of the joints. The weld thermal cycles and transverse distribution of microhardness of the weld joints were measured, and the tensile properties were tested. The fracture surfaces of tensile specimens were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the formation of friction-stir processing zone has been analyzed macroscopically. Also, an equation was derived to predict the final microhardness and tensile properties of the joints, and statistical tools are used to develop the relationships. The results show that the peak temperature during welding of all the joints was up to 713 K (440 °C), which indicates the key role of the tool shoulder diameter in deciding the maximum temperature. From this investigation, it was found that the joint fabricated at a rotational speed of 1050 rpm, welding speed of 100 mm/min, and shoulder diameter of 14 mm exhibited higher mechanical properties compared to the other fabricated joints.

  8. The effect of postprocessing on tensile property and microstructure evolution of friction stir welding aluminum alloy joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Z.L., E-mail: zhilihuhit@163.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Wang, X.S. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Pang, Q. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Donghu University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, F.; Qin, X.P.; Hua, L. [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining aluminum alloy and can dramatically reduce grain size conferring excellent plastic deformation properties. Consequently, friction stir welding is used to manufacture tailor welded blanks to optimize weight or performance in the final component. In the study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welding joint during plastic forming and subsequent heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welding joints were studied by Electron Backscattered Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness tests. It is found that the tensile and yield strengths of friction stir welding joints are significantly improved after severe plastic deformation due to the grain refinement. Following heat treatment, the strength of the friction stir welding joints significantly decrease due to the obvious abnormal grain growth. Careful attention must be given to the processing route of any friction stir welding joint intended for plastic forming, especially the annealing between forming passes. Severe plastic deforming of the friction stir welding joint leads to a high level of stored energy/dislocation density, which causes the abnormal grain growth during subsequent heat treatment, and consequently reduce the mechanical properties of the friction stir welding joint. - Highlights: • Great changes are observed in the microstructure of FSW joint after postprocessing. • Postprocessing shows great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • The weld shows more significant decrease in strength than the BM due to the AGG. • Attention must be given to the processing route of FSW joint for plastic forming.

  9. Strength analysis of laser welded lap joint for ultra high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Cheol; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Young Tae; Jung, Yoon Gyo

    2013-12-01

    Several industries including the automotive industry have recently applied the process of welding high strength steel. High strength steel is steel that is harder than normal high strength steel, making it much stronger and stiffer. HSS can be formed in pieces that can be up to 10 to 15 percent thinner than normal steel without sacrificing strength, which enables weight reduction and improved fuel economy. Furthermore, HSS can be formed into complex shapes that can be welded into structural areas. This study is based on previous experiments and is aimed at establishing the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel. Research on the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel is conducted by using Solid Works, a program that analyzes the stress of a virtual model. In conclusion, we found that the stress distribution is changed depending on the shape of welded lap joint. In addition, the Influence of the stress distribution on welded high strength steel can be used to standard for high energy welding of high strength steel, and we can also predict the region in welded high strength steel that may cracked.

  10. Achieving High Strength Joint of Pure Copper Via Laser-Cold Metal Transfer Arc Hybrid Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Chen, Cong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Fiber laser-cold metal transfer arc hybrid welding of pure copper was studied. Weld porosity was tested by X-ray nondestructive testing. Microstructure and fracture features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by cross weld tensile test. Full penetrated and continuous welds were obtained by hybrid welding once the laser power reached 2 kW, while they could not be obtained by laser welding alone, even though the laser power reached 5 kW. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the yield strength (YS), and the elongation of the best hybrid weld material were up to 227, 201 MPa, and 21.5 pct, respectively. The joint efficiencies in UTS and YS of hybrid weld were up to 84 and 80 pct of the BM, respectively. The fracture location changes from the fusion zone to the heat-affected zone with the increase of laser power. Besides, the mechanisms of process stability and porosity suppression were clarified by laser-arc interaction and pool behavior. The strengthening mechanism was discussed by microstructure characteristics.

  11. Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints using WELD PLANNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Shahar; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Rahim, Mohammad Ridzwan Abdul Mohd; Redza, Ridhwan; Lidam, Robert Ngendang Ak.; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haruman, Esa [Bakrie University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Chau, Chan Yin [ESI Group, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-15

    This paper investigates the capability of linear thermal elastic numerical analysis to predict the welding distortion that occurs due to GMAW process. Distortion is considered as the major stumbling block that can adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and thus lead to expensive corrective work. Hence, forecast of distortion is crucially needed and ought to be determined in advance in order to minimize the negative effects, improve the quality of welded parts and finally to reduce the production costs. In this study, the welding deformation was simulated by using relatively new FEM software WELD PLANNER developed by ESI Group. This novel Welding Simulation Solution was employed to predict welding distortion induced in butt and T-joints with thickness of 4 mm. Low carbon steel material was used for the simulation and experimental study. A series of experiments using fully automated welding process were conducted for verification purpose to measure the distortion. By comparing between the simulation and experimental results, it was found out that this program code offered fast solution analysis time in estimating weld induced distortion within acceptable accuracy.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints of AA6105 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Dorta-Almenara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW is one of the most used methods to weld aluminum. This work investigates the influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA6105 aluminum alloy joints. AA6105 alloy plates with different percent values of cold work were joined by GTAW, using various combinations of welding current and speed. The fusion zone, in which the effects of cold work have disappeared, and the heat affected zone of the welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes, additionally, mechanical tests and measures of Vickers microhardness were performed. Results showed dendritic morphology with solute micro- and macrosegregation in the fusion zone, which is favored by the constitutional supercooling when heat input increases. When heat input increased and welding speed increased or remained constant, greater segregation was obtained, whereas welding speed decrease produced a coarser microstructure. In the heat affected zone recrystallization, dissolution, and coarsening of precipitates occurred, which led to variations in hardness and strength.

  13. Effect of welding processes and consumables on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade quenched and tempered steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Magudeeswaran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quenched and Tempered (Q&T steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to its high strength to weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC in the heat affected zone (HAZ after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. The use of stainless steel consumables for a non-stainless steel base metal is not economical. Hence, alternate consumables for welding Q&T steels and their vulnerability to HIC need to be explored. Recent studies proved that low hydrogen ferritic steel (LHF consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. The use of ASS and LHF consumables will lead to distinct microstructures in their respective welds. This microstructural heterogeneity will have a drastic influence in the fatigue crack growth resistance of armour grade Q&T steel welds. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding consumables and welding processes on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade Q&T Steel joints. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and Flux cored arc welding (FCAW were used for fabrication of joints using ASS and LHF consumables. The joints fabricated by SMAW process using LHF consumable exhibited superior fatigue crack growth resistance than all other joints.

  14. Effect of welding processes and consumables on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade quenched and tempered steel joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. MAGUDEESWARAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY

    2014-01-01

    Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to its high strength to weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in the heat affected zone (HAZ) after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS) consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. The use of stainless steel consumables for a non-stainless steel base metal is not economical. Hence, alternate consumables for welding Q&T steels and their vulnerability to HIC need to be explored. Recent studies proved that low hydrogen ferritic steel (LHF) consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. The use of ASS and LHF consumables will lead to distinct microstructures in their respective welds. This microstructural heterogeneity will have a drastic influence in the fatigue crack growth resistance of armour grade Q&T steel welds. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding con-sumables and welding processes on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade Q&T Steel joints. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) were used for fabrication of joints using ASS and LHF consumables. The joints fabricated by SMAW process using LHF consumable exhibited superior fatigue crack growth resistance than all other joints.

  15. Study on deformation and microstructure characterizations of mild steel joints by continuous drive friction welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenya; Yu Min; Li Jinglong; Gao Dalu

    2009-01-01

    Macro-deformation characteristics of continuous drive friction welded mild steel joints were examined by using one deformable workpiece (objective) and the other undeformable one (rigid). The microstructure evolution and hardness change across the joint were studied. The results show that the axial shortening and radial increment of joints increase with increasing the friction time at 1 200rpm. The cementite particles of pearlites in the weld center are uniformly distributed on the ferrite matrix, while the cementites of the pearlite in the thermal-mechanically affected zone are broken and discontinuously dispersed in the pearlite. The hardness decreases rapidly from the weld center to the parent metal under the coupled effects of heat and deformation during the rapid heating and cooling processes.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Friction Stir Welding of Cryorolled AA2219 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. Kamal; Panneerselvam, K.; Sathiya, P.; Haq, A. Noorul; Sundarrajan, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Murthy, C. V. Srinivasa

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, experimental investigation on cryorolled aluminum AA2219-T87 plate by using friction stir welding (FSW) process is carried out. AA2219-T87 plates with a size of 200×100×22.4 mm were rolled and reduced to 12.2mm thickness (more than 45% of reduction in total thickness of the base material) at cryogenic temperature (operating temperature range -90--30∘C). The cryorolled (CR) plates have reduced grain size, improved hardness and increased corrosion resistance property compared with the uncryorolled AA2219-T87 plates. FSW joints of cryorolled AA2219-T87 plates were prepared using cylindrical threaded FSW tool pin profile. Mechanical and metallurgical behaviors of friction stir welded joints were analyzed and the effects of the FSW process parameters are discussed in this paper. The variation of microhardness in the FSW joint regions were correlated with the microstructure of FSW joints. Cryorolled plate and FSW joints were tested for corrosion resistance using potentiodynamic polarization test. FSW joints shows better result during the corrosion resistance analysis compared to base AA2219-T87. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results showed that fine α-Al grains with eutectic phase (Al2Cu) were present in the weld nugget (WN). The large clusters of strengthening precipitates were reduced in size and merged with the weld nugget portion.

  17. Validation and implementation of sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint in the base section of ITER Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Rajnikant, E-mail: rajnikant@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Bhardwaj, Anil K.; Gupta, Girish; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Jadhav, Pandurang; Desai, Hemal [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Cryostat base section sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint is qualified through mock-up. • Established welding sequence was successfully implemented on all six sectors of cryostat base section. • Each layer liquid penetrant examination has been carried out for these weld joints and found satisfactory. - Abstract: Cryostat is a large stainless steel vacuum vessel providing vacuum environment to ITER machine components. The cryostat is ∼30 m in diameter and ∼30 m in height having variable thickness from 25 mm to 180 mm. Sandwich structure of cryostat base section withstands vacuum loading and limits the deformation under service conditions. Sandwich structure consists of top and bottom plates internally strengthened with radial and circular ribs. In current work, sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint has been designed with full penetration joint as per ITER Vacuum Handbook requirement considering nondestructive examinations and welding feasibility. Since this joint was outside the scope of ASME Section VIII Div. 2, it was decided to validate through mock-up of bottom plate to rib joint. Welding sequence was established to control the distortion. Tensile test, macro-structural examination and layer by layer LPE were carried out for validation of this weld joint. However possibility of ultrasonic examination method was also investigated. The test results from the welded joint mock-up were found to confirm all code and specification requirements. The same was implemented in first sector (0–60°) of base section sandwich structure.

  18. Creep Strength of Dissimilar Welded Joints Using High B-9Cr Steel for Advanced USC Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Abe, Fujio

    2014-10-01

    The commercialization of a 973 K (700 °C) class pulverized coal power system, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) pressure power generation, is the target of an ongoing research project initiated in Japan in 2008. In the A-USC boiler, Ni or Ni-Fe base alloys are used for high-temperature parts at 923 K to 973 K (650 °C to 700 °C), and advanced high-Cr ferritic steels are planned to be used at temperatures lower than 923 K (650 °C). In the dissimilar welds between Ni base alloys and high-Cr ferritic steels, Type IV failure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a concern. Thus, the high B-9Cr steel developed at the National Institute for Materials Science, which has improved creep strength in weldments, is a candidate material for the Japanese A-USC boiler. In the present study, creep tests were conducted on the dissimilar welded joints between Ni base alloys and high B-9Cr steels. Microstructures and creep damage in the dissimilar welded joints were investigated. In the HAZ of the high B-9Cr steels, fine-grained microstructures were not formed and the grain size of the base metal was retained. Consequently, the creep rupture life of the dissimilar welded joints using high B-9Cr steel was 5 to 10 times longer than that of the conventional 9Cr steel welded joints at 923 K (650 °C).

  19. Sensitivity Analysis for Residual Stress on DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) Nozzle Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Byeong Wook; Chung, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Oak Sug [DOOSAN Heavy Industries and Construction Co. LTD, Reactor Design Team, 555 Guygok-dong Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Generally, any welding process produces high compressive or tensile residual stresses in the heat affected zone depending on the method, shape and procedures of the weldment. In particular, the tensile residual stresses have a considerable effect on the material strength, fatigue strength and corrosion cracking. For this reason, it is important that some knowledge of the internal stress state be deduced either from measurements or from modeling predictions. In this study, the residual stresses after a multi-pass welding process for DVI nozzle welding joint were evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The welding joint considered three weld joint angles of 40 deg., 6 deg. and 2 deg. Computations were made using a 2-D finite element model based on the simulation of cooling from the heat treatment temperature to room temperature with two cooling conditions at the inside surface. In these results, it is shown that the residual stress increased at the inner surface, when water cooling was applied to the inner surface, and axial compressive residual stress increased at the inner surface when the joint angle was decreased. (authors)

  20. Effects of heterogeneity and load amplitude on fatigue rate prediction of a welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguo Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a contradiction to homogeneous material fatigue behavior characterized by widely used linear Paris law, welded-joint fatigue issues need to be reassessed because fatigue crack growth behavior going through heterogeneous region will be different. For a welded joint, log(da/dN is no longer linearly related to log(ΔK in heterogeneous region because of the change in fatigue properties resulting from the welding process. Theoretical model of the fatigue crack growth rate without artificial adjustable parameters was proposed by considering the effects of heterogeneity in a welded joint and load-amplitude variation on fatigue crack growth curve. In this fatigue heterogeneous region, the relationship between log(da/dN and log(ΔK is similar to a concave-down parabola. Predicted results from the proposed model agreed better with the experimental data obtained from fatigue tests conducted in this study and open published literatures for welded joints in comparison to the widely used Paris model.

  1. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... welded rail (CWR), plan contents. The plan must include procedures that prescribe the scheduling and... failure for which railroad personnel must inspect, including, at a minimum, (i) loose, bent, or...

  2. Investigation of welding crack in micro laser welded NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy dissimilar metals joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhua, Chen; Yuqing, Mao; Weiwei, Lu; Peng, He

    2017-06-01

    Dissimilar metals of NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy with a same thickness of 0.2 mm were joined by micro laser welding. The effect of laser power on crack sensitivity of the weld was investigated. The results show that full penetrated welds are obtained when the laser power of 7.2 W is used, many cracks are observed in the weld. With increasing the laser power to 12 W, the number of all cracks and cracking width first increase and then decrease. By XRD analysis, three different kinds of Ti2Ni, NbNi3 and AlNbTi2 intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. According to the formation enthalpy and binary phase diagram, brittle Ti2Ni phase with more contents is existed in the weld due to final solidification, and which is the main reason of crack formation along with large stress concentration. Moreover, the welding cracks like the weld center longitudinal solidification cracks, weld metal toe transversal liquid cracks, heat-affected-zone hot cracks and crater cracks are classified in the laser welded joints. A brittle cleavage fracture with cleavage planes and river patterns in the joints is presented from the fracture surface.

  3. A comparative study of the microstructure and properties of 800 MPa microalloyed C-Mn steel welded joints by laser and gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qian [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Di, Hong-Shuang, E-mail: hongshuangdi_ral@126.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jun-Chen [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wu, Bao-Qiang [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Material and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    The differences in microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam welded (LBW) and gas metal arc welded (GMAW) joints of 800 MPa grade Nb-Ti-Mo microalloyed C-Mn steel of 5 mm thickness were studied. The study suggested that the microstructure in welded seam (WS) of GMAW was acicular ferrite and fine grained ferrite, whereas lath martensite (LM) was obtained in WS of LBW, where inclusions were finer and did not act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite. The microstructure of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) obtained using the two welding methods was LM and granular bainite (GB), respectively. The original austenite grain size in CGHAZ of LBW was 1/3 of GMAW. The microstructure of fine-grained HAZ and mixed-grained HAZ using the two welding methods was ferrite and M-A constituents, while that of LBW was significantly fine. The hardness of LBW welded joints was higher than the base metal (BM), which was the initiation site for tensile fracture. The tensile fracture location of GMAW welded joints was in WS. The impact toughness of LBW welded joints was excellent and the impact absorption energy was similar to BM.

  4. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  5. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  6. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior ofthe Laser Continuous Heat Treatment Welded Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Heping; JIN Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of the welded joints of 2205 duplex stainless steel with the laser continuous heat treatment were investigated.The secondary austenite formation is the outcome of thermodynamic equilibrium breach of the alloy during heat treatment and the result of the continuous heat treatment which has the most important effect on the weld material.The partitioning behaviors of chromium and molybdenum as well as the volume fraction of ferrite and austenite have a remarkable influence on the composition of the individual phase.Mechanical examination of the laser trated weld demonstrates that the tensile strength and yield strength increase with increasing the amount of the secondary austenite.It is shown that the ultimate tensile strength of the 6 kW laser-treated weld is higher about 20 MPa than no heat treatment weld and the ductility can be further improved without compromising strength.The results indicate that the welding alters the corrosion behavior because of different post heat treatment power and the broad active peak is not identified which is attributed to the dissolution of the secondary austenitic in the ferrite phase.It is indicated that pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) values of base metal and 6 kW weld are higher than that of other welds; base metal is 33.7,6 kW weld 33.3,no treatment 32.4,4 kW weld 32.8,8 kW weld 32.5.The extent of corrosion resistance improvement after reheating treatment is mainly caused by the removal of nitrogen from ferritic regions,which occurred as a consequence of secondary austenite growth.

  7. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  8. Structure and Microhardness of Cu-Ta Joints Produced by Explosive Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu. N. Maliutina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and microhardness of Cu-Ta joints produced by explosive welding were studied. It was found that, during explosive welding, an intermediate layer 20⋯40 μm thick with a finely dispersed heterophase structure, formed between the welded copper and tantalum plates. The structure of the layer was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microvolumes with tantalum particles distributed in a copper matrix and microvolumes of copper particles in a tantalum matrix were detected. The tantalum particles in copper have a size of 5⋯500 nm, with a predominance of 5⋯50 nm particles. A mechanism for the formation of the finely dispersed heterophase structure in explosive welding is proposed. The microhardness of interlayers with the heterophase structure reaches 280 HV, which far exceeds the microhardness of copper (~130 HV and tantalum (~160 HV. Many twins of deformation origin were found in the structure of the copper plate. The effect of heating temperature in the range from 100 to 900∘C on the microhardness of copper, tantalum, and the Cu-Ta welded joint was studied. Upon heating to 900∘C, the microhardness of the intermediate layer decreases from 280 to 150 HV. The reduction in the strength properties of the weld material is mainly due to structural transformations in copper.

  9. Structure and microhardness of cu-ta joints produced by explosive welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliutina, Iu N; Mali, V I; Bataev, I A; Bataev, A A; Esikov, M A; Smirnov, A I; Skorokhod, K A

    2013-01-01

    The structure and microhardness of Cu-Ta joints produced by explosive welding were studied. It was found that, during explosive welding, an intermediate layer 20⋯40  μ m thick with a finely dispersed heterophase structure, formed between the welded copper and tantalum plates. The structure of the layer was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microvolumes with tantalum particles distributed in a copper matrix and microvolumes of copper particles in a tantalum matrix were detected. The tantalum particles in copper have a size of 5⋯500 nm, with a predominance of 5⋯50 nm particles. A mechanism for the formation of the finely dispersed heterophase structure in explosive welding is proposed. The microhardness of interlayers with the heterophase structure reaches 280 HV, which far exceeds the microhardness of copper (~130 HV) and tantalum (~160 HV). Many twins of deformation origin were found in the structure of the copper plate. The effect of heating temperature in the range from 100 to 900°C on the microhardness of copper, tantalum, and the Cu-Ta welded joint was studied. Upon heating to 900°C, the microhardness of the intermediate layer decreases from 280 to 150 HV. The reduction in the strength properties of the weld material is mainly due to structural transformations in copper.

  10. The microstructure of aluminum A5083 butt joint by friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasri, M. A. H. M.; Afendi, M. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ismail, A. [UniKL MIMET, JalanPantaiRemis, 32200, Lumut, Perak (Malaysia); Ishak, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 02600, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This study presents the microstructure of the aluminum A5083 butt joint surface after it has been joined by friction stir welding (FSW) process. The FSW process is a unique welding method because it will not change the chemical properties of the welded metals. In this study, MILKO 37 milling machine was modified to run FSW process on 4 mm plate of aluminum A5083 butt joint. For the experiment, variables of travel speed and tool rotational speed based on capability of machine were used to run FSW process. The concentrated heat from the tool to the aluminum plate changes the plate form from solid to plastic state. Two aluminum plates is merged to become one plate during plastic state and return to solid when concentrated heat is gradually further away. After that, the surface and cross section of the welded aluminum were investigated with a microscope by 400 x multiplication zoom. The welding defect in the FSW aluminum was identified. Then, the result was compared to the American Welding Society (AWS) FSW standard to decide whether the plate can be accepted or rejected.

  11. Fatigue properties and fracture mechanism of load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Abe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydraulic excavator and the crane have numerous one-sided welded joints. However, attachments with box like structures are difficult to weld at both sides. Therefore, high accurate evaluation method is needed. In this study, the fatigue properties and the fracture mechanism of the load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding were investigated experimentally to evaluate its fatigue damage with high accuracy based on the experimental results. As the results, fatigue cracks in the test piece initiated from the tip of the unwelded portion and propagated into the welding materials. Multiple welding defects were observed in the unwelded portion, but did not appear to be crack origins. Although these welding defects affected the direction of crack propagation they exerted minimal influence. The three-dimensional observations revealed that fatigue cracks initiate at an early stage of the fatigue development. We infer that the fatigue lifetime is chiefly governed by the crack propagation lifetime. Cracks were initiated at multiple sites in the test piece. As the number of cycles increased, these cracks propagated and combined. So considering the combination of cracks from multiple crack origins is important for a precise evaluation of fatigue damage.

  12. Fatigue properties and fracture mechanism of load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Abe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydraulic excavator and the crane have numerous one-sided welded joints. However, attachments with box like structures are difficult to weld at both sides. Therefore, high accurate evaluation method is needed. In this study, the fatigue properties and the fracture mechanism of the load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding were investigated experimentally to evaluate its fatigue damage with high accuracy based on the experimental results. As the results, fatigue cracks in the test piece initiated from the tip of the unwelded portion and propagated into the welding materials. Multiple welding defects were observed in the unwelded portion, but did not appear to be crack origins. Although these welding defects affected the direction of crack propagation they exerted minimal influence. The three-dimensional observations revealed that fatigue cracks initiate at an early stage of the fatigue development. We infer that the fatigue lifetime is chiefly governed by the crack propagation lifetime. Cracks were initiated at multiple sites in the test piece. As the number of cycles increased, these cracks propagated and combined. So considering the combination of cracks from multiple crack origins is important for a precise evaluation of fatigue damage.

  13. A Study on Tooling and Its Effect on Heat Generation and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikader, Sujoy; Biswas, Pankaj; Puri, Asit Baran

    2016-06-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been the most attracting solid state welding process as it serves numerous advantages like good mechanical, metallurgical properties etc. Non weldable aluminium alloys like 5XXX, 7XXX series can be simply joined by this process. In this present study a mathematical model has been developed and experiments were successfully performed to evaluate mechanical properties of FSW on similar aluminium alloys i.e. AA1100 for different process parameters and mainly two kind of tool geometry (straight cylindrical and conical or cylindrical tapered shaped pin with flat shoulder). Tensile strength and micro hardness for different process parameters are reported of the welded plate sample. It was noticed that in FSW of similar alloy with tool made of SS-310 tool steel, friction is the major contributor for the heat generation. It was seen that tool geometry, tool rotational speed, plunging force by the tool and traverse speed have significant effect on tensile strength and hardness of friction stir welded joints.

  14. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of 9%Cr/CrMoV Dissimilar Steels Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Lu, Fenggui; Yang, Renjie; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiaojin; Huo, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Advanced 9%Cr steel with good heat resistance and CrMoV with good toughness were chosen as candidate materials to fabricate combined rotor for steam turbine operating at over 620 °C. But the great difference in base metals properties presents a challenge in achieving sound defect-free joint with optimal properties in dissimilar welded rotor. In this paper, appropriate selection of filler metal, welding parameters, and post-weld heat treatment was combined to successfully weld 1100-mm-diameter 9%Cr/CrMoV dissimilar experimental rotor through ultra-narrow gap submerge arc welding. Some properties such as hardness, low-cycle fatigue (LCF), and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) combined with microstructural characterization qualify the integrity of the weld. Microstructural analysis indicated the presence of high-temperature tempered martensite as the phase responsible for the improved properties obtained in the weld. The Coffin-Manson parameters were obtained by fitting the data in LCF test, while the conditional fatigue strength was derived from the HCF test based on S-N curve. Analysis of hardness profile showed that the lowest value occurred at heat-affected zone adjacent to base metal which represents the appropriate location of fracture for the samples after LCF and HCF tests.

  15. A Combined Experimental/Computational Analysis of the Butt-Friction-Stir-Welded AA2139-T8 Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Yen, C.-F.

    2016-07-01

    Combined experimental and computational investigations are carried out of the mechanical properties of materials residing in different weld zones of friction stir-welded (FSW) joints of thick plates of AA2139-T8. The experimental portion of the work comprised (a) identification of the weld zones within the FSW joints, through the use of optical-microscopy characterization of a transverse section; (b) validation of the weld zones identified in (a) via the generation of a micro-hardness field over the same transverse section; (c) extracting and subsequently testing miniature tensile specimens from different weld zones; and (d) extracting and testing a larger-size tensile specimen spanning transversely the FSW weld. The computational portion of the work comprised (i) validation of the mechanical properties, as determined experimentally using the miniature tensile specimens, of the material residing within different zones of the FSW joint; and (ii) clarification of the benefits yielded by the knowledge of the local material properties within the FSW joint. These benefits arise from the fact that (a) joint mechanical properties are generally inferior to those of the base metal; (b) the width of the weld in thick metallic-armor is often comparable to the armor thickness, and therefore may represent a significant portion of the armor exposed-surface area; and (c) modeling of the weld-material structural response under loading requires the availability of high-fidelity/validated material constitutive models, and the development of such models requires knowledge of the local weld-material mechanical properties.

  16. Fatigue Strength Improvement of Welded Joint by Ultrasonic Peening in Ultra-Fine Grain Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhi-ling; ZOU Gang; HE Chang-hong; ZHANG Xiao-mu

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic peening of weld toes in ultra-fine grain steel was applied to enhance the fatigue behavior. The test results show that the ultrasonic treatment remarkably shifts the S-N curve to the right. The FAT (fatigue strength at 106 cycles) is increased by 66 %. The fatigue life at Δσ=200 MPa is extended by 58 times. The mechanism of fatigue strength improvement by ultrasonic treatment was studied. It is shown that two mechanisms improve the fatigue strength of welded joint by ultrasonic treatment: one is the decrease of the stress concentration ratio at weld toes, and the other is the building-up of a compressive residual stress at the weld.

  17. Improving fatigue performance of welded joints of X65 pipeline steel by UIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinming; Chen Tong; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Treating weld toes properly can improve the fatigue performance. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) is a more effective and convenient method to enhance the fatigue strength of welded joints and suchlike structures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the specimens made of X65 pipeline steel. The test specimens were investigated on the fatigue strength and the fatigue life at the same stress range level by comparing the ones peened by UIT with the others without the treatment: the fatigue strength of the specimens as UIT, 90% of the fatigue strength of the base mental, is increased by 38% compared with that of as welded only; the fatigue life of the ones as UIT is prolonged by 11 multiples of the ones as welded only.

  18. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  19. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal and Heat-Affected Zone of Electron Beam-Welded Joints of HG785D Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Jianmin; Tan, Caiwang; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Junqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum electron beam welding (EBW) process was employed to butt weld 10-mm-thick HG785D high-strength steels. The penetration into the steel was adjusted by beam current. Microstructures at weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions were comparatively observed. Mechanical properties of the EBWed joints including Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were evaluated. The results indicated that microstructures at the weld metal consisted of coarse lath martensite and a small amount of acicular martensite, while that in the HAZ was tempered sorbite and martensite. The grain size in the weld metal was found to be larger than that in the HAZ, and its proportion in weld metal was higher. The hardness in the weld metal was higher than the HAZ and base metal. The tensile strength and impact toughness in the HAZ was higher than that in the weld metal. All the behaviors were related to microstructure evolution caused by higher cooling rates and state of base metal. The fracture surfaces of tensile and impact tests on the optimized joint were characterized by uniform and ductile dimples. The results differed significantly from that obtained using arc welding process.

  20. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Yong Tai; Chun, Kwang San

    2013-09-01

    The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  1. Impact of the Weld Geometry on the Stress Intensity Factor of the Welded T-Joint Exposed to the Tensile Force and the Bending Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoković, Jelena M.; Nikolić, Ružica R.; Bujňák, Ján

    2015-12-01

    In this paper it is analyzed the welded T-joint exposed to the axial tensile force and the bending moment, for determining the impact of the weld geometry on the fracture mechanics parameters. The stress intensity factor was calculated analytically, based on the concept of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), by application of the Mathematica® programming routine. The presence of the weld was taken into account through the corresponding correction factors. The results show that increase of the size of the triangular welds leads to decrease of the stress intensity factor, while the SIF increases with increase of the welds' width. The ratio of the two welded plates' thicknesses shows that plate thicknesses do not exhibit significant influence on the stress intensity factor behavior.

  2. Evaluation of the diffusivity and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints by SMAW and GTAW processes. By varying the consumables used and the use of the same interpass temperature three different welded joints were obtained. Tests of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility were performed according to ASTM G129-2006 with an aqueous solution (Solution A - TM0177/2005 NACE sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 replacing the bubbling of H2S. From the elongation values was observed that the joint obtained in all welding conditions showed susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement, which was determined by the elongation ratio. The joints that showed higher levels of hardness showed higher susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. The joints obtained with higher welding speeds for the same amount of heat input presented a reduction in the rate of hydrogen embrittlement. All joints tested in solution showed fracture surfaces with quasi cleavage zones.

  3. Correlation between microstructural features and tensile strength for friction welded joints of AA-7005 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Mostafa Tahsini; Ayyub Halvaee; Hamed Khosravi

    2016-01-01

    Similar friction welded joints of AA-7005 aluminum rods were fabricated using different combinations of process parameters such as friction pressure (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MPa) and friction time (10, 15 and 20 s). Interfacial microstructure and formation of intermetallic compounds at the joint interface were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and optical microscopy (OM). Microstructural observations reveal the formation of intermetallic phases during the welding process which cannot be extruded from the interface. Theses phases influence the tensile strength of the resultant joints. From the tensile characteristics viewpoint, the greatest tensile strength value of 365 MPa is obtained at 1.5 MPa and 15 s. Finally, the role of microstructural features on tensile strength of resultant joints is discussed.

  4. Effect of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded Joint for Similar Aluminium Alloys H30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita S. Thete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of process parameters of friction stir welded joint for similar aluminium alloys H30 was studied. Taper cylindrical with three flutes all made of High speed steel was used for the friction stir welding (FSW aluminium alloy H30 and the tensile test of the welded joint were tested by universal testing method. The optimization done using detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab17. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. Experiments were conducted on varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. The present study aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.

  5. High-power Laser Welding of Thick Steel-aluminum Dissimilar Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a worldwide reduction of CO2-emissions is indispensable to avoid global warming. Besides the automotive sector, lightweight construction is also of high interest for the maritime industry in order to minimize CO2-emissions. Using aluminum, the weight of ships can be reduced, ensuring lower fuel consumption. Therefore, hybrid joints of steel and aluminum are of great interest to the maritime industry. In order to provide an efficient lap joining process, high-power laser welding of thick steel plates (S355, t = 5 mm) and aluminum plates (EN AW-6082, t = 8 mm) is investigated. As the weld seam quality greatly depends on the amount of intermetallic phases within the joint, optimized process parameters and control are crucial. Using high-power laser welding, a tensile strength of 10 kN was achieved. Based on metallographic analysis, hardness tests, and tensile tests the potential of this joining method is presented.

  6. Numerical estimation of structure composition in laser-arc hybrid welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Piekarska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of numerical estimation of the structure composition in laser-arc hybrid welded joints. Temperature field wasobtained by the solution of the heat transfer equation with activity of inner heat sources. Convective motion of liquid metal in the welding pool, latent heat of fusion and latent heat of phase transformation were taken into account in the algorithms for numerical analysis of the temperature field. The volumetric fractions of arising phases were determined on the basis of Johnson - Mehl - Avrami (JMA model for diffusive transformations and Koistinen - Marburger (KM model for martensitic transformation. On the basis of calculated temperature distribution the structure composition in welded joint was numerically estimated, taking into account CHT and CCT diagrams for S355 steel.

  7. Mechanical properties of full austenitic welding joint at cryogenic temperature for the ITER toroidal field coil structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M., E-mail: iguchi.masahide@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, ITER Superconducting Magnet Technology Group, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 Japan (Japan); Saito, T.; Kawano, K.; Chida, Y.; Nakajima, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, ITER Superconducting Magnet Technology Group, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 Japan (Japan); Ogawa, T.; Katayama, Y.; Ogata, H.; Minemura, T. [Toshiba Cooperation, Power Systems Company, 2-4, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2300-0045 (Japan); Tokai, D.; Niimi, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD., Plant and Infrastructure Company, Production Center, 8, Niijima, Harima-cho, Kako-gun, Hyogo 675-0180 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • No significant distribution of tensile strengths at 4 K, 77 K and room temperature along welding thickness of 200 mm manufactured by one side narrow gap TIG welding with FMYJJ1. • Tensile strengths at cryogenic temperature of welded joint are increased with increasing of C + N contents of base material. • In the case that welded joint is manufactured by combination of different base materials, strength at 4 K of welded joints are below strength of base material having higher C + N contents. -- Abstract: ITER toroidal field coil (TFC) structures are large welding structures composed of coil case and support structures made of heavy thick high strength and high toughness stainless steels. Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to apply narrow gap Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with FMYJJ1 (0.03C–10Mn–12Cr–14Ni–5Mo–0.13N) which is full austenitic stainless filler material. In order to evaluate effect of base material thickness and combinations of base material on tensile properties, tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 77 K and 4 K by using tensile specimens taken from 200 mm thickness welded joints of two combinations of base materials and 40 mm thickness welded joints of four combinations of base materials. As the results, it was confirmed that there were no large distribution of yield and tensile strength along the thickness of welded joints of 200 mm thickness and yield and tensile strengths of welded joints were decreased with decreasing of C + N contents of base material.

  8. Effects of laser power density on static and dynamic mechanical properties of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Peng Wei; Mao-Hui Li; Gang Yu; Xian-Qian Wu; Chen-Guang Huang; Zhu-Ping Duan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of laser welded joints under impact loadings such as explosion and car crash etc.are critical for the engineering designs. The hardness,static and dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304 and AISI316L dissimilar stainless steel welded joints by CO2 laser were experimentally studied. The dynamic strain-stress curves at the strain rate around 103 s-1 were obtained by the split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB).The static mechanical properties of the welded joints have little changes with the laser power density and all fracture occurs at 316 L side.However,the strain rate sensitivity has a strong dependence on laser power density.The value of strain rate factor decreases with the increase of laser power density.The welded joint which may be applied for the impact loading can be obtained by reducing the laser power density in the case of welding quality assurance.

  9. Effect of Welding Processes and Consumables on Tensile and Impact Properties of High Strength Quenched and Tempered Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Magudeeswaran; V Balasubramanian; G Madhusudhan Reddy; T S Balasubramanian

    2008-01-01

    Quenched and tempered steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking in the heat affected gone after welding.The use of austenitic stainless steel consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase.In this investigation,an attempt was made to determine a suitable consumable to replace expensive austenitic consumables.Two different consumables,namely,austenitic stainless steel and lOW hydrogen ferritic steel,were used to fabricate the joints by shielded metal arc welding(SMAW)and flux cored arc welding(FCAW)processes.The joints fabricated by using low hydrogen ferritic steel consumables showed superior transverse tensile properties,whereas joints fabricated by using austenitic stainless steel consumables exhibited better impact toughness,irrespective of the welding process used.The SMAW joints exhibited superior mechanical and impact properties,irrespective of the consumables used,than their FCAW counterparts.

  10. T-joints of Ti alloys with hybrid laser-MIG welding: macro-graphic and micro-hardness analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, R.; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.; Scintilla, L. D.; Brandizzi, M.; Satriano, A. A.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-03-01

    Titanium alloys are characterized by high mechanical properties and elevated corrosion resistance. The combination of laser welding with MIG/GMAW has proven to improve beneficial effects of both processes (keyhole, gap-bridging ability) while limiting their drawbacks (high thermal gradient, low mechanical resistance) In this paper, the hybrid Laser-GMAW welding of Ti-6Al-4V 3-mm thick sheets is investigated using a specific designed trailing shield. The joint geometry was the double fillet welded T-joint. Bead morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties (micro-hardness) of welds were evaluated and compared to those achieved for the base metals.

  11. Identification of mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kopas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of selected mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy. We will focus on the influence of the test bar neck shape on the tensile strength characteristics and the course of hardness in the weld joint cross-section. For the welding process using TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas technology we considered AlSi5 as the additive material. This paper also includes a short study of numerical modelling of the test bar welding.

  12. Elastic Plastic Stress Distributions in Weld-bonded Lap Joint under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. Al-Bahkali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weld-bonding process is increasingly used in many industries such like automobile and aerospace. It offers significant improvements of sheet metal joints in static, dynamic, corrosion, noise resistance, stiffness and impact toughness properties. A full understanding of this process, including the elastic-plastic stress distribution in the joint, is a must for joints design and automation of manufacturing. Also, the modelling and analysis of this process, though it is complex, proves to be of prime importance. Thus, in this study a systematic experimental and theoretical study employing Finite Element Analysis (FEA is conducted on the weld-bonded joint, fabricated from Austenitic Stainless steel (AISI 304 sheets of 1.00 mm thickness and Epoxy adhesive Araldite 2011, subjected to axial loading. Complete 3-D finite element models are developed to evaluate the normal, shear and triaxial Von Mises stresses distributions across the entire joint, in both the elastic and plastic regions. The, needed quantities and properties, for the FE modelling and analysis, of the base metals and the adhesive, such like the elastic-plastic properties, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, the nugget and Heat Affected Zones (HAZ properties, etc., are obtained from the experiments. The stress distribution curves obtained are found to be consistent with those obtained from the FE models and in excellent agreement with the experimental and theoretical published data, particularly in the elastic region. Furthermore, the stress distribution curves obtained for the weld-bonded joint display the best uniform smooth distribution curves compared to those obtained for the spot and bonded joint cases. The stress concentration peaks at the edges of the weld-bonded region, are almost eliminated resulting in achieving the strongest joint.

  13. Ductile damage development in friction stir welded aluminum (AA2024) joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2008-01-01

    Ductile damage development in a friction stir welded aluminum joint subjected to tension is analyzed numerically by FE-analysis, based on a total Lagrangian formulation. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that accounts for nucleation and growth of microvoids is applied. Main focus...

  14. Experimental Investigation and Stochastic Modelling of the Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Steel Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tom

    The present report describes the fatigue behaviour of surface cracks in welded steel joints. Emphasis is laid on fracture mechanics modelling and the stochastic nature of the fatigue process. Various sources which may contribute to the observed scatter in time to crack initiation and time spent...

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation of Friction Stir-Welded Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H.; Kumar, A.; Rajkumar, K. V.; Saravanan, T.; Jayakumar, T.; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilar lap joints of aluminum sheet (AA 6061) of 2 mm thickness and zinc-coated steel sheet of 1 mm thickness were produced by friction stir welding with different combinations of rotational speed and travel speed. Ultrasonic C- and B-scanning, and radiography have been used in a complementary manner for detection of volumetric (cavity and flash) and planar (de bond) defects as the defects are in micron level. Advanced ultrasonic C-scanning did not provide any idea about the defects, whereas B-scanning cross-sectional image showed an exclusive overview of the micron-level defects. A digital x-ray radiography methodology is proposed for quality assessment of the dissimilar welds which provide three-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio with improved defect detection sensitivity. The present study clearly shows that the weld tool rotational speed and travel speed have a decisive role on the quality of the joints obtained by the friction stir welding process. The suitability of the proposed NDE techniques to evaluate the joint integrity of dissimilar FSW joints is thus established.

  16. Multiaxial fatigue assessment of welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the safety involved when performing fatigue assessment of multiaxially loaded welded joints. The notch stress approach according to the IIW is used together with 8 different multiaxial criteria, including equivalent stress-, interaction equation- and critical...

  17. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD by Veronika J...FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...gas metal arc welding, submarine, hull cut, butt joint, weld, shielding gas, HY-80 steel , plate 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17

  18. ANSYS Simulation of Residual Strains in Butt-welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atroshenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal-strain cycle on residual strains in thin-walled circular seams of cylindrical shells using TIG butt welds was studied. Estimates were calculated using numerical modelling. The structure was made of corrosion-resistant austenitic steels.

  19. Effect of Stress Relief Annealing on Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Between Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivas, R.; Das, G.; Das, S. K.; Mahato, B.; Kumar, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Singh, P. K.; Ghosh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of welded joints were prepared using low alloy carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel as base materials. In one variety, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 82. In another type, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 182. In case of Inconel 82, method of welding was GTAW. For Inconel 182, welding was done by SMAW technique. For one set of each joints after buttering, stress relief annealing was done at 923 K (650 °C) for 90 minutes before further joining with weld metal. Microstructural investigation and sub-size in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscope were carried out for buttered-welded and buttered-stress relieved-welded specimens. Adjacent to fusion boundary, heat-affected zone of low alloy steel consisted of ferrite-pearlite phase combination. Immediately after fusion boundary in low alloy steel side, there was increase in matrix grain size. Same trend was observed in the region of austenitic stainless steel that was close to fusion boundary between weld metal-stainless steel. Close to interface between low alloy steel-buttering material, the region contained martensite, Type-I boundary and Type-II boundary. Peak hardness was obtained close to fusion boundary between low alloy steel and buttering material. In this respect, a minimum hardness was observed within buttering material. The peak hardness was shifted toward buttering material after stress relief annealing. During tensile testing no deformation occurred within low alloy steel and failure was completely through buttering material. Crack initiated near fusion boundary between low alloy steel-buttering material for welded specimens and the same shifted away from fusion boundary for stress relieved annealed specimens. This observation was at par with the characteristics of microhardness profile. In as welded condition, joints fabricated with Inconel 82 exhibited superior bond strength than the weld produced with Inconel 182. Stress relief annealing

  20. Microstructure evolution of Al/Mg butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc with Zn filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fei; Zhang Zhaodong; Liu Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn

    2012-07-15

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seam, Gas tungsten arc welding method with pure Zn filler metal was chosen to join Mg alloy and Al alloy. The microstructures, phases, element distribution and fracture morphology of welding seams were examined. The results indicate that there was a transitional zone in the width of 80-100 {mu}m between the Mg alloy substrate and fusion zone. The fusion zone was mainly composed of MgZn{sub 2}, Zn-based solid solution and Al-based solid solution. The welding seam presented distinct morphology in different location owning to the quite high cooling rate of the molten pool. The addition of Zn metal could prevent the formation of Mg-Al intermetallics and form the alloyed welding seam during welding. Therefore, the tensile strengths of joints have been significantly improved compared with those of gas tungsten arc welded joints without Zn metal added. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are welded successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc wire is employed as a filler metal to form the alloyed welding seam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alloyed welding seam is benefit for improving of the joint tensile strength.

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding of galvanized high-strength steels in a gap-free lap-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanglu

    In order to meet the industry demands for increased fuel efficiency and enhanced mechanical and structural performance of vehicles as well as provided excellent corrosion resistance, more and more galvanized advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have been used to fabricate automobile parts such as panels, bumpers, and front rails. The automotive industry has shown tremendous interest in using laser welding to join galvanized dual phase steels because of lower heat input and higher welding speed. However, the laser welding process tends to become dramatically unstable in the presence of highly pressurized zinc vapor because of the low boiling point of zinc, around 906°C, compared to higher melting point of steel, over 1500°C. A large number of spatters are produced by expelling the liquid metal from the molten pool by the pressurized zinc vapor. Different weld defects such as blowholes and porosities appear in the welds. So far, limited information has been reported on welding of galvanized high strength dual-phase steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. There is no open literature on the successful attainment of defect-free welds from the laser or hybrid welding of galvanized high-strength steels. To address the significant industry demand, in this study, different welding techniques and monitoring methods are used to study the features of the welding process of galvanized DP steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. The current research covers: (i) a feasibility study on the welding of galvanized DP 980 steels in a lap joint configuration using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), laser welding, hybrid laser/arc welding with the common molten pool, laser welding with the assistance of GTAW preheating source and hybrid laser-variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding (Laser-VPGTAW) techniques (Chapter 2-4); (ii) a welding process monitoring of the welding techniques including the use of machine vision and acoustic emission technique (Chapter 5); (iii

  2. Radiographic inspection of porosity in Ti-6Al-4V laser-welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Costa Nuñez-Pantoja

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in dentistry, Ti-6Al-4V alloy is difficult to cast and solder, as it frequently exhibits pores inside the structure. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint openings and diameters of laser-welded joints executed in Ti-6Al-4V structures on the presence of pores as checked by radiographic procedures. Sixty dumbbell rods with central diameters of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.5 mm were created from Ti-6Al-4V-wrought bars. Specimens were sectioned and welded using two joint openings (0.0 and 0.6 mm. The combination of variables created six groups (n = 10. Laser welding was executed using 360V/8ms (1.5 and 2.0 mm and 380V/9ms (3.5 mm, with the focus and frequency set to zero. The joints were finished, polished and submitted to radiographic examination. The radiographs were visually examined for the presence of pores in the joints, qualitatively. The percentage of radiographic presence of pores was calculated without counting pores per joint. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test (α = 0.05. For the 1.5-mm specimens, the incidence of pore presence was significantly higher (p = 0.0001 when using 0.6-mm joint openings (40% compared to 0.0-mm openings (0%. For the 2.0-mm specimens, there was no significant difference between groups (p = 0.2008. However, for the 3.5-mm specimens, the incidence of pore presence was lower (p = 0.0061 for 0.6-mm openings (50% compared to 0.0-mm openings (70%. Therefore, laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V structures with thin diameters provides the best condition for the juxtaposition of the parts.

  3. EFFECT OF MEAN STRESS ON FATIGUE PERFORMANCE OF WELDED JOINTS TREATED BY UPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dongpo; Huo Lixing; Wang Ting; Li Jie; Zhang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    The fatigue contrast tests of unload longitudinal direction corner joints as original welded and treated by ultrasonic peening of Q235B in various stress ratio are directed. The improvements of fatigue performance of unload longitudinal direction corner joints resulted by ultrasonic peening are studied. The effect pattern of stress ratio on fatigue performance of welded joints that are treated by ultrasonic peening is studied. As tests results indicate that: ① In the condition of stress ratio R= -1, the fatigue strength of specimen treated by ultrasonic peening is increased by 165% of that of the original welded specimen. And the fatigue life of specimen treated by ultrasonic peening is as much as 75~210 times of that of the latter. When R=0.1, the fatigue strength is increased by 87% and the fatigue life is extended by 21~29 times. When R= -0.5, the fatigue strength is increased by 123% and the fatigue life is extended by 42~59 times. When R=0.45, the fatigue strength is increased by 51% and the fatigue life is extended by 3~14 times. ② If the welded joints are treated by ultrasonic peening, the fatigue strength is no longer independent on the applied mean stress. The more the stress ratio R, the less the fatigue stress range which can be sustained by the joints is. ③ Whether the high value residual stress is in the joints or not, the dead load portion of the applied load must be considered in the design of the joints which should be treated by ultrasonic peening.

  4. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Thong [IS Services - Institut de Soudure - ZI Paris-Nord II - 90 rue des Vanesses 93420 Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  5. Effects of post-weld heat treatment on dissimilar metal joint between aluminum alloy and stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Liao Chuanqing; Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of post-weld heat treatment on joint performance were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of Zn-rich phases in the weld changed with PWHT conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine Zn-rich phases uniformly distributed in the weld enhanced the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractured surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were examined. - Abstract: Lap joining of 5A02 aluminum alloy to 304 stainless steel sheets was conducted by gas tungsten arc welding with Zn-15%Al flux-cored filler wire, and the effects of the temperature and duration time during post-weld heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant joints were investigated. The experimental results show that the concentration and size of the Zn-rich phases in the weld, especially along the weld/steel interface, changed with different temperature and duration time, and consequently affected the joint strength. The fine Zn-rich phases uniformly distributed in the weld could enhance the joint strength; however, the coarse Zn-rich phases along the interfacial layer would degrade the bonding strength of the interfacial layer. The fractured surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were also examined.

  6. The relationship between the super plasticity of laser welding joint of titanium alloy and hydrogen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zean; Cheng, Donghai; Jiang, Xunyan; Hu, Dean; Chen, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    The superplastic deformation uniformity of laser welded joint of TC4 titanium alloy is improved by hydrogen treatment. The non-uniform deformation coefficient K was introduced to quantification ally characterize the non-uniform deformation. The results show when the content of hydrogen exceeds 0.29%, the super plasticity of the titanium alloy welded plate decreases with the increase of the hydrogen content. The decrease of the shrinkage of the base material is larger than that of the weld section with the increase of hydrogen content. The K can be used to describe the non-uniform deformation of the weld and the base material during the superplastic deformation of laser welded joint of the TC4. The K value increases with increaseing hydrogen content, increaseing deformation temperature and decreaseing strain rate. The K value reaches the maximum of 0.84 with hydrogen content of 1.299%, deformation temperature of 920 °C, strain rate of 10-4S-1.

  7. Fracture toughness and safety assessment of X65 offshore pipeline welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li; Zhang Yufeng; Huo Lixing; Deng Caiyan

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical properties and low-temperature fracture toughness of API 5L X65 offshore pipeline welded joints were studied. Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure (SINTAP)-Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method was applied to the pipe structure with surface flaw at the weld toe. According to the ISO standard BS7448,the CTOD fracture toughness of the welded joints was determined at the temperature of 0℃. For the heat-affected zone (HAZ) specimens, post-test metallographic analysis was performed to verify that the tip of the crack was located in the coarse crystal zone in order to confirm the validity of the above results. The failure lines of analysis level 1 and 3 of weld metal were derived from the results of the mechanical property test. The assessment was performed, considering the maximum lay stress, residual stress conservatively assumed to be uniform tensile stress, and minimum CTOD value. The results of the assessment showed that pipeline structure with a surface flaw ( the height and length are respectively 2. 2 mm and 5 mm) at the weld toe is safe. This study lays the foundation of application of SINTAP to pipeline structure assessment.

  8. Failure Analysis of Electron Beam Weld Joints for 18Ni Co-free Maraging Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫德锋; HU; Zheng-fei; WANG; Chun-xu; HE; Guo-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructure of two different 18Ni Co-free maraging specimens and their electron beam weld joints were investigated comparatively by optical microscopy and SEM. It is showing that both of the steels are typical lath martensite, however, one grain size is about three times as another one, and XRD reveals that the amount of the retained austenitic phase in the former is less then the latter. The austenite distributes in plate form along granular and lath boundaries while some in fine particle within the matrix. The microstructural difference between two specimens led to diverse behaviors in electron beam welding. The first specimen is weldable well but the second shows obvious welding defects of pits and burn-through holes in weld face. The welding microstructure exhibits a typical dendritic morphology, and the grains in the heat-affected zone recrystallized and grew up obviously for high temperature heated by welding electron beam. The weldablity is relative to the thermal conduction performance of the base materials,which is contributed greatly for grain size and austenite content.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded DP600 steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farabi, N. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Li, J.; Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dong, S.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2010-02-15

    To reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, dual phase (DP) steels have been considered for automotive applications due to their higher tensile strength, better initial work hardening along with larger elongation compared to conventional grade of steels. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized alteration of materials and create potential safety and reliability issues under cyclic loading. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate microstructural change after laser welding and its effect on the tensile and fatigue properties in DP600 steel. The welding resulted in a significant increase of hardness in the fusion zone, but also the formation of a soft zone in the outer heat-affected zone (HAZ). While the ductility decreased after welding, the yield strength increased and the ultimate tensile strength remained almost unchanged. Fatigue life at higher stress amplitudes was almost the same between the base metal and welded joints despite slightly lower fatigue limit after welding. Tensile fracture and fatigue failure at higher stress amplitudes occurred at the outer HAZ. Fatigue crack initiation was observed to occur from the specimen surface and crack propagation was characterized by the characteristic mechanism of striation formation. Dimples and deformation bands were observed in the fast propagation area.

  10. Laser-assisted friction stir welding of aluminum alloy lap joints: microstructural and microhardness characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Giuseppe; Campanelli, Sabina L.; Contuzzi, Nicola; Angelastro, Andrea; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    2014-02-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. The laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) combines a Friction Stir Welding machine and a laser system. Laser power is used to preheat and to plasticize the volume of the workpiece ahead of the rotating tool; the workpiece is then joined in the same way as in the conventional FSW process. In this work an Ytterbium fiber laser with maximum power of 4 kW and a commercial FSW machine were coupled. Both FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 3 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in lap joint configuration with a constant tool rotation rate and with different feed rates. The two processes were compared and evaluated in terms of differences in the microstructure and in the micro-hardness profile.

  11. Integrity assessment of the ferritic / austenitic dissimilar weld joint between intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator in fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T.; Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, S.; Kumar, J. G.; Mathew, M. D. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam- 603 102 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Integrity of the modified 9Cr-1Mo / alloy 800 dissimilar joint welded with Inconel 182 electrodes has been assessed under creep condition based on the detailed analysis of microstructure and stress distribution across the joint by finite element analysis. A hardness peak at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface and a hardness trough at the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic base metal developed. Un-tempered martensite was found at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface to impart high hardness in it; whereas annealing of martensitic structure of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by inter-critical heating during welding thermal cycle resulted in hardness tough in the inter-critical HAZ. Creep tests were carried out on the joint and ferritic steel base metal at 823 K over a stress range of 160-320 MPa. The joint possessed lower creep rupture strength than its ferritic steel base metal. Failure of the joint at relatively lower stresses occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface; whereas it occurred at inter-critical region of HAZ at moderate stresses. Cavity nucleation associated with the weld interface particles led to premature failure of the joint. Finite element analysis of stress distribution across the weld joint considering the micro-mechanical strength inhomogeneity across it revealed higher von-Mises and principal stresses at the weld interface. These stresses induced preferential creep cavitation at the weld interface. Role of precipitate in enhancing creep cavitation at the weld interface has been elucidated based on the FE analysis of stress distribution across it. (authors)

  12. Effect of heat input on microstructure and properties of welded joint in magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 苗玉刚; 宋刚; 梁国俐

    2004-01-01

    Using the optical microscope, tensile test machine and micro-hardness meter, the effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties in fusion welding joints of AZ31B wrought alloys was investigated systematically, the mechanism on joint properties losing was analyzed, and a valid method to improve joint properties of the magnesium alloy fusion welding was explored. The results show that the heat input has an obvious effect on the microstructure and properties. Under the condition of penetration, with the heat input decreasing, the crystal grain in the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) becomes fine, the width of HAZ becomes obviously narrow, and the molding of the weld is improved, so the tensile strength and elongation are increased and the hardness of joints is improved. When the heat input reaches 60 J/mm, the high quality joints can be gained.

  13. Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloys AA6082-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Hiralal Subhash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid state innovative joining technique, widely being used for joining aluminium alloys in aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. The welding parameters and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the influences of welding speed and pin profile of the tool on friction stir welded joints of AA6082-T6 alloy. Three different tool pin profiles (tapered cylindrical four flutes, triangular and hexagonal have been used to fabricate the joints at different welding speeds in the range of 30 to 74 mm/min. Microhardness (HV and tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyse the microstructural evolution of the material, the weld’s cross-sections were observed optically and SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces. From this investigation it is found that the hexagonal tool pin profile produces mechanically sound and metallurgically defect free welds compared to other tool pin profiles.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Tension Properties for Al-Cu Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints with GTN Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qin; Sun, Feng-Yang; Cao, Fang-Li; Chen, Shu-Jun; Barkey, Mark E.

    2015-11-01

    The numerical simulation of tensile fracture behavior on Al-Cu alloy friction stir-welded joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. The parameters of the GTN model were studied in each region of the friction stir-welded joint by means of inverse identification. Based on the obtained parameters, the finite element model of the welded joint was built to predict the fracture behavior and tension properties. Good agreement can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the location of the tensile fracture and the mechanical properties.

  15. Fracture toughness of welded joints materials for main pipelines at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daunys, Mykolas [Kaunas University of Technology, 27 Kestucio, LT-44025 Kaunas (Lithuania)]. E-mail: mykolas.daunys@ktu.lt; Krasauskas, Povilas [Kaunas University of Technology, 27 Kestucio, LT-44025 Kaunas (Lithuania); Dundulis, Romualdas [Kaunas University of Technology, 27 Kestucio, LT-44025 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2005-03-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of mechanical and fracture toughness characteristics of welded joint materials used in Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor main circulating circuit (MCC) and steam pipelines. Basic metal of MCC group distributing header (GDH) steel 08Ch18N10T (Du-300), its weld metal welded by manual and automatic arc method using the wire SV-04Ch19N11M3 and electrodes EA-100/10U or EA-100/10T, this joint heat-affected zone metal and base metal of the main steam system-steel 16GS (DU-630) and its weld metal welded by manual arc method using the wire SV-08GS2 and electrodes UONI-13/55 were tested. Mechanical properties of welded joints materials-proportional limit ({sigma}{sub pl}), yield ({sigma}{sub y}) and ultimate ({sigma}{sub u}) strength, fracture stress ({sigma}{sub f}) and ductility (Z) (percent reduction of area) of the specimens were determined. Investigation of relative critical stress intensity factor for fixed thickness of the specimen K{sub C}* and critical J-integral, J{sub IC}, was performed. The probabilistic investigation of influence of the mechanical properties ({sigma}{sub pl}, {sigma}{sub y}, {sigma}{sub u}) onto fracture toughness characteristics K{sub C}* and J{sub IC} for tested materials by using linear regression model with three independent variables was performed. Research enabled to conclude that proposed multivariable regression model with 80% probability (confidence coefficient {alpha}=0.05) has explained reasonably well the dependence of K{sub C}* with {sigma}{sub pl}, {sigma}{sub y}, {sigma}{sub u} and it has shown the non-acceptability of probabilistic evaluation of the model with respect to J{sub IC}.

  16. Microstructure and dynamic tensile behavior of DP600 dual phase steel joint by laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Yuling, E-mail: yulingyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijinfengboda@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ma, Min, E-mail: sharon6789@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: tao.jiang906@yahoo.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Dual phase (DP) steels have been widely used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and improve car safety. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized change of the microstructure and property, and create potential safety and reliable issues under dynamic loading. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate-dependent mechanical properties, deformation and fracture behavior of DP600 steel and its welded joint (WJ) produced by Nd:YAG laser welding over a wide range of strain rates (0.001–1133 s{sup −1}). Laser welding results in not only significant microhardness increase in the fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), but also the formation of a softened zone in the outer HAZ. The yield strength (YS) of the DP600 steel increases and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remains almost unchanged, but the ductility decreases after welding. The DP600 base metal (BM) and WJ are of positive strain rate sensitivity and show similar stress–strain response at all studied strain rates. The enhanced ductility at strain rates ranging from 1 to 100 s{sup −1} is attributed to the retardation of the propagation of plastic strain localization due to the positive strain rate sensitivity and the thermal softening caused by deformation induced adiabatic temperature rise during dynamic tensile deformation. The tensile failure occurs in the inner HAZ of the joint and the distance of failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The mechanism for the changing failure location can be related to the different strain rate dependence of the plastic deformation behavior of the microstructures in various regions across the joint. The DP600 WJ absorbs more energy over the whole measured strain rates than that of the BM due to the higher strength at the same strain when the deformation only up to 10% is considered.

  17. Effect of Manganese on the Mechanical Properties of Welded As-Cast Aluminium Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of manganese on the mechanical properties of welded and un-weld as-cast 6063 aluminium alloy has been studied. Alloys of varying percentage of manganese from 0.019 to 0.24 were sand cast. A wooden pattern of dimensions 200×100×100mm was used, the aluminium (500g was charged into an induction furnace and heated to 750°C for 15 minutes, this was followed by the addition of weighed powdered manganese, stirred and heated at the same temperature for another 5 minutes and thereafter poured into the already prepared sand mould at a temperature of 690°C. The as-cast aluminium samples, were sectioned into two equal parts of 45mm each using power hack saw; a weld groove was created between the sides of the samples using an electric hand grinding machine, the groove served as the path along which the filler metal was deposited on the aluminium, a single v butt joint was produced from each sample and Metal Inert Gas Welding process was carried out to produce the required joint design. The different cast samples were machined to the different test pieces after which they were assessed to determine their mechanical properties (impact, hardness (welded joint and heat affected zone and tensile tests. The microstructures of the welded samples were also studied. From the results, it was observed that Sample F, which has 0.172% Mn, has the best hardness and impact strength while sample C with 0.160% Mn has the highest ultimate tensile strength.

  18. Recommendations for fatigue design of welded joints and components

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbacher, A F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basis for the design and analysis of welded components that are subjected to fluctuating forces, to avoid failure by fatigue. It is also a valuable resource for those on boards or commissions who are establishing fatigue design codes. For maximum benefit, readers should already have a working knowledge of the basics of fatigue and fracture mechanics. The purpose of designing a structure taking into consideration the limit state for fatigue damage is to ensure that the performance is satisfactory during the design life and that the survival probability is acceptable. The latter is achieved by the use of appropriate partial safety factors. This document has been prepared as the result of an initiative by Commissions XIII and XV of the International Institute of Welding (IIW).

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6321 alloy welded joint by GTAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinhui, E-mail: xiongjinhui@126.com; Li, Shikai; Gao, Fuyang; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-07-29

    Titanium and its alloys have excellent combination of properties, such as low density, high specific strength and corrosion resistance, and they are extensively used in many industrial fields. This work is aiming at investigation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–3Nb–2Zr–1Mo (Ti6321) alloy joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) with filler materials. The results indicated that the microstructure of the fusion zone (FZ) is composed of acicular α, massive α, and Widmanstatten α+β. The heat affected zone (HAZ) near FZ consists of coarse and acicular α structures of grain boundary α, Widmanstatten α+β. The heat affected zone (HAZ) near base metal consists of primary α phase and transformed β containing acicular α. Microhardness values for HAZ are higher than that of FZ and base metal, and there are the peak values for the HAZ near the weld metal. The tensile strength of joint is almost equal to that of base metal, and the fracture locations of all the tensile specimens are in base metal, and it is well in accordance with the relationship between the content of strengthening and interstitial elements and microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints. The tensile fracture morphology of joint presents obviously the characteristic of ductile fracture, which is related to the bigger and deeper dimples distributed on the surface of joint. The HAZ impact toughness is lower than that of the BM and FZ.

  20. Numerical investigation on stress corrosion cracking behavior of dissimilar weld joints in pressurized water reactor plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been incidents recently where stress corrosion cracking (SCC observed in the dissimilar metal weld (DMW joints connecting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV nozzle with the hot leg pipe. Due to the complex microstructure and mechanical heterogeneity in the weld region, dissimilar metal weld joints are more susceptible to SCC than the bulk steels in the simulated high temperature water environment of pressurized water reactor (PWR. Tensile residual stress (RS, in addition to operating loads, has a great contribution to SCC crack growth. Limited experimental conditions, varied influence factors and diverging experimental data make it difficult to accurately predict the SCC behavior of DMW joints with complex geometry, material configuration, operating loads and crack shape. Based on the film slip/dissolution oxidation model and elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM, an approach is developed to quantitatively predict the SCC growth rate of a RPV outlet nozzle DMW joint. Moreover, this approach is expected to be a pre-analytical tool for SCC experiment of DMW joints in PWR primary water environment.

  1. Inspection system for welded tubular joint based on ultrasonic phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Guangping; Deng Zongquan; Shan Baohua; Yu Weizhen; Li Lifang

    2010-01-01

    A manual inspection of large-diameter tubular joints is difficult. As a result a scanner with three degrees of freedom (DOFs) was developed based on the scanning principle of ultrasonic phased array. The weld tracing is realized by a 2D0F motion of scanner. The pose of ultrasonic probe is controlled by the third one. The control strategy is put forward based on a programmable multi-axis controller. Four kinds of scanning modes can be implemented simultaneously employing this ultrasonic inspection system. Experiments on reference blocks of tubular joints reveal that the automatic ultrasonic phased array inspection system has the same inspection accuracy as a manual ultrasonic inspection. This system is superior to the manual ultrasonic system in terms of reliability and repeatability. The artificial defects of weld at tubular joint can be detected accurately with the presented inspection system.

  2. Low Cycle and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Friction Welded Dissimilar Superalloys Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Motoki; Sano, Atsushi; Tran, Tra Hung; Okazaki, Masakazu; Sekihara, Masaru

    The high temperature strengths of the dissimilar friction welded superalloys joint between the cast polycrystalline Mar-M247 and the forged IN718 alloys have been investigated under low cycle and thermo-mechanical fatigue loadings, in comparison with those of the base metals. The experiments showed that the lives of the dissimilar joints were significantly influenced by the test conditions and loading modes. Not only the lives themselves but also the failure positions and mechanisms were sensitive to the loading mode. The fracture behaviors depending on the loading modes and test conditions were discussed, based on the macroscopic elastic follow-up mechanism and the microstructural inhomogeneity in the friction weld joint.

  3. Experimental and numerical evaluation of the fatigue behaviour in a welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, P.; Estrada, R.

    2014-07-01

    Welded joints are an important part in structures. For this reason, it is always necessary to know the behaviour of them under cyclic loads. In this paper a S - N curve of a butt welded joint of the AISI 1015 steel and Cuban manufacturing E6013 electrode is showed. Fatigue tests were made in an universal testing machine MTS810. The stress ratio used in the test was 0,1. Flaws in the fatigue specimens were characterized by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. SolidWorks 2013 software was used to modeling the specimens geometry, while to simulate the fatigue behaviour Simulation was used. The joint fatigue limit is 178 MPa, and a cut point at 2 039 093 cycles. Some points of the simulations are inside of the 95% confidence band.

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    increase diffusion of the zinc atoms into the steel. Specific compositions of these alloys were not available. The weld direction (WD) was...0.25 - Nitrogen 0.03 - Titanium 0.10 - UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 19 Zirconium 0.10 - Aluminum 0.10 - Lead 0.10 - Tin 0.02 - Antimony 0.02...were washed ultrasonically with anhydrous alcohol between each polishing step. 2.4 Methods of analysis 2.4.1 Optical Microscopy and Scanning

  5. Geometry and Material Constraint Effects on Creep Crack Growth Behavior in Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Xuan, F. Z.; Tu, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the geometry and material constraint effects on creep crack growth (CCG) and behavior in welded joints were investigated. The CCG paths and rates of two kinds of specimen geometry (C(T) and M(T)) with initial cracks located at soft HAZ (heat-affected zone with lower creep strength) and different material mismatches were simulated. The effect of constraint on creep crack initiation (CCI) time was discussed. The results show that there exists interaction between geometry and material constraints in terms of their effects on CCG rate and CCI time of welded joints. Under the condition of low geometry constraint, the effect of material constraint on CCG rate and CCI time becomes more obvious. Higher material constraint can promote CCG due to the formation of higher stress triaxiality around crack tip. Higher geometry constraint can increase CCG rate and reduce CCI time of welded joints. Both geometry and material constraints should be considered in creep life assessment and design for high-temperature welded components.

  6. Fatigue of Fillet-welded Joint Assessment by the FEA Simulation of Damage Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinov S. V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength evaluation of non-continuous incomplete penetration fillet-welded joints transferring stress flow by the S-N criteria incorporating the «Hot-spot stress» or «Notch-stress» approaches is dubious since the characteristic stress at the crack initiation location is not established by the rules for fatigue design. Application of the linear fracture mechanics (LMF technique meets a problem of numerical modeling the crack three-dimensional shape and front extension, which becomes insoluble when the crack approaches the outer surface of weld bead and propagates along the seam. Apart from that, considering material plasticity beyond the initial phase of crack extensions from the cavity is off the frames of the principles of the LMF.An approach based on the FEA simulation of fatigue damage accumulation is suggested and applied to evaluate the crack initiation at the cavity and propagation in the non-continuous fillet-welded joint. The crack initiation at the cavity, its three-dimensional shape formation and evolution are simulated taking into account the elastic-plastic cyclic deformation of weld material until almost complete failure of the joint. The results of analysis are in good agreement with published experimental data.

  7. Microstructure- and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded DP980 Steel Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qiang; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng; Li, Minggao; Zhu, Ying; Zou, Guisheng

    2016-02-01

    DP980 steels were butt-welded by fiber laser welding. The microstructures, microhardness distribution, and tensile behavior of the joint were investigated. The results showed that the fusion zone (FZ) consisted of fully martensite with higher hardness compared to the base metal (BM). A softened zone (20 HV0.2 drop) was produced in heat-affected zone due to martensite tempering during the laser welding. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) of the laser-welded joint were not degraded compared to BM with the existence of softened zone. The UTS and YS of the welded joint increased with the increase of tensile strain rate. The work hardening exponents of the BM and welded joint showed weak positive strain rate dependence. The deformation of softened zone was restrained by the hardened FZ during loading, resulting in a higher work hardening rate of softened zone than that of BM. The failure of welded joint occurred in the BM instead of softened zone. The fracture surfaces of the joint exhibited typical ductile fracture over strain rate from 0.0001 to 0.1 s-1.

  8. Reproducibility of pop-ins in laboratory testing of welded joints

    OpenAIRE

    Berejnoi C.; Perez Ipiña J.E.; Llorente C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The pop-in phenomenon, quite common in fracture mechanics tests of welded joints, corresponds to a brittle crack initiation grown from a local brittle zone (LBZ) that is arrested in reaching the higher toughness material that surrounds this LBZ. A methodology to obtain a high percentage of pop-in occurrence in laboratory testing is necessary to study the pop-in significance. Such a method is introduced in this work and includes the consumable combination and welding procedures for the SMAW we...

  9. Mechanical characteristics and microstructure of weld joint of high-temperature martensitic steel containing 9% Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, Ya. E.; Belyakov, A. N.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and mechanical characteristics of a weld joint of 10Kh9K3V2MFBR steel (0.097 C, 0.17.Si, 0.54 Mn, 8.75 Cr, 0.21 Ni, 0.51 Mo, 0.07 Nb, 0.23 V, 0.004 N, 0.003 B, 1.6 W, 0.15 Cu, and Fe for balance, wt %) have been studied; the joint was produced by hand welding in an argon atmosphere using 03Kh20N45M7G6B welding wire (0.3 C, 20 Cr, 45 Ni, 7 Mo, 6 Mn, and 1 Nb, wt %). The weld joint is divided into the zone of the base metal, a thermal effect zone, which consists of zones that contain fine and coarse original austenitic grains, and the zone of seam metal. It has been shown that the weld joint of 10Kh9K3V2MFBR steel possesses high strength characteristics at the room temperature under static loading and a satisfactorily impact toughness, which has the minimum value of 30 J/cm2 in the zone of the seam metal and does not depend on the temperature. With a decrease in the temperature from the room temperature to 253 K, a ductile-brittle transition occurs in the thermal effect zone. Creep tests carried out at the temperature of 923 K have shown that the long-term strength of the weld seam is lower than that of the base material in the entire stress range being tested. At stresses of 140 MPa or higher, the acceleration of creep in the weld seam is observed, while at low stresses of about 120 MPa, the rates of creep in the weld seam and in the base metal remain similar until the transition to the stage of accelerated fracture occurs. The difference in the values of the long-term strength is due to premature fracture, which occurs in the thermal effect zone with the finegrained structure.

  10. Analysing the strength of friction stir spot welded joints of aluminium alloy by fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira Vignesh, R.; Padmanaban, R.; Arivarasu, M.; Karthick, K. P.; Abirama Sundar, A.; Gokulachandran, J.

    2016-09-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a recent joining technique developed for spot welding of thin metal sheets. This process currently finds application in automotive, aerospace, marine and sheet metal industry. In this work, the effect of FSSW process parameters namely tool rotation speed, shoulder diameter and dwell time on Tensile shear failure load (TSFL) is investigated. Box-Behnken design is selected for conducting experiments. Fuzzy based soft computing is used to develop a model for TSFL of AA6061 joints fabricated by FSSW. The interaction of the process parameters on TSFL is also presented.

  11. Numerical investigation on friction welding of alumina / AA 6063 T6 joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Velu, P. Shenbaga; Tharmaraj, R.; Kumar, R.

    2016-05-01

    Friction welding is the most suitable candidate for joining the dissimilar materials such as AA 6063 T6 alloy/Alumina for critical situations in high temperature and high corrosion resistance applications. In the present work, the numerical simulation was carried out to understand the mechanism of joining of AA 6063 T6 alloy/ Alumina rod by friction welding process. The developed thermo mechanical model is a highly nonlinear due to the interaction between the temperature fields and time dependent of the material properties. The developed numerical tool could be used to predict the temperature distribution, stress, strain and deformation of the dissimilar joints.

  12. Interfacial and Mechanical Behavior of AA5456 Filling Friction-Stir-Welded Lap Joints Using Similar and Dissimilar Pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmand, Saleh Alaei; Mirsalehi, Seyyed Ehsan; Omidvar, Hamid; Safarkhanian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this article, filling friction stir welding (FFSW) of the remaining exit holes of AA5456 alloy friction-stir-welded lap joints was studied. For this purpose, the influences of different rotating speeds, holding times, and pin materials, AA5456 and AA2024, on the metallurgical structure and joint strength were investigated. The observations showed that defect-free lap joints are successfully obtainable by this method using similar and dissimilar consumable pins. The results indicated that the higher rotating speed and holding time adversely affect the weld performance. The best result was achieved for 30 seconds holding time, 500 rpm rotating speed, and AA2024 consumable pin. In this condition, a lap shear strength of 10 pct higher than that of the nonfilled joint, equivalent to about 94 pct of the original defect-free FSW joint, was obtained, whereas the GTAW filled joint showed only approximately 87 pct of the continuous FSW joint strength.

  13. Effect of Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and the Strain-Hardening Behavior of Friction Stir Welded 7075 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Li, Zhaoxi; Sun, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    The effect of welding speed on the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and strain-hardening behavior of friction stir welded (FSWed) high-strength AA7075-T651 was investigated. Large intermetallic particles and grains, whose sizes increased at lower welding speeds, were present in the heat-affected zone. FSWed joints fabricated at the higher welding speed or lower strain rates exhibited higher strength, joint efficiency and ductility than those fabricated at lower welding speeds or higher strain rates. A maximum joint efficiency of 97.5% and an elongation to failure of 15.9% were obtained using a welding speed of 400 mm/min at a strain rate of 10-5 s-1. The hardening capacity, strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate of the FSWed joints were significantly higher than those of the base material, but materials exhibited stage III and stage IV hardening characteristics. The results morphology of the fracture surfaces is consistent with the above results.

  14. Tensile and Impact Properties of Shielded Metal Arc Welded AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Shanmugam; A.K.Lakshminarayanan; V.Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals were evaluated and the results were reported. From this investigation, it is found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed higher tensile strength and hardness compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel filler metal exhibited higher ductility and impact toughness compared with the joints fabricated by ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals.

  15. SRμCT study of crack propagation within laser-welded aluminum-alloy T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Riekehr, S.; Bayraktar, F. S.; Haibel, A.; Staron, P.; Donath, T.; Utcke, S.; Kocak, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2008-08-01

    Using laser welding in fabrication of metallic airframes reduces the weight and hence fuel consumption. Currently only limited parts of the airframes are welded. To increase laser beam welded parts, there is the need for a better understanding of crack propagation and crack-pore interaction within the welds. Laser beam welded Al-alloys may contain isolated small process pores and their role and interaction with growing crack need to be investigated. The present paper presents the first results of a crack propagation study in laser beam welded (LBW) Al-alloy T-joints using synchrotron radiation based micro computed tomography (SRμCT). A region-of-interest technique was used, since the specimens exceeded the field of view of the X-ray detector. As imaging with high density resolution at high photon energies is very challenging, a feasibility measurement on a small laser weld, cut cylindrically from the welded region of a T-joint, was done before starting the crack-propagation study. This measurement was performed at the beamline HARWI-II at DESY to demonstrate the potential of the SRμCT as non-destructive testing method. The result has shown a high density resolution, hence, the different Al alloys used in the T-joint and the weld itself were clearly separated. The quantitative image analysis of the 3D data sets allows visualizing non-destructively and calculating the pore size distribution.

  16. Investigation of Residual Stresses and Distortion in Welded Pipe-Flange Joint of Different Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pipe and flange joints are commonly used in petrochemical, nuclear and process industries. Commonly, welding is used to make these joints which produces residual stresses and distortions. These stresses have detrimental effects on the structural integrity and service performance of the welded pipe joints. The objective of this study is to investigate the residual stresses and distortions during Gas Metal Arc Welding of pipe of schedule 40, nominal diameter 200 mm with different ANSI flanges of class numbers 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500. Welding parameters including: voltage, current and heat as inputs were selected based on the literature available. The behaviour of the flanges of different classes is also discussed. In addition, the finite element methodology presented, in this paper, can be helpful for developing welding procedures for a range of pipe flange welded joint sizes in order to control the residual stresses and deformations. This will lead to optimised performance during bolt up and operating conditions.ABSTRAK: Paip dan sambungan flan biasanya digunakan dalam industri petrokimia, nuklear dan proses. Kimpalan menghasilkan tegasan sisa dan herotan, yang memberikan kesan yang merbahaya ke atas integriti struktur dan prestasi servis sambungan kimpalan paip. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji tegasan sisa dan herotan ketika kimpalan arka logam gas paip berjadual 40, diameter nominal 200mm dengan flan ANSI yang berbeza kelas # 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, dan 2500. Parameter kimpalan termasuklah; voltan, arus dan haba input yang dipilih berdasarkan literatur sediada. Kelakuan flan yang berbeza kelas telah dibincangkan. Kaedah elemen finit yang dibentangkan adalah berguna dalam membangunkan prosedur kimpalan bagi julat saiz kimpalan flan paip unutk mengawal tegasan sisa dan canggaan i.e. bagi mengoptimakan prestasi ketika bolt up dan sedang beroperasi.                                 

  17. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of the Al-Cu Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Celik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid-state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this technique allows different material couples to be welded continuously. In this study, 1050 Al alloys and commercially pure Cu were produced at three different tool rotation speeds (630, 1330, 2440 rpm and three different tool traverse speeds (20, 30, 50 mm/min with four different tool position (0, 1, 1.5, 2 mm by friction stir welding. The influence of the welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. Tensile and bending tests and microhardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the weld zone were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM and were analyzed in an energy dispersed spectrometer (EDS. Intermetallic phases were detected based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis results that evaluated the formation of phases in the weld zone. When the welding performance of the friction stir welded butt joints was evaluated, the maximum value obtained was 89.55% with a 1330 rpm tool rotational speed, 20 mm/min traverse speed and a 1 mm tool position configuration. The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region.

  18. Investigation of residual stresses in welded joints of heat-resistant magnesium alloy ML10 after electrodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In repair of aircraft structures of magnesium alloy ML10, the argon arc non-consumable electrode welding is used. In this case, the residual welding stresses occur in repair welds, being one of the causes for reducing the service characteristics of the restored products. Residual stresses arise as a result of welding. Post-weld heat treatment is used to reduce the residual stresses. The heat treatment, which occurs after welding, increases the cost of repair. This leads to the search for alternative methods to control the stressed state of welded joints, one of which is electrodynamic treatment, which reduces the level of residual stresses in repair welds, and as a consequence, the cost of the welding repair in restoring aircraft structures. It was found from the results of experiments carried out, that the electrodynamic treatment allows reduces the initial level of stresses in welded joints, reaching 120 MPa, to 30 MPa, and at definite geometric characteristics of the specimens forming the field of compressive stresses, the values of which are equal to –50 MPa. It is shown that the optimum distance between the zones of treatment, being 5 mm, provides the guaranteed covering the zones of electrodynamic effect and, as a consequence, the maximum efficiency of the electric dynamic treatment.

  19. Site-Dependent Tension Properties of Inertia Friction-Welded Joints Made From Dissimilar Ni-based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O. N.; Mahaffey, D. W.; Semiatin, S. L.; Woodward, C.

    2015-03-01

    Microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of the inertia friction weld joints of dissimilar superalloys, cast Mar-M247 and wrought LSHR, were studied to assess the weld quality. Tensile tests were conducted at 23 and 704 °C on the samples containing different areas of the weld interface of the same welded material. The stress-strain curves were registered at different axial distances from the weld interface. In all tested samples, plastic deformation was localized on Mar-M247 side, outside the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the resistance to plastic deformation of Mar-M247 increased with a decrease in the distance from the weld interface inside HAZ. Only elastic deformation occurred on the LSHR side. Fracture occurred on the Mar-M247 side, outside HAZ, or at the weld interface. In the latter case, welding defects in the form of clusters of nanometer-sized oxide and carbide particles were observed at the fracture surfaces. These results revealed that the IFW process is capable of producing the weld joints between Mar-M247 and LSHR with the fracture strength higher than that of Mar-M247. However, optimization of the IFW processing parameters is required to minimize clustering of oxide/carbide particles at the weld interface in this alloy pair.

  20. Impact of the Weld Geometry on the Stress Intensity Factor of the Welded T-Joint Exposed to the Tensile Force and the Bending Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoković Jelena M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed the welded T-joint exposed to the axial tensile force and the bending moment, for determining the impact of the weld geometry on the fracture mechanics parameters. The stress intensity factor was calculated analytically, based on the concept of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM, by application of the Mathematica® programming routine. The presence of the weld was taken into account through the corresponding correction factors. The results show that increase of the size of the triangular welds leads to decrease of the stress intensity factor, while the SIF increases with increase of the welds’ width. The ratio of the two welded plates’ thicknesses shows that plate thicknesses do not exhibit significant influence on the stress intensity factor behavior.

  1. Hybrid joints manufactured by ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW) - corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, S.; Fürbeth, W.; Thomä, M.; Wagner, G.; Straß, B.; Wolter, B.

    2017-03-01

    To realize lightweight structures of material combinations like aluminum/magnesium and aluminum/steel an Ultrasound Enhanced Friction Stir Welding (USE-FSW) process was used. This process has a beneficial influence on the resulting microstructure (elimination of the brittle intermetallic phase Al3Mg2 as coherent layer) and the mechanical properties (increased tensile strength) of Al/Mg-joints and was now also applied for Al/steel-hybrid joints. Besides the mechanical properties the corrosion properties of the hybrid joints may play a significant role concerning the later use of the hybrid materials. Therefore, the corrosion properties of various hybrid joints have been investigated by different methods. With the Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) Volta potential differences between the base alloys and the welded area were investigated in air. The two-dimensional color-plots illustrate not only the Volta potential differences between the different phases but also their oxidation properties in air during the measurement time. Electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization) have been carried out for the investigation of the corrosion properties of the FSW and USE-FSW hybrid joints in 0.5 molar NaCl solution. A three electrode setup within a mini-cell was used to enable measurements on different areas of the joints. This allows to observe the corrosion activity of the base alloys and the nugget phase separately. Differences between Al/steel-hybrid joints processed with and without ultrasound enhancement are discussed and compared with Al/Mg-hybrids.

  2. Microstructures and properties of welded joint of TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小明; 孙大谦; 李明高; 刘卫红

    2004-01-01

    The fracture characteristics of the joint were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope(SEM).Microstructures of the joint were examined by means of optical microscope, SEM and an image analyzer. The results show that the tensile strength of the inhomogeneous joint of TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel is lower than that of the homogeneous joint and a plastic field appears in the heat affected zone on the side of TiNi shape memory alloy. Because TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel melted, a brittle as-cast structure was formed in the weld. The tensile strength and the shape memory effect of the inhomogeneous joint are strongly influenced by the changes of composition and structure of the joint. Measures should be taken to reduce the base metal melting and prevent the weld metal from the invasion by O for improving the properties of the TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel inhomogeneous joint.

  3. Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints (Case of L T Orientation Specimen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to investigate the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate for the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints. Our previous fatigue crack growth test data are adopted in this investigation. To clearly understand the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control testing. The experimental data were analyzed for two different materials-base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM)-to investigate the effects of spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate and material properties, the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). The results showed that the variability, as evaluated by Wobble statistical analysis, of the WM is higher than that of the BM.

  4. Structure of the transition zone and its influence on the strength of copper-tantalum joint (Explosion welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Salishchev, G. A.; Kozhevnikov, V. E.

    2012-10-01

    The joint of copper and tantalum, metals without mutual solubility, formed by explosion welding is studied. The mechanism of the influence of mutual solubility on the structure of the transition zone is established. It is demonstrated that the interface contains heterogeneities, and their role in the strength of the materials joint is revealed. A microheterogeneous structure of the joint zones is detected.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded dissimilar DP600/DP980 dual-phase steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farabi, N. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > Laser welding results in a significant hardness rise in the fusion zone, but the formation of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone. > A characteristic unsymmetrical hardness profile is observed across the dissimilar joint. > Yield point phenomenon with only stage III strain hardening occurs after welding. > Fatigue life at higher stress amplitudes is equivalent to that of DP600 steel despite slightly lower fatigue limit. - Abstract: The use of dual phase (DP) steels in the automobile industry unavoidably involves welding and dynamic loading. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the microstructural change and mechanical properties of laser welded dissimilar DP600/DP980 steel joints. The dissimilar joints showed a significant microstructural change from nearly full martensite in the fusion zone (FZ) to the unchanged ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructure in the base metal. The welding resulted in a significant hardness increase in the FZ but the formation of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The dissimilar welded joints were observed to exhibit a distinctive unsymmetrical hardness profile, yield-point-like phenomenon, and single-stage work hardening characteristic, with yield strength and work hardening rate lying in-between those of DP600 and DP980 base metals, and ultimate tensile strength equivalent to that of DP600 base metal. Although the welded joints showed a lower fatigue limit than the base metals, the fatigue life of the welded joints at higher stress amplitudes was almost the same as that of the DP600 base metal. The welded joints failed in the soft zone at the DP600 side under tensile loading and fatigue loading at the higher stress amplitudes. Fatigue crack initiation occurred from the specimen surface and crack propagation was characterized by typical fatigue striation together with secondary cracks.

  6. Premature failure of dissimilar metal weld joint at intermediate temperature superheater tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Hajri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal weld (DMW joint between alloyed steel (AS and stainless steel (SS failed at one of intermediate temperature superheater (ITSH tube in steam/power generation plant boiler. The premature failure was detected after a relatively short time of operation (8 years where the crack propagated circumferentially from AS side through the ITSH tube. Apart from physical examination, microstructural studies based on optical microscopy, SEM and EDX analysis were performed. The results of the investigation point out the limitation of Carbides precipitation at the alloyed steel/welding interface. This is synonym of creep stage I involvement in the failure of ITSH. Improper post-welding operation and bending moment are considered as root causes of the premature failure.

  7. Reproducibility of pop-ins in laboratory testing of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berejnoi C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pop-in phenomenon, quite common in fracture mechanics tests of welded joints, corresponds to a brittle crack initiation grown from a local brittle zone (LBZ that is arrested in reaching the higher toughness material that surrounds this LBZ. A methodology to obtain a high percentage of pop-in occurrence in laboratory testing is necessary to study the pop-in significance. Such a method is introduced in this work and includes the consumable combination and welding procedures for the SMAW welding process to generate artificial LBZ. In order to find out the influence of the loading state upon the pop-in phenomenon, laboratory CTOD tests were performed using two specimen configurations: some single edge-notched specimens were loaded on a three-point bending (SE(B fixture while others were tested in tensile load (SE(T. A higher frequency of pop-in occurrence was observed in the SE(B geometry.

  8. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  9. Control and exploitation of thermal distortions in welded T-joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keinaenen, H.; Alhainen, J.; Karppi, R.; Verho, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of the DISCO (Control and Exploitation of Thermal Distortions) project was the creation of an overall concept for the control of thermal distortions. The domain of the project was at this stage limited to structural steels and to the processes most important to the participating industry. The project explored the possibility to apply the inherent strain method for modelling thermal deformations by establishing an inherent strain database for major arc welding and thermal cutting situations. The project was executed in close co-operation with Osaka University, Japan, Lappeenranta University of Technology and four Finnish enterprises. The work focused on structural steels representing two strength levels, and GMAW, FCAW, SAW and restrictedly on tandem MAG welding processes. The computational practices were revealed for treating thermal distortions. Further actions included testing and modelling of welded T-joint with various plate thicknesses

  10. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  11. Exemplification of Tomographic Method to Evaluate the Quality of Welded Joints Made from EN 5754-H22 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of welded joints depends on many factors. The relevant standards stipulate technical conditions of welds quality assessment, which provides the basis for stating whether the given joint is compatible with the requirements or whether it is defective. In practice, making welded joints that are totally devoid of defects is extremely difficult. To conduct the control of inner structure of the given joint a non-destructive method with the application of industrial CT scanner might be applied. This modern diagnosing method combines the x-ray examination with advanced computer technology. The basic advantage of computer-assisted tomography consists in examining objects in three dimensions and the possibility to carry out three-dimensional reconstructions. The aim of this article is to discuss the use of this method to evaluate the quality of welded joints made of aluminium alloys. Capabilities of computer-assisted tomography were depicted by the case of weld probes constructed with TIG (ang. Tungsten Inert Gas welding by different process variables. One has made the analysis of the quality of probes showing the smallest and the biggest internal and external welding defects.

  12. Prediction of Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Weld Joints with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mohammad W.; Huggett, Daniel J.; Liao, T. Warren; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Okeil, Ayman M.

    2015-01-01

    Friction-stir-welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process where joint properties are dependent on welding process parameters. In the current study three critical process parameters including spindle speed (??), plunge force (????), and welding speed (??) are considered key factors in the determination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of welded aluminum alloy joints. A total of 73 weld schedules were welded and tensile properties were subsequently obtained experimentally. It is observed that all three process parameters have direct influence on UTS of the welded joints. Utilizing experimental data, an optimized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model has been developed to predict UTS of FSW joints. A total of 1200 models were developed by varying the number of membership functions (MFs), type of MFs, and combination of four input variables (??,??,????,??????) utilizing a MATLAB platform. Note EFI denotes an empirical force index derived from the three process parameters. For comparison, optimized artificial neural network (ANN) models were also developed to predict UTS from FSW process parameters. By comparing ANFIS and ANN predicted results, it was found that optimized ANFIS models provide better results than ANN. This newly developed best ANFIS model could be utilized for prediction of UTS of FSW joints.

  13. Tensile properties and fracture surface of 07MnNiCrMoVDR steel welded joint at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lihong; Chen Furong; Xie Ruijun

    2009-01-01

    The tensile properties and fracture surfuce of 07MnNiCrMoVDR steel welded joint at low temperature have been studied by universal testing machine and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the tensile properties of 07MnNiCrMoVDR steel welded joint are greatly affected by temperature. Tensile strength and yield strength of 07MnNiCrMoVDR steel welded joint increase, bat elongation and reduction of area decrease with temperature decreasing. The macro-fracture of 07 MnNiCrMoVDR steel welded joint exhibits that the shear lip is not significant and micro-fracture makes up of dimpled fracture and tear fracture, and dimple becomes tiny and uniform with temperature decreasing.

  14. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  15. Modification of Structure and Strength Properties of Permanent Joints Under Laser Beam Welding with Application of Nanopowder Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Ovcharenko, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper we present the results of experimental study of specially prepared nanosize metal-ceramic compositions impact upon structure, microhardness and mechanical properties of permanent joints produced by laser-beam welding of steel and titanium alloy plates.

  16. Wavelet analysis of ultrasonic A-scan signal of solid-state welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of the quality of solid-state welded joints, such as friction bonding and diffusion bonding, the main difficulty is the identification of micro defects which are most likely to emerge in the welding process. The ultrasonic echo on the screen of a commercial ultrasonic detector due to a micro defect is so weak that it is completely masked by noise, and impossible to be pointed out. In the present paper, wavelet analysis (WA) is utilized to process A-scan ultrasonic signals from weak-bonding defects in friction bonding joints and porosity in diffusion bonding joints. First, perception of WA for engineers is given, which demonstrates the physical mechanism of WA when applied to signal processing. From this point of view, WA can be understood easily and more thoroughly. Then the signals from welding joints are decomposed into a time-scale plane by means of WA. We notice that noise and the signal echo attributed to the micro defect occupy different scales, which make it possible to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the signals by proper selection and threshold processing of the time-scale components of the signals, followed by reconstruction of the processed components.

  17. Investigation of the structure and properties of the material of various zones of the welded joint of the austenitic nitrogen-containing steel upon elastoplastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Putilova, E. A.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.; Kalinin, G. Yu.; Mushnikova, S. Yu.; Fomina, O. V.

    2016-11-01

    The structural, mechanical, and magnetic properties of metal cut out from the welded joint and from the near-weld zone of the welded joint of high-strength nitrogen-containing 04Kh20N6G11M2AFB austenitic steel have been investigated. The behavior of the magnetic parameters of materials under study subjected to various schemes of loading, such as tension, torsion, internal pressure, and combination of tension and torsion have been investigated. It has been established that the metal of the welded joint and near-weld zone of the welded joint, just as the base metal, has a stable phase composition and magnetic properties under various loading conditions. It has been concluded that 04Kh20N6G11M2AFB steel can be used in the fabrication of welded parts and elements of welded constructions that require low magnetization and high stability of magnetic characteristics under the force action.

  18. Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties, Hardness and Microstructure of AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Joints Fabricated by Duplex Stainless Steel Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade is studied. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the welded joints have been evaluated and the results are compared. From this investigatio.n, it is found that gas tungsten arc welded joints of ferritic stainless steel have superior tensile and impact properties compared with shielded metal are and gas metal arc welded joints and this is mainly due to the presence of finer grains in fusion zone and heat affected zone.

  19. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE AND FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIORS OF P91 BASE METAL AND WELD JOINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.C. Yang; Y. Tu; M.M. Yu; J. Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests and crack growth propagations tests on P91 pipe base metal and its weld joints were conducted at three different temperatures: room temperature,550℃ and 575℃. The strain-life was analyzed, and the changes in fatigue life behavior and fatigue growth rates with increasing temperature were discussed. The different properties of the base metal and its weld joint have been analyzed.

  1. Effects of Mo, Ti and B on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Wet Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Guo, Ning; Xu, Changsheng; Li, Hongliang; Yang, Ke; Feng, Jicai

    2017-03-01

    Alloy components are designed and transferred into weld metal via electrode covering to address the deterioration of the microstructure and mechanical properties of underwater wet welds. Emphasis is placed on studying the effects that the Mo, Ti and B contents have on the microstructure, tensile strength and low-temperature toughness of the underwater wet welding joint. The as-welded metal obtained at a water depth of 3 m is analyzed. The results indicate that the addition of Mo depresses the formation of coarse pro-eutectoid ferrite. However, a higher Mo content (0.609 wt.%) results in the formation of lath-like bainite and martensite, which are harmful to the plasticity and toughness of the weld. Acicular ferrite nucleation increases with the combined addition of Ti and B. The deposited metal with the optimum alloy components ratio achieves good plasticity and toughness while maintaining its tensile strength of 592 MPa, with the impact toughness at 0 °C and elongation reaching 53.34 J and 16.2%, respectively.

  2. Comparative analysis of the friction stir welded aluminum-magnesium alloy joint grain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Sizova, O. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.

    2015-10-01

    A comparative test of the friction stir welded aluminum-magnesium alloy joint microstructure for plates of a different thickness was carried out. Finding out the structuring regularities in the weld nugget zone, that is the strongest zone of the weld, the effects of temperature-deformational conditions on the promotion of a metal structure refinement mechanism under friction stir welding can be determined. In this research friction stir welded rolled plates of an AMg5M alloy; 5 and 8 mm thick were investigated. Material fine structure pictures of the nugget zone were used to identify and measure subgrain and to define a second phase location. By means of optical microscopy it was shown that the fine-grained structure developed in the nugget zone. The grain size was 5 flm despite the thickness of the plates. In the sample 5.0 mm thick grains were coaxial, while in the sample 8.0 mm thick grains were elongate at a certain angle to the tool travel direction.

  3. High Temperature Plasticity of Bimetallic Magnesium and Aluminum Friction Stir Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Michael; El Mehtedi, Mohamad; Cabibbo, Marcello; Quercetti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniele; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The high temperature deformation of a bimetallic AZ31/AA6061 Friction Stir Welded joint was investigated in the present study by constant load creep experiments carried out at 473 K (200 °C). The microstructural analysis revealed the strongly inhomogeneous nature of the weld, which was characterized by an extremely fine grain size in the magnesium-rich zones and by the extensive presence of intermetallic phases. In the high stress regime, the creep strain was concentrated in the refined and particle-rich microstructure of the weld zone, while the AA6061 base metal remained undeformed. In the low stress regime, deformation became more homogeneously distributed between the AZ31 base metal and the weld zone. The creep behavior of the weld was found to obey the constitutive equation describing the minimum creep rate dependence on applied stress for the base AZ31, slightly modified to take into account the finer microstructure and the role of secondary phase particles, i.e., the retardation of grain growth and the obstruction of grain boundary sliding.

  4. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding; Inhibicion de la formacion de compuestos intermetalicos en juntas aluminio-acero soldadas por friccion-agitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Lopez, E. A.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 degree centigrade. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters. (Author)

  5. Microstructure and fracture behaviour of Ti3Al/TC4 dissimilar materials joints welded by electron beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Zhang; H Y Zhao; W X He

    2010-12-01

    Electron beam was used to join TC4 alloy to Ti3Al-based alloy. The composition of the weld was analysed by XRD and TEM and the results showed that the weld mainly composed of ' martensites. The change of heat input had little influence on the composition of the weld but can make the grain size increasing. The fracture path of the joints was mainly decided by the microstructure of the weld and started from coarse grain zone to HAZ and base metal of Ti3Al alloy.

  6. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  7. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  8. Evaluation of near-surface stress distributions in dissimilar welded joint by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Ryul; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Todd, Judith A; Park, Ik Keun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results from a set of experiments designed to ultrasonically measure the near surface stresses distributed within a dissimilar metal welded plate. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), with a tone-burst ultrasonic wave frequency of 200 MHz, was used for the measurement of near surface stresses in the dissimilar welded plate between 304 stainless steel and low carbon steel. For quantitative data acquisition such as leaky surface acoustic wave (leaky SAW) velocity measurement, a point focus acoustic lens of frequency 200 MHz was used and the leaky SAW velocities within the specimen were precisely measured. The distributions of the surface acoustic wave velocities change according to the near-surface stresses within the joint. A three dimensional (3D) finite element simulation was carried out to predict numerically the stress distributions and compare with the experimental results. The experiment and FE simulation results for the dissimilar welded plate showed good agreement. This research demonstrates that a combination of FE simulation and ultrasonic stress measurements using SAW velocity distributions appear promising for determining welding residual stresses in dissimilar material joints.

  9. Characteristics of AZ31 Mg alloy joint using automatic TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Zhou, Ji-xue; Zhao, Dong-qing; Liu, Yun-teng; Wu, Jian-hua; Yang, Yuan-sheng; Ma, Bai-chang; Zhuang, Hai-hua

    2017-01-01

    The automatic tungsten-inert gas welding (ATIGW) of AZ31 Mg alloys was performed using a six-axis robot. The evolution of the microstructure and texture of the AZ31 auto-welded joints was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The ATIGW process resulted in coarse recrystallized grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and epitaxial growth of columnar grains in the fusion zone (FZ). Substantial changes of texture between the base material (BM) and the FZ were detected. The {0002} basal plane in the BM was largely parallel to the sheet rolling plane, whereas the c-axis of the crystal lattice in the FZ inclined approximately 25° with respect to the welding direction. The maximum pole density increased from 9.45 in the BM to 12.9 in the FZ. The microhardness distribution, tensile properties, and fracture features of the AZ31 auto-welded joints were also investigated.

  10. On the visualization of joint formation during linear friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Bikmeyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3D computer model of the preliminary and the transition phases of LFW using ANSYS was developed. Based on the adhesion phenomena theory, we introduce a simple method to evaluate the areas of joint formation. Results of this evaluation are in good agreement with experiments. Custom software for the 3D-simulation of the process of joint formation and material movement into the flash was built, which used the results of the FEM model.

  11. Effect of adding powder on joint properties of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. W.; Liu, J. S.; Lu, Y. Z.; Xu, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    The experiments of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy were carried out, and the effect of adding Mn or Si powder on mechanical properties and microstructure of the weld was investigated. Some defects, such as spatter, inclusion, cracks and softening in heat affected zone (HAZ), can be avoided in welding joints, and the increased penetration depth is obtained by adding Mn or Si powder. The average tensile-shear strength of Si-added joint is 3.84% higher than that of Mn-added joint, and the strength of both joints exceeds that of no-added joint. In the case of adding Mn powder, small amount of liquid Al is mixed into steel molten pool, and the Al content increases in both sides of the weld, which leads to the increased weld width in aluminum molten pool. Thus, transverse area increases in jointing steel to aluminum, which is significant for the improved tensile-shear strength of joints. As far as adding Si powder is concerned, it is not the case, the enhancement of the joint properties benefits from improvement of metallurgical reaction.

  12. Identifying Combination of Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Maximize Strength of Lap Joints of AA2014-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrana C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE, analysis of variance (ANOVA, response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.

  13. Electron-microscopic examination of the transition zone of aluminum-tantalum bimetallic joints (explosion welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A. Yu.; Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Elkina, O. A.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Plotnikov, A. V.; Patselov, A. M.; Kozhevnikov, V. E.

    2014-04-01

    A study of the structure of an aluminum-tantalum joint and a comparison of this structure with the structures of iron-silver and copper-tantalum joints have revealed the following processes of the interpenetration of the materials that occur during explosion welding: the formation of protrusions, the injection of particles of one material into the other, and the formation of zones of local melting. Regardless of the mutual solubility of the metals being welded, two types of fragmentation occur, i.e., (1) a granulating fragmentation (GF), which includes the formation, explosion-governed (EG) dispersion, and partial consolidation of particles, and (2) the fragmentation that is usually observed during severe plastic deformation. It is important that this traditional fragmentation is not accompanied by the formation and EG dispersion of particles. This feature allows one to easily distinguish these types of fragmentation (traditional and GF fragmentation).

  14. Numerical study of electron beam welded butt joints with the GTN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haoyun; Schmauder, Siegfried; Weber, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    The fracture behavior of S355NL electron beam welded steel joints is investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation of crack propagation in an electron beam welded steel joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. A parameter study of the GTN model was adopted which reveals the influence of parameters on the material behavior of notched round and compact tension specimens. Based on the combined method of metallographic investigations and numerical calibration, the GTN parameters were fixed. The same parameters were used to predict the ductile fracture of compact tension specimens with the initial crack located at different locations. Good match can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the form of force versus Crack Opening Displacement as well as fracture resistance curves.

  15. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN KEYHOLE PLASMA ARC WELDING OF DISSIMILAR STEEL JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Daha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of temperature profiles and weld pool geometry during dissimilar welding between 2205 duplex stainless steel and A36 low carbon steel using keyhole plasma arc welding has been simulated using a three dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model. An adaptive heat source is proposed as a heat source model for performing a non-linear transient thermal analysis, based on the configuration feature of keyhole plasma arc welds. Temperature profiles and solidified weld pool geometry are presented for three different welding heat input. The reversed bugle shape parameters (width of fusion zone at both top and bottom surfaces of the weld pool geometry features for a dissimilar 2205–A36 weld joint are summarized to successfully explain the observations. The model was also applied to keyhole plasma welding of 6.8 mm thick similar 2205 duplex stainless steel joint for validation. The simulation results were compared with independently obtained experimental data and good agreements have been obtained.

  16. Influence of the Strength Mismatch of a Narrow Gap Welded Joint of SA508 on the Plastic η Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, J. M.; Huh, Y.; Seok, C. S.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the influence of the strength mismatch of a narrow gap welded joint of SA508 on the η factor was evaluated. The η factor is the principal parameter that determines the plastic portion of the J-integral. The specimens for tensile and hardness tests were collected from piping with narrow gap welding and the stress-strain curve and hardness were obtained from those. From these results, the Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) constant was obtained. Also, the finite element analysis was performed with variations in the strength mismatch and the weld width. The η factor equation considering the strength mismatch and the weld width of a narrow gap welded joint was suggested.

  17. Study on the microstructure and hardness of in-service welded joint of X70 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuhua; Wang Yong; Liu Geping

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is one of the main problems of in-service welding onto active pipeline. Microstructure and hardness of welded joint have a vital effect on hydrogen induced cracking. The microstructure and hardness of welded joint of X70 pipeline steel were studied using simulation in-service welding device. The results show that the main microstructures of in-service welded seam are grain boundary ferrite, intracrystalline acicular ferrite, as well as small amount of widmanstatten structure. The main microstructures of coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) are coarse granular bainite, lath ferrite and martensite. Metastable phases such as martensite and lath ferrite are found in CGHAZ because of the too quick cooling velocity and the hardness of the CGHAZ is high.

  18. Microstructures and properties analysis of dissimilar metal joint in the friction stir welded copper to aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xijing; Zhang Zhongke; Da Chaobing; Li Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly concentrated on the feasibility of friction stir welding of dissimilar metal of aluminum alloy to copper (T2) and a preliminary analysis of welding parameters influencing on the microstructures and properties of joint was carried out. The results indicated that the thickness of workpiece played an important role in the welding parameters which could succeed in the friction stir welding of dissimilar metal of copper to aluminum alloy, and the parameters were proved to be a narrow choice. The interfacial region between copper and aluminum in the dissimilar joint was not uniformly mixed, constituted with part of incomplete mixing zone, complete mixing zone, dispersion zone and the most region's boundary was obvious. Meantime a kind banded structure with inhomogeneous width was formed. The intermetallic compounds generated during friction stir welding in the interfacial region were mainly Cu9Al4 , Al2Cu etc, and their hardness was higher than others.

  19. Influence of temperature and exploitation period on fatigue crack growth parameters in different regions of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Camagic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exploitation period and temperature on the fatigue crack growth parameters indifferent regions of a welded joint is analysed for new and exploited low-alloyed Cr-Mo steel A-387 Gr. B. The parent metal is a part of a reactor mantle which was exploited for over 40 years, and recently replaced with new material. Fatigue crack growth parameters, threshold value Kth, coefficient C and exponent m, have been determined, both at room and exploitation temperature. Based on testing results, fatigue crack growth resistance in different regions of welded joint is analysed in order to justify the selected welding procedure specification.

  20. Premature failure of dissimilar metal weld joint at intermediate temperature superheater tube

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hajri, Mohammed; Anees U. Malik; MEROUFEL, Abdelkader; Al-Muaili, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint between alloyed steel (AS) and stainless steel (SS) failed at one of intermediate temperature superheater (ITSH) tube in steam/power generation plant boiler. The premature failure was detected after a relatively short time of operation (8 years) where the crack propagated circumferentially from AS side through the ITSH tube. Apart from physical examination, microstructural studies based on optical microscopy, SEM and EDX analysis were performed. The results o...

  1. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  2. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  3. Effect of buffer-layered buttering on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weld joints for nuclear plant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S. [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present the metallurgical and mechanical investigation of four dissimilar welds between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 and SS304LN. The welding processes for buttering deposition and fill-pass welding were varied with ERNiCr-3/ENiCrFe-3 consumables. The Ni-Fe alloy buffer layer was introduced as intermediate layer in buttering and then the joints (with and without buffer layer in buttering) were fabricated. The effect of Ni-Fe buffer layered buttering and welding processes on the resulting weld joints properties has been addressed. Metallurgical and mechanical properties, fracture toughness were measured and various examinations were carried out for integrity assessment on all the weld joints. Addition of a Ni-Fe buttering layer leads to the development of more favourable properties than observed in welded joints made using the current practice without a buffer layer. Control of carbon migration and its subsequent effect on metallurgical, mechanical properties due to buffer layer has been justified in the study. Conventional procedure of DMW fabrication has been proven to be the least favourable against the new technique suggested. Modification in current integrity assessment procedure would be possible by considering the properties at interfacial regions, introduction of yield strength ratio mismatch and the plastic instability strength in the integrity assessment.

  4. HAZ microstructure in joints made of X13CrMoCoVNbNB9-2-1 (PB2 steel welded with and without post-weld heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Łomozik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research butt welded joints made of X13CrMoCoVNbNB9-2-1 steel. The joints were welded with post-weld heat treatment PWHT and without PWHT, using the temper bead technique TBT. After welding the joint welded with PWHT underwent stress-relief annealing at 770 °C for 3 hours. The scope of structural tests included the microstructural examination of the coarse-grained heat affected zone (HAZ areas of the joints, the comparison of the morphology of these areas and the determination of carbide precipitate types of the coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ of the joints welded with and without PWHT.

  5. Fatigue limits of titanium-bar joints made with the laser and the electric resistance welding techniques: microstructural characterization and hardness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Morri, Alessandro; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Tebbel, Florian; Marchetti, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue behavior of the titanium bars is of utmost importance for the safe and reliable operation of dental implants and prosthetic constructions based on these implants. To date, however, only few data are available on the fatigue strength of dental prostheses made with electric resistance welding and laser welding techniques. This in-vitro study highlighted that although the joints made with the laser welding approach are credited of a superior tensile strength, joints made with electric resistance welding exhibited double the minimum fatigue strength with respect to the joints made with laser welding (120 vs 60 N).

  6. Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded Joint Of Two Similar &Dissimilar Al-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Das,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is an advance joining process for different similar and dissimilar materials. It is commonly used for joining of Aluminum alloys. However it is necessary to overcome some challenges for its wide-spread uses. Tool design and the selection of process parameters are critical issues in the usage of this process. This study focuses on the process parameters that is required for producing effective friction stir welding of two similar aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 to AA6101T6 and dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 alloy to AA6351T6 . Three different tool diameters such as 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm with three different tool rotational speeds such as 600 rpm, 800 rpm and 1200 rpm have been used to weld the joints. The welded samples were tested for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. It was observed that 30 mm tool gives better weld quality for friction stir welding of similar aluminum alloy but 25 mm tool with 1200 rpm rotational speed gave satisfactory weld quality for friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. It is one of the important welding process that can adopted for welding of aluminum alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  7. Microstructure and Hardness Profiles of Bifocal Laser-Welded DP-HSLA Steel Overlap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, A.; Matter, P.; Stano, S.; Wilk, Z.; Różański, M.

    2017-04-01

    The article presents results related to the bifocal laser welding of overlap joints made of HSLA and DP high-strength steels. The joints were made using a disk laser and a head enabling the 50-50% distribution of laser power. The effects of the laser welding rates and the distance between laser spots on morphological features and hardness profiles were analyzed. It was established that the positioning of beams at angles of 0° or 90° determined the hardness of the individual zones of the joints, without causing significant differences in microstructures of the steels. Microstructural features were inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Both steels revealed primarily martensitic-bainitic microstructures in the fusion zone and in the heat-affected zone. Mixed multiphase microstructures were revealed in the inter-critical heat-affected zone of the joint. The research involved the determination of parameters making it possible to reduce the hardness of joints and prevent the formation of the soft zone in the dual-phase steel.

  8. Improvement in Fatigue Performance of Aluminium Alloy Welded Joints by Laser Shock Peening in a Dynamic Strain Aging Temperature Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Su

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new treatment process after welding, the process parameters of laser shock peening (LSP in dynamic strain aging (DSA temperature regimes can be precisely controlled, and the process is a non-contact one. The effects of LSP at elevated temperatures on the distribution of the surface residual stress of AA6061-T6 welded joints were investigated by using X-ray diffraction technology with the sin2ϕ method and Abaqus software. The fatigue life of the welded joints was estimated by performing tensile fatigue tests. The microstructural evolution in surface and fatigue fractures of the welded joints was presented by means of surface integrity and fracture surface testing. In the DSA temperature regime of AA6061-T6 welded joints, the residual compressive stress was distributed more stably than that of LSP at room temperature. The thermal corrosion resistance and fatigue properties of the welded joints were also improved. The experimental results and numerical analysis were in mutual agreement.

  9. Prediction of Welded Joint Strength in Plasma Arc Welding: A Comparative Study Using Back-Propagation and Radial Basis Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kadivendi; Vundavilli, Pandu R.; Manzoor Hussain, M.; Saiteja, M.

    2016-09-01

    Welding input parameters such as current, gas flow rate and torch angle play a significant role in determination of qualitative mechanical properties of weld joint. Traditionally, it is necessary to determine the weld input parameters for every new welded product to obtain a quality weld joint which is time consuming. In the present work, the effect of plasma arc welding parameters on mild steel was studied using a neural network approach. To obtain a response equation that governs the input-output relationships, conventional regression analysis was also performed. The experimental data was constructed based on Taguchi design and the training data required for neural networks were randomly generated, by varying the input variables within their respective ranges. The responses were calculated for each combination of input variables by using the response equations obtained through the conventional regression analysis. The performances in Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation neural network and radial basis neural network (RBNN) were compared on various randomly generated test cases, which are different from the training cases. From the results, it is interesting to note that for the above said test cases RBNN analysis gave improved training results compared to that of feed forward back propagation neural network analysis. Also, RBNN analysis proved a pattern of increasing performance as the data points moved away from the initial input values.

  10. The effects of fillet formation on the strength of braze pressure welded joint with high frequency induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, A.; Inagaki, Y.; Ikeshoji, T.T.; Yamazaki, T. [Graduate School of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Braze Pressure Welding (BPW) with high frequency induction heating had been invented as the new joining method for bonding general steel pipes for on-site piping without danger of fire and the dispersion in joint properties due to welder's skill. In the BPW, brazing filler is interlaid between the mating surfaces to be joined. The filler melts by heating up to joining temperature, then the welding pressure discharges it from the joining interface. At the same time, the base metals are pressure-welded to each other, and that the discharged liquid filler forms fillets around the joining area. The fillets have the effects both on relaxing the stress concentration at the joint and on increasing the joining area, which contributes to the strengthening of joint. And the pressure is comparatively low, so the deformation of joint is little. In this paper, in order to investigate the effects of fillet on strengthening the joint, the stress state around the joint area and the degree of the effect of stress concentration relaxation were analyzed by finite element analysis. So it was revealed that the fillets reduced the stress concentration and separated the maximum stress site from the edge of the joining interface. Experimentally, the fillet formation was confirmed around the BPW joining area and that BPW joint had the superior tensile strength to brazed or pressure-welded joints by tensile test of joints. (orig.)

  11. Research on Microstructure and Weld Penetration of LY12 Duralumin Alloy Welded Joint under TIG Welding and A-TIG Welding%LY12硬铝合金TIG与A-TIG焊接接头组织和熔深的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 魏晓红; 胡宗智

    2011-01-01

    针对Al-Cu-Mg系共晶型高强度LY12硬铝合金,进行了TIG与A-TIG焊接接头组织特征和熔深变化规律的研究.结果表明,在相同焊接规范下,TIG与A-TIG焊接接头焊缝区金相组织均为树枝状晶,热影响区金相组织均为等轴晶,差别在于A-TIG焊接接头组织晶粒较粗大.高倍显微镜下的金相组织显示,A-TIG焊缝区和热影响区中强化相数量比TIG焊多,且比TIG焊粗大.另外由于活性剂的加入,电弧产生收缩,热量集中,使得A-TIG焊熔深比TIG焊大.%This paper have researched the microstructure characteristics and weld penetration change law of welded joint of Al-Cu-Mg system eutectic type high strength LY12 duralumin alloy under TIG welding and A-TIG welding. Results showed that the weld zone microstructure of TIG welding and A-TIG welding was dendritic crystal and the heat-affected zone microstructure of TIG welding and A-TIG welding was equiaxed crystal under the same welding specification. The difference was that the microstructure of A-TIG welded joint was coarser. The microstructure under advanced microscope showed that the weld zone and heat-affected zone of A-TIG had more strengthening phase than TIG and the strengthening phase of A-TIG was coarser than that of TIG. The weld penetration of A-TIG was deeper than TIG which had been caused by the addition of surfactant which leaded to arc constriction and heat concentration.

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study on the corrosion of the weld zone of 3Cr steel welded joints in CO2 environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-ning; Zhu, Jin-yang; Lu, Min-xu; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The welded joints of 3Cr pipeline steel were fabricated with commercial welding wire using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique. Potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to investigate the corrosion resistance and the growth of a corrosion film on the weld zone (WZ). The changes in electrochemical characteristics of the film were obtained through fitting of the EIS data. The results showed that the average corrosion rate of the WZ in CO2 environments first increased, then fluctuated, and finally decreased gradually. The formation of the film on the WZ was divided into three stages: dynamic adsorption, incomplete-coverage layer formation, and integral layer formation.

  13. Numerical and experimental evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding efficiency in AZ31 magnesium alloy butt joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, energy aspects related to the efficiency of laser welding process using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser were investigated and reported. AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets 3.3 mm thick were butt-welded without filler using Helium and Argon as shielding gases. A three-dimensional and semi-stationary finite element model was developed to evaluate the effect of laser power and welding speed on the absorption coefficient, the melting and welding efficiencies. The modeled volumetric heat source took into account a scale factor, and the shape factors given by the attenuation of the beam within the workpiece and the beam intensity distribution. The numerical model was calibrated using experimental data on the basis of morphological parameters of the weld bead. Results revealed a good correspondence between experiment and simulation analysis of the energy aspects of welding. Considering results of mechanical characterization of butt joints previously obtained, the optimization of welding condition in terms of mechanical properties and energy parameters was performed. The best condition is represented by the lower laser power and higher welding speed that corresponds to the lower heat input given to the joint.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of hybrid laser arc welding of aluminum alloys in the thick T-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Nikodinovski, M.; Chenier, P.; Ma, J.; Liu, W.; Kovacevic, R.

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, a numerical finite element model was developed to simulate the hybrid laser arc welding of different aluminum alloys, namely 5××× to 6××× series. The numerical simulation has been considered two double-ellipsoidal heat sources for the gas metal arc welding and laser welding. The offset distance of the metal arc welding and laser showed a significant effect on the molten pool geometry, the heat distribution and penetration depth during the welding process. It was confirmed that when the offset distance is within the critical distance the laser and arc share the molten pool and specific amount of penetration and dilution can be achieved. The models and experiments show that the off-distance between the two heat sources and shoulder width have considerable influence on the penetration depth and appearance of the weld beads. The experiments also indicate that the laser power, arc voltage and type of the filler metal can effectively determine the final properties of the bonds, specifically the bead appearance and microhardness of the joints. The experiments verified the numerical simulation as the thermocouples assist to comprehend the amount of heat distribution on the T-joint coupons. The role of the welding parameters on the mechanism of the hybrid laser welding of the aluminum alloys was also discussed.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of MIG Welding of T-Joints of Thin Aluminum Plates for Top Class Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Enrico; Colombini, Elena; Panari, Davide; Vergnano, Alberto; Leali, Francesco; Veronesi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The integration of experiments with numerical simulations can efficiently support a quick evaluation of the welded joint. In this work, the MIG welding operation on aluminum T-joint thin plate has been studied by the integration of both simulation and experiments. The aim of the paper is to enlarge the global database, to promote the use of thin aluminum sheets in automotive body industries and to provide new data. Since the welding of aluminum thin plates is difficult to control due to high speed of the heat source and high heat flows during heating and cooling, a simulation model could be considered an effective design tool to predict the real phenomena. This integrated approach enables new evaluation possibilities on MIG-welded thin aluminum T-joints, as correspondence between the extension of the microstructural zones and the simulation parameters, material hardness, transient 3D temperature distribution on the surface and inside the material, stresses, strains, and deformations. The results of the mechanical simulations are comparable with the experimental measurements along the welding path, especially considering the variability of the process. The results could well predict the welding-induced distortion, which together with local heating during welding must be anticipated and subsequently minimized and counterbalance.

  16. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical property of aluminum alloy/stainless steel lap joints fabricated by MIG welding-brazing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongtao, E-mail: hitzht@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Liu Jiakun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2011-07-25

    Highlights: {yields} Wrought aluminum and stainless steel was joined with welding-brazing process. {yields} Effect of different layers on spreadability of molten filler metal was examined. {yields} Mechanical property of the joints with different heat inputs was investigated. {yields} Microstructure of the joints were also studied by OM, SEM and TEM. {yields} Phase composition was ascertained by diffraction spot and XRD analysis. - Abstract: Lap joints of aluminum alloy 2B50 and stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were welded by MIG welding-brazing method with 4043 Al-Si filler metal. The effect of aluminizing coating and galvanized zinc coating on fusion metal spreadability were studied. The aluminized coating had limited effect to promote weld surface appearance and obvious micro-cracks were found between the compound layer and the steel side. The fracture in tensile tests occurred at the interfacial layer of the weld with a low tensile strength about 60 MPa. Joints between aluminum alloy and galvanized steel had good surface appearances and the intermetallic compound in fusion zone region close to joint interface was Al{sub 4.5}FeSi. The thickness of the intermetallic compound layer varied from about 5 {mu}m to 15 {mu}m depending on the heat input and the highest tensile strength of lap joint could reached 193.6 MPa when the heat input is 0.846 KJ/cm.

  17. Mechanical properties of API X80 steel pipe joints welded by Flux Core Arc Weld Process; Propriedades mecanicas de juntas de tubos de aco API X80 soldadas com arame tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Robert E. Cooper; Silva, Jose Hilton F.; Trevisan, Roseana E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Fabricacao

    2003-07-01

    Flux Core Arc Welding processes (FCAW) are beginning to be applied in pipeline welds, however, very limited experimental data regarding mechanical properties of pipeline weld joints with these processes are available in the literature. In this paper, the effects of preheat temperature and type of FCAW on mechanical properties (microhardness and tensile strength) of API X80 weld joint steel are presented. FCAW processes with gas protection and self-shielded were used. Multipasses welding were applied in 30'' diameter and 0,625'' thickness tubes. Influence factors were: FCAW type and preheat temperature. Acceptance criteria of welded joints were evaluated by API 1104 standard for tensile strength test and ASTM E384-99 for microhardness test. The results obtained showed that FCAW type and preheat temperature have no influence on mechanical properties of API X80 joint steel. (author)

  18. Dependence of the mechanical properties of joints welded according to the parameters of the metal active gas (MAG welding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobrotă

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective followed in the realization of welded structures is to obtain superior mechanical characteristics for these structures. The research aimed at setting ranges of values for the welding voltage (Uw, respectively for the welding current (Iw so as to obtain superior mechanical features for welded constructions. The research was carried out using E 36-4 steel as base material and SG2 wire as filler material, whereas the applied welding process was MAG. The optimization was done with the help of a number of 31 test bars considering various welding procedures for each test bar, and the experimental data were processed using the STATISTCA program.

  19. Electrical, Corrosion, and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Copper Joints Produced by Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarer, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the microstructure, electrical, corrosion, and mechanical properties of plate-shaped aluminum-copper couple produced using the explosive welding method. Mechanical tests, including hardness, tensile, tensile-shear, and impact test, concluded that the Al-Cu bimetal had an acceptable joint resistance. In this study, local intermetallic regions formed on the interface of the joint of the aluminum-copper bimetal, produced using the explosive welding technique. However, the formed intermetallic regions had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the joint, except for increasing its hardness. According to electrical conductivity tests, the Al-Cu bimetal had an average electrical conductivity in comparison to the electrical conductivity of aluminum and copper, which were the original materials forming the joint. According to the results of electro-chemical corrosion test, during which galvanic corrosion formed, the Al side of the Al-Cu bimetal was more anodic due to its high electronegativity; as a result, it was exposed to more corrosion in comparison to the copper side.

  20. Study of Simulated Temperature of Butt Joint during Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminium Alloy by Using Hyperworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anees Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is one of the latest welding technology that utilizes a special tool for generation of frictional heat in the work piece by its rotation due to which joining occurs without melting of metal. For this reason friction stir welding lies under the category of solid state joining. A part from experimental work, there is large space to work on simulation of FSW by using simulation tools. In the present paper, simulation of friction stir welding of aluminium alloy AA-6061 is done by using HyperWeld module of Altair HyperWorks. The virtual experiment of friction stir welding is conducted for variable tool rotational speeds with constant travelling speed and study of simulation results of variation in temperature distribution along the weld line of butt joint is done. The results of simulation shows that the temperature is symmetrically distributed along the weld line. It is observed that the maximum temperature along the weld line increases with the increase in rotational speed. It is also observed that the temperature at advancing side is greater that retreating side.

  1. Detection of micro gap weld joint by using magneto-optical imaging and Kalman filtering compensated with RBF neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; Chen, Yuquan; You, Deyong; Xiao, Zhenlin; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    An approach for seam tracking of micro gap weld whose width is less than 0.1 mm based on magneto optical (MO) imaging technique during butt-joint laser welding of steel plates is investigated. Kalman filtering(KF) technology with radial basis function(RBF) neural network for weld detection by an MO sensor was applied to track the weld center position. Because the laser welding system process noises and the MO sensor measurement noises were colored noises, the estimation accuracy of traditional KF for seam tracking was degraded by the system model with extreme nonlinearities and could not be solved by the linear state-space model. Also, the statistics characteristics of noises could not be accurately obtained in actual welding. Thus, a RBF neural network was applied to the KF technique to compensate for the weld tracking errors. The neural network can restrain divergence filter and improve the system robustness. In comparison of traditional KF algorithm, the RBF with KF was not only more effectively in improving the weld tracking accuracy but also reduced noise disturbance. Experimental results showed that magneto optical imaging technique could be applied to detect micro gap weld accurately, which provides a novel approach for micro gap seam tracking.

  2. Effects of thermal aging on microstructure and hardness of China low activation martensitic steel welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xu, Gang, E-mail: gang.xu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The hardness of HAZ and WM decreases obviously after aging. • The precipitation of the Laves-phase in BM is similar to that in HAZ. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles are conducive to the nucleation of Laves-phase. • Ta may have a role to retard the early precipitation of the Laves-phase. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the microstructure evolution and the change in hardness distribution of China low activation martensitic steel welded joints after thermal aging at 550 °C for 6000 h. The joint was processed by electron beam welding. Compared to the base metal (BM) and heat affected zone (HAZ), Laves-phase was not formed in weld metal (WM) in the as-aged condition due to the higher tantalum content and less precipitation in WM before aging. The dislocation density decreased in HAZ and WM after aging for 6000 h. The property results showed that hardness of WM and HAZ was decreased significantly after aging for 6000 h due to the weakening of solution strengthening and dislocations strengthening. However, the change in the hardness of the base metal by aging remained at a minor level.

  3. Residual stress relaxation in typical weld joints and its effect on fatigue and crack growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbi LI; Zhengquan WAN; Zili WANG; Chunyan JI

    2009-01-01

    Many factors influence the fatigue and crack growth behavior of welded joints. Some structures often undergo fairly large static loading before they enter service or variable amplitude cyclic loading when they are in service. The combined effect of both applied stress and high initial residual stress is expected to cause the residual stresses relaxation. Only a few papers seem to deal with appropriate procedures for fatigue analysis and crack growth by considering the combined effect of variable amplitude cyclic loading with residual stresses relaxation. In this article, some typical welded connections in ship-shaped structures are investigated with 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The effect of residual stress relaxation, initial residual stress, and the applied load after variable amplitude cyclic loading is revealed, and a formula for predicting the residual stress at hot spot quantitatively is proposed. Based on the formula, an improved fatigue procedure is introduced. Moreover, crack growth of typical weld joints considering residual stresses relaxation is studied.

  4. Effect of filler wire on the joint properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys using CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding with filler wire of AZ31 magnesium alloys is investigated using a CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of three different filler wires on the joint properties is researched. The results show that the weld appearance can be effectively improved when using laser welding with filler wire. The microhardness and tensile strength of joints are almost the same as those of the base metal when ER AZ31 or ER AZ61 wire is adopted. However, when the filler wire of ER 5356 aluminum alloy is used, the mechanical properties of joints become worse. For ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 filler wires, the microstructure of weld zone shows small dendrite grains. In comparison, for ER 5356 filler wire, the weld shows a structure of snowy dendrites and many intermetallic compounds and eutectic phases distribute in the dendrites. These intermetallic constituents with low melting point increase the tendency of hot crack and result in fragile joint properties. Therefore, ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 wire are more suitable filler material than ER 5356 for CO2 laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys.

  5. Investigation of the Weld Properties of Dissimilar S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel with AISI 304 Steel Joints Produced by Arc Stud Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Barış Başyiğit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel plates with a thickness of 3 mm are arc stud welded by M8 × 40 mm AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel studs with constant stud lifts in order to investigate the effects of welding arc voltages on mechanical and microstructural behaviors of the joints. As the welding arc voltage increases starting from 140 V, the tensile strength of the weldment also increases but the higher arc values results in more spatters around the weld seam up to 180 V. Conversely, the lower arc voltages causes poor tensile strength values to weldments. Tensile tests proved that all of the samples are split from each other in the welding zone but deformation occurs in duplex plates during the tensile testing of weldments so that the elongation values are not practically notable. The satisfactory tensile strength and bending values are determined by applying 180 volts of welding arc voltage according to ISO 14555 standard. Peak values of micro hardness occurred in weld metal most probably as a consequence of increasing heat input decreasing the delta ferrite ratios. As the arc voltage increases, the width of the heat affected zone increases. Coarsening of delta-ferrite and austenite grains was observed in the weld metal peak temperature zone but it especially becomes visible closer to the duplex side in all samples. The large voids and unwelded zones up to approximately 1 mm by length are observed by macro-structure inspections. Besides visual tests and micro-structural surveys; bending and microhardness tests with radiographic inspection were applied to samples for maintaining the correct welding parameters in obtaining well-qualified weldments of these two distinct groups of stainless steel materials.

  6. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  7. IIW recommendations for the HFMI treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    This book of recommendations presents an overview of High Frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) techniques existing today in the market and their proper procedures, quality assurance measures and documentation. Due to differences in HFMI tools and the wide variety of potential applications, certain details of proper treatments and quantitative quality control measures are presented generally. An example of procedure specification as a quality assurance measure is given in the Appendix. Moreover, the book presents procedures for the fatigue life assessment of HFMI-improved welded joints based on nominal stress, structural hot spot stress and effective notch stress. It also considers the extra benefit that has been experimentally observed for HFMI-treated high-strength steels. The recommendations offer proposals on the effect of loading conditions like high mean stress fatigue cycles, variable amplitude loading and large amplitude/low cycle fatigue cycles. Special considerations for low stress concentration welded...

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigations on temperature distribution at the joint interface for copper joints using ultrasonic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Sooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state joining process that produces joints by the application of high frequency vibratory energy in the work pieces held together under pressure without melting. Copper and its alloys are extensively used in electrical and electronic industry because of its excellent electrical and thermal properties. This paper mainly focused on temperature distribution and the influence of process parameters at the joint interface while joining copper sheets using ultrasonic welding process. Experiments are carried out using Cu sheets (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness and the interface temperature is measured using Data Acquisition (DAQ System (thermocouple and thermal imager. Numerical and finite element based model for temperature distribution at the interface are developed and solved the same using Finite Difference Method (FDM and Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The results obtained from FDM and FEA model shows similar trend with experimental results and are found to be in good agreement.

  9. First samples of Ti and Nb tubes explosion welding joint with stainless steel for ILC 1.8 K cryomodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, B. M.; Budagov, J. A.; Shirkov, G. D.

    2013-07-01

    The world first samples of Ti and Nb tubes joint with stainless steel ones by an explosion welding by the JINR-VNIIEF-FNAL-INFN cooperation were manufactured in the frame of ILC R&D programe. An applying methods of relaxation of residual tensions (after explosion and electron beam welding), macro- and microanalyses of welding seam and cryogenic tests of the samples produced manifest the achievement of high mechanic strength (≈250 MPa/share) of welding seam, solidity and leak absence on 10-10 l atm/s level at 1.8 K. The explosion welding technology and methods introducing to industrial manufacturing of the 4-th generation of cryomodule of TESLA TYPE DESIGN can exclude the Ti—communications, connect the Nb—cavity with stainless steel vessel and reduce significantly the accelerator cost.

  10. Investigations of microstructures and properties in electron beam welded joints of TiAl to TC4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The normally centered electron beam and non-centered electron beam welding of TiAl to TC4 was investigated in order to analyze the electron beam weldability between TiAl/TC4 dissimilar materials. Macroscopic cold crack easily occurred near TiAl substrate in the joints. The optimal tensile strength was related to the welding heat input. The weld structures were composed of bulky columnar grains and equiaxed grains. The isolated phases consisted of large quantities of α2-Ti-3Al phase, small quantity of B2 phase,γ-TiAl phase and YAl2 phase. Insufficient melting of the base metal occurred in the weld when the beam position leaned to the TC4 side. The tensile strength could be improved when the deflection was limited in the optimum range. Otherwise, non-fusion zone was easily generated in the weld, which led to the low tensile strength.

  11. Microstructure characterization in the weld joint of a high nickel austenitic alloy and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Na; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan [Shandong Univ., Jinan (CN). Key Lab. for Liquid - Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2012-06-15

    High nickel austenitic alloy, 6 mm thick, and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel with a thickness of 0.6 mm were joined by pulsed current tungsten inert gas arc welding without filler metal in this work. Metallographic examination, microhardness measurement and electron microprobe analysis were used to reveal microstructural characteristics in the joint. The results indicated that the weld metal consisted of {gamma}-austenite, {delta}-ferrite and carbides without the appearance of martensite. There were dendrite crystals at the edge of the weld metal near the high nickel austenitic alloy and isometric crystals in the center of the weld metal. The microhardness of the weld metal was the highest due to the existence of carbides and its finer structure. Graphite flakes were still embedded in the austenite matrix of the heat-affected zone without the formation of martensite. (orig.)

  12. An Analysis of the Microstructure, Macrostructure and Microhardness of Nicr-Ir Joints Produced by Laser Welding with and without Preheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Różowicz S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the basic problems involved in laser welding of dissimilar materials with significant differences in melting points. It focuses on the micro and macrostructure of laser welded NiCr-Ir microjoints used in central spark plug electrodes. The joints were produced by welding with and without preheat using an Nd,YAG laser. The structure and composition of the welded joints were analyzed by means of a light microscope (LM and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer. The microhardness of the weld area was also studied.

  13. Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Single and Multiple Dissimilar Welded Joints of DP980 and HSLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Q. L.; Parkes, D.; Westerbaan, D.; Nayak, S. S.; Zhou, Y.; Saha, D. C.; Liu, D.; Goodwin, F.; Bhole, S.; Chen, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on single and multiple dissimilar joints between DP980 and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) galvanized steels. The tensile properties of the dissimilar joint between the strong DP980 and the relatively soft HSLA reflected only the properties of HSLA with plastic deformation, and final fracture took place entirely in HSLA. The fatigue properties of the dissimilar joints were more intriguing, with the strong DP980 outperforming at high stress amplitude and the ductile HSLA outperforming at low stress amplitude. For different load amplitudes, fatigue failure occurred in different materials and at different locations. The fatigue strength of DP980 was more negatively impaired by weld defects than that of HSLA.

  14. Creep fracture behavior of dissimilar weld joints between T92 martensitic and HR3C austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jian; Gong Yi [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Zhenguo, E-mail: zgyang@fudan.edu.c [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Luo Xiaoming; Gu Fuming [Shanghai Institute of Special Equipment Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hu Zhengfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The creep fracture of T92/HR3C dissimilar weld joints is investigated. HR3C austenitic steel is welded with T92 martensitic steel to obtain a T92/HR3C weld joint. After welding, creep tests are carried out at 625 {sup o}C in the stress range 110-180 MPa. The results indicate that the creep fracture mechanism is dependent on stress. When stresses {>=}140 MPa, the fracture location is at the T92 base material and the connection of adjacent dimples results in transcrystalline fracture. For stresses <140 MPa, the fracture location is at the T92 coarse-grained heat affected zone and growth of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles as well as Laves phase (Fe{sub 2}(W, Mo)) precipitation on the grain boundaries leads to intergranular fracture.

  15. Ion-irradiation effects on dissimilar friction stir welded joints between ODS alloy and ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-L., E-mail: chunliang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Richter, A. [Department of Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Bahnhofstrasse 1, 15745 Wildau (Germany); Kögler, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Griepentrog, M.; Reinstädt, P. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • FSSW has successfully been used in the welding of dissimilar materials. • The irradiation causes different degrees of hardening in the welding zones. • The formation of He bubbles at precipitates was found in the dissimilar joints. • The hardening effect is due to formation of He-filled vacancies. - Abstract: Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is an advanced technique for the joining of materials to prevent agglomeration of fine oxide particles, grain coarsening, and stress corrosion cracking etc. In this study, the dissimilar FSSW joint of stainless steel 430/ODS was irradiated with a Fe{sup +}/He{sup +} dual ion beam. Irradiation damage can cause deterioration in the mechanical properties especially in the welding zones. The joint quality therefore plays a decisive role in the life expectancy of nuclear reactors. The effect of irradiation on different zones in the joint (the thermo-mechanically affected zone, the heat affected zone and the base material) was investigated by TEM and nanoindentation. Irradiation causes a hardness increase in all welding zones with a characteristic hardness maximum. The relative hardness increase and the related microstructure are discussed. The formation of He bubbles at chromium carbide precipitates and the homogeneous distribution of He filled vacancies in the mixture region of the 430/ODS FSSW joints was observed.

  16. A Comparison of Creep Rupture Strength of Ferritic/Austenitic Dissimilar Weld Joints of Different Grades of Cr-Mo Ferritic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluations of creep rupture properties of dissimilar weld joints of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, and 9Cr-1MoVNb steels with Alloy 800 at 823 K were carried out. The joints were fabricated by a fusion welding process employing an INCONEL 182 weld electrode. All the joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals, and the strength reduction was greater in the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and less in the 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. Failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with the decrease in stress. At still lower stresses, the failure in the joints occurred at the ferritic/austenitic weld interface. The stress-life variation of the joints showed two-slope behavior and the slope change coincided with the occurrence of ferritic/austenitic weld interface cracking. Preferential creep cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure, whereas creep cavitation at the interfacial particles induced ferritic/austenitic weld interface cracking. Micromechanisms of the type IV failure and the ferritic/austenitic interface cracking in the dissimilar weld joint of the ferritic steels and relative cracking susceptibility of the joints are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing, and finite element analysis (FEA) of the stress state across the joint.

  17. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  18. Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of CLAM/316L dissimilar joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Chunjing; Huang, Qunying [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Dissimilar joints between CLAM and 316L steels welded by TIG were investigated. • After PWHTs, the hardening in HAZ on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. • Tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was considered as the preferable treatment rule. - Abstract: Dissimilar welding between China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel and 316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated to achieve the reliable connection between test blanket modules (TBMs) and piping system in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The dissimilar joints were welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with a filler material type-309. In order to stabilize the microstructure and improve the strength and toughness, post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) of tempering at 740 °C, 780 °C and 820 °C, respectively, for 2 h were performed. The microstructure observation showed that tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was the preferable PWHT rule in this work. After the treatment, the hardening in heat affected zone (HAZ) on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. The tensile strength of the joint was roughly the same as that of the base metal. The impact toughness of HAZ on the CLAM steel side was 77% of that of the base metal. The absorbed energy of HAZ of 316L steel decreased by 93 J, and that of weld metal (WM) was 110 J after the treatment.

  19. The Effect of Constant and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Joint Properties of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel to 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neissi, R.; Shamanian, M.; Hajihashemi, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, dissimilar 316L austenitic stainless steel/2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) joints were fabricated by constant and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process using ER2209 DSS as a filler metal. Microstructures and joint properties were characterized using optical and electron scanning microscopy, tensile, Charpy V-notch impact and micro-hardness tests, and cyclic polarization measurements. Microstructural observations confirmed the presence of chromium nitride and delta ferrite in the heat-affected zone of DSS and 316L, respectively. In addition, there was some deviation in the austenite/ferrite ratio of the surface welding pass in comparison to the root welding pass. Besides having lower pitting potential, welded joints produced by constant current gas tungsten arc welding process, consisted of some brittle sigma phase precipitates, which resulted in some impact energy reduction. The tensile tests showed high tensile strength for the weld joints in which all the specimens were broken in 316L base metal.

  20. Improving the Fatigue Performance of the Welded Joints of Ultra-Fine Grain Steel by Ultrasonic Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东坡; 王婷; 霍立兴; 张玉凤

    2004-01-01

    Contrast tests were carried out to study the fatigue performance of the butt joints treated by ultrasonic peening, aiming at the improvement of ultrasonic peening treatment(UPT) on welded joints of a new material.The material is a new generation of fine grain and high purity SS400 steel that has the same ingredients as the traditional low carbon steel. The specimens are in two different states:welded and ultrasonic peening conditions.The corresponding fatigue testing data were analyzed according to the regulation of the statistical method for fatigue life of the welded joints established by International Institute of Welding(IIW). Welding residual stress was considered in two different ways: the constant stress ratio R = 0. 5 and the Ohta method. The nominal stress-number (σ-N)curves were corrected because of the different plate thickness compared to the standard and because there was no mismatch or angular deformation. The results indicated that: 1 ) Compared with the welded specimens, when the stress range was 200 MPa, the fatigue life of the SS400 steel specimens treated by ultrasonic peening is prolonged by over 58 times, and the fatigue strength FAT corresponding to 106 cycles is increased by about 66%; 2) As for the SS400 butt joint ( single side welding double sides molding), after being treated by UPT, the nominal S-N curve (m = 10) of FAT 100 MPa(R =0.5) should be used for fatigue design. The standard S-N curves of FAT 100 MPa ( R = 0. 5, m = 10) could be used for fatigue design of the SS400 steel butt joints treated by ultrasonic peening.

  1. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  2. Microstructure, Mechanical Property and Corrosion Resistance Property of Cr26Mo3.5 Super Ferritic Stainless Joints by P-TIG and Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡绳荪; 庞杰; 申俊琦; 伍文勇; 刘腊腊

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of Cr26Mo3.5 super stainless steel joints by pulse tungsten inert gas(P-TIG)welding and laser welding were investigated. The results indicate that the widths of the center equiaxed grain zone(EGZ)and the columnar grain zone(CGZ)increase with the increase of heat input in both welding processes. The precipitates of Nb and Ti carbides and nitrides are formed in the weld metal(WM)and the heat affected zone(HAZ). The joints by laser welding show better tensile and cor-rosion resistance properties than those by P-TIG welding due to the heat concentration and lower heat input. The tensile strength and elongation increase with the decrease of heat input, and the fracture mode of the joints turns into ductile-brittle mixed fracture from ductile fracture when the welding method turns into P-TIG welding from laser welding. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of all joints declines slightly with the increase of heat input. Hence, laser welding is more suitable for welding Cr26Mo3.5 super stainless steel in engineering applications.

  3. TRANSIENT FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF AA2219 WELD JOINT USING GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman Arunkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on finite element simulation of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW of AA2219 aluminum alloy and the behavioral of the microstructure before and after weld. The simulations were performed using commercial COMSOL Multiphysics software. The thermal history of the weld region was studied by initially developed mathematical model. A sweep type meshing was used and transient analysis was performed for one welding cycle. The highest temperature noted was 3568 °C during welding. The welding operation was performed on 200×100×25 mm plates. Through metallurgical characterization, it was observed that a fair copper rich cellular (CRC network existed in the weld region. A small amount of intermetallic compounds like Al2Cu is observed through the XRD pattern.

  4. Assessment of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy welded joint using small punch test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jisen; Tang Xueqin; Chen Jianhong; Zhu Liang

    2007-01-01

    The small punch test technique (SPT) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of various materials and the basic method to test material tensile mechanics performance from an inverse finite element (FE) arithmetic with SPT was put forward. The research shows that specific tensile mechanical behavior and strain-stress distribution of each district of weld seam can be accurately determined by small punch test. Therefore, mechanical behavior of the inhomogeneous joint can be predicted by a numerical model. The simulation comes to good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Waste Water Treatment after Removal of Thermic Oxides from Stainless Steel Welding Joints

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This work describes chemical methods of removal of thermic oxides from stainless steel welding joints, as well as waste water treatment. Thermal oxides were removed from the stainless steel surface using chemical and electrochemical procedures. A pickling paste that contains HNO3 and HF in different ratios was used for chemical cleansing of thermal oxides (A, B, and C). Electrochemical removal was done using an apparatus Magic Cleaner, and as electrolyte a solution H2SO4+H3PO4 was used. Conce...

  6. Strength of tubular welded joints of roof trusses in Shanghai Qizhong Tennis Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lewei TONG; Min GU; Yiyi CHEN; Liying ZHOU; Jiandong SUN; Yangji CHEN; Yingru LIN; Gao LIN

    2008-01-01

    Static strength of multi-planar welded joints with seven brace members and one chord member made of circular hollow sections is investigated in the paper, based on the engineering practice of moveable roof trusses of Shanghai Qizhong Tennis Center. Firstly, comparative experiments were carried out on two model joints with a scale of 1:3. One joint was not reinforced, whereas the other was reinforced with ring stiffeners inside the chord member. Failure mode, stress distribution, plastic-zone development and ultimate load capacity of the joints were investigated, and effects of the ring stiffeners on the joint behavior were observed through the experiments. Secondly, finite element analysis of both the tested model joints was performed. The calculation results are in a good agreement with the experimental results, which indicated that the numerical analysis was quite effective. Finally, the strategy for enhancing strength of the complicated joint is discussed. Parameters study on the constructional details of ring stiffeners was carried out using FE method. The present research shows the multi-planar circular hollow section joint with high ratio of diameter to thickness of the chord and multiple braces is liable to chord plasticity under axial tension and compression on the braces. For the design of the joint, it is suggested that the ring stiffeners are installed insider the chord to meet needs of enough stiffness and strength. Both position and number of the stiffeners should be carefully determined based on the axial forces on the braces and their diameters. The stiffener thickness should not be less than the chord thickness, and the diameter of the hole at the center of the stiffener should not be greater than half of the chord diameter.

  7. Effects of laser heat treatment on the fracture morphologies of X80 pipeline steel welded joints by stress corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-jun Kong; Cun-dong Ye

    2014-01-01

    The surfaces of X80 pipeline steel welded joints were processed with a CO2 laser, and the effects of laser heat treatment (LHT) on H2S stress corrosion in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) solution were analyzed by a slow strain rate test. The frac-ture morphologies and chemical components of corrosive products before and after LHT were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, respectively, and the mechanism of LHT on stress corrosion cracking was discussed. Results showed that the fracture for welded joints was brittle in its original state, while it was transformed to a ductile fracture after LHT. The tendencies of hydro-gen-induced corrosion were reduced, and the stress corrosion sensitivity index decreased from 35.2%to 25.3%, indicating that the stress corrosion resistance of X80 pipeline steel welded joints has been improved by LHT.

  8. The effect of adhesive thickness on spot weld-bonded joints of dissimilar materials using finite element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Al-Bahkali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In present work, the bonded and spot weld-bonded of dissimilar materialsjoints for three dimensional models using the finite element technique werestudied for different adhesive thicknesses. The results show that the stressesin adhesive bonded joints are concentrated at the ends of the overlappedarea. When the spot-welding is combined with the adhesive bonding, thestresses are concentrated at the adhesive bond ends and at both ends of theweld nugget. The results show also that the stresses are more concentratedtowards the material of the lowest melting point. Changing the thickness ofthe adhesive layer for various dissimilar material models give us the optimalthickness for each case that one can use in designing lap joints of twodissimilar materials. The results in general show that the thinner the adhesiveis, the higher is the peak stresses developed in the weld-bonded joint.

  9. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  10. Assessment of the integrity of ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld joints of different grades of Cr-Mo ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    2010-07-01

    Integrity of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800, 9Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800 and 9Cr-1Mo-VNb / Alloy 800 ferritic-austenitic dissimilar joints, fusion welded employing Inconel 182 electrode, has been assessed under creep conditions at 823 K. The dissimilar weld joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals. The strength reduction was more for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and least for 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. The failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of heat-affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with decrease in stress. At still lower stresses the failure occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface. Localized creep deformation and cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure whereas creep cavitation at the weld interface particles induced ferritic / austenitic interface cracking due to high creep strength mismatch across it. Micromechanisms of type IV failure and interface cracking in the ferritic / austenitic joints and different susceptibility to failure for different grades of ferritic steels are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing and finite element analysis. (Note from indexer: paper contains many typographical errors.)

  11. Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminium-copper joints welded by FSW process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, M.; Sicoe, G.; Iacomi, D.; Niţu, E.; Ducu, C.

    2017-08-01

    The research conducted in this article aimed to check the quality of joining some dissimilar materials Al-Cu by determining the mechanical properties and microstructure analysis. For the experimental measurements there were used tin alloy Al - EN-AW-1050A with a thickness of 2 mm and Cu99 sheet with a thickness of 2 mm, joined by FSW weld overlay. The main welding parameters were: rotating speed of the rotating element 1400 rev/min, speed of the rotating element 50 mm/min. The experimental results were determined on samples specially prepared for metallographic analysis. In order to prepare samples for their characterization, there was designed and built a device that allowed simultaneous positioning and fixing for grinding. The characteristics analyzed in the joint welded samples were mictrostructure, microhardness and residual stresses. The techniques used to determine these characteristics were optical microscopy, electron microscopy with fluorescence radioactive elemental analysis (EDS), Vickers microhardness line - HV0.3 and X-ray diffractometry.

  12. Tensile properties of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and the weld joints after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Ioka, I.; Jitsukawa, S.; Hamada, A.; Hishinuma, A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    Tensile specimens of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and its weldments fabricated with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Electron Beam (EB) welding techniques were irradiated to a peak dose of 19 dpa and a peak helium level of 250 appm in the temperature range between 200 and 400{degrees}C in spectrally tailored capsules in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The He/dpa ratio of about 13 appm/dpa is similar to the typical helium/dpa ratio of a fusion reactor environment. The tensile tests were carried out at the irradiation temperature in vacuum. The irradiation caused an increase in yield stress to levels between 670 and 800 MPa depending on the irradiation temperature. Total elongation was reduced to less than 10%, however the specimens failed in a ductile manner. The results were compared with those of the specimens irradiated using irradiation capsules producing larger amount of He. Although the He/dpa ratio affected the microstructural change, the impact on the post irradiation tensile behavior was rather small for not only base metal specimens but also for the weld joint and the weld metal specimens.

  13. Formation of porous inner architecture at the interface of magnetic pulse welded Al/Cu joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapanathan, T.; Raoelison, R. N.; Yang, K.; Buiron, N.; Rachik, M.

    2016-10-01

    Porous inner architecture has been revealed at the interface of magnetic pulse welded aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) joints. These materials could serve the purpose of heterogeneous architectured materials, while their makeup of inner architecture of porous interface with the pore sizes of sub-micron to a few microns, could offer potential attributes in energy storage application. Two welding cases with various impact intensities are compared. An input voltage of 6.5 kV with an initial air gap of 1.5 mm and a higher voltage of 7.5 kV with a large initial air gap of 5 mm are respectively considered as two cases with low and high velocity impacts. Overall morphology of the porous medium was revealed at the interface either in layered or pocketed structures. The allocation of the porous zone and pore sizes vary with the impact condition. The low velocity impact welding conditions also produces smaller pores compared to the high velocity impact case, where the pore sizes varies in submicron to a few microns (<10μm). By investigating the potential mechanism of the porous zone formation, it was identified that a combined phenomena of cavitation and coalescence play a major role in nucleation and growth of the pores where a rapid cooling that eventually freezes the porous structure at the interface.

  14. Study on surface nanocrystallization and resisting H2S stresscorrosion properties of pressure vessel steel welding joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Many efforts were spent on the homogenization of microstructure and property of welding joints. A new surface nanocrystallization technique named Supersonic Particles Bombarding(SSPB) can be used for this purpose. Two kinds of pressure vessel steel welding joints, 16MnR and 0Cr18Ni9Ti, were chosen to be treated by SSPB. Transmission electron microscopy was introduced to examine the surface microstructure. And their ability to resist H2 S stress corrosion was enhanced significantly after the SSPB treatment. The mechanism for the results were analyzed as well.

  15. Effects of the heterogeneity in the electron beam welded joint on fatigue crack growth in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu Shubing, E-mail: hushubing@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xiao Jianzhong; Ji Longbo [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} The heterogeneity in electron beam welded joint was defined and described. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) in different zones. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rate in different thicknesses of the welded joint. {yields} The effect of heterogeneity on the FCGR was discussed from the microstructure by SEM and TEM. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rate was closely related to the heterogeneity. - Abstract: The heterogeneity of electron beam (EB)-welded joints in thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy plates is defined and described. The microstructure, hardness, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) in the fuse zone (FZ) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy EB-welded joint are studied using a new testing and interception method. The fatigue fractographs, crack growth paths and the microscopic deformation are observed through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effect mechanism of heterogeneity in the electron beam weld joint to FCGRs is discussed. The results reveal that FCGR is higher in the HAZ than in the FZ, mainly because of the effect of heterogeneity I of the welded joint. Heterogeneity II increases from the top to the root of the welding seam while the size of the {alpha}' phase decreases. Consequently, FCGR is higher at the root of the welding seam. Heterogeneity in the joint is found to greatly influence the FCGR.

  16. Investigation of corrosion of welded joints of austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of corrosion resistance of materials is one of the most important tests that allow determining their functional properties. Among these tests the special group consist electrochemical investigations, which let to accelerate the course of the process. These investigations allow rapidly estimating corrosion processes occurring in metal elements under the influence of the analysed environment. In the paper are presented results of investigations of the resistance to pitting corrosion of the steel of next grades: austenitic 316L and duplex 2205. It was also analysed the corrosion resistance of welded joints of these grades of steel. The investigations were conducted in two different corrosion environments: in the neutral one (3.5 % sodium chloride) and in the aggressive one (0.1 M sulphuric acid VI). The obtained results indicate different resistance of analysed grades of steel and their welded joints in relation to the corrosion environment. The austenitic 316L steel characterizes by the higher resistance to the pitting corrosion in the aggressive environment then the duplex 2205 steel. In the paper are presented results of potentiodynamic tests. They showed that all the specimens are less resistant to pitting corrosion in the environment of sulphuric acid (VI) than in the sodium chloride one. The 2205 steel has higher corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel in 3.5% NaCl. On the other hand, in 0.1 M H2SO4, the 316L steel has a higher corrosion resistance than the 2205 one. The weld has a similar, very good resistance to pitting corrosion like both steels.

  17. Numerical investigation of ductile crack growth behavior in a dissimilar metal welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.T. [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, G.Z., E-mail: gzwang@ecust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xuan, F.Z.; Tu, S.T. [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ductile crack growth behavior in a dissimilar metal welded joint was simulated. > Interface crack growth tends to deviate into material with lower yield stress. > Crack locations and mismatches affect local stress-strain distribution. > Local stress-strain leads to different crack growth resistances and paths. - Abstract: In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) based on GTN model is used to investigate the ductile crack growth behavior in single edge-notched bend (SENB) specimens of a dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) composed of four materials in the primary systems of nuclear power plants. The J-{Delta}a resistance curves, crack growth paths and local stress-strain distributions in front of crack tips are calculated for eight initial cracks with different locations in the DMWJ and four cracks in the four homogenous materials. The results show that the initial cracks with different locations in the DMWJ have different crack growth resistances and growth paths. When the initial crack lies in the centers of the weld Alloy182 and buttering Alloy82, the crack-tip plastic and damage zones are symmetrical, and the crack grow path is nearly straight along the initial crack plane. But for the interface cracks between materials and near interface cracks, the crack-tip plastic and damage zones are asymmetric, and the crack growth path has significant deviation phenomenon. The crack growth tends to deviate into the material whose yield stress is lower between the two materials on both sides of the interface. The different initial crack locations and mismatches in yield stress and work hardening between different materials in the DMWJ affect the local stress triaxiality and plastic strain distributions in front of crack tips, and lead to different ductile crack growth resistances and growth paths. For the accurate integrity assessment for the DMWJ, the fracture toughness data and resistance curves for the initial cracks with different locations in the

  18. Hardness analysis of welded joints of austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.

    2016-08-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in the modern world. The continuous increase in the use of stainless steels is caused by getting greater requirements relating the corrosion resistance of all types of devices. The main property of these steels is the ability to overlap a passive layer of an oxide on their surface. This layer causes that they become resistant to oxidation. One of types of corrosion-resistant steels is ferritic-austenitic steel of the duplex type, which has good strength properties. It is easily formable and weldable as well as resistant to erosion and abrasive wear. It has a low susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking, to stress corrosion, to intercrystalline one, to pitting one and to crevice one. For these reasons they are used, among others, in the construction of devices and facilities designed for chemicals transportation and for petroleum and natural gas extraction. The paper presents the results which shows that the particular specimens of the ][joint representing both heat affected zones (from the side of the 2205 steel and the 316L one) and the weld are characterized by higher hardness values than in the case of the same specimens for the 2Y joint. Probably this is caused by machining of edges of the sections of metal sheets before the welding process, which came to better mixing of native materials and the filler metal. After submerged arc welding the 2205 steel still retains the diphase, austenitic-ferritic structure and the 316L steel retains the austenitic structure with sparse bands of ferrite σ.

  19. Experimental examination of fatigue life of welded joint with stress concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Arsic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental examinations of stress concentration influence to fatigue life of butt welded joints with K-groove, produced from the most frequently used structural steel S355J2+N. One group of experiments comprised examinations carried out on the K-groove specimens with stress concentrators of edged notch type. Specimens with short cracks (limited length of initial crack, defined on the basis of the experience from fracture mechanics by the three points bending examinations, have been examined according to standard for the determination of S-N curve, and aimed to determine fatigue strengths for different lengths of initial crack and Relationship between fatigue strength and crack length. Other group of experiments comprised examinations of specimens with edge notch, prepared in accordance with ASTM E 399 for three points bending, in order to establish regularity between crack growth and range of exerted stress intensity factor aimed to determine resistance of welded joint to initial crack growth, namely fatigue threshold (ΔKth.

  20. A study on the fatigue life prediction of the various gas-welded joints using a probabilistic statistics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Yeb; Bae, Dong Ho

    2011-02-01

    Gas welding is a very important and useful technology in the fabrication of railroad cars and commercial vehicle structures. However, since the fatigue strength of gas-welded joints is considerably lower than that of the base of material due to stress concentration at the weld, the fatigue strength assessment of gas-welded joints is very important for the reliability and durability of railroad cars and establishment of criteria for long-life fatigue design. In this study, after evaluating the fatigue strength using a simulated specimen that satisfies not only the structural characteristics but also the mechanical condition of the actual structure, the fatigue design criteria are determined and applied to the fatigue design of the gas welded body structure. To save time and cost for the fatigue design, we investigated an accelerated life-prediction using a probabilistic statistics technique based on the theory of statistical reliability. The (Δσ a )R-Nf relationship was obtained from actual fatigue test data, including welding residual stress. On the basis of these results, the (Δσa)R-(Nf)ALP relationship that was derived from statistical probability analysis was compared with the actual fatigue test data. Therefore, it is expected that the accelerated life prediction will provide a useful method of determining the criteria for fatigue design and predicting a specific target life.

  1. Numerical Simulation on Interfacial Creep Failure of Dissimilar Metal Welded Joint between HR3C and T91 Heat-Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianqiang; TANG Yi; ZHANG Guodong; ZHAO Xuan; GUO Jialin; LUO Chuanhong

    2016-01-01

    The maximum principal stress, von Mises equivalent stress, equivalent creep strain, stress triaxiality in dissimilar metal welded joints between austenitic (HR3C) and martensitic heat-resistant steel (T91) are simulated by FEM at 873 K and under inner pressure of 42.26 MPa. The results show that the maximum principal stress and von Mises equivalent stress are quite high in the vicinity of weld/T91 interface, creep cavities are easy to form and expand in the weld/T91 interface. There are two peaks of equivalent creep strains in welded joint, and the maximum equivalent creep strain is in the place 27-32 mm away from the weld/T91 interface, and there exists creep constrain region in the vicinity of weld/T91 interface. The high stress triaxiality peak is located exactly at the weld/T91 interface. Accordingly, the weld/T91 interface is the weakest site of welded joint. Therefore, using stress triaxiality to describe creep cavity nucleation and expansion and crack development is reasonable for the dissimilar metal welded joint between austenitic and martensitic steel.

  2. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  3. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  4. The Optimization of Process Parameters and Microstructural Characterization of Fiber Laser Welded Dissimilar HSLA and MART Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental impact, safety and fuel efficiency are fundamental issues for the automotive industry. These objectives are met by using a combination of different types of steels in the auto bodies. Therefore, it is important to have an understanding of how dissimilar materials behave when they are welded. This paper presents the process parameters’ optimization procedure of fiber laser welded dissimilar high strength low alloy (HSLA and martensitic steel (MART steel using a Taguchi approach. The influence of laser power, welding speed and focal position on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the joints was determined. The optimum parameters for the maximum tensile load-minimum heat input were predicted, and the individual significance of parameters on the response was evaluated by ANOVA results. The optimum levels of the process parameters were defined. Furthermore, microstructural examination and microhardness measurements of the selected welds were conducted. The samples of the dissimilar joints showed a remarkable microstructural change from nearly fully martensitic in the weld bead to the unchanged microstructure in the base metals. The heat affected zone (HAZ region of joints was divided into five subzones. The fusion zone resulted in an important hardness increase, but the formation of a soft zone in the HAZ region.

  5. Influence of Tacking Sequence on Residual Stress and Distortion of Single Sided Fillet Submerged Arc Welded Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arpan Kumar Mondal; Pankaj Biswas; Swarup Bag

    2015-01-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is advantageous for joining high thickness materials in large structure due to high material deposition rate. The non-uniform heating and cooling generates the thermal stresses and subsequently the residual stresses and distortion. The longitudinal and transverse residual stresses and angular distortion are generally measured in large panel structure of submerged arc welded fillet joints. Hence, the objective of this present work is to quantify the amount of residual stress and distortion in and around the weld joint due to positioning of stiffeners tack. The tacking sequence influences the level of residual stress and proper controlling of tacking sequences is required to minimize the stress. In present study, an elasto-plastic material behavior is considered to develop the thermo mechanical model which predicts the residual stress and angular distortion with varying tacking sequences. The simulated result reveals that the tacking sequence heavily influences the residual stress and deformation pattern of the single sided fillet joint. The finite element based numerical model is calibrated by comparing the experimental data from published literature. Henceforth, the angular distortions are measured from an in-house developed experimental set-up. A fair agreement between the predicted and experimental results indicates the robustness of the developed numerical model. However, the most significant conclusion from present study states that tack weld position should be placed opposite to the fillet weld side to minimize the residual stress.

  6. Effect of Application of Short and Long Holds on Fatigue Life of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vani; Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-11-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a heat-treatable steel and hence the microstructure is temperature sensitive. During welding, the weld joint (WJ) is exposed to various temperatures resulting in a complex heterogeneous microstructure across the weld joint, such as the weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ) (consisting of coarse-grained HAZ, fine-grained HAZ, and intercritical HAZ), and the unaffected base metal of varying mechanical properties. The overall creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) response of the WJ is hence due to a complex interplay between various factors such as surface oxides and stress relaxation (SR) occurring in each microstructural zone. It has been demonstrated that SR occurring during application of hold in a CFI cycle is an important parameter that controls fatigue life. Creep-fatigue damage in a cavitation-resistant material such as modified 9Cr-1Mo steel base metal is accommodated in the form of microstructural degradation. However, due to the complex heterogeneous microstructure across the weld joint, SR will be different in different microstructural zones. Hence, the damage is accommodated in the form of preferential coarsening of the substructure, cavity formation around the coarsened carbides, and new surface formation such as cracks in the soft heat-affected zone.

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  8. Development of methodology for measurements of residual stresses in welded joint based on displacement of points in a coordinated table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Veras Siqueira Filho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses in a welded joint of ASTM A131 grade AH32 steel was measured either by the X-ray diffraction or by displacements of referenced points measured on a coordinate measuring machine before and after heat treatment. For all tests, the welding was performed with Shielded Metal Arc Welding, vertical-up position, by a certified welder. After welding, some specimens were subjected to marking, made through small holes evenly spaced and mapped on a coordinate measuring machine. After labeling, the samples were subjected to heat treatment at temperatures nearby recrystallization. After heat treatment, the samples were subjected to new measurements by coordinate measuring machine to evaluate the displacements of the points produced by the recrystallization. In parallel, residual stress measurements were made by XRD for validation of this new methodology. The results obtained either by X-ray or by coordinate measuring machine showed a good correlation between the two measurement methodologies employed.

  9. Microstructure and Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel Joints by PAW + GTAW Combined Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan

    2016-10-01

    The combined double-pass process of plasma arc welding (PAW) + gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was performed on 304 austenitic stainless steel with the thickness of 12 mm. Results indicated that two different morphologies of ferrite (e.g., lathy δ-ferrite and skeletal δ-ferrite) were formed within the austenite matrix in PAW weld metal (PAW-WM). GTAW weld metal (GTAW-WM) was mainly composed of fine austenite and skeletal δ-ferrite. In transition zone between PAW-WM and GTAW-WM, epitaxial growth contributed to cellular dendritic crystals transforming into columnar crystals. The tensile strength of joint is about 700 MPa. The impact toughness of WM varied from 281 J (20 °C) to 122 (-196 °C), while the impact toughness of heat-affected zone (HAZ) varied from 205 J (20 °C) to 112 J (-196 °C).

  10. Tensile Strength of Welded Joint of 1Cr18Ni9 Stainless Steel and Nb-1Zr Alloy Jointed by Electron Beam Self-material Brazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with Nb-1Zr alloy stainless steels have a quite difference in melting point, thermalphysical and electromagnetism properties etc.. Therefore, it is very difficulty to joint by melting weldingmethod. Electron beam self-brazing method is an accepted method to use for this kind of welding. Make

  11. Effects of arc-ultrasonic on pores distribution and tensile property in TIG welding joints of MGH956 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhuqiang@ujs.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Lei, Yu-cheng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Bo; Ye, Yi-min [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-12-15

    MGH956, a kind of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, which is considered as candidate structural material for advanced nuclear systems because of its excellent radiation resistance and high-temperature capability. However, pores in fusion welding joints seriously reduced the quality and performance of the joint and structure. Arc-ultrasonic technology was applied in this research in order to prevent pores and improve tensile strength. The results showed that the excitation current of arc-ultrasonic has great effect on the pores distribution and tensile property. When it is increased to 20 A or 30 A, few pores are in the joint and the tensile strength (about 550 MPa) is also improved. When the arc-ultrasonic frequency decreased from 60 kHz to 30 kHz, bubbles floated outside more easily, the tensile strength is increased to about 543 MPa. But arc-ultrasonic has little influence on weld joints microhardness change.

  12. Influences of size and position of defects on the fatigue life of electron beam welded-aluminum alloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li; ZHAO Haiyan; CAI Zhipeng; CUI Xiaofang

    2007-01-01

    Defects such as pores influence the fatigue life of electron beam-welded aluminum alloy joints. In this paper,the influences of pore size and position on the fatigue life of aluminum overlap joint are studied. A finite element model (FEM), combined with experimental data, is established to evaluate the fatigue life of overlap joints. By employing this FE model, the effects of pore size and position on fatigue lives of overlap joints are investigated and discussed. From the present study, when pore position is closer to the weld bead tip or the faying surface, the fatigue life decreases. Also, there is a critical size for the pore; when the pore size is larger than the critical value, the fatigue strength decreases sharply.

  13. Influence of Temperature and Chloride Concentration on Passivation Mechanism and Corrosion of a DSS2209 Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachemi, Hania; Azzaz, Mohamed; Djeghlal, Mohamed Elamine

    2016-10-01

    The passivity behavior of a 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, Mott-Schottky analysis and EIS measurements. In order to evaluate the contribution of temperature, chloride concentration and microstructure, a sequence of polarization tests were carried out in aerated NaCl solutions selected according to robust design of a three level-three factors Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio and ANOVA were achieved on all measured data, and the contribution of every control factor was estimated. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint is related to the evolution of the passive film formed on the surface. It was found that the passive film on the welded zone possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature and chlorides concentration, the corrosion resistance of the passive film is more affected in the weldment than in the base metal.

  14. Effect of heat treatment of formation of columnar ferrite structure in explosively welded titanium/hypoeutectoid steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizono, Y. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan); Nishida, M.; Chiba, A.; Yamamuro, T. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Explosive welding of titanium to hypoeutectoid steel (SS 400, 0.09 mass% C) was carried out, and interfacial aspects of as-welded and heat treated states have been investigated with a focus on microstructures of the steel. In as-welded joint, plastic flow occurred by high velocity collision was observed in the vicinity of the interface. The steel in the joints retained equiaxed structure consisting of ferrite and pearlite even after prolonged heat treatment up to 1173 K. Columnar grains were generated in the steel near the interface by the heat treatment at 1223 K and above. Although the region of the columnar ferrite structure increased with increasing heating temperature and holding time, texture with specific crystal orientation was not confirmed. It was found that such a microstructural change in the steel was closely related to constituent phases formed at the bonding interface. The formation mechanism of the columnar structure was also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Investigation on the Performance of Armour Grade Q&T Steel Joints Fabricated by Flux Cored Arc Welding with Low Hydrogen Ferritic Consumables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Magudeeswaran; V. Balasubramanian; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; G. Gopalakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to its high strength to weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and softening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS) consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy to avoid HIC because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. Recent studies revealed that low hydrogen ferritic (LHF) steel consumables can also be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits and required resistance against cold cracking. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the performance of armour grade Q&T steel joints fabricated by flux cored arc welding with LHF steel consumables. Two different consumables namely (i) austenitic stainless steel and (ii) low hydrogen ferritic steel have been used to fabricate the joints by flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process. The joints fabricated by LHF consumable exhibited superior transverse tensile properties due to the presence of ferrite microstructure in weld metal. The joints fabricated by ASS consumable showed higher impact toughness due to the presence of austenitic phase in weld metal microstructure. The HAZ softening in coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) is less in the joints fabricated using LHF consumable due to the lower heat input involved during fabrication compared to the joints fabricated using ASS consumables.

  16. Influence of Welding Technology on Strain Strengthening Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welded Joints%焊接工艺对奥氏体不锈钢焊接接头应变强化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王步美; 陈挺; 徐涛; 何华

    2013-01-01

    用等离子焊、埋弧焊和气体保护焊对不同厚度的国产304不锈钢板进行焊接,通过三种工艺焊接接头应变强化前后的力学性能和组织变化来研究焊接工艺对奥氏体不锈钢焊接接头应变强化性能的影响.结果表明:板材和三种焊接接头应变强化后,屈服强度均增大,板材和等离子焊焊接接头的其他性能基本不受影响,埋弧焊和气体保护焊的焊接接头的塑性有不同程度的降低,低温冲击韧性有一定幅度变化,组织都没有发生马氏体相变;焊缝余高和焊缝一次返修对气体保护焊焊接接头的应变强化性能基本没有影响.%Plasma welding, submerged arc welding and gas shielded arc welding were used to weld domestic 304 stainless steel plates with different thicknesses. The influences of welding technology on strain strengthening properties of austenitic stainless steel joints were investigated through changes of mechanical properties and microstructures of welding joints by three welding methods before and after strain strengthening. Results show that after being strain strengthened the yield strength of the plates and three welded joints increased, other properties of plates and plasma welded joints were not affected, while the ductility of submerged arc welded joint and gas shielded arc welded joint deteriorated. And the low temperature impact toughness of the welded joints varied in some amplitude. Martensite was not be found. Weld reinforcement and repair had no effect on strain strengthening properties of gas shielded arc welded joints.

  17. Correlation of microstructure and fracture toughness of advanced 9Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: Lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant of Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Renjie [Shanghai Turbine Works Company, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cui, Haichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-25

    In this paper, the fracture toughness and the related microstructure characteristics of dissimilarly welded joint manufactured by advanced 9Cr and CrMoV steels were systematically investigated. The dissimilarly welded joint was fabricated by narrow gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW) applying multi-layer and multi-pass technique. Fracture toughness, as one of the most important property to assess the reliability of welded joint, was studied for different regions including CrMoV base metal (CrMoV-BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side (CrMoV-HAZ), weld metal (WM), heat affected zone of 9Cr side (9Cr-HAZ) and 9Cr base metal (9Cr-BM). It was found that the fracture toughness of CrMoV-BM, CrMoV-HAZ and WM was better than that of 9Cr-HAZ and 9Cr-BM. In order to illustrate these results, the microstructure of the whole welded joint was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) detailedly. It was found that the fine high-temperature tempered martensite and bainite in WM, CrMoV-BM and CrMoV-HAZ contribute to the higher fracture toughness, while lower fracture toughness for 9Cr-BM and HAZ was caused by coarse tempered lath-martensite. Furthermore, the fracture morphology showed that ductile fracture occurred in WM and CrMoV side, while brittle fracture appeared in BM and HAZ of 9Cr side.

  18. Material flow analysis in dissimilar friction stir welding of AA2024 and Ti6Al4V butt joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BuffaGianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex material flow occurring during the weld of dissimilar AA2024 to Ti6Al4V butt and lap joints was highlighted through a dedicated numerical model able to take into account the effects of the different materials as well as the phase transformation of the used titanium alloy.

  19. Comparative Study on Joint Properties of Boron Steel by Laser Welding and Resistance Spot Welding%热成形硼钢激光焊接与电阻点焊接头性能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海宾; 陈铠; 肖荣诗; 陈树君

    2012-01-01

    An ultra-high strength boron steel was welded using CO2 laser welding system and intermediate frequency inverter & servo spot welding gun system, then the joint shear strength and micro-hardness were tested, microstructure was also observed. The results showed that the two welding methods can also obtain well-formed welded joints, the microstructure of weld metal is martensite, micro-hardness is equivalent to the base metal, the martensite obtained by laser welding is more fine than that obtained by resistance spot welding, and laser welding joints have got higher shear strength.%分别采用CO2激光焊接系统和中频伺服电阻点焊设备,对超高强度热成形硼钢进行了焊接试验,测试了接头的抗剪切强度和显微硬度,观察了焊缝显微组织.结果表明:两种焊接方式均能获得成形良好的焊接接头,焊缝组织基本为马氏体,显微硬度与母材相当,激光焊缝的马氏体组织明显更细化、抗剪切强度也更高.

  20. Effect of Welding Speed on Joint Features and Lap Shear Properties of Stationary Shoulder FSLWed Alclad 2024 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Lv, Zan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-03-01

    Using alclad 2024-T4 aluminum alloy as the research object, stationary shoulder technology was used in friction stir lap welding process to investigate its performance in this study. Joint features and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly investigated. Results show that lap joint with smooth surface, without shoulder marks and inner defects can be obtained using the stationary shoulder technology. With increasing the welding speed from 40 to 130 mm/min, effective sheet thickness (EST) at the advancing side (AS) shows rather stable values (from 1.17 to 1.31 mm), EST at the retreating side (RS) increases from 0.57 to 1.13 mm, and stir zone width decreases from 4.95 to 4.44 mm. Lap shear failure load of the SSFSLW joints firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the welding speed. Using 100 mm/min, the maximum failure loads of 15.85 and 9.01 kN were obtained when the RS and AS of the joint bear the main load during the lap shear test. Shear fracture mode and tensile fracture mode can be obtained during the lap shear test. All joints present ductile fracture mode.

  1. Effect of Welding Speed on Joint Features and Lap Shear Properties of Stationary Shoulder FSLWed Alclad 2024 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Lv, Zan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-02-01

    Using alclad 2024-T4 aluminum alloy as the research object, stationary shoulder technology was used in friction stir lap welding process to investigate its performance in this study. Joint features and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly investigated. Results show that lap joint with smooth surface, without shoulder marks and inner defects can be obtained using the stationary shoulder technology. With increasing the welding speed from 40 to 130 mm/min, effective sheet thickness (EST) at the advancing side (AS) shows rather stable values (from 1.17 to 1.31 mm), EST at the retreating side (RS) increases from 0.57 to 1.13 mm, and stir zone width decreases from 4.95 to 4.44 mm. Lap shear failure load of the SSFSLW joints firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the welding speed. Using 100 mm/min, the maximum failure loads of 15.85 and 9.01 kN were obtained when the RS and AS of the joint bear the main load during the lap shear test. Shear fracture mode and tensile fracture mode can be obtained during the lap shear test. All joints present ductile fracture mode.

  2. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded joints of new Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Le [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Peng, Yongyi, E-mail: pengyongyi@126.com [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Huang, Jiwu; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-01-03

    The effect of microalloy element Sc and Er on Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) joints of Al–Mg alloy was studied by comparative method. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy welded joint were examined by microhardness measurement, tensile test, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The strength of Al–Mg–Sc welded joint is higher than that of Al–Mg–Er welded joint. The differences of the two welded joints can be attributed to the different thermal stability and the effect of Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles. Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles, which have higher thermal stability, are still coherent with Al matrix in the HAZ, can strongly pin dislocations and subgrain boundaries of the HAZ. There are strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Sc welded joints. Notable coarsening of Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and recrystallization in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Er welded joint lead to the reduction and disappearance of strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening.

  3. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: crazyfim@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: luirdzib@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Ochoa, E.M., E-mail: emgarcia@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic interaction in welding improved localised corrosion resistance. • Electromagnetic interaction in welding enhanced γ/δ phase balance of DuplexSS. • Welding under Electromagnetic interaction repress formation and growth of detrimental phases. • Welds made with gas protection (2% O{sub 2} + 98% Ar) have better microstructural evolution during welding. - Abstract: The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O{sub 2} (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N{sub 2} (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  4. Resistance spot welding of a complicated joint in new advanced high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nick den Uijl; Joop Pauwelussen

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to investigate resistance spot welding of a complicated welding configuration of three sheets of dissimilar steel sheet materials with shunt welds, using simulations. The configuration used resembles a case study of actual welds in automotive applications. One of the

  5. Resistance spot welding of a complicated joint in new advanced high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijl, Nick den; Pauwelussen, Joop

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to investigate resistance spot welding of a complicated welding configuration of three sheets of dissimilar steel sheet materials with shunt welds, using simulations. The configuration used resembles a case study of actual welds in automotive applications. One of the stee

  6. Artificial neural network modeling studies to predict the friction welding process parameters of Incoloy 800H joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on friction welding process parameter optimization using a hybrid technique of ANN and different optimization algorithms. This optimization techniques are not only for the effective process modelling, but also to illustrate the correlation between the input and output responses of the friction welding of Incoloy 800H. In addition the focus is also to obtain optimal strength and hardness of joints with minimum burn off length. ANN based approaches could model this welding process of INCOLOY 800H in both forward and reverse directions efficiently, which are required for the automation of the same. Five different training algorithms were used to train ANN for both forward and reverse mapping and ANN tuned force approach was used for optimization. The paper makes a robust comparison of the performances of the five algorithms employing standard statistical indices. The results showed that GANN with 4-9-3 for forward and 4-7-3 for reverse mapping arrangement could outperform the other four approaches in most of the cases but not in all. Experiments on tensile strength (TS, microhardness (H and burn off length (BOL of the joints were performed with optimised parameter. It is concluded that this ANN model with genetic algorithm may provide good ability to predict the friction welding process parameters to weld Incoloy 800H.

  7. Fiber laser welding of austenitic steel and commercially pure copper butt joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntsev, S. V.; Morushkin, A. E.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2017-03-01

    The fiber laser welding of austenitic stainless steel and commercially pure copper in butt joint configuration without filler or intermediate material is presented. In order to melt stainless steel directly and melt copper via heat conduction a defocused laser beam was used with an offset to stainless steel. During mechanical tests the weld seam was more durable than heat affected zone of copper so samples without defects could be obtained. Three process variants of offset of the laser beam were applied. The following tests were conducted: tensile test of weldment, intermediate layer microhardness, optical metallography, study of the chemical composition of the intermediate layer, fractography. Measurements of electrical resistivity coefficients of stainless steel, copper and copper-stainless steel weldment were made, which can be interpreted or recalculated as the thermal conductivity coefficient. It shows that electrical resistivity coefficient of cooper-stainless steel weldment higher than that of stainless steel. The width of intermediate layer between stainless steel and commercially pure copper was 41-53 μm, microhardness was 128-170 HV0.01.

  8. Studies of residual stress measurement and analysis techniques for a PWR dissimilar weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Naoki, E-mail: naoki2_ogawa@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-1-1, Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago 676-8686 (Japan); Muroya, Itaru; Iwamoto, Youichi; Ohta, Takahiro; Ochi, Mayumi; Hojo, Kiminobu [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-1-1, Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago 676-8686 (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuo [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    For evaluation of the PWSCC crack propagation behavior, a test model was produced using the same fabrication process of Japanese PWR plants and the stress distribution change was measured during a fabrication process such as a hydrostatic test, welding a main coolant pipe to the stainless steel safe end and an operation condition test. For confirmation of validity of the numerical estimation method of the stress distribution, FE analysis was performed to calculate the stress distributions for each fabrication process. From the validation procedure, a standard residual stress evaluation method was established. Furthermore for consideration of characteristics of PWSCC's propagation behavior of the dissimilar welding joint of the safe end nozzles, the influence coefficients at the deepest point for the stress intensity factors of axial cracks with large aspect ratio a/c (crack depth/half of surface crack length) was prepared. The crack shape was assumed a rectangular shape and the stress intensity factors at the deepest point of the crack were calculated with change of crack depth using FE analysis. By using these stress distribution and influence coefficients, a behavior of a PWSCC crack propagation at the safe end nozzles can be estimated easily and rationally.

  9. Fatigue Behaviour of CFRP Strengthened Out-of-Plane Gusset Welded Joints with Double Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the fatigue behaviour of out-of-plane gusset welded joints strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates. Two notches were introduced at the weld toes adjacent to longitudinal plate ends to simulate the initial damage. Variables including the stress range, single- or double-sided strengthening and modulus of CFRP materials were considered. It was found that both cracks propagated under fatigue loading. All the specimens fractured along one predefined notch when the fatigue crack reached a certain length while the other crack also grew to some extent. Test results showed that the addition of composite materials significantly prolonged the fatigue life of specimens by as much as 1.28 to 8.17 times. Double-sided bond and ultra-high modulus CFRP materials led to a better strengthening efficiency. Thereafter, a series of numerical analyses were performed to study the stress intensity factor (SIF and crack opening displacement (COD. Local debonding around the crack tip at the adhesive-steel interface was taken into consideration. Finally, the fatigue life of all the specimens was evaluated based on the linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM theory and the predicted results agreed well with the experimental data.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of Calculating Temperatures in the Combining Zone of Cu/Fe Composite Plate Jointed by Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y. D.; Zhang, W. J.; Kong, X. Q.; Zhao, X.

    2016-03-01

    The heat-transfer behavior of the interface of Flyer plate (or Base Plate) has great influence on the microcosmic structures, stress distributions, and interface distortion of the welded interface of composite plates by explosive welding. In this paper, the temperature distributions in the combing zone are studied for the case of Cu/Fe composite plate jointed by explosive welding near the lower limit of explosive welding. The results show that Flyer plate (Cu plate) and Base Plate (Fe plate) firstly almost have the same melting rate in the explosive welding process. Then, the melting rate of Cu plate becomes higher than that of Fe plate. Finally, the melt thicknesses of Cu plate and Fe plate trend to be different constants, respectively. Meanwhile, the melting layer of Cu plate is thicker than that of Fe plate. The research could supply some theoretical foundations for calculating the temperature distribution and optimizing the explosive welding parameters of Cu/Fe composite plate to some extent.

  11. Experimental and simulation study on the microstructure of TA15 titanium alloy laser beam welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Peng, Qingyu; Wei, Yanhong; Ou, Wenmin

    2017-09-01

    Laser beam welding technique offers obvious advantages over other fusion welding processes in terms of joining titanium alloy. The microstructure of welded seam and heat affected zone resulted from diverse welding speeds and laser powers were investigated after simulating welding heat treatment. The analysis of the thermal transport properties successfully explained the morphology. Optimal process parameters were obtained. The simulation results were consistent with the corresponding experimental observations.

  12. Optimization of the welding process of high alloyed steels and improvement of corrosion behaviour of welded joints; Optimierung des Schweissprozesses hochlegierter Staehle und Verbesserung der Korrosionsbestaendigkeit der Schweissverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, K.; Goellner, J. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, IWW, PF 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Ryspaev, T.; Reiter, R.; Wesling, V. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Agricolastrasse 2, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The optimization of welding processes is necessary to obtain a good durability of the welded joints connected with a minimization of the corrosion performance. Welding processes represent a considerable influence of the material. The formation of precipitations, strong structure changes, increasing of the residual stress and not at all undefined surface layers are possible. All these changes have a great influence on the corrosion behaviour. Particularly tempering tarnish changes the passive layer which is decisive for the corrosion resistance. But also surface treatment methods can influence the corrosion behaviour. Therefore both the welding process and an ''after-care'' coordinated with the respective welding process had to be optimized. The optimization of the welding process was carried out by variation of the energy per unit length and the use of different protective gases. For a selection of a surface treatment method it has to be taken into account that an obvious remove of the tempering tarnish doesn't lead to an improvement in the corrosion behaviour. Traces of the working tool which can have a negative effect on the corrosion behaviour often remain on the surface. The influence of these different parameters on the corrosion property could be proved by electrochemical and surface analytical examinations. The investigations were carried out at specimens of two typical representatives of high alloyed austenitic steels and at welded joints, which had different surface treatments. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Optimierung von Schweissprozessen ist erforderlich, um eine gute Haltbarkeit der Schweissverbindungen und eine Minimierung der Korrosionsneigung zu erzielen. Schweissprozesse stellen eine erhebliche Beeinflussung fuer den Werkstoff dar. Es kann dabei zu Ausscheidungen bzw. zu starken Gefuegeveraenderungen, zur Erhoehung der Eigenspannungen und nicht zuletzt zu Schichtbildungen kommen. All

  13. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rentería, M. A.; López-Morelos, V. H.; García-Hernández, R.; Dzib-Pérez, L.; García-Ochoa, E. M.; González-Sánchez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O2 (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N2 (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  14. Influence of Oxides on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangchuan; Luo, Zhen; Huang, Zunyue; Zeng, Yida

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted into the effect of oxides on penetrations, microstructures and mechanical properties of BS700MC super steel weld bead. Boron oxide changed the penetration of weld bead by changing the Marangoni convection in the weld pool and contracting the welding arc. Chromium oxide only changed the Marangoni convection in the weld pool to increase the penetration of super steel. Thus, the super steel weld bead has higher penetration coated with flux boron oxide than that coated with chromium oxide. In other words, the activating flux TIG (A-TIG) welding with flux boron oxide has less welding heat input than the A-TIG welding with flux chromium oxide. As a result, on the one hand, there existed more fine and homogeneous acicular ferrites in the microstructure of welding heat-affected zone when the super steel was welded by A-TIG with flux boron oxide. Thus, the weld beads have higher value of low-temperature impact toughness. On the other hand, the softening degree of welding heat-affected zone, welded by A-TIG with flux boron oxide, will be decreased for the minimum value of welding heat input.

  15. Change of nonlinear acoustics in ASME grade 122 steel welded joint during creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Toshihiro; Honma, Takumi; Ishii, Yutaka; Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Hirao, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we described the changes of two nonlinear acoustic characterizations; resonant frequency shift and three-wave interaction, with electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) throughout the creep life in the welded joints of ASME Grade 122, one of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steels. EMAR was a combination of the resonant acoustic technique with a non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). These nonlinear acoustic parameters decreased from the start to 50% of creep life. After slightly increased, they rapidly increased from 80% of creep life to rupture. We interpreted these phenomena in terms of dislocation recovery, recrystallization, and restructuring related to the initiation and growth of creep void, with support from the SEM and TEM observation.

  16. The eta phases and mechanical properties of TIG welded joints of WC-Co cemented carbide and steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀娟; 杨德新; 王浩; 高泽幸治; 田头孝介; 山森英明

    2004-01-01

    The tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) arc welding experiments of cemented carbide YG30 and steel 45 were carried out using the Ni-Fe-C filling alloys. The eta phases and mechanical properties of welded joints were analyzed by means of scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electronic microscope (TEM) coupled with selected diffraction, electronic probe microanalysis and bending strength methods. The experimental results show that the chemical composition of the filling alloys affects eta phase formation. When the carbon and nickel contents in filling alloys are 0.61 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, no eta phases form. And the joint bending strength is the highest to 1.352GPa. But if they are 0.01wt% and 55.38wt%, the eta phases are formed at the boundaries of the cemented carbide and the weld, and the thickness of eta phase layer is about 110 micrometers. And the joint bending strength is low. Usually, these eta phases are anomalously granular, and easy to accumulate at the boundaries between cemented carbides and the weld. They are multiple M6C rich in tungsten and iron.

  17. Comparative study on twinning characteristics during two post-weld compression paths and their effects on joint enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Xin, Renlong; Li, Dongrong; Sun, Liyun; Liu, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has promising application potential in Mg alloys. However, the texture distribution in stir zone (SZ) is usually complicated for Mg alloys, which deterioriates the joint performance. In this study, the texture distribution in SZ was tailored by applying two kinds of post-weld compression deformation along normal direction (ND) or welding direction (WD) of the FSWed AZ31 Mg alloy plates. The twinning behavior and texture change in the various regions of SZ were then evaluated by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) characterization. The effect of texture change on the joint performance was discussed in terms of Schmid factors (SFs) for basal slip and extension twinning. The results showed that profuse extension twins were formed through the whole SZ for the sample subjected to compression along ND, whereas they were observed mainly in SZ-side for the sample compressed along WD. Most of the twins were present in the forms of twin bands or chains. The directions of the twin bands or chains were related to the habit plane traces of selected twin variants. The ND post-weld compression had better strengthening effects on the joints compared to the WD compression, and the underline mechanism was discussed.

  18. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti3Al/Ni-based superalloy joints arc welded with Ti–Nb and Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar joining of Ti3Al-based alloy to Ni-based superalloy has been carried out using gas tungsten arc (GTA welding technology with Ti–Nb and Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloys. The joint welded with the Ti–Nb filler alloy contained much less interfacial brittle phases than the one using the Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloy. The average room-temperature tensile strength of the joint welded with Ti–Nb was 202 MPa and the strength value of the one welded with Ti–Ni–Nb was 128 MPa. For both fillers, the weak links of the dissimilar joints were the weld/In718 interfaces. The presence of TiNi, TiNi3 and Ni3Nb intermetallic compounds in the joint welded with Ti–Ni–Nb induced microcracks at the weld/In718 interface and deteriorated the mechanical properties of the joint. And the adoption of the Ti–Nb filler alloy decreased the formation tendency of interfacial brittle phases to some extent and thus enhanced the tensile strength of the joint.

  19. Fatigue design of welded joints using the finite element method and the 2007 ASME Div. 2 Master curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nicoletto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of welded structures is primarily based on a nominal stress; hot spot stress methods or local approaches each having several limitations when coupled with finite element modeling. An alternative recent structural stress definition is discussed and implemented in a post-processor. It provides an effective means for the direct coupling of finite element results to the fatigue assessment of welded joints in complex structures. The applications presented in this work confirm the main features of the method: mesh-insensitivity, accurate crack location and life to failure predictions.

  20. Measurement of residual stresses in the dissimilar metal weld joint of a safe-end nozzle mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuo (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, Tokyo (Japan)); Kingston, E.; Chidwick, L. (VEQTER Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)); Smith, D. (Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge of the origin, magnitude and distribution of residual stresses generated during the manufacture of nuclear power plants is of vital importance to their structural integrity assessment. The overall aim of this work was to measure welding residual stresses in components prone to primary water stress corrosion cracking in nuclear reactor pressure vessels. This paper describes the on-site application of the Deep-Hole Drilling (DHD) technique to measure the through-thickness residual stress distributions through a safe-end nozzle component containing a dissimilar metal weld joint at different stages of manufacture

  1. Numerical simulation about the effect of fixture on the welding stress and distortion of thin aluminum plate joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of welding jig on the welding stress and buckling distortion of thin aluminum plate joints was simulated by finite element method (FEM). The results show that the restraint distance and the heat conduction ability of the fixture do have essential effects on the residual stress and distortion. The residual compressive stress and distortion will be increasing with the increase of the restraint distance, while the residual compressive stress and distortion will be decreasing with the increase of the heat conduction ability of the fixture.

  2. Numerical modelling of welding distortion redistribution due to the change of self-constraint in a T-joint welded structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Jae Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for analysing the potential deformation during a material removal process. After the removal of material, re-establishment of equilibrium within the remaining part of the structure causes distortion due to the relief of residual stress in the removed materials. In this study, commercial FEM software (MSC.Marc) was used to simulate material removal, and the accuracy was evaluated by comparison with results from machining experiments. The effect of cutting height on the distortion redistribution and the kerf width in a T-joint welded structure is discussed, and the distortion differences at the centre line of the bottom were compared between the calculated and experimental results. The results demonstrate that the developed model is useful and efficient for simulating the redistribution of welding distortion due to material removal.

  3. The role of Ti carbonitride precipitates on fusion zone strength-toughness in submerged arc welded linepipe joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucott, L., E-mail: la126@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Wen, S.W., E-mail: shuwen.wen@tatasteel.com [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Tata Steel, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom); Dong, H., E-mail: hd38@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-12

    The role of micro-alloying in the submerged arc welding (SAW) of high strength low alloy steel linepipe is paramount in facilitating the high strength properties of the linepipe. In this study, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of large (0.85 µm) Ti (C,N) precipitates within the predominantly acicular ferrite SAW joint. Cross-weld Vickers hardness and Charpy impact tests revealed that the fusion zone has high hardness and low toughness properties in relation to the base metal and heat affected zone. Fractography observations made on the ductile fracture surface of the fusion zone revealed a high number of the large Ti (C,N) precipitates to be located within the microvoids – suggesting their role in nucleating microvoids. Finally, fracture micro-mechanics are used to evaluate the relationship between the coarse precipitates and reduced strength-toughness properties in the SAW weld of the API-5L grade X65 linepipe steel.

  4. Influence of joint line remnant on crack paths under static and fatigue loadings in friction stir welded Al-Mg-Sc alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Besel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the joint line remnant (JLR on tensile and fatigue fracture behaviour has been investigated in a friction stir welded Al-Mg-Sc alloy. JLR is one of the microstructural features formed in friction stir welds depending on welding conditions and alloy systems. It is attributed to initial oxide layer on butting surfaces to be welded. In this study, two different tool travel speeds were used. JLR was formed in both welds but its spatial distribution was different depending on the tool travel speeds. Under the tensile test, the weld with the higher heat input fractured partially along JLR, since strong microstructural inhomogeneity existed in the vicinity of JLR in this weld and JLR had weak bonding. Resultantly, the mechanical properties of this weld were deteriorated compared with the other weld. Fatigue crack initiation was not affected by the existence of JLR in all welds. But the crack propagated preferentially along JLR in the weld of the higher heat input, when it initiated on the retreating side. Consequently, such crack propagation behaviour along JLR could bring about shorter fatigue lives in larger components in which crack growth phase is dominant.

  5. Laser-based welding of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel in a tubular butt joint configuration with a built-in backing bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Liu, Wei; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Laser-based welding of thick 17-4 precipitation hardening (PH) martensitic stainless steel (SS) plates in a tubular butt joint configuration with a built-in backing bar is very challenging because the porosity and cracks are easily generated in the welds. The backing bar blocked the keyhole opening at the bottom surface through which the entrapped gas could escape, and the keyhole was unstable and collapsed overtime in a deep partially penetrated welding conditions resulting in the formation of pores easily. Moreover, the fast cooling rate prompted the ferrite transform to austenite which induced cracking. Two-pass welding procedure was developed to join 17-4 PH martensitic SS. The laser welding assisted by a filler wire, as the first pass, was used to weld the groove shoulder. The added filler wire could absorb a part of the laser beam energy; resulting in the decreased weld depth-to-width ratio and relieved intensive restraint at the weld root. A hybrid laser-arc welding or a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) was used to fill the groove as the second pass. Nitrogen was introduced to stabilize the keyhole and mitigate the porosity. Preheating was used to decrease the cooling rate and mitigate the cracking during laser-based welding of 17-4 PH martensitic SS plates.

  6. Distribution of mechanical properties in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.3 nozzle and F316L safe-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the distribution of tensile properties and fracture toughness in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.3 nozzle and F316L SS safe-end at ambient temperature. Tensile and J-R tests were conducted using the specimens extracted form both base metals, Heat Affected Zones (HAZs), buttering, and various regions of weld metal. It showed that root region of weld exhibits higher strengths than upper region. The yield and tensile strengths considerably varied within root region of weld, the lowest strengths appeared at buttering region and gradually increased with approaching boundary with F316L stainless steel, whereas the variation of strengths within the weld was insignificant at upper region of weld. It was also indicated that fracture toughness of Alloy 82/182 weld metal was lower than that of both base metals and both HAZs. Within the Alloy 82/182 weld, the center of weld showed slightly lower fracture toughness than weld boundary and buttering, and the root region showed higher toughness than upper region of weld.

  7. Charpy impact test of Ti-6Al-4V joints diffusion welded at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.M.G. de; Urena, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Carrion, J.G. [National Inst. of Aeroespatial Technologies, Madrid (Spain). Materials and Structures Div.

    1996-08-15

    The Diffusion Welding (DW) of two or more sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is particularly interesting for aerospace parts manufacturing. In some cases, DW can be carried out together with Superplastic Forming (SPF), because they can share a single facility and the same processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure, time, surface condition and vacuum. The overall manufacturing process is known as SPF/DW, by which it is possible to obtain honeycomb structures in a range of designs. Temperature requirements for industrial SPF of Ti-6Al-4V are very restrictive and a temperature of 1,023 K is needed. However, temperature is not so critical for DW, and the bond can be produced at lower temperatures, when other DW parameters, mainly pressure and time, are changed in a suitable way. The DW parameters for this research were chosen in order to produce DW joints below 1,023 K. The differences between DW at SPF temperatures and other lower temperatures would thus be revealed. Mechanical tests were used as a tool to check DW joints obtained at the temperatures used in the research (1,123 K and 1,023 K), and were complemented with metallographic studies. The results obtained form shear and peel tests have been already discussed. In the present work the results of impact energy tests are also presented.

  8. Improvement in Joint Strength of Spray-Deposited Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy in Underwater Friction Stir Welding by Altered Temperature of Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haimei; Yan, Keng; Wang, Qingzhao; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    We improved the joint properties of spray-deposited Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy during underwater friction stir welding at cooling media temperatures of 8.6, 24.8 and 58.6 °C, respectively. The joint welded at high temperature (58.6 °C) showed a high tensile strength (467.18 MPa) and improved elongation. Its thermal cycle indicates preheating and slow cooling, which created a mild and uniform temperature gradient on both sides of the joint. DSC, SEM and EDS, and XRD analyses indicate that high-temperature cooling medium facilitated re-dissolution of the strengthening phases in the matrix, to strengthen the joint. Al32(Mg,Zn)49 exhibited a semi-coherent structure with matrix detected in the joint welded in a high-temperature medium. The high-temperature cooling medium is most efficient for joint optimization.

  9. Creep rupture behavior of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Mo–VNb (ASME grade 92) ferritic steel weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, T., E-mail: tsakthivel@igcar.gov.in; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K., E-mail: laha@igcar.gov.in; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Maduraimuthu, V.; Mathew, M.D.

    2014-01-03

    Creep rupture behavior of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Mo–VNb (ASME grade 92) ferritic steel weld joint fabricated by activated TIG (A-TIG) welding process have been investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 80–150 MPa. The weld joint was comprise of fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. The HAZ consisted of coarse prior-austenite grain (CGHAZ), fine prior-austenite grain (FGHAZ) and intercritical (ICHAZ) regions in an order away from the fusion zone to base metal. A hardness trough was observed at the outer edge of HAZ of the weld joint. TEM investigation revealed the presence of coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and recovery of martensite lath structure into subgrain in the ICHAZ of the weld joint, leading to the hardness trough. The weld joint exhibited lower creep rupture lives than the base metal at relatively lower stresses. Creep rupture failure location of the weld joint was found to shift with applied stress. At high stresses fracture occurred in the base metal, whereas failure location shifted to FGHAZ at lower stresses with significant decrease in rupture ductility. SEM investigation of the creep ruptured specimens revealed precipitation of Laves phase across the joint, more extensively in the FGHAZ. On creep exposure, the hardness trough was found to shift from the ICHAZ to FGHAZ. Extensive creep cavitation was observed in the FGHAZ and was accompanied with the Laves phase, leading to the premature type IV failure of the steel weld joint at the FGHAZ.

  10. Detailed Microstructural Characterization and Restoration Mechanisms of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel Friction-Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T. F. A.; Torres, E. A.; Lippold, J. C.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Duplex stainless steels are successfully used in a wide variety of applications in areas such as the food industry, petrochemical installations, and sea water desalination plants, where high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength are required. However, during fusion welding operations, there can be changes to the favorable microstructure of these materials that compromise their performance. Friction stir welding with a non-consumable pin enables welded joints to be obtained in the solid state, which avoids typical problems associated with solidification of the molten pool, such as segregation of alloying elements and the formation of solidification and liquefaction cracks. In the case of superduplex stainless steels, use of the technique can avoid unbalanced proportions of ferrite and austenite, formation of deleterious second phases, or growth of ferritic grains in the heat-affected zone. Consolidated joints with full penetration were obtained for 6-mm-thick plates of UNS S32101 and S32205 duplex stainless steels, and S32750 and S32760 superduplex steels. The welding heat cycles employed avoided the conditions required for formation of deleterious phases, except in the case of the welded joint of the S32760 steel, where SEM images indicated the formation of secondary phases, as corroborated by decreased mechanical performance. Analysis using EBSD and transmission electron microscopy revealed continuous dynamic recrystallization by the formation of cellular arrays of dislocations in the ferrite and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in the austenite. Microtexture evaluation indicated the presence of fibers typical of shear in the thermomechanically affected zone. These fibers were not obviously present in the stir zone, probably due to the intensity of microstructural reformulation to which this region was subjected.

  11. Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of TIG and A-TIG Welded Joints of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel S82441 / 1.4662

    OpenAIRE

    Brytan Z.; Niagaj J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of pitting corrosion resistance of TIG (autogenous and with filler metal) and A-TIG welded lean duplex stainless steel S82441/1.4662 evaluated according to ASTM G48 method, where autogenous TIG welding process was applied using different amounts of heat input and shielding gases like pure Ar and Ar+N2 and Ar+He mixtures. The results of pitting corrosion resistance of the welded joints of lean duplex stainless steel S82441 were studied in as weld conditions and afte...

  12. Possibility of Inducing Compressive Residual Stresses in Welded Joints of SS400 Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Since the welded constructions produce easily stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or fatigue disruption in corrosive medium or under ripple load, two methods inducing compressive stress on structural surfaces by anti-welding-heating treatment (AWHT) and explosion treatment (ET) are presented. The results show that they are good ways to resisting SCC on the welded SS400 steel or other components.

  13. Real time monitoring of spot-welded joints under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Zheng, Botong; Dawood, Mina; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a nondestructive method to evaluate the health status of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joint under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) active sensing system, in which the PZT transducers were used as both actuator and sensor. The physical principle of the approach was validated through a numerical analysis showing that an opening between the faying faces at the welded joint occurred under tension load. The opening decreased the contact area hence reduced the amplitude of the stress wave received by the PZT sensor. Therefore, by comparing the energy index of the signals before and after the loading, the health condition of the joint can be evaluated. Five ST14 steel single lap joint specimens were tested under tension load while being monitored by the PZT sensing system and digital image correlation (DIC) system in real time. The data obtained from the DIC system validated the numerical results. By comparing the energy index of the signal obtained from the PZT sensing system before and after unloading, it was concluded that the RSW joint was intact after being loaded to the service load. The proposed method is promising in evaluating the health condition of RSW joint nondestructively.

  14. Weld Joint Defect Analysis of Friction Stir Welding of Polypropylene Plastic Plate%聚丙烯塑料板搅拌摩擦焊接头缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党杰; 张琳

    2014-01-01

    搅拌摩擦焊具有高效、节能、无污染等优点,既能焊接铝合金等低熔点材料,也能焊接聚丙烯塑料板材。各种工艺参数合理匹配时,焊缝美观,质量良好。但是,工艺参数选择不当时,焊缝会存在明显缺陷。本文分析了用搅拌摩擦焊焊接聚丙烯塑料板时所出现的飞边、孔洞等缺陷。%Friction stir welding have more advantages as high effectiveness, energy saving and environmental friendly. It not only can weld low melting point materials such as aluminum alloy but also weld polypropylene ( PP) plastic plate. The appropriate welding parameters can make the quality reliable and the weld joint forms well. But, the weld joint may have exists defect when welding parameter choice unsuitable. This paper analyzes the defects such as flash and holes when using friction stir welding for PP plastic plate.

  15. Study on H2S stress corrosion test of welded joint for X65 pipeline steel and numerical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓军; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 白秉仁; 李晓巍; 曹军

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of welded joint for the X65 pipeline steel to H2S stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is investigated. SCC tests on the steel are carried out in the environment based on NACE TM-01-77 solution with saturated gaseous H2S. The threshold stress intensity factor and crack propagation velocity are calculated according to wedge-opening loading (WOL) specimens. The three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of WOL specimens is performed by using the FEM programming package ANSYS. Stress field and concentration of hydrogen distribution property ahead of the crack tip are obtained. This paper surveyed the microstructure of welded joint and studied on the mechanical properties of X65 pipeline steel. It provides experimental basis for studying stress corrosion. The results of numerical analysis are consistent with conclusions of stress corrosion test.

  16. The effect of variable loading onintegrity of a welded joint of high alloy-steel X20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Burzić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present paper, experimental investigations have included the effect of exploitation conditions (exploitation time and temperature on properties of high-cycle fatigue and parameters of fatigue-crack growth of a welded joint of steel X20 CrMoV 12-1 (X20. The effect of exploitation conditions was analysed by testing new pipe and the pipe having been exploited for 116 000 hours. The results obtained by testing and their analysis provide a practical contribution to assessment of quality of a welded joint of steel X20, the aim of which is revitalisation and extension of exploitation life of vital components of thermal power plants manufactured from high-alloy steel for operation at elevated temperatures.

  17. Impact of M2-Hss Tool Pin Profile in Fsw Welded Joints On Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir, “welding is a solid state joining process and is widely being considered for aluminium alloys. The main advantage of FSW is the material that is being welded undergoes only localized changes. The welding parameter and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this work an effort has been made to analyze microstructure of aluminium AA 7075-T6 alloy. Three different tool profiles (Taper Threaded, cylindrical and square have been used to construct the joints in particular rotational speed. Tensile, Impact, micro hardness of mechanical properties of the joints have been evaluated and the formation of FSP zone has been analyzed microscopically. From the investigation it is found that the threaded cylindrical profile produces highly (defined Strength in welds.

  18. Investigation on fracture behavior of the welded joint HAZ of ultra-fine grain steel SS400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱政强; 陈立功; 荆洪阳; 葛景国; 倪纯珍; 饶德林

    2003-01-01

    The critical crack dimensions of both base-metal specimen and HAZ specimen are measured via wide-plate tensile tests. Based on the "fitness for purpose" principle, the fracture behavior of the ultra-fine grain steel SS400 welded joint HAZ is assessed. The test results indicate that overmatching is benefit for the whole capability's improvement of ultra-fine grain steel SS400. The test results are confirmed by using finite element method (FEM).

  19. Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of TIG and A-TIG Welded Joints of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel S82441 / 1.4662

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytan Z.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of pitting corrosion resistance of TIG (autogenous and with filler metal and A-TIG welded lean duplex stainless steel S82441/1.4662 evaluated according to ASTM G48 method, where autogenous TIG welding process was applied using different amounts of heat input and shielding gases like pure Ar and Ar+N2 and Ar+He mixtures. The results of pitting corrosion resistance of the welded joints of lean duplex stainless steel S82441 were studied in as weld conditions and after different mechanical surface finish treatments. The results of the critical pitting temperature (CPT determined according to ASTM G48 at temperatures of 15, 25 and 35°C were presented. Three different surface treatment after welding were applied: etching, milling, brushing + etching. The influence of post weld surface treatment was studied in respect to the pitting corrosion resistance, basing on CPT temperature.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Welded Ti3Al/Ni-Based Superalloy Joint Using a Ni-Cu Filler Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Qing; Xiong, Hua-Ping; Guo, Shao-Qing; Sun, Bing-Bing; Chen, Bo; Tang, Si-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Dissimilar welding of a Ti3Al-based alloy and a Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 718) was successfully carried out using gas tungsten arc welding technology in this study. With a Ni-Cu alloy as filler material, sound joints have been obtained. The microstructure evolution along the cross section of the dissimilar joint has been revealed based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffractometer. It is found that the weld/Ti3Al interface is composed of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu, Al(Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Nb, Ti) solid solution, and so on. The weld and In718/weld interface mainly consist of (Cu, Ni) solid solutions. The weld exhibits higher microhardness than the two base materials. The average room-temperature tensile strength of the joints reaches 242 MPa and up to 73.6 pct of the value can be maintained at 873 K (600 °C). The brittle intermetallic phase of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu at the weld/Ti3Al interface is the weak link of the joint.