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Sample records for weld overlay cladding

  1. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  2. Analysis of mechanical tensile properties of irradiated and annealed RPV weld overlay cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, J [Czech Nuclear Society, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    Mechanical tensile properties of irradiated and annealed outer layer of reactor pressure vessel weld overlay cladding, composed of Cr19Ni10Nb alloy, have been experimentally determined by conventional tensile testing and indentation testing. The constitutive properties of weld overlay cladding are then modelled with two homogenization models of the constitutive properties of elastic-plastic matrix-inclusion composites; numerical and experimental results are then compared. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Analysis of mechanical tensile properties of irradiated and annealed RPV weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical tensile properties of irradiated and annealed outer layer of reactor pressure vessel weld overlay cladding, composed of Cr19Ni10Nb alloy, have been experimentally determined by conventional tensile testing and indentation testing. The constitutive properties of weld overlay cladding are then modelled with two homogenization models of the constitutive properties of elastic-plastic matrix-inclusion composites; numerical and experimental results are then compared. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer was type 309, and the upper two layers were type 308 stainless steel. The type 309 was diluted considerably by excessive melting of the base plate. The three-wire method used various combinations of types 308, 309, and 304 stainless steel weld wires, and produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  5. An investigation on microstructure and mechanical property of thermally aged stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.Y. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Zhu, P. [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., 1788 Xihuan Road, 215004 Suzhou (China); Ding, X.F. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Lu, Y.H., E-mail: lu_yonghao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Shoji, T. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba AramakiAobaku, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    Microstructural evolution and mechanical property change of E308L stainless steel weld overlay cladding aged at 400 °C for 400, 1000 and 5000 h were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small punch test (SPT). The results indicated that thermal aging had no obvious effect on the volume fraction of ferrite, but can cause microstructural evolution by spinodal decomposotion and G-phase precipitation in the ferrite phase. Spinodal decomposition took place after aging up to 1000 h, while G-phase formed along dislocations, and growed up to 2–11 nm after aging for 5000 h. The total energy for inducing deformation and fracture by the small punch tests decreased with the increase of thermal aging time, and this decline was associated with spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation. Plastic deformation of the aged ferrite proceeded via formation of curvilinear slip bands. Nucleation of microcracks occurred at the δ/γ interface along the slip bands. The hardening of the ferrite and high stress concentration on δ/γ phase interface resulted in brittle fracture and phase boundary separation after thermal aging. - Highlights: •Spinodal decomposition took place after long-term therml aging at 400 °C. •Dislocations were the preferable sites for G-phase formation aged at 400 °C for 5000 h. •Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation induced reduction of small punch energy. •Thermal aging led to brittle fracture and phase boundary separation. •Nucleation of microcracks occurred at the δ/γ interface along the slip bands in the aged ferrite phase.

  6. An investigation on microstructure and mechanical property of thermally aged stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, X.Y.; Zhu, P.; Ding, X.F.; Lu, Y.H.; Shoji, T.

    2017-01-01

    Microstructural evolution and mechanical property change of E308L stainless steel weld overlay cladding aged at 400 °C for 400, 1000 and 5000 h were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small punch test (SPT). The results indicated that thermal aging had no obvious effect on the volume fraction of ferrite, but can cause microstructural evolution by spinodal decomposotion and G-phase precipitation in the ferrite phase. Spinodal decomposition took place after aging up to 1000 h, while G-phase formed along dislocations, and growed up to 2–11 nm after aging for 5000 h. The total energy for inducing deformation and fracture by the small punch tests decreased with the increase of thermal aging time, and this decline was associated with spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation. Plastic deformation of the aged ferrite proceeded via formation of curvilinear slip bands. Nucleation of microcracks occurred at the δ/γ interface along the slip bands. The hardening of the ferrite and high stress concentration on δ/γ phase interface resulted in brittle fracture and phase boundary separation after thermal aging. - Highlights: •Spinodal decomposition took place after long-term therml aging at 400 °C. •Dislocations were the preferable sites for G-phase formation aged at 400 °C for 5000 h. •Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation induced reduction of small punch energy. •Thermal aging led to brittle fracture and phase boundary separation. •Nucleation of microcracks occurred at the δ/γ interface along the slip bands in the aged ferrite phase.

  7. Hot Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Cladding in Smelting Off-Gas Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Zahrani, E.; Alfantazi, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    Degradation mechanisms and hot corrosion behavior of weld overlay alloy 625 were studied. Phase structure, morphology, thermal behavior, and chemical composition of deposited salt mixture on the weld overlay were characterized utilizing XRD, SEM/EDX, DTA, and ICP/OES, respectively. Dilution level of Fe in the weldment, dendritic structure, and degradation mechanisms of the weld were investigated. A molten phase formed on the weld layer at the operating temperature range of the boiler, which led to the hot corrosion attack in the water wall and the ultimate failure. Open circuit potential and weight-loss measurements and potentiodynamic polarization were carried out to study the hot corrosion behavior of the weld in the simulated molten salt medium at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). Internal oxidation and sulfidation plus pitting corrosion were identified as the main hot corrosion mechanisms in the weld and boiler tubes. The presence of a significant amount of Fe made the dendritic structure of the weld susceptible to preferential corrosion. Preferentially corroded (Mo, Nb)-depleted dendrite cores acted as potential sites for crack initiation from the surface layer. The penetration of the molten phase into the cracks accelerated the cracks' propagation mainly through the dendrite cores and further crack branching/widening.

  8. Microstructural changes of a thermally aged stainless steel submerged arc weld overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Kameda, J.; Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes in stainless steel submerged arc weld-overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels was investigated using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to post-welding heat treatments (PWHTs), with a subsequent furnace cooling, a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was observed due to spinodal decomposition in the δ-ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the δ-ferrite phase. The degree of the spinodal decomposition in the submerged arc weld sample was similar to that in the electroslag weld one reported previously. We also observed a carbide on the γ-austenite and δ-ferrite interface. There were no Cr depleted zones around the carbide.

  9. Microstructural changes of a thermally aged stainless steel submerged arc weld overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: takeuchi.tomoaki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kameda, J. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T.; Matsukawa, Y. [Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes in stainless steel submerged arc weld-overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels was investigated using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to post-welding heat treatments (PWHTs), with a subsequent furnace cooling, a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was observed due to spinodal decomposition in the {delta}-ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 Degree-Sign C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the {delta}-ferrite phase. The degree of the spinodal decomposition in the submerged arc weld sample was similar to that in the electroslag weld one reported previously. We also observed a carbide on the {gamma}-austenite and {delta}-ferrite interface. There were no Cr depleted zones around the carbide.

  10. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288 degrees C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3 degrees C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288 degrees C to a fluence of 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29 degrees C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to -125 degrees C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J Ic ) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343 degrees C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288 degrees C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288 degrees C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond

  11. Study on microstructural changes in thermally-aged stainless steel weld-overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: takeuchi.tomoaki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kameda, J. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T. [Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Microstructural changes in stainless steel electroslag weld-overlay cladding. > Thermal aging caused progress of spinodal decomposition and precipitation of G phases in the {delta}-ferrite phase. > The degree of the spinodal decomposition had a linear relationship to the hardness. - Abstract: The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes was investigated in stainless steel weld-overlay cladding composed of 90% austenite and 10% {delta}-ferrite phases using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to cooling process after post-welding heat treatments (PWHT), a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was already observed due to spinodal decomposition in the ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 deg. C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the ferrite phase. The chemical compositions of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type carbides seemed to be formed at the austenite/ferrite interface were analyzed. The analyses of the magnitude of the spinodal decomposition and the hardness implied that the spinodal decomposition was the main cause of the hardening.

  12. Modern methods of overlay welding for corrosion protection of power generating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.V.; Shul'man, I.E.; Potapov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for overlay welding of inner surfaces of power equipment for corrosion protection are analysed. Various methods of electroslag overlay welding by a band electrode (overlay welding by two-electrode bands by a wide band with magnetic control, by an electrode band with high melting velocity) are marked to be the most perspective for cladding of NPP vessel equipment

  13. Study on microstructural changes in thermally-aged stainless steel weld-overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels by atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Kameda, J.; Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes was investigated in stainless steel weld-overlay cladding composed of 90% austenite and 10% δ-ferrite phases using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to cooling process after post-welding heat treatments (PWHT), a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was already observed due to spinodal decomposition in the ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the ferrite phase. The chemical compositions of M 23C 6 type carbides seemed to be formed at the austenite/ferrite interface were analyzed. The analyses of the magnitude of the spinodal decomposition and the hardness implied that the spinodal decomposition was the main cause of the hardening.

  14. Influences of Cr content and PWHT on microstructure and oxidation behavior of stainless steel weld overlay cladding materials in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.Y.; Ding, X.F. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Lu, Y.H., E-mail: lu_yonghao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Zhu, P. [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., 1788 Xihuan Road, 215004 Suzhou (China); Shoji, T. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Influences of Cr content and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on microstructure and oxidation behavior of stainless steel cladding materials in high temperature water were investigated. The amounts of metal oxidized and dissolved were estimated to compare the oxidation behaviors of cladding materials with different Cr contents and PWHT. The results indicated that higher Cr content led to formation of more ferrite content, and carbides were found along δ/γ phase interface after PWHT. Higher Cr content enhanced the pitting resistance and compactness of the oxide film to reduce metal amount oxidized and dissolved, which mitigated the weight changes and the formation of Fe-rich oxides. PWHT promoted more and deeper pitting holes along the δ/γ phase interface due to formation of carbides, which resulted in an increase in metal amount oxidized and dissolved, and were also responsible for more Fe-rich oxides and higher weight changes. - Highlights: • The amounts of metal oxidized and metal dissolved were estimated. • Higher Cr content increased ferrite content and PWHT led to formation of carbides. • PWHT promoted more and deeper pitting holes along the δ/γ phase interface. • Lower Cr content and PWHT promoted the metal amounts oxidized and dissolved. • Lower Cr content and PWHT increased weight changes and Fe-rich film formation.

  15. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  16. Residual stress reduction in the penetration nozzle weld joint by overlay welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Wang, B.Y.; Tu, S.T.; Gong, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stress reduction in penetration weld nozzle by overlay welding was studied. • The overlay weld can decrease the residual stress in the weld root. • Long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. • Overlay weld to decrease residual stress is more suitable for thin nozzle. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the penetration nozzle weld joint endangers the structural reliability of pressure vessels in nuclear and chemical industries. How to decrease the residual stress is very critical to ensure the structure integrity. In this paper, a new method, which uses overlay welding on the inner surface of nozzle, is proposed to decrease the residual stresses in the penetration joint. Finite element simulation is used to study the change of weld residual stresses before and after overlay welding. It reveals that this method can mainly decrease the residual stress in the weld root. Before overlay welding, large tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root. After overlay weld, the tensile hoop stress in weld root has been decreased about 45%, and the radial stress has been decreased to compressive stress, which is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to SCC. With the increase of overlay welding length, the residual stress in weld root has been greatly decreased, and thus the long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. It also finds that this method is more suitable for thin nozzle rather than thick nozzle

  17. Overlay welding of FeCrAl alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Lezan

    2016-01-01

    In this master thesis different overlay welding methods suitable for boiler application has been investigated. The purpose of this project is to define advantages and disadvantages for each overlay welding methods and suggest some evaluation criteria on some commercial and experimental alloys aimed for overlay welding material. Many components in a boiler are made of low alloy steel and the atmosphere in the furnace region can be very complex; therefore many different types of corrosion can o...

  18. Automatic welding and cladding in heavy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamer, A. de

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic welding processes used by an Italian fabricator of pressure vessels for petrochemical and nuclear plant. The automatic submerged arc welding, submerged arc strip cladding, pulsed TIG, hot wire TIG and MIG welding processes have proved satisfactory in terms of process reliability, metal deposition rate, and cost effectiveness for low alloy and carbon steels. An example shows sequences required during automatic butt welding, including heat treatments. Factors which govern satisfactory automatic welding include automatic anti-drift rotator device, electrode guidance and bead programming system, the capability of single and dual head operation, flux recovery and slag removal systems, operator environment and controls, maintaining continuity of welding and automatic reverse side grinding. Automatic welding is used for: joining vessel sections; joining tubes to tubeplate; cladding of vessel rings and tubes, dished ends and extruded nozzles; nozzle to shell and butt welds, including narrow gap welding. (author)

  19. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  20. Method and device for weld deposit cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to get weld beads of good quality, uniform thickness and faultless transition regions between neighboring beads in weld deposit cladding of metallic workpoeces, it is proposed to use a device in which the electromagnets are arranged adjacent to th zone of molten welding powder and molten metal besides having got suitable supplies for applying the welding powder, the polarity of the magnets being chosen in such a way that the lines of flux between the poles are counteracting the lines of flux surrounding the electrode band because of the welding current. Several variants of arranging the electrodes are presented in detail. (UWI) [de

  1. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  2. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G; Hulsizer, P [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  3. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  4. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  5. Solidification paths in modified Inconel 625 weld overlay material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2009-01-01

    Inconel 625 is commonly used for overlay welding to protect the base metal against high temperature corrosion. The efficiency of corrosion protection depends on effective mixing of the overlay weld with the base metal and the subsequent segregation of alloy elements during solidification....... Metallographic analysis of solidified samples of Inconel 625 with addition of selected elements is compared with thermodynamic modelling of segregation during solidification. The influence of changes in the melt chemistry on the formation of intermetallic phases during solidification is shown. In particular...

  6. Plastic collapse moment for pipe repaired with weld overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Shibuya, Akira; Deardorff, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The Weld Overlay has been used in several countries as an effective method to repair the stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. However, the method to evaluate the plastic collapse stress for the pipe repaired with Weld Overlay has not been proposed and the limit load criterion for single uniform material has been used to design its structure by now. In this paper, the equations to evaluate the plastic collapse moment for the pipe repaired with Weld Overlay have been derived considering two layer materials. Moreover, several numerical examples are given to show the validity of Weld Overlay. The equations given in this paper are simple to use like the limit load criterion showed in present standards such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, and they can not only be used to evaluate the fracture of the pipe, but also be applied to design the weld structure. (author)

  7. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Weon

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses

  8. Welding overlay analysis of dissimilar metal weld cracking of feedwater nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.L.; Wang, Li. H.; Fan, T.W.; Ranganath, Sam; Wang, C.K.; Chou, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Inspection of the weld between the feedwater nozzle and the safe end at one Taiwan BWR showed axial indications in the Alloy 182 weld. The indication was sufficiently deep that continued operation could not be justified considering the crack growth for one cycle. A weld overlay was decided to implement for restoring the structural margin. This study reviews the cracking cases of feedwater nozzle welds in other nuclear plants, and reports the lesson learned in the engineering project of this weld overlay repair. The overlay design, the FCG calculation and the stress analysis by FEM are presented to confirm that the Code Case structural margins are met. The evaluations of the effect of weld shrinkage on the attached feedwater piping are also included. A number of challenges encountered in the engineering and analysis period are proposed for future study.

  9. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  10. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR

  11. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  12. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  13. Determination of welding parameters for execution of weld overlayer on PWR nuclear reactor nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Gabriela M.; Lima, Luciana I.; Quinan, Marco A.; Schvartzman, Monica M.

    2009-01-01

    In the PWR reactors, nickel based dissimilar welds have been presented susceptibilities the stress corrosion (S C). For the mitigation the problem a deposition of weld layers on the external surface of the nozzle is an alternative, viewing to provoke the compression of the region subjected to S C. This paper presents a preliminary study on the determination of welding parameters to obtain these welding overlayers. Welding depositions were performed on a test piece welded with nickel 182 alloy, simulating the conditions of a nozzle used in a PWR nuclear power plant. The welding process was the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), and a nickel 52 alloy as addition material. The overlayers were performed on the base metals, carbon steel an stainless steel, changing the welding parameters and verifying the the time of each weld filet. After that, the samples were micro structurally characterized. The macro structures and the microstructures obtained through optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness are presented. The preliminary results make evident the good weld quality. However, a small weld parameters influence used in the base material microstructure (carbon steel and stainless steel). The obtained results in this study will be used as reference in the construction of a mock up which will simulate all the conditions of a pressurizer nozzle of PWR reactor

  14. Underwater cladding with laser beam and plasma arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Fusaro, R.; Jones, M.G.; Solomon, H.D.; Milian-Rodriguez, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Two welding processes, plasma arc (transferred arc) (PTA) and laser beam, were investigated to apply cladding to austenitic stainless steels and Inconel 600. These processes have long been used to apply cladding layers , but the novel feature being reported here is that these cladding layers were applied underwater, with a water pressure equivalent to 24 m (80 ft). Being able to apply the cladding underwater is very important for many applications, including the construction of off-shore oil platforms and the repair of nuclear reactors. In the latter case, being able to weld underwater eliminates the need for draining the reactor and removing the fuel. Welding underwater in reactors presents numerous challenges, but the ability to weld without having to drain the reactor and remove the fuel provides a huge cost savings. Welding underwater in reactors must be done remotely, but because of the radioactive corrosion products and neutron activation of the steels, remote welding would also be required even if the reactor is drained and the fuel removed. In fact, without the shielding of the water, the remote welding required if the reactor is drained might be even more difficult than that required with underwater welds. Furthermore, as shall be shown, the underwater welds that the authors have made were of high quality and exhibit compressive rather than tensile residual stresses

  15. Cladding of Advanced Al Alloys Employing Friction Stir Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, A.A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an advanced solid state cladding process, based on Friction Stir Welding, is presented. The Friction Surface Cladding (FSC) technology enables the deposition of a solid-state coating using filler material on a substrate with good metallurgical bonding. A relatively soft AA1050 filler

  16. Underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masataka; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed at aged components of nuclear power plants under water environment and high exposure of radiation. Toshiba has been developing both an underwater laser welding directly onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. This paper reports underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52. (author)

  17. The laser beam welding test of ODS fuel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-06-01

    As a alternative method of pressurized resistance welding being currently developed, integrity evaluations for a laser beam welding joint between a ODS cladding tube and a FMS end plug were conducted for the purpose of studying the applicability of the laser beam welding technique to the welding with the lower end plug. The laser beam welding causes blowholes in the welding zone, whose effect on the high cycle fatigue strength of the joint is essential because of the flow-induced vibration during irradiation. The rotary bending tests using specimens with laser beam welding between ODS cladding tubes and FMS end plugs were carried out to evaluate the fatigue strength of the welding joint containing blowholes. The fatigue limit of stress amplitude about 200 MPa from 10 6 -10 7 cycles suggested that the laser beam welding joint had enough strength against the flow-induced vibration. Sizing of blowholes in the welding zone by using a micro X ray CT technique estimated the rate of defect areas due to blowholes at 1-2%. It is likely that the fatigue strength remained nearly unaffected by blowholes because of the no correlation between the breach of the rotary bending test specimen and the rate of defect area. Based on results of tensile test, internal burst test, Charpy impact test and fatigue test of welded zone, including study of allowable criteria of blowholes in the inspection, it is concluded that the laser beam welding can be probably applied to the welding between the ODS cladding tube and the FMS lower end plug. (author)

  18. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  19. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment

  20. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  1. Plug-welding of ODS cladding tube for BOR-60 irradiation. Welding condition setting. Device remodeling and welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Kono, Syusaku; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya

    2003-04-01

    Irradiation test in BOR-60 at RIAR to judge practical use prospect of ODS cladding tube at early stage is planned as Japan-Russia a joint research. RIAR does fuel design of fuel pin used for this joint research. JNC manufactures ODS cladding tube and bar materials (two steel kind of martensite and ferrite), upper endplug production. They are welded by pressurized resistance welding, and are inspected in JNC Tokai, transported to RIAR. And RIAR manufactures vibration packing fuel pin. On the upper endplug welding by pressurized resistance welding method, we worded on the problems such as decision of welding condition by changing the size and crystallization of cladding tube and the design of endplug, and the chucking device remodeling to correspond to the long scale cladding tube welding system (included handling) and of quality assurance method. Especially, use of long scale cladding tube caused problem that bending transformation occurred in cladding tube by welding pressure. However, we solved this problem by shortening the distance of cladding tube colette chuck and pressure receiving, and by putting the sleeve in an internal space of welding machine, losing the bending of cladding tube. Moreover, welding defects were occurred by the difference of an inside state, an inside defect and recrystallization of cladding tube. We solved the problem by inside grinding for the edge of tube, angle beam method by ultrasonic wave, and ultrasonic wave form confirmation. Manufacturing process with long scale cladding tube including heat-treatment to remove combustion return and remaining stress was established besides, Afterwards, welding of ODS cladding tube and upper endplug. As the quality assurance system, we constructed [Documented procedure (referred to JOYO)] based on [Document of the QA plan] by OEC. Welding and inspection were executed by the document procedure. It is thought that the quality assurance method become references for the irradiation test in JOYO in the

  2. Clad vent set cup closure-weld-zone grinding evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Woods, A.T.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1996-04-01

    Clad vent set (CVS) cups were ground in the closure-weld zone to reduce the wall-thickness variation created by the cup deep-drawing process. A significantly more uniform wall thickness would be beneficial for the CVS closure-weld operation. The goal was to reduce the average within-cup wall-thickness variation (defined as the range of wall thicknesses in the closure-weld zone) approximately 50% from the Cassini production value of 42 microm. This goal was shown to be achievable but, unfortunately, not with the existing blank and formed cup thicknesses

  3. Further contribution to the study of buffer layer on austenitic stainless stell overlays obtained by means of automatic submerged arc welding with electrode-wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of several buffer layer types on a 308 type austenitic stainless steel surface overlay having a 19-21% chromium and 10-12% nikel content have been analysed. Cladding passes have been deposited on carbon steel test samples by using automatic submerged arc welding process with electrode-wire. The experimental tests have involved buffer layers having seven different chemical compositions and the obtained results are reported and discussed in the paper. The achieved experimetal results allow selecting the most suitable buffer layer to be deposited in order to reach the required cladding performance in service

  4. Friction Welding For Cladding Applications: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inertia Friction Welds of Stainless Steel to Low Carbon Steel and Evaluation of Wrought and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steels for Cladding Applications in Acidchloride Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzner, Nathan

    Friction welding, a solid-state joining method, is presented as a novel alternative process step for lining mild steel pipe and forged components internally with a corrosion resistant (CR) metal alloy for petrochemical applications. Currently, fusion welding is commonly used for stainless steel overlay cladding, but this method is costly, time-consuming, and can lead to disbonding in service due to a hard martensite layer that forms at the interface due to partial mixing at the interface between the stainless steel CR metal and the mild steel base. Firstly, the process parameter space was explored for inertia friction butt welding using AISI type 304L stainless steel and AISI 1018 steel to determine the microstructure and mechanical properties effects. A conceptual model for heat flux density versus radial location at the faying surface was developed with consideration for non-uniform pressure distribution due to frictional forces. An existing 1 D analytical model for longitudinal transient temperature distribution was modified for the dissimilar metals case and to account for material lost to the flash. Microstructural results from the experimental dissimilar friction welds of 304L stainless steel to 1018 steel were used to discuss model validity. Secondly, the microstructure and mechanical property implications were considered for replacing the current fusion weld cladding processes with friction welding. The nominal friction weld exhibited a smaller heat softened zone in the 1018 steel than the fusion cladding. As determined by longitudinal tensile tests across the bond line, the nominal friction weld had higher strength, but lower apparent ductility, than the fusion welds due to the geometric requirements for neck formation adjacent to a rigid interface. Martensite was identified at the dissimilar friction weld interface, but the thickness was smaller than that of the fusion welds, and the morphology was discontinuous due to formation by a mechanism of solid

  5. Prevention of microcracking by REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal in laser clad welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okauchi, Hironori; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    Effect of REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal on microcracking prevention was verified in laser clad welding. Laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal or type 316L stainless steel was conducted using the five different filler metals of alloy 690 varying the La content. Ductility-dip crack occurred in laser clad welding when La-free alloy 690 filler metal was applied. Solidification and liquation cracks occurred contrarily in the laser cladding weld metal when the 0.07mass%La containing filler metal was applied. In case of laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal and type 316L stainless steel, the ductility-dip cracking susceptibility decreased, and solidification/liquation cracking susceptibilities increased with increasing the La content in the weld metal. The relation among the microcracking susceptibility, the (P+S) and La contents in every weld pass of the laser clad welding was investigated. Ductility-dip cracks occurred in the compositional range (atomic ratio) of La/(P+S) 0.99(on alloy 132 weld metal), >0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel), while any cracks did not occur at La/(P+S) being between 0.21-0.99 (on alloy 132 weld metal) 0.10-0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel). Laser clad welding test on type 316L stainless steel using alloy 690 filler metal containing the optimum La content verified that any microcracks did not occurred in the laser clad welding metal. (author)

  6. Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki

    2002-01-01

    It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater

  7. Welding of stainless steel clad fuel rods for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Mauricio David Martins das

    1986-01-01

    This work describes the obtainment of austenitic stainless steel clad fuel rods for nuclear reactors. Two aspects have been emphasized: (a) obtainment and qualification of AISI 304 and 304 L stainless steel tubes; b) the circumferential welding of pipe ends to end plugs of the same alloy followed by qualification of the welds. Tubes with special and characteristic dimensions were obtained by set mandrel drawing. Both, seamed and seamless tubes of 304 and 304 L were obtained.The dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the tubes were found to be adequate. The differences in the properties of the tubes with and without seams were found to be insignificant. The TIG process of welding was used. The influence of various welding parameters were studied: shielding gas (argon and helium), welding current, tube rotation speed, arc length, electrode position and gas flow. An inert gas welding chamber was developed and constructed with the aim of reducing surface oxidation and the heat affected zone. The welds were evaluated with the aid of destructive tests (burst-test, microhardness profile determination and metallographic analysis) and non destructive tests (visual inspection, dimensional examination, radiography and helium leak detection). As a function of the results obtained, two different welding cycles have been suggested; one for argon and another for helium. The changes in the microstructure caused by welding have been studied in greater detail. The utilization of work hardened tubes, permitted the identification by optical microscopy and microhardness measurements, of the different zones: weld zone; heat affected zone (region of grain growth, region of total and partial recrystallization) and finally, the zone not affected by heat. Some correlations between the welding parameters and metallurgical phenomena such as: solidification, recovery, recrystallization, grain growth and precipitation that occurred

  8. The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.

  9. FEM Analysis and Measurement of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction on the Dissimilar Overlay Weld Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Woo, Wan Chuck; Seong, Baek Seok; Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo; Jung, In Chul

    2010-01-01

    Much research has been done to estimate the residual stress on a dissimilar metal weld. There are many methods to estimate the weld residual stress and FEM (Finite Element Method) is generally used due to the advantage of the parametric study. And the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling technique for an experimental method are also usually used. The aim of this paper is to develop the appropriate FEM model to estimate the residual stresses of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe. For this, firstly, the specimen of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was manufactured. The SA 508 Gr3 nozzle, the SA 182 safe end and SA376 pipe were welded by the Alloy 182. And the overlay weld by the Alloy 52M was performed. The residual stress of this specimen was measured by using the Neutron Diffraction device in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) research reactor, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Secondly, FEM Model on the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was made and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code (ABAQUS, 2004). Thermal analysis and stress analysis were performed, and the residual stress was calculated. Thirdly, the results of the FEM analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods

  10. Evaluation of the AISI 904L Alloy Weld Overlays Obtained by GMAW and Electro-Slag Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Jorge C. F.; Meira, O. G.; Madalena, F. C. A.; de Souza, L. F. G.; Araujo, L. S.; Mendes, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of superaustenitic stainless steels (SASS) as an overlay replacement for nickel-based alloys can be an interesting alternative for the oil and gas industries, due to its lower cost, when compared to superalloys. Usually, the deposition is made with several welding passes by using conventional arc welding processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. In this respect, electro-slag welding (ESW), which promotes high heat inputs and low dilution of the welds, can also be attractive for this application, as it provides a higher productivity, once only one layer is needed for the deposition of the minimum thickness required. The present work evaluates the behavior of an AISI 904L SASS weld overlay deposited on a carbon steel ASTM A516 Grade 70 by ESW and GMAW processes. Both as-welded and heat-treated conditions were evaluated and compared. A multipass welding by GMAW process with three layers and 48 passes was performed on 12.5 × 200 × 250 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 1.0 kJ/mm. For ESW process, only one layer was deposited on 50 × 400 × 400 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 11.7 kJ/mm. After welding, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 620 °C for 10 h was performed in half of the steel plate, in order to allow the comparison between this condition and the as-welded one. For both processes, the austenitic microstructure of the weld deposits was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction. A low proportion of secondary phases were observed in all conditions, and the PWHT did not promote significant changes on the hardness profile. Martensite for GMAW process and bainite for ESW process were the microstructural constituents observed at the coarse grain heat-affected zone, due to the different cooling rates. For ESW process, no evidences of partially diluted zones were found. As a consequence of the microstructural

  11. Characterization of Cassini GPHS fueled clad production girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Moyer, M.W.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Placr, A.; Howard, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fueled clads for radioisotope power systems are produced by encapsulating 238 PuO 2 in iridium alloy cups, which are joined at their equators by gas tungsten arc welding. Cracking problems at the girth weld tie-in area during production of the Galileo/Ulysses GPHS capsules led to the development of a first-generation ultrasonic test for girth weld inspection at the Savannah River Plant. A second-generation test and equipment with significantly improved sensitivity and accuracy were jointly developed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Westinghouse Savannah River Company for use during the production of Cassini GPHS capsules by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The test consisted of Lamb wave ultrasonic scanning of the entire girth weld from each end of the capsule combined with a time-of-flight evaluation to aid in characterizing nonrelevant indications. Tangential radiography was also used as a supplementary test for further evaluation of reflector geometry. Each of the 317 fueled GP HS capsules, which were girth welded for the Cassini Program, was subjected to a series of nondestructive tests that included visual, dimensional, helium leak rate, and ultrasonic testing. Thirty-three capsules were rejected prior to ultrasonic testing. Of the 44 capsules rejected by the standard ultrasonic test, 22 were upgraded to flight quality through supplementary testing for an overall process acceptance rate of 82.6%. No confirmed instances of weld cracking were found

  12. Numerical evaluation of weld overlay applied to a pressurized water reactor nozzle mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Gomes, Paulo T.V., E-mail: egr@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvall@cdtn.b, E-mail: gomespt@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Integridade Estrutural

    2011-07-01

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is a major mechanism of failure in the primary circuit of PWR type nuclear power plants. The PWSCC is associated with the presence of corrosive environment, the susceptibility to corrosion cracking of the materials involved and the tensile stresses presence. Residual stresses generated during dissimilar materials welding can contribute to PWSCC. An alternative to the PWSCC mitigation is the application of external weld layers in the regions of greatest susceptibility to corrosion cracking. This process, called Weld Overlay (WOL), has been widely used in regions of dissimilar weld (low alloy steel and stainless steel with nickel alloy addition) of nozzles and pipes on the primary circuit in order to promote internal compressive stresses on the wall of these components. This paper presents the steps required to the numerical stress evaluation (by finite element method) during the dissimilar materials welding as well as application of Weld Overlay process in a nozzle mock-up. Thus, one can evaluate the effectiveness of the application of weld overlay process to internal compressive stress generation on the wall nozzle. (author)

  13. Numerical evaluation of weld overlay applied to a pressurized water reactor nozzle mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Gomes, Paulo T.V.

    2011-01-01

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is a major mechanism of failure in the primary circuit of PWR type nuclear power plants. The PWSCC is associated with the presence of corrosive environment, the susceptibility to corrosion cracking of the materials involved and the tensile stresses presence. Residual stresses generated during dissimilar materials welding can contribute to PWSCC. An alternative to the PWSCC mitigation is the application of external weld layers in the regions of greatest susceptibility to corrosion cracking. This process, called Weld Overlay (WOL), has been widely used in regions of dissimilar weld (low alloy steel and stainless steel with nickel alloy addition) of nozzles and pipes on the primary circuit in order to promote internal compressive stresses on the wall of these components. This paper presents the steps required to the numerical stress evaluation (by finite element method) during the dissimilar materials welding as well as application of Weld Overlay process in a nozzle mock-up. Thus, one can evaluate the effectiveness of the application of weld overlay process to internal compressive stress generation on the wall nozzle. (author)

  14. Dissimilar steel welding and overlay covering with nickel based alloys using SWAM (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) and GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) processes in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Chilque, Angel Rafael [Centro Tecnico de Engenharia e Inovacao Empresarial Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bracarense, Alexander Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Marconi, Guilherme [Federal Center of Technological Education (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the welding of dissimilar ferritic steel type A508 class 3 and austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316 L using Inconel{sup R} 600 (A182 and A82) and overlay covering with Inconel{sup R} 690 (A52) as filler metal. Dissimilar welds with these materials without defects and weldability problems such as hot, cold, reheat cracking and Ductility Dip Crack were obtained. Comparables mechanical properties to those of the base metal were found and signalized the efficiency of the welding procedure and thermal treatment selected and used. This study evidences the importance of meeting compromised properties between heat affected zone of the ferritic steel and the others regions presents in the dissimilar joint, to elaborate the dissimilar metal welding procedure specification and weld overlay. Metallographic studies with optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness were carried out to justified and support the results, showing the efficiency of the technique of elaboration of dissimilar metal welding procedure and overlay. The results are comparables and coherent with the results found by others. Some alternatives of welding procedures are proposed to attain the efficacy. Further studies are proposed like as metallographic studies of the fine microstructure, making use, for example, of scanning electron microscope (SEM adapted with an EDS) to explain looking to increase the resistance to primary water stress corrosion (PWSCC) in nuclear equipment. (author)

  15. Interfacial microstructure and properties of copper clad steel produced using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z.; Chen, Y. [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Haghshenas, M., E-mail: mhaghshe@uwaterloo.ca [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Nguyen, T. [Mechanical Systems Engineering, Conestoga College, Kitchener (Canada); Galloway, J. [Welding Engineering Technology, Conestoga College, Kitchener (Canada); Gerlich, A.P. [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    A preliminary study compares the feasibility and microstructures of pure copper claddings produced on a pressure vessel A516 Gr. 70 steel plate, using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding. A combination of optical and scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the grain structures in both the copper cladding and heat affected zone in the steel near the fusion line. The friction stir welding technique produces copper cladding with a grain size of around 25 μm, and no evidence of liquid copper penetration into the steel. The gas metal arc welding of copper cladding exhibits grain sizes over 1 mm, and with surface microcracks as well as penetration of liquid copper up to 50 μm into the steel substrate. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that metallurgical bonding is produced in both processes. Increased diffusion of Mn and Si into the copper cladding occurs when using gas metal arc welding, although some nano-pores were detected in the FSW joint interface. - Highlights: • Cladding of steel with pure copper is possible using either FSW or GMAW. • The FSW yielded a finer grain structure in the copper, with no evidence of cracking. • The FSW joint contains some evidence of nano-pores at the interface of the steel/copper. • Copper cladding by GMAW contained surface cracks attributed to high thermal stresses. • The steel adjacent to the fusion line maintained a hardness value below 248 HV.

  16. Ultrasonic spot welding of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Patel, V.K.; Jiang, X.Q.; Li, C.; Bhole, S.D.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal welding condition is achieved at 100 J and 0.1 s. • Failure load first increases and then decreases with increasing welding energy. • The highest failure load after welding is close to that of the clad sheets. • At low energy levels failure occurs in the mode of interfacial failure. • At high energy levels failure takes place at the edge of nugget region. - Abstract: Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) was used to join Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets, aiming at exploring weldability and identifying failure mode in relation to the welding energy. It was observed that the application of a low welding energy of 100 J was able to achieve the optimal welding condition during USW at a very short welding time of 0.1 s for the tri-layered clad sheets. The optimal lap shear failure load obtained was equivalent to that of the as-received Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets. With increasing welding energy, the lap shear failure load initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum value. At a welding energy of 25 J, failure occurred in the mode of interfacial failure along the center Al/Al weld interface due to insufficient bonding. At a welding energy of 50 J, 75 J and 100 J, failure was also characterized by the interfacial failure mode, but it occurred along the Al/Mg clad interface rather than the center Al/Al weld interface, suggesting stronger bonding of the Al/Al weld interface than that of the Al/Mg clad interface. The overall weld strength of the Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets was thus governed by the Al/Mg clad interface strength. At a welding energy of 125 J and 150 J, thinning of weld nugget and extensive deformation at the edge of welding tip caused failure at the edge of nugget region, leading to a lower lap shear failure load

  17. Effect of Fe content on the friction and abrasion properties of copper base overlay on steel substrate by TIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Shixiong; Song Jianling; Liu Lei; Yang Shiqin

    2009-01-01

    Copper base alloy was overlaid onto 35CrMnSiA steel plate by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The heat transfer process was simulated, the microstructures of the copper base overlay were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and the friction and abrasion properties of the overlay were measured. The results show that the Fe content increases in the overlay with increasing the welding current. And with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the friction coefficient increases and the wear mechanism changes from oxidation wear to abrasive wear and plough wear, which is related to the size and quantity of Fe grains in the overlay. While with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the protection of oxidation layer against the oxidation wear on the melted metal decreases.

  18. NDT with the structural weld overlay program. Recent field experience and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rishel, R.; Lenz, H.; Turley, G.; Newton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Structural weld overlay (SWOL) has become a predominant mitigation technique within the Alloy 600 program. For the pressurizer nozzles, MRP-139 requires volumetric examination by year end 2007. Many nozzles are un-inspectable due to geometry and material limitations that preclude interrogation of the required examination volume. SWOL therefore is the mitigation technique which overcomes these limitations. SWOL of the pressurizer nozzles has been a challenge for all the vendors. Alloy 52 has proven to be difficult to weld under field conditions. The NDT technique chosen to demonstrate the integrity of the overlay needs to be adapted to the specific repair process and nozzle geometry. The purpose of this paper will be to present Westinghouse's integrated approach for SWOL with the focus on the NDT aspects. Topics will include main repair process steps, NDT qualification, recent field experience and lessons learned. (author)

  19. Laser and Pressure Resistance Weld of Thin-Wall Cladding for LWR Accident-Tolerant Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Jerred, N.; Perez, E.; Haggard, D. C.

    2018-02-01

    FeCrAl alloy with typical composition of approximately Fe-15Cr-5Al is considered a primary candidate cladding material for light water reactor accident-tolerant fuel because of its superior resistance to oxidation in high-temperature steam compared with Zircaloy cladding. Thin-walled FeCrAl cladding at 350 μm wall thickness is required, and techniques for joining endplug to cladding need to be developed. Fusion-based laser weld and solid-state joining with pressure resistance weld were investigated in this study. The results of microstructural characterization, mechanical property evaluation by tensile testing, and hydraulic pressure burst testing of the welds for the cladding-endplug specimen are discussed.

  20. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of alloy 625 weld overlay on ASTM A516 grade 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Mohammad J. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Ketabchi, Mostafa [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Dept.

    2016-02-01

    Nickel-based alloys are a crucial class of materials because of their excellent corrosion resistance. In the present study, single layer and two layers alloy 625 weld overlays were deposited by GTAW process on A516 grade 70 carbon steel. The dilution in terms of Fe, Ni, Mo and Nb content was calculated in 30 points of weld overlay. Microstructure observations showed that alloy 625 had austenitic structure with two types of Laves and NbC secondary phases. The uniform and pitting corrosion resistance of alloy 625 weld overlay as casted and as forged were evaluated in accordance with ASTM G48-2011 standard at different temperatures to determine the weight loss and critical pitting temperature. For achieving a better comparison, samples from alloy 625 as casted and as forged were tested under the same conditions. The results point out that single layer alloy 625 weld overlay is not suitable for chloride containing environments, two layers alloy 625 weld overlay and alloy 625 as casted have acceptable corrosion resistance and almost the same critical pitting temperature. Alloy 625 as forged has the best corrosion resistance and the highest critical pitting temperature among all test specimens. Also, the corrosion behavior was evaluated in accordance with ASTM G28 standard. The corrosion rate of single layer weld overlay was unacceptable. The average corrosion rate of two layers weld overlay and in casted condition were 35.82 and 33.01 mpy, respectively. [German] Nickellegierungen sind aufgrund ihres exzellenten Korrosionswiderstandes eine bedeutende Werkstoffklasse. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden mittels WIG-Schweissens ein- und zweilagige Schweissplattierungen auf den Kohlenstoffstahl A516 (Grade 70) aufgebracht. Die Vermischung in Form des Fe-, Ni-, Mo- und Nb-Gehaltes wurde an 30 Punkten der Schweissplattierungen berechnet. Die mikrostrukturellen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass die Legierung 625 eine austenitische Struktur mit zwei Arten von

  1. Field Investigation of Various Weld Overlays in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, O. H.

    2005-01-01

    A test waterwall was fabricated so that alternatives to alloy 625 could be exposed in the first pass of the waste incineration plant Haderslev. The difference between application method was also a parameter, such that manual welding, machine welding and arc spraycoating of alloy 625 were compared...... which was present in every test panel. It was observed that all the weld overlay test sections behaved similar to machined alloy 625 in that there was general corrosion and pitting corrosion. In addition, alloy 622 also exhibited preferential corrosion with respect to its dendrite structure........ In addition to the test waterwall exposure, the chemical environment from the waste incineration was also monitored by analyzing deposits and corrosion products from various locations in the boiler. These were analyzed with respect to morphology and composition using electron microscopy with EDS analysis...

  2. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  3. Influence of repair length on residual stress in the repair weld of a clad plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenchun; Xu, X.P.; Gong, J.M.; Tu, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate is investigated. ► The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied. ► Large tensile residual stress is generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone. ► With the increase of repair length, transverse stress is decreased. ► Repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress. - Abstract: A 3-D sequential coupling finite element simulation is performed to investigate the temperature field and residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate. The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied, aiming to provide a reference for repairing the cracked clad plate. The results show that large tensile residual stresses are generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), and then decrease gradually away from the weld and HAZ. The residual stresses through thickness in the clad layer are relative uniform, while they are non-uniform in the base metal. A discontinuous stress distribution is generated across the interface between weld metal and base metal. The repair length has a great effect on transverse stress. With the increase of repair length, the transverse stress is decreased. When the repair length is increased to 14 cm, the peak of transverse stress has been decreased below yield strength, and the transverse stress in the weld and HAZ has also been greatly decreased. But the repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress.

  4. Effects of heat input on the pitting resistance of Inconel 625 welds by overlay welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Young IL; Lee, Hae Woo

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between the dilution ratio of the weld zone and pitting resistance depending on the heat input to welding of the Inconel alloy. Each specimen was produced by electroslag welding using Inconel 625 as the filler metal. In the weld zone of each specimen, dendrite grains were observed near the fusion line and equiaxed grains were observed on the surface. It was also observed that a melted zone with a high Fe content was formed around the fusion line, which became wider as the welding heat input increased. In order to evaluate the pitting resistance, potentiodynamic polarization tests and CPT tests were conducted. The results of these tests confirmed that there is no difference between the pitting resistances of each specimen, as the structures of the surfaces were identical despite the effect of the differences in the welding heat input for each specimen and the minor dilution effect on the surface.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material in full-thickness clad beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a testing program that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results form three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the yield strength of the base material. An irradiation-induced increase in yield strength of the weld material could result in a yield stress that exceeds the upper limit where code curves are valid. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may have implications for RPV structural integrity assessments. Analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Metallurgical conditions in the region of the cladding heat-affected zone are proposed as a possible explanation for the lower-bound fracture toughness measured with one of the shallow-crack clad beam specimens. Fracture toughness data from the three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack uniaxial beam and cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy on Low Carbon Steel by Heat Treatment after Overlay Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungpil; Jang, Jaeho; Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Byung Jun; Sohn, Keun Yong; Nam, Dae-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Overlay welding technique is one of methods used to improve metal mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Generally, Inconel 625 alloy is used for overlay welding layer on low carbon steels for economic consideration. However, the method produces some problems in the microstructure of the cast structure and some defects, caused by the elevated temperatures of the overlay process. To resolve these problems, heat treatments are required. In this study, Inconel 625 alloy was welded on a low carbon steel by the overlay welding process to investigate the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. A double heat treatment was performed to improve the mechanical properties of the welding and substrate layers. It was found that Inconel 625 alloy had an austenite microstructure after the first heat treatment, but the low carbon steel had a ferrite-pearlite microstructure after the second heat treatment. After the double heat treatment, the sample showed the optimum hardness because of grain refinement and homogenization of the microstructure.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy on Low Carbon Steel by Heat Treatment after Overlay Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungpil; Jang, Jaeho; Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Byung Jun; Sohn, Keun Yong; Nam, Dae-Geun [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Overlay welding technique is one of methods used to improve metal mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Generally, Inconel 625 alloy is used for overlay welding layer on low carbon steels for economic consideration. However, the method produces some problems in the microstructure of the cast structure and some defects, caused by the elevated temperatures of the overlay process. To resolve these problems, heat treatments are required. In this study, Inconel 625 alloy was welded on a low carbon steel by the overlay welding process to investigate the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. A double heat treatment was performed to improve the mechanical properties of the welding and substrate layers. It was found that Inconel 625 alloy had an austenite microstructure after the first heat treatment, but the low carbon steel had a ferrite-pearlite microstructure after the second heat treatment. After the double heat treatment, the sample showed the optimum hardness because of grain refinement and homogenization of the microstructure.

  8. Material development for waste to energy plants. Overlay welding and refractory linings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Hansson, A.

    2011-02-15

    Waste is an extremely corrosive fuel. In order to recover a higher percentage of the energy in waste, waste incineration plants have developed from purely heat producing units to heat and power producing units. The change in concept results in higher material temperatures and thereby faster material degradation. As a result material failures have been observed in many waste incineration plants. The purpose of this project was to develop materials with higher resistance to the corrosive elements, in order to reduce the cost of maintenance, increase the availability, and increase the efficiency. The focus is on overlay welding and refractory linings. Inconel 625, alloy 50, alloy 686, and Super 625 offer equivalent corrosion protection at panel walls. 100% overlay performs better than 50% overlay. The corrosion morphology changes with increasing temperature from pitting and general corrosion to pitting and selective corrosion (dendritic core or grain boundaries). The previously observed detrimental effect of Fe on the corrosion resistance was not confirmed. It probably depends on factors such as microstructure of the alloy and local metal temperature. Ni-overlay also reduces the corrosion rates on superheater tubes. However, the superheater environment is less aggressive than the water wall environment. Failure of refractory linings is linked to excess porosity, detrimental reactions between raw materials and other mix constituents, volume growth reactions between base material and salt depositions, and thermal stress induced crack formation. Free water and not decomposition of hydrates causes spalling and cracking during the initial heating of refractory linings. Finite Element analysis confirms the stress levels between steel and refractory with the higher stress level at the top of the panel wall tube. A number of LCC mixes were formulated, adjusted and tested. Mixes with low open porosities ({approx} 10%) and state of the art resistance to KCl were achieved. (LN)

  9. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  10. Strength evaluation of jointed parts between ODS cladding and end plug by means of alternative welding method. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Koichi; Mizuta, Syunji; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2001-12-01

    For the purpose of urgently discerning the applicability of ODS cladding tube to the long life core of the fast reactors, the irradiation test using Russian fast reactor BOR-60 is planned. In this irradiation test, TIG welding or laser welding will be applied as welding method of ODS cladding with end plug. In this report, applicability of alternative welding method, i.e., TIG welding, laser welding, and also electron beam welding and 3 kinds of brazing diffusion bonding technique was evaluated. In addition, bending test and internal creep rupture test of the samples which were welded by laser and TIG welding were carried out. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Tensile strength of laser welding test specimens with the highest energy density is most excellent in the welding process (over 90% of the base metal strength). (2) In the brazing filler metal, the tensile strength of the nickel brazing was most excellent (over 84% of the base metal strength). (3) In the bending test of laser and TIG welded test specimens, the crack was generated in circumferential direction of weld zone, which relatively corresponds to small bending angle. (4) As result of internal creep rupture test at 700degC, cladding itself was ruptured in the high stress region, whereas, weld zone was ruptured in the low stress level. (author)

  11. Residual stresses in weld-clad reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cladding of low alloy nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel with austenitic stainless steel introduces in heavy section components high residual stresses which may cause microcrack formation in stress relief heat treatment. In this investigation an attempt is made to contribute to the solution of the stress relief cracking problem by determining quantitatively the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses after cladding and after subsequent stress relief heat treatment. The distribution of residual stresses was determined on the basis of a combined experimental-mathematical procedure. Heavy section plate specimens of low alloy steel as base material were given an austenitic monolayer-cladding using the techniques of strip electrode and plasma hot wire cladding, respectively. A number of plates was stress relief heat treated. Starting from the cladded surface the thickness of the plates was reduced by subsequent removal of layers of material. The elastic strain reaction to the removal of each layer was measured by strain gauges. From the data obtained the biaxial residual stress distribution was computed as a function of thickness using relations which are derived for this particular case. In summary, lower residual stresses are caused by reduced thickness of the components. As the heat input, is decreased at identical base material thickness, the residual stresses are lowered also. The height of the tensile residual stress peak, however, remains approximataly constant. In stress relief annealed condition the residual stresses in the cladding are in tension; in the base material the residual stresses are negligibly small

  12. Manufacture of thin-walled clad tubes by pressure welding of roll bonded sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Grydin, Olexandr; Stolbchenko, Mykhailo; Homberg, Werner; Schaper, Mirko

    2017-10-01

    Clad tubes are commonly manufactured by fusion welding of roll bonded metal sheets or, mechanically, by hydroforming. In this work, a new approach towards the manufacture of thin-walled tubes with an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of about 12 is investigated, involving the pressure welding of hot roll bonded aluminium-steel strips. By preparing non-welded edges during the roll bonding process, the strips can be zip-folded and (cold) pressure welded together. This process routine could be used to manufacture clad tubes in a continuous process. In order to investigate the process, sample tube sections with a wall thickness of 2.1 mm were manufactured by U-and O-bending from hot roll bonded aluminium-stainless steel strips. The forming and welding were carried out in a temperature range between RT and 400°C. It was found that, with the given geometry, a pressure weld is established at temperatures starting above 100°C. The tensile tests yield a maximum bond strength at 340°C. Micrograph images show a consistent weld of the aluminium layer over the whole tube section.

  13. Resistance welding of ODS cladding fuel a nuclear reactor of the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpace, F.

    2011-01-01

    ODS steels (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) are candidate materials for fuel cladding in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR), one of the studied concepts for the fourth generation of nuclear power plants. These materials possess good mechanical properties at high temperatures due to a dispersion of nano-meter-sized oxides into the matrix. Previous studies have shown that melting can induce a decrease in mechanical properties at high temperatures due to modifications of the nano-meter-sized oxide dispersion. Therefore the fusion welding techniques are not recommended and the solid state bonding has to be evaluated. This study is focused on resistance upset welding. Welding experiments and numerical simulations of the process are coupled in this thesis. All laboratory tests (experimental and numerical) are built using the experimental design method to evaluate the effects of the process parameters on the welding and on the weld. A 20Cr ODS steel is used for the experimental protocol. The first part is dedicated to the study of the influence of the process parameters on the welding process. The numerical simulations show that the welding steps can be divided in three stages. First, the contact temperature between the faying surfaces increases. The process is then driven in the second stage by the pieces geometry and especially the current constriction due to the thinness of the clad compared to the massive plug. Therefore, the heat generation is mainly located in the clad part out of the electrode leading to its collapse which is the third stage of the welding step. The evaluation of the process parameters influence on the physical phenomena (thermal, mechanical...) occurring during the welding step, allows adjusting them in order to influence thermal and mechanical solicitations undergone by the pieces during the welding process. The second part consists in studying the influence of physical phenomena on the welds. In the process parameter range, some welds exhibit compactness

  14. Equipment stainless steel entire versus steels bimetallics clad or overlay; Utilizacao de equipamentos de processo construidos em aco inoxidavel integral versus acos bimetalicos cladeado ou 'overlay'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Itamar da Silva; Lima, Jadival Carneiro de; Leal, Murilo Fonseca; Cardoso, Amauri dos Santos; Jorjan, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Sao Francisco do Conde, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves Mataripen (RLAM)

    2008-07-01

    This study does not recommend the use of a pressure vessel made of integral stainless steel, due to the failure mechanisms under stress corrosion assisted by chlorides or polythionic acid. Are presented case studies of literature and analysis of reports of proceedings of RLAM reactors, showing that the materials produced by bimetallic clad overlay or are more appropriate, in terms of integrity, for use in equipment that the internal environment requires austenitic stainless steel specification.

  15. Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the η-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature

  16. Preliminary study on detection technology of the cladding weld of spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Cui, Hongyan; Feng, Meiming; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng; Li, Wei

    2018-04-01

    As the first barrier of the Spent fuel storage pool, the steel cladding using different sizes (length×width) of 304L stainless steel with 3˜6mm thickness plate argon arc welded together which is direct contacted with boric acid water. Environmental humidity between the back of steel cladding and concrete, makes phosphate, chloride ion overflowed from the concrete that corroded on the weld zone with different mechanism. Part of the corrosion defects can penetrate leaded to leakage of boric acid water in penetration position accelerated crack propagation. In view of the above situation and combined with the actual needs of the power plant, the development of effective underwater nondestructive testing means of the weld area for periodic inspection and monitoring is necessary. A single method may lead to the missing of defects detection due to weld reinforcement unpolished. In this paper, eddy current array (ARRAY) and Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) are adapted to test the limit sensitivity and resolution through by the specimens with artificial defects which make their detection abilities close to satisfy engineering requirements. The preliminary study found that Φ0.5mm through-wall hole and with 2mm length and 0.3mm width through-wall crack in the weld can be good inspected.

  17. Automated ultrasonic testing of nuclear reactor welds and overlays in pre-service and in-service inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1982, automatic pre-service and in-service checks are being made of welded joints and overlays on pressure vessels of WWER-440 nuclear reactors in Czechoslovakia. This is being done using the SKODA REACTORTEST TRC facility which is used for checking peripheral welded joints on the pressure vessel, neck joints, overlays in other selected areas of the cylindrical section of the pressure vessel, on radius transitions of the pressure vessel and of necks, and on the cylindrical part of necks, and also for checking the base material in selected parts of the pressure vessel and the base material of the neck extension piece. The tests are of two types, namely tests of peripheral welds and overlays of the cylindrical parts of the pressure vessel, and tests of the necks. Different ultrasonic probe holders are used for the tests, with totally different design. Ultrasonic probes which were initially used were of foreign make while at present, those of Czechoslovak make are used. For each pressure vessel a set of ultrasonic probes is used which should suffice for the life of the vessel. Experience gained so far is being used in work on the project of a new device for testing nuclear reactor presure vessels from the inside. (Z.M.)

  18. Investigation of Hot Rolling Influence on the Explosive-Welded Clad Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, the shear strength and tensile strength of stainless steel explosive-welded clad plate at different rolling reduction were studied. The mechanical properties of the explosive-welded and explosive-rolled clad plates were experimentally measured. Simultaneously, the microstructures of the clad plate were investigated by the Ultra deep microscope and the tensile fracture surface were observed by the scan electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the tensile strength has been increased considerably, whereas the elongation percentage has been reduced with the increase of hot rolling reduction. In the tensile shear test, the bond strength is higher than the strength of the ferritic stainless steel layer and meets the relevant known standard criterion. Microstructural evaluations showed that the grain of the stainless steel and steel refined with the increase of thickness reduction. Examination of the tensile fracture surfaces reveal that, after hot rolling, the fracture in the low alloy steel and ferritic stainless steel clad plates is of the ductile type.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12409

  19. Weldability and mechanical property characterization of weld clad alloy 800H tubesheet forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.F.; McCoy, H.E.

    1984-09-01

    The weldability of an alloy 800H forging that simulates a steam generator tubesheet is studied. Weldability was of concern because a wide range of microstructures was present in this forging. The top and portions of the bottom were weld clad with ERNiC-3 weld metal to a thickness of 19 mm similar to that anticipated for HTGR steam generators. Examinations of the clad fusion line in various regions revealed no weldability problems except possibly on the bottom portion, which contained large grains and some as-cast structure. A few microfissures were evident in this region, but no excessive hot cracking tendency was observed. The tensile properties in all areas of the clad forging were reasonable and not influenced greatly by the microstructure. The elevated-temperature tests showed strong tendency for fracture in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H. Creep failure at 649 0 C consistently occurred in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H, but the creep strength exceeded the expected values for alloy 800H

  20. Numerical simulation on temperature field of TIG welding for 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel cladding and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hongyi; Tang Xian; Luo Zhifu

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at tungsten inert gas (TIG) for 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel cladding for radioactive source, the numerical calculation of welding pool temperature field was carried out through adopting ANSYS software. The numerical model of non-steady TIG welding pool shape was established, the heat enthalpy and Gaussian electric arc heat source model of surface distribution were introduced, and the effects of welding current and welding speed to temperature field distribution were calculated. Comparing the experimental data and the calculation results under different welding currents and speeds, the reliability and correctness of the model were proved. The welding technological parameters of 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel were optimized based on the calculation results and the welding procedure was established. (authors)

  1. Investigation of Y2O3 distribution in the welded joints of the fast reactor fuel claddings made of oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakin, E.M.; Kuz'min, S.V.; Ivanovich, Yu.V.; Ukai, Sh.; Kaito, T.; Seki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The study results of Y 2 O 3 distribution in welded joints of claddings from oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by the technique of powder metallurgy are given in this paper. Change of content and distribution uniformity of yttrium oxide in welds in comparison with metal shell is the result of using flash welding of thin-walled fuel claddings. It is shown that concentration and yttrium oxide distribution uniformity in the cross section of weld, made by pulse laser welding is more high as compared with argon-arc welding [ru

  2. Cladding using a 15 kW CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, E.J.; Verma, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Laser alloying or cladding differs little in principle from the traditional forms of weld overlays, but lasers as a heat source offer some distinct advantages. With the selective heating attainable using high power lasers, good metallurgical bond of the clad layer, minimal dilution and typically, a very fine homogeneous microstructure can be obtained in the clad layer. This is a review of work in laser cladding using the 15 kW CO 2 laser. The authors discuss the ability of the laser clad surface to increase the high temperature oxidation resistance of a low-alloy carbon steel (4140). Examples of clads subjected to high- temperature thermal cycling of nickel-20% aluminum and TaC + 4140 clad low-alloy steel and straight high-temperature oxidation of Stellite 6-304L cladding on a 4140 substrate are given

  3. Effects of irradiation on initiation and crack-arrest toughness of two high-copper welds and on stainless steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Haggag, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the study on the high-copper welds is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the ASME K Ic and K Ia toughness curves. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Compact specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to fluences from 1.5 to 1.9 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). The fracture toughness test results show that the irradiation-induced shifts at 100 MPa/m were greater than the Charpy 41-J shifts by about 11 and 18 degree C. Mean curve fits indicate mixed results regarding curve shape changes, but curves constructed as lower boundaries to the data do indicate curves of lower slopes. A preliminary evaluation of the crack-arrest results shows that the neutron-irradiation induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered), compared to those of the ASME K Ia curve did not appear to have been altered by the irradiation. Three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding was irradiated at 288 degree C to fluences of 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Charpy 41-J temperature shifts of 13 and 28 degree C were observed, respectively. For the lower fluence only, 12.7-mm thick compact specimens showed decreases in both J Ic and the tearing modulus. Comparison of the fracture toughness results with typical plate and a low upper-shelf weld reveals that the irradiated stainless steel cladding possesses low ductile initiation fracture toughness comparable to the low upper-shelf weld. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  4. A finite element elastic-plastic analysis of residual stresses due to clad welding in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalet, C.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    Residual stresses due to weld deposited cladding on the inside of a typical Westinghouse pressurized water reactor vessel are investigated using an axisymmetric finite element elastic-plastic analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, one head of the weld cladding is assumed to lie on the reactor vessel wall at melting temperature (2600degF), but in the solid phase, while the vessel remains at 300degF (preheat temperature). All material properties used in the calculations are taken as temperature-dependent. Temperature profiles are obtained in the cladding and base metal at several discrete time intervals. These temperatures profiles are used to obtain the stress distribution for the same time intervals. Residual hoop tensile stresses of approximately 25 ksi were found to exist in the cladding. Peak tensile stresses in the hoop direction occur in the base metal near the cladding interface and reach a value of 60 ksi at the end of the transient. The tensile stress decreases very rapidly through the thickness of the base metal and becomes insignificant at about two inches from the inside surface. In order to lower residual stresses, a post-weld heat treatment is performed by uniformly heating the vessel to 1100degF, holding at that temperature for a specified period of time and then cooling slowly. The analysis shows that after this treatment, the peak stresses in the base metal decrease from 60 ksi to 32 ksi, while the stress in the cladding does not change significantly. (author)

  5. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.

    1978-11-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking

  6. Apparatus for assembling and welding end plugs to nuclear fuel cladding tubes and inspecting the end plug welds on an automated basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Walker, E.S.; Cueman, M.K.; Haughton, R.A.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an automated apparatus for welding a separate end plug to one open end of each of a succession of nuclear fuel cladding tubes and for inspecting each end plug weld. The apparatus comprising, in combination: a welding station; a cooldown station for cooling each end plug weld in an inert gas atmosphere; a serial number reader station for reading a serial number on each end plug; a first weld inspection station; a second weld inspection station for generating second weld inspection data; a computer system linked with the serial number reader and the first and second weld inspection stations; an input queue for holding a plurality of tubes; a tube transporter for periodically picking individual tubes from the input queque and conveying the tubes in a direction transverse to their tube axis in indexing steps to index positions respectively axially aligned with the welding, serial number reader, and first and second weld inspection stations; and a sorter positioned at an output end of the tube transporter

  7. Clad vent set cup open end (closure weld zone) wall-thickness study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Sherrill, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    The wall thickness at the open end of Clad Vent Set (CVS) cups is a very important parameter for maintaining control of the fueled CVS closure weld process. Ideally, the wall thickness in the closure weld zone should be constant. The DOP-26 iridium alloy is very difficult to machine; therefore, key dimensional features are established during the two-draw warm-forming operation. Unfortunately, anisotropy in the forming blanks produces four ears at the open end of each cup. Formation of these ears produces axial and circumferential variations in wall thickness. The cup certification requirement is that the wall thickness in the closure weld zone, defined as the 2.5-mm band at the open end of a cup, measure from 0.63 to 0.73 mm. The wall thickness certification data for the open end of the CVS cups have been statistically evaluated. These data show that the cups recently produced for the Cassini mission have well-controlled open-end wall thicknesses.

  8. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  9. Structural, mechanical and corrosion studies of Cr-rich inclusions in 152 cladding of dissimilar metal weld joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifeng; Wang, Jianqiu; Han, En-Hou; Yang, Chengdong

    2018-01-01

    Cr-rich inclusions were discovered in 152 cladding at the inner wall of domestic dissimilar metal weld joint, and their morphologies, microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors were systematically characterized by SEM, TEM, nanoindentation and FIB. The results indicate that the Cr-rich inclusions originate from large-size Cr particles in 152 welding electrode flux, and they are 50-150 μm in size in most cases, and there is a continuous transition zone of 2-5 μm in width between the Cr inclusion core and 152 cladding matrix, and the transition zone consists of Ni & Fe-rich dendritic austenite and Cr23C6 and Cr matrix. The transition zone has the highest nanoindentation hardness (7.66 GPa), which is much harder than the inclusion core (5.14 GPa) and 152 cladding (3.71 GPa). In-situ microscopic tensile tests show that cracks initialize preferentially in transition zone, and then propagate into the inclusion core, and creep further into 152 cladding after penetrating the core area. The inclusion core and its transition zone both share similar oxide film structure with nickel-base 152 cladding matrix in simulated primary water, while those two parts present better general corrosion resistance than 152 cladding matrix due to higher Cr concentration.

  10. Microstructural Evolution of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686CPT Weld Metal for Clad Carbon Steel Linepipe Joints: A Comparator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltin, Charles A.; Galloway, Alexander M.; Mweemba, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Microstructural evolution of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686CPT filler metals, used for the fusion welding of clad carbon steel linepipe, has been investigated and compared. The effects of iron dilution from the linepipe parent material on the elemental segregation potential of the filler metal chemistry have been considered. The results obtained provide significant evidence to support the view that, in Inconel 686CPT weld metal, the segregation of tungsten is a function of the level of iron dilution from the parent material. The data presented indicate that the incoherent phase precipitated in the Inconel 686CPT weld metal has a morphology that is dependent on tungsten enrichment and, therefore, iron dilution. Furthermore, in the same weld metal, a continuous network of finer precipitates was observed. The Charpy impact toughness of each filler metal was evaluated, and the results highlighted the superior impact toughness of the Inconel 625 weld metal over that of Inconel 686CPT.

  11. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam.

  12. Universal gas metal arc welding - a cost-effective and low dilution surfacing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahi, AS.; Pandey, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a new variant of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, termed u niversal gas metal arc welding (UGMAW), for the weld cladding of low carbon steels with stainless steel. The experimental work included single layer cladding of 12 mm thick low carbon steel with austenitic stainless steel 316L solid filler wire of 1.14 mm diameter. Low dilution conditions were employed using both mechanised GMAW and UGMAW processes. Metallurgical aspects of the as welded overlays were studied to evaluate the suitability of these processes for service conditions. It was found that UGMAW claddings contained higher ferrite content; higher concentrations of chromium, nickel and molybdenum; and lower carbon content compared to GMAW claddings. As a result, the UGMAW overlays exhibited superior mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. The findings of this study establish that the new process is technically superior and results in higher productivity, justifying its use for low cost surfacing applications

  13. Microsegregation and Precipitates in Inconel 625 Arc Weld Overlay Coatings on Boiler Pipes / Mikrosegregacja I Wydzielenia W Powłokach Ze Stopu Inconel 625 Napawanych Łukowo Na Rury Kotłowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microsegregation and precipitates formed due to segregation in Inconel 625 arc weld overlay coatings on boiler pipes. Examination of microsegregation and precipitates were carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an EDS detector as well as a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with a HAADF (STEM and an EDS detectors. The presence of precipitations in the weld overlay was also confirmed with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD of residue in the form of powder that remained after the electrolytic dissolution of weld overlay matrix.

  14. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  15. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, Larry; Jerred, Nathan; Charit, Indrajit; Cole, James

    2012-01-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  16. Assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Keeney, J.A.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV shell (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results from three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the base material. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may be implications for RPV integrity assessments. Fracture toughness data from three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack beam cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material. Difficulties with interpreting lower-bound fracture toughness curves constructed from the shallow-crack data are essentially resolved by adopting a single normalizing temperature parameter, namely, the nil-ductility transition temperature (NDT)

  17. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe–Cr–Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G., E-mail: fieldkg@ornl.gov; Gussev, Maxim N., E-mail: gussevmn@ornl.gov; Yamamoto, Yukinori, E-mail: yamamotoy@ornl.gov; Snead, Lance L., E-mail: sneadll@ornl.gov

    2014-11-15

    Ferritic-structured Fe–Cr–Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe–(13–17.5)Cr–(3–4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  18. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe-Cr-Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2011-01-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  1. Effect of Rotation Rate on Microstructure and Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Al/Cu Clad Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Ke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Al/Cu clad plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW, and the effect of rotation rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of joints was investigated. The results show that the laminar structure of aluminum and copper is generated in the weld. With increase the of rotation rate, the grain sizes of aluminum and copper are increased respectively. The average microhardness of the Al/Cu plates exceeds that of the as-received metal of 33.0 HV, and ultimate tensile strength is 127.21 MPa in the nugget zone when rotation rate is 1180 r/min. The microhardness of copper in the nugget zone is 99.7 HV, reached 82.05% of the microhardness of received metal, and void defect is main reason responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of joints.

  2. Development of underwater laser cladding and underwater laser seal welding techniques for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal. (author)

  3. Numerical simulation of the cladding of a ferritic block with a stainless steel. Study of post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Carayol, R.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the calculation results of post-weld heat treatment, using the SYSWELD finite element program. Starting from the metallurgical and mechanical states obtained after welding, we performed a numerical heat treatment over the clad block. The principle is to relieve residual stresses by transforming elastic energy into plastic or viscoplastic energy. Increasing the temperature may lead to this result by decreasing yield stress, by creep or by changes of material properties due to structural transformations. Another way of relieving stresses is the transformation plasticity, but we don't use it in our simulation. Some experimental results lead us to believe we should have stresses from 200 to 300 MPa in the weld metal and from - 100 to 100 MPa in the HAZ, whatever are the stresses before heat treatment. Moreover, transverse and longitudinal stresses should have similar values and profile in depth. As in welding simulation, heat treatment calculations are two dimensional. They can be split in a thermo-metallurgical calculation followed by a mechanical one. The following parameters are studied : metallurgy, plastic and viscoplastic behaviour, plane strain or generalized plane strain model. The creep model used in SYSWELD has been more particularly studied. We also study the possibility to simplify calculations by simulating only the cooling, starting from no stresses at 610 deg C, which is a usual method in crack assessment. (authors). 23 refs., 52 figs., 3 annexes

  4. Study of the temperature distribution on welded thin plates of duplex steel to be used for the external clad of a cask for transportation of radiopharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Ceoni, Francisco C.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Politano, Rodolfo; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Orlando, Marcos T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The clad material for a proprietary transport device for radiopharmaceutical products is the main focus of the present work. The production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc transport cask requires a receptacle or cask where the UNS S32304 duplex steel sheet has shown that it meets high demands as the required mechanical strength and the spread of impact or shock waves mitigation. This work reports the experimental efforts in recording the thermal distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The UNS S32304 duplex steel is the most probable candidate for the external clad of the containment package for the transport of radioactive substances so it is highly relevant the understanding of all its physical parameters and its behavior under the thermal cycle imposed by a welding process. For the welding of the UNS S32304 autogenous plates the GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process was used with a pure argon arc protection atmosphere in order to simulate a butt joint weld on a thin duplex steel plate without filler metal. The thermal cycles were recorded by means of K-type thermocouples embedded by electrical spot welding near the weld region and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental apparatus for the future complete analysis of the welding experiment and further comparison to numerical analysis. (author)

  5. The ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds and claddings as described in the handbooks of the IIW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, E.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1991-01-01

    The handbooks of the International Institute of Welding (IIW) are to give guidance in the use of ultrasonic testing techniques developed for austenitic welded joints and platings, and serve as a pattern for working out testing instructions for these special tests. Basically these handbooks consist of the metallurgical description of the test subjects; sound propagation in acoustically anisotropic structures; description of testing techniques, and guidance in preparing testing instructions. (orig./DG) [de

  6. A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding materials for AFCI/GNEP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indrajit Charit; Megan Frary; Darryl Butt; K.L. Murty; Larry Zirker; James Cole; Mitchell Meyer; Rajiv S. Mishra; Mark Woltz

    2011-03-31

    This research project involved working on the pressure resistance welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys which will have a large role to play in advanced nuclear reactors. The project also demonstrated the research collaboration between four universities and one nation laboratory (Idaho National Laboratory) with participation from an industry for developing for ODS alloys. These alloys contain a high number density of very fine oxide particles that can impart high temperature strength and radiation damage resistance suitable for in-core applications in advanced reactors. The conventional fusion welding techniques tend to produce porosity-laden microstructure in the weld region and lead to the agglomeration and non-uniform distribution of the neededoxide particles. That is why two solid state welding methods - pressure resistance welding (PRW) and friction stir welding (FSW) - were chosen to be evaluated in this project. The proposal is expected to support the development of Advanced Burner Reactors (ABR) under the GNEP program (now incorporated in Fuel Cycle R&D program). The outcomes of the concluded research include training of graduate and undergraduate students and get them interested in nuclear related research.

  7. A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding materials for AFCI/GNEP Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charit, Indrajit; Frary, Megan; Butt, Darryl; Murty, K.L.; Zirker, Larry; Cole, James; Meyer, Mitchell; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Woltz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This research project involved working on the pressure resistance welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys which will have a large role to play in advanced nuclear reactors. The project also demonstrated the research collaboration between four universities and one nation laboratory (Idaho National Laboratory) with participation from an industry for developing for ODS alloys. These alloys contain a high number density of very fine oxide particles that can impart high temperature strength and radiation damage resistance suitable for in-core applications in advanced reactors. The conventional fusion welding techniques tend to produce porosity-laden microstructure in the weld region and lead to the agglomeration and non-uniform distribution of the needed oxide particles. That is why two solid state welding methods - pressure resistance welding (PRW) and friction stir welding (FSW) - were chosen to be evaluated in this project. The proposal is expected to support the development of Advanced Burner Reactors (ABR) under the GNEP program (now incorporated in Fuel Cycle R and D program). The outcomes of the concluded research include training of graduate and undergraduate students and get them interested in nuclear related research.

  8. Development of laser welded appendages to Zircaloy-4 fuel tubing (sheath/cladding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, S., E-mail: steve.livingstone@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Limited, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Xiao, L. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Limited, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Corcoran, E.C.; Ferrier, G.A.; Potter, K.N. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Examines feasibility of laser welding appendages to Zr-4 tubing. • Laser welding minimizes the HAZ and removes toxic Be. • Mechanical properties of laser welds appear competitive with induction brazed joints. • Work appears promising and lays the foundation for further investigations. - Abstract: Laser welding is a potential alternative to the induction brazing process commonly used for appendage attachment in CANDU{sup ®} fuel fabrication that uses toxic Be as a filler metal, and creates multiple large heat affected zones in the sheath. For this work, several appendages were laser welded to tubing using different laser heat input settings and then examined with a variety of techniques: visual examination, metallography, shear strength testing, impact testing, and fracture surface analysis. Where possible, the examination results are contrasted against production induction brazed joints. The work to date looks promising for laser welded appendages. Further work on joint optimization, corrosion testing, irradiation testing, and post-irradiation examination will be performed in the future.

  9. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results

  10. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M.W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a HP gas line under a detached weld cladding; Korrosion durch sulfatreduzierende Bakterien an einer Hochdruckgasleitung unter abgeloester Schweissnahtnachumhuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, Ulrich [Technische Akademie Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Intelligent pig measurements detected several points of corrosion in a HP gas pipeline in northern Germany. Corrosion occurred in a pipe section buried in clay soil, under detached weld claddings. It was not detected in regular measurements and additional intensive measurements. When the pipes were dug up, sulfate-reducing bacteria were found as the cause of corrosion. Due to the location of the corrosion processes, cathodic protection was impossible, and IFO measurements were ineffective in the low-ohmic soil.

  12. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M.N., E-mail: mjames@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Newby, M.; Doubell, P. [Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, Lower Germiston Road, Rosherville, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hattingh, D.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique.

  13. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.N.; Newby, M.; Doubell, P.; Hattingh, D.G.; Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique

  14. Automated welding of appendages on empty clad tubes: an advanced technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Several developments have been carried out at Atomic Fuels Division related to fabrication of PHWR fuel assemblies. This paper describes the salient features of an automated welding equipment and its design. Special attention was given to ensure integration of equipment in the existing assembly lines with ease. Detailed drawings are made using Autocad-12 and isometric view of the assembly was prepared. The equipment design is a significant step in the advancement of PHWR fuel assembly fabrication

  15. Welding problems in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of welding industry in nuclear power plant engineering, mainly related to the improvement of molten bath protection, are considered. Development of new materials for welding electrodes, for cladding and welding fluxes, is pointed out. Production of the following equipment is brought to a commercial level: welding heads and welding machines for branch pipe welding, anticorrosion cladding, zonal thermal treatment, electron beam welding facilities for the welding and maintenance of turbineblades, equipment for nondestructive testing of welded joints

  16. Statistical analysis of weld bead geometry in Ti6Al4V laser cladding. Comparison of central composite design and five step full factorial test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, Angelina [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Benjamin; Rethmeier, Michael [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany). Dept. for Joining and Coating Technology

    2017-11-01

    The process of laser cladding has become more important during recent years because of its broad application for cladding, repair or additive manufacturing. In the field of mechanical engineering, one use is the repair of turbine blades. For high quality and reliability of the repaired components, it is necessary to adjust the weld bead geometry to the specific repair task. The bead geometry influences the metallurgical bonding and the degree of dilution as well as the formation of defects like pores or cracks. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of the different parameters on the welding bead. A valuable tool to meet this industrial challenge is the design of experiments (DoE). In this context, the user can choose between a huge number of test plans. Greater profit of information is expected by a larger test range. In order to confirm the acceptance, a five-step full factorial test plan is compared to a central composite design in this paper. Moreover, the limits of the experimental range are indicated and restrictions can be derived. As the results show, the essential effects are detected with a full factorial test plan as well as with a central composite design. Merely the effect strength could not always be specified unambiguously. On this account and in consideration of cost efficiency, the use of central compound design is recommended in industrial applications.

  17. Statistical analysis of weld bead geometry in Ti6Al4V laser cladding. Comparison of central composite design and five step full factorial test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Angelina; Graf, Benjamin; Rethmeier, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The process of laser cladding has become more important during recent years because of its broad application for cladding, repair or additive manufacturing. In the field of mechanical engineering, one use is the repair of turbine blades. For high quality and reliability of the repaired components, it is necessary to adjust the weld bead geometry to the specific repair task. The bead geometry influences the metallurgical bonding and the degree of dilution as well as the formation of defects like pores or cracks. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of the different parameters on the welding bead. A valuable tool to meet this industrial challenge is the design of experiments (DoE). In this context, the user can choose between a huge number of test plans. Greater profit of information is expected by a larger test range. In order to confirm the acceptance, a five-step full factorial test plan is compared to a central composite design in this paper. Moreover, the limits of the experimental range are indicated and restrictions can be derived. As the results show, the essential effects are detected with a full factorial test plan as well as with a central composite design. Merely the effect strength could not always be specified unambiguously. On this account and in consideration of cost efficiency, the use of central compound design is recommended in industrial applications.

  18. Effect of Welding Heat Input on Microstructure and Texture of Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Studied Using the Electron Backscatter Diffraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Suk; Lee, Hae-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The grain size and the texture of three specimens prepared at different heat inputs were determined using optical microscopy and the electron backscatter diffraction method of scanning electron microscopy. Each specimen was equally divided into fusion line zone (FLZ), columnar dendrite zone (CDZ), and surface zone (SZ), according to the location of the weld. Fine dendrites were observed in the FLZ, coarse dendrites in the CDZ, and dendrites grew perpendicular to the FLZ and CDZ. As the heat input increased, the melted zone in the vicinity of the FLZ widened due to the higher Fe content. A lower image quality value was observed for the FLZ compared to the other zones. The results of grain size measurement in each zone showed that the grain size of the SZ became larger as the heat input increased. From the inverse pole figure (IPF) map in the normal direction (ND) and the rolling direction (RD), as the heat input increased, a specific orientation was formed. However, a dominant [001] direction was observed in the RD IPF map.

  19. Development of Micro-welding Technology of Cladding Tube with Temperature Sensor for Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y

    2006-01-15

    Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-laser welding is one of the key technology to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We have to secure laser welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. The fuel elements can be designed to measure the center line temperature of fuel pellets during the irradiation test by using temperature sensor. The thermal sensor was composed of thermocouple and sensor sheath. Micro-laser welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tube and sensor sheath with thickness of 0.15mm. The soundness of weld area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the element during the fuel irradiation test. In this study, fundamental data for micro-laser welding technology was proposed to seal temperature sensor sheath of the instrumented fuel element. And, micro-laser welding for dissimilar metals between sensor sheath and seal tube was characterized by investigating welding conditions. Moreover, the micro-laser welding technology is closely related to advanced industry. It is expected that the laser material processing technology will be adopted to various applications in the industry.

  20. Last developments in welding for structural cladding; Ultimos desarrollos en el area de soldadura por recubrimiento estructural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, T.; Llovet, R.; Newton, B.

    2007-07-01

    PCI Energy Services LLC Westinghouse electric company subsidiary has developed over the last years a series of techniques aimed at improving the structural nickel-based weld filler as well as its application in preventive repairs at operating plants. Amongst these developments, the material optimization, the full orbital progression and the low-profile weld system are worth to mention. This article depicts in more details all the above mentioned developments. (Author)

  1. Non-destructive Residual Stress Analysis Around The Weld-Joint of Fuel Cladding Materials of ZrNbMoGe Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The residual stress measurements around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy have been carried out by using X-ray diffraction technique in PTBIN-BATAN. The research was performed to investigate the structure of a cladding material with high temperature corrosion resistance and good weldability. The equivalent composition of the specimens (in %wt. was 97.5%Zr1%Nb1%Mo½%Ge. Welding was carried out by using TIG (tungsten inert gas technique that completed butt-joint with a current 20 amperes. Three region tests were taken in specimen while diffraction scanning, While diffraction scanning, tests were performed on three regions, i.e., the weldcore, the heat-affected zone (HAZ and the base metal. The reference region was determined at the base metal to be compared with other regions of the specimen, in obtaining refinement structure parameters. Base metal, HAZ and weldcore were diffracted by X-ray, and lattice strain changes were calculated by using Rietveld analysis program. The results show that while the quantity of minor phases tend to increase in the direction from the base metal to the HAZ and to the weldcore, the quantity of the ZrGe phase in the HAZ is less than the quantity of the ZrMo2 phase due to tGe element evaporation. The residual stress behavior in the material shows that minor phases, i.e., Zr3Ge and ZrMo2, are more dominant than the Zr matrix. The Zr3Ge and ZrMo2 experienced sharp straining, while the Zr phase was weak-lined from HAZ to weldcore. The hydrostatic residual stress ( in around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy is compressive stress which has minimum value at about -2.73 GPa in weldcore region

  2. Effects of irradiation on strength and toughness of commercial LWR vessel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for stainless steel cladding to improve the fracture behavior of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel, particularly during certain overcooling transients, may depend greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, weld overlay cladding irradiated at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. The cladding was applied to a pressure vessel steel plate by the three-wire series-arc commercial method. Cladding was applied in three layers to provide adequate thickness for the fabrication of test specimens. The three-wire series-arc procedure, developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc., Chattanooga, Tennessee, produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were irradiated at 288 0 C to fluence levels of 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from -125 to 288 0 C, the yield strength increased by 8 to 30%, ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing, due to the dominance of delta-ferrite failures at low temperatures. On the upper shelf, energy was reduced, due to irradiation exposure, 15 and 20%, while the lateral expansion was reduced 43 and 41%, at 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV), respectively. In addition, radiation damage resulted in 13 and 28 0 C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature at the 41-J level for the low and high fluences, respectively

  3. CASTI handbook of cladding technology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Celant, M.

    2000-01-01

    This updated (2000) CASTI handbook covers all aspects of clad products - the different means of manufacture, properties and applications in various industries. Topics include: an introduction to cladding technology, clad plate, clad pipes, bends, clad fittings, specification requirements of clad products, welding clad products, clad product application and case histories from around the world. Unique to this book is the documentation of case histories of major cladding projects from around the world and how the technology of that day has withstood the demands of time. Filled with over 100 photos and graphics illustrating the various cladding technology examples and products, this book truly documents the most recent technologies in the field of cladding technology used worldwide

  4. Elaboration of data and documents intended to complement and expand the German series of nuclear engineering codes. 3. Technical report. Non-destructive testing of austenitic welds and claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidele, H.

    1997-01-01

    This 3. technical report presents a literature study on non-destructive testing of austenitic welds and claddings. NDT of claddings was the subject of a previous BMU project report SR 2024, so that this report contains only an update covering the latest developments in this subject area, and NDT of austenitic welds is the major subject of the report in hand. The literature study shows that improvements of ultrasonic test results for austenitic welds are expected to be achieved soon as a result of application of novel testing methods, advanced signal processing algorithms, and reduced anisotropy of austenitic welds due to specific welding techniques. Enhanced information is expected to be achieved from radiography tests through improvements available now, such as digitization of conventional radiographs combined with computer-assisted evaluation methods. As to the inspection of components with wall thickness up to 10 mm, low-frequency methods or eddy current methods will increasingly be applied in future as complementing methods supplying additional information. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Effect of laser power on clad metal in laser-TIG combined metal cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Akihiro; Hino, Takanori; Matsuda, Jun; Tasoda, Takashi; Yoneda, Masafumi; Katsumura, Munehide; Yano, Tetsuo; Araki, Takao

    2003-03-01

    TIG arc welding has been used to date as a method for clad welding of white metal as bearing material. We propose a new clad welding process that combines a CO2 laser and a TIG arc, as a method for cladding at high speed. We hypothesized that this method would permit appropriate control of the melted quantity of base metal by varying the laser power. We carried out cladding while varying the laser power, and investigated the structure near the boundary between the clad layer and the base metal. Using the laser-TIG combined cladding, we found we were able to control appropriately the degree of dilution with the base metal. By applying this result to subsequent cladding, we were able to obtain a clad layer of high quality, which was slightly diluted with the base metal.

  6. Seleção dos parâmetros através dos custos de soldagem para aplicação de revestimento com ligas de níquel depositadas pelo processo MIG/MAG Using the welding costs to select welding parameters for Weld Overlay with nickel alloy through the GMAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Paulino Pessoa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram calculados e comparados os custos de soldagem associados a cada um dos ensaios realizados, como forma de determinar parâmetros operacionais adequados e economicamente viáveis para soldagem com o processo MIG/MAG com transferência metálica por curto-circuito, visando uma correta deposição de revestimentos com ligas de níquel sobre um substrato de aço C-Mn. O número de ensaios a serem realizados, foi determinado pelo uso do método Taguchi que dividiu os ensaios em duas matrizes L9, resultando num total de 18 ensaios. Na comparação dos gastos despendidos em cada um dos ensaios foi utilizado o custo direto total da soldagem de um revestimento com 55 mm de largura e 190 mm de comprimento, utilizando uma sobreposição de 50%. Com base nos resultados dos ensaios foram pré-selecionados quatro ensaios (R7, R11, R12 e RC4, dentre os quais o ensaio R11 apresentou o menor custo. Mas vale ressaltar que nos quatro ensaios pré-selecionados o material de adição utilizado foi a liga 625, pois esta liga apresentar um custo do arame-eletrodo muito inferior as demais ligas (C-276 e 686. Assim a escolha do material de adição para aplicação do revestimento ficou restrita somente a liga 625.In this work were calculated and compared the welding costs for each of the tests performed to determine operational parameters and economically feasible for welding with GMAW process in a short circuiting transfer mode, aiming at a correct weld overlay with nickel alloy on a substrate of C-Mn steel. The number of tests to be performed was determined by using the Taguchi method that divided the tests into two L9 orthogonal arrays resulting in a total of 18 experiments. To compare the costs incurred in each of the tests we used the total direct cost of welding a layer with dimensions of 55 x 190 mm, using an overlap of 50%. Based on the results of the tests were pre-selected four tests (R7, R11, R12 and RC4, among which the test R11 has the

  7. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  8. Torque Measurement of Welding of Endplug-Endplate using Multi-pin Remote Welding System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung; Park, Geun-Il; Lee, Jung-Won; Song, Kee-Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As fuel bundles in PHWR irradiates, inner pressure in claddings of fuel rods increases owing to outer pressure and fission products of nuclear fissions. Because of leak possibility of welding between cladding and end plug, this welding part connects with safety of nuclear fuel rods. Because of importance of this welding part, weldability of end plug-cladding of nuclear fuel rods is continually researched. Welding method for research and commercialization is classified as melting, solid type welding or resistance welding. End plug cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in PHWR takes advantage of resistance upset butt welding using multicycle mode. This method makes weld flash and shapes re-entrant corner owing to welding heat due to resistivity, contact resistance of cladding-end plug, and inelasticity deformation due to pressure. Welding part between cladding and end plug receives stresses and makes small cracks. In this study, remote welding system for multi-pin assembly was designed, fabricated and welding specimens of end plug-endplate were made using electrical resistance method. The torques of welding between end plug and endplate were measured. These results on welding current, pressure of main electrode and pressure of branch electrode were analyzed. Weldability between end plug and endplate was confirmed through metallographic examinations. In the future, optimal welding examinations due to welding current, welding pressure and welding time will be performed to improve weldability of end plug-endplate.

  9. Application of YAG laser cladding to the flange seating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Ninomiya, Kazuyuki; Nezaki, Koji

    1999-01-01

    Stainless cladding on carbon steel is usually conducted by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). YAG ( Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet) laser welding is superior to these methods of welding in the following respects : (1) The heat affected zone (HAZ) is narrower and there is less distortion. (2) YAG laser cladding has the required chemical compositions, even with possibly fewer welding layers under controlled dilution. (3) Greater welding speed. YAG laser cladding application to vessel flange seating surfaces was examined in this study and the results are discussed. The following objectives were carried out : (1) Determination of welding conditions for satisfactory cladding layers and (2) whether cladding would be adequately possible at a cornered section of a stair-like plate, assuming actual flange shape. (3) Measurement of welding distortion and heat affected zone in carbon steel. The welding conditions for producing no-crack deposit with low dilution in carbon steel were clarified and welding by which cladding at cornered section would be possible was achieved. welding distortion by YAG laser was found less than with GTAW and HAZ made by first layer welding could be tempered appropriately by second layer welding. (author)

  10. Aspectos metalúrgicos de revestimentos dissimilares com a superliga à base de níquel inconel 625 Metallurgical aspects of dissimilar weld overlays of inconel 625 nickel based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolongar a vida útil e aumentar a confiabilidade de equipamentos e tubulações de plantas de produção e processamento de petróleo é uma busca constante no setor de petróleo e gás. Tais aspectos dependem essencialmente do uso de ligas resistentes à corrosão. Neste contexto, a soldagem de revestimento com superligas à base de níquel tem sido uma alternativa interessante, pois confere aos equipamentos uma alta resistência à corrosão com um custo inferior, se comparado à fabricação de componentes ou tubulações maciças com superligas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o comportamento metalúrgico de revestimento de superliga à base de níquel do tipo Inconel 625 depositados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. As soldagens foram realizadas em uma bancada robotizada, empregando uma fonte eletrônica de soldagem com sistema de aquisição de dados para o monitoramento dos sinais de corrente e tensão. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e transmissão (MET, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDS. Os resultados mostraram que a microestrutura do metal de solda foi constituída por uma matriz γ com fases secundárias ricas em Nb. Foi encontrada a formação de precipitados complexos de carbonetos/nitretos de Ti e Nb.To extend the life and reliability of pipes and equipment in oil & gas production and processing settings is a continuous demand. These aspects are essentially dependent on corrosion resistant alloys used. In this context, the weld overlay with Ni-based superalloys is a great interesting alternative, since improve the corrosion resistance without increase the cost of manufacture when compared to massive equipment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical aspects of Inconel 625 weld overlays deposited by GTAW cold wire feed process. The welds were performed using a

  11. Structural cladding /clad structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Structural Cladding /Clad Structures: Studies in Tectonic Building Practice A. Beim CINARK – Centre for Industrialized Architecture, Institute of Architectural Technology, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, Copenhagen, Denmark ABSTRACT: With point of departure in the pr......Structural Cladding /Clad Structures: Studies in Tectonic Building Practice A. Beim CINARK – Centre for Industrialized Architecture, Institute of Architectural Technology, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, Copenhagen, Denmark ABSTRACT: With point of departure...... to analyze, compare, and discuss how these various construction solutions point out strategies for development based on fundamentally different mindsets. The research questions address the following issues: How to learn from traditional construction principles: When do we see limitations of tectonic maneuver......, to ask for more restrictive building codes. As an example, in Denmark there are series of increasing demands in the current building legislations that are focused at enhancing the energy performance of buildings, which consequently foster rigid insulation standards and ask for improvement of air...

  12. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  13. Seleção de parâmetros através do método Taguchi para soldagem de revestimento com ligas de níquel pelo processo MIG/MAG Using the Taguchi method to select welding parameters for weld overlay with nickel alloy through the GMAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Paulino Pessoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho utilizou-se o método Taguchi (planejamento Robusto de experimentos, para cumprir com um reduzido número de ensaios, dois objetivos: obter a influência dos fatores de controle sobre as variáveis respostas e determinar as condições ideais para aplicação das ligas de níquel nas soldagens de revestimentos através do processo MIG/MAG com transferência metálica por curto-circuito. Foram escolhidos seis fatores de controle com três níveis cada: Tensão de referência, Velocidade de soldagem, Tipo de tecimento, Técnica da tocha, Gás de proteção e o Material de adição. Por sua vez as variáveis respostas escolhidas foram: Diluição (D e Razão entre o reforço e a largura (R/L. As soldagens foram realizadas na posição plana por simples deposição sobre chapas de aço ASTM 516 Gr60 com dimensões de 200 x 50 x 12,7 mm. O uso do tecimento proporcionou cordões com baixos valores da razão R/L e obteve valores bastante baixos de diluição chegando à ordem de 5%. A combinação dos níveis dos fatores de controle apontados como ótimos pelo método Taguchi resultaram em valores para as variáveis repostas consideradas adequadas para a soldagem de revestimento.In this work aim the Taguchi method (Robust design of experiments was chosen to achieve with a limited number of tests two objectives: the first was to the influence of the control factors (welding parameters on quality characteristics (weld bead geometry and the second was to determine optimal conditions for weld overlay with nickel alloy through the GMAW process in a short circuiting transfer mode. Six control factors were employed with three levels each: Reference voltage, Welding speed, Arc oscillation, welding gun orientation (Perpendicular, forehand and backhand, Shielding gas and filler metal. Already the employed quality characteristics were: Percent dilution (D and the ration between reinforcement and bead width (R/L. The weldings were accomplished using

  14. Welding in hostile environment for nuclear and offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delauze, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews recent developments of duplex stainless steel and clad pipe welding and under water welding for offshore structures and for reactor fuel storage pool and remote automatic dry welding [fr

  15. Study of laser cladding nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Wang Xinlin; Huang Guodong

    1998-12-01

    The mechanism of laser cladding is discussed by using heat transfer model of laser cladding, heat conduction model of laser cladding and convective transfer mass model of laser melt-pool. Subsequently the laser cladding speed limit and the influence of laser cladding parameters on cladding layer structure is analyzed. A 5 kW with CO 2 transverse flow is used in the research for cladding treatment of sealing surface of stop valve parts of nuclear power stations. The laser cladding layer is found to be 3.0 mm thick. The cladding surface is smooth and has no such defects as crack, gas pore, etc. A series of comparisons with plasma spurt welding and arc bead welding has been performed. The results show that there are higher grain grade and hardness, lower dilution and better performances of resistance to abrasion, wear and of anti-erosion in the laser cladding layer. The new technology of laser cladding can obviously improve the quality of nuclear valve parts. Consequently it is possible to lengthen the service life of nuclear valve and to raise the safety and reliability of the production system

  16. Method for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Prior to welding the zirconium alloy cladding tubes with end caps, they are automatically filled with nuclear fuel tablets and ceramic insulating tablets. The tablets are introduced into magazine drums and led through a drying oven to a discharging station. The empty cladding tubes are removed from this discharging station and filled with tablets. A filling stamp pushes out the columns of tablets in the magazine tubes of the magazine drum into the cladding tube. Weight and measurement of length determine the filled state of the cladding tube. The cladding tubes are then led to the welding station via a conveyor belt. (DG) [de

  17. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Shikakura, S.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Characterization of the Interface of an Alloy 625 Overlay on Steels Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Lippold, John

    2018-06-01

    Industry standards require postweld heat treatment (PWHT) to reduce the heat-affected zone hardness of steels such as F22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) and AISI 8630 overlaid (clad) with Alloy 625 weld metal. PWHT results in carbon diffusion and accumulation at the interface between the steel and overlay. The accumulation of carbon in a planar solidification growth zone adjacent to the fusion boundary results in high hardness and the potential for hydrogen-assisted cracking. The planar growth zone (PGZ) is so narrow that normal Vickers hardness testing cannot fully reveal the hardness distribution in this zone. This study focused on the application of nanoindentation to characterize the hardness in the narrow microstructural regions adjacent to the fusion boundary. The development of nanohardness maps revealed that the PGZ is not necessarily the region that exhibits peak hardness after PWHT. The highest hardness values were associated with clusters of M7C3 carbides in specific subregions in the PGZ and also in the partially-mixed zone adjacent to the fusion boundary or in steel "swirl" structures. It was also confirmed in this study that nanohardness has a linear correlation with Vickers hardness values. The results presented here provide new insight into the role of carbon diffusion during PWHT and its effect on interface embrittlement associated with Alloy 625 overlays on steel.

  19. The improvement of ultrasonic characteristics in weld metal of austenitic stainless steel using magnetic stirring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, T.; Tomisawa, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic stirring welding process was tested to save the difficulty of ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel overlayed welds, due to grain refinement of weld solidification structure. The testing involved stirring the molten pool with Lorenz force induced by the interaction of welding current and alternative magnetic field applied from the outside magnetic coil. This report summarizes improvement of ultrasonic characteristic in austenitic stainless steel overlayed welds caused by magnetic stirring welding process

  20. VT Data - Overlay District 20170407, Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay District Data is included:Design Review OverlayInstitutional Core Campus OverlayRH Density Bonus OverlayNatural Resource Protection OverlayRL...

  1. Cladding Alloys for Fluoride Salt Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    This report provides an overview of several candidate technologies for cladding nickel-based corrosion protection layers onto high-temperature structural alloys. The report also provides a brief overview of the welding and weld performance issues associated with joining nickel-clad nickel-based alloys. From the available techniques, two cladding technologies were selected for initial evaluation. The first technique is a line-of-sight method that would be useful for cladding large structures such as vessel interiors or large piping. The line-of-sight method is a laser-based surface cladding technique in which a high-purity nickel powder mixed into a polymer binder is first sprayed onto the surface, baked, and then rapidly melted using a high-power laser. The second technique is a vapor phase technique based on the nickel-carbonyl process that is suitable for cladding inaccessible surfaces such as the interior surfaces of heat exchangers. An initial evaluation for performed on the quality of nickel claddings processed using the two selected cladding techniques.

  2. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  3. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  4. Study on process of laser cladded nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunliang

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and performances of the Co-base alloy coatings that are formed by laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc surfacing on the nuclear valve-sealing surface have been studied and compared. The combination costs of laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc, surfacing have been analyzed and compared. The results showed that the laser cladding processing has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy cost, a little machining allowance, high rate of finished products and low combination cost, compared with plasma spurt welding processing and arc surfacing processing. The laser cladding technology can improve the qualities of nuclear valve parts and increase their service life. Therefore, the laser cladding processing is a new technology with developing potential

  5. Summary of the guideline on underwater laser beam repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroya; Yoda, Masaki; Motora, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) might occur at the weld of a reactor pressure vessel or core internals. Underwater laser beam clad welding for mitigation of SCC has been already established and the guideline 'Underwater laser beam clad welding' was published. Moreover, the guideline 'Seal welding' was also published as a repair method for SCC. In addition to these guidelines, the guideline 'Underwater laser beam repair welding' was newly published in November, 2012 for the repair welding after completely removing a SCC crack occurred in weld or base metal. This paper introduces the summary of this guideline. (author)

  6. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Examination of overlay pipe weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Kupperman, D.S.; Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Laboratory ultrasonic examination (UT), dye penetrant examination (PT), metallography, and sensitization measurements were performed on Type 304 stainless steel overlay pipe weldments from the Hatch-2 BWR to determine the effectiveness of UT through overlays and the effects of the overlays on crack propagation in the weldments. Little correlation was observed between the results of earlier in-service ultrasonic inspection and the results of PT and destructive examination. Considerable difficulty was encountered in correctly detecting the presence of cracks by UT in the laboratory. Blunting of the crack tip by the weld overlay was observed, but there was no evidence of tearing or throughwall extension of the crack beyond the blunted region

  8. Development of resistance welding process. 6. Evaluation test of welding properties of martensitic ODS steel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    The welding condition and the heat-treatment condition were optimized to evaluate welding properties of the martensitic ODS steel cladding tube. The test pieces for evaluation of strength properties of the welded zone were produced by the optimized welding condition. In order to evaluate the strength of the welded zone, the internal creep rapture test, the single axis creep rapture test, the burst test and the tensile test were conducted. Following results were obtained in these tests. (1) Weld ability: An excellent welding characteristic was observed. The micro cracks, etc. were not served at the joint starting point. The joint starting points were connected uniformly with errors less than 0.05 mm. It is considered that an excellent welding characteristic was result of homogeneous micro structure of cladding material. (2) End plug material: In case of the material of end plug was martensitic ODS steel as same as that of cladding tube, the micro structure and the precipitation state carbide near the welded zone were found to be almost same as that of cladding tube. (3) Optimization of heat-treatment condition: The heat treatments of normalizing (1050degC) and tempering (780degC) were performed after welding and the micro structure near the welded zone was the isometric structure with low dislocation density, the precipitation state of carbide was uniform as same as that of cladding tube. These heat treatments can relax the residual stress accumulated when welding; it is considered that these heat treatments after welding are indispensable. (4) Strength of welded zone: The strength of the welded zone was found to be equal to that of cladding tube in all the strength tests. Therefore, it is concluded that the welding technology for the martensitic ODS steel is completed. (author)

  9. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yokono, Tomomi.

    1991-01-01

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  10. Study of cladding toughness in a pressure vessel steel water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulat, P.; Al Mundheri, M.

    1984-12-01

    Toughness of cladding and pressure vessel steel were determined at different temperatures in order to appreciate the participation of cladding resistance against crack propagation. The toughness of cladding is comparable with typical results on austenitic welds. The test on covered CT specimens shows the possibility of having a relatively good prevision of the behaviour of a coated structure

  11. Overlay improvement methods with diffraction based overlay and integrated metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young-Sun; Kim, Sunny; Shin, Ju Hee; Choi, Young Sin; Yun, Sang Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Shin, Si Woo; Kong, Jeong Heung; Kang, Young Seog; Ha, Hun Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To accord with new requirement of securing more overlay margin, not only the optical overlay measurement is faced with the technical limitations to represent cell pattern's behavior, but also the larger measurement samples are inevitable for minimizing statistical errors and better estimation of circumstance in a lot. From these reasons, diffraction based overlay (DBO) and integrated metrology (IM) were mainly proposed as new approaches for overlay enhancement in this paper.

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20170802, Shelburne

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:Lakeshore Conservation OverlyNeighborhood OverlayVillage Design Review OverlayVillage Core OverlayWater...

  13. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  14. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  15. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  16. Recent advances in the TIG welding process and the application of the welding of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, W.; Males, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of precision arc welding techniques and infacilities for production of nuclear power plant components arc presented. Of the precision welding techniques, pulsed TIG welding, pulsed plasma arc welding, hot-wire TIG welding, and pulsed inert-gas metal-arc welding. In the field of weld cladding, GMA plasma welding is cited as an alternative to submerged-arc welding with a strip electrode. Transistors and computer-controlled welding systems get a special mention. Applications of TIG welding in the UK are cited, e.g. welding of components for the AGR nuclear power plant and construction of equipment for repair work in feedwater pipes of the MAGNOX reactor. (orig.) [de

  17. Welding device for nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Satoru; Tsuboi, Hajime; Kidooka, Masayasu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable high quality welding with no dropping of small tungsten particles to the weld portion. Constitution: An opening capable of inserting a cladding tube is disposed to the side wall of a welding chamber and a laser beam introducing window is disposed to another side wall in perpendicular to said side wall. Further, a laser beam generation device is disposed to the outside of the welding chamber for concentrating the laser beams by way of the laser beam introducing window to the weld portion between the cladding tube and an end plug. Upon welding the end plug, opening end of the cladding tube is inserted through the side wall opening into the chamber. Then, the inside of the chamber is evacuated and replaced with an inert gas through conduits to establish a super atmospheric pressure state. Then, the end plug is forced to the opening end of the cladding tube by means of an end plug enforcing mechanism and laser beams are concentrated to the joining portion between the end plug and cladding tube to conduct welding while rotating the cladding tube. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Weld repair of helium degraded reactor vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Lohmeier, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Rankin, D.T.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Madeyski, A.; Shogan, R.P.; Lessmann, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Welding methods for modification or repair of irradiated nuclear reactor vessels are being evaluated at the Savannah River Site. A low-penetration weld overlay technique has been developed to minimize the adverse effects of irradiation induced helium on the weldability of metals and alloys. This technique was successfully applied to Type 304 stainless steel test plates that contained 3 to 220 appm helium from tritium decay. Conventional welding practices caused significant cracking and degradation in the test plates. Optical microscopy of weld surfaces and cross sections showed that large surface toe cracks formed around conventional welds in the test plates but did not form around overlay welds. Scattered incipient underbead cracks (grain boundary separations) were associated with both conventional and overlay test welds. Tensile and bend tests were used to assess the effect of base metal helium content on the mechanical integrity of the low-penetration overlay welds. The axis of tensile specimens was perpendicular to the weld-base metal interface. Tensile specimens were machined after studs were resistance welded to overlay surfaces

  19. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  20. Advances in appendage joining techniques for PHWR fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, P.B.; Ray, T.K.; Date, V.G.; Purushotham, D.S.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the BARC on the development of a technique to join tiny appendages (spacers and bearing pads) to thin cladding (before loading of UO 2 pellets) by resistance welding for PHWR fuel assemblies. The work includes qualifying the process for production environment, designing prototype equipment for regular production and quality monitoring. In the first phase of development, welding of appendages on UO 2 loaded elements was successfully developed, and is being used in production. Welding of appendages on to empty clad tubes is a superior technique for several reasons. Many problems associated with development of welding on empty tubes were resolved. work was initiated, in the second phase of the development task, to select a suitable technique to join appendages on empty clad tubes without any collapse of thin clad. Several alternatives were reviewed and assessed such as laser, full face welding, shim welding and shrink fitting ring spacers. Selection of a method using a mandrel and a modified electrode geometry was fully developed. Results were optimized and process development successfully completed. Appropriate weld monitoring techniques were also reviewed for their adaptation. This technique is useful for 19, 22 as well as 37 element assemblies. (author)

  1. PTA Overlaying Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.; Chang, J.C.; Kim, J.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This study is concerned with the development of reuse technology for 1100 deg.C class major component of gas turbine. To get the fundamental understanding for the repair techniques by PTAW, the physical properties and microstructures of welding metal and the effect of individual welding parameters are reviewed. Moreover, by extensive analysis on the various problems following the PTAW and try to figure out the solutions, the study will help us to apply the PTAW technology on the repair works of used turbine blades. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Critical issues in overlay metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, following an overview of overlay metrology, the difficult relationship of overlay with device performance and yield is discussed and supported with several examples. This is followed by a discussion of the impending collision of metrology equipment performance and 'real' process tolerances for sub 0.18 um technologies. This convergence of tolerance and performance is demonstrated to lead to the current emergence of real-time overlay modeling in a feed-forward/feedback process environment and the associated metrology/sampling implications. This modeling takes advantage of the wealth of understanding concerning the systematic behavior of overlay registration errors. Finally, the impact of new process technologies (RET, OAI, CPSM, CMP, and etc.) on the measurement target is discussed and shown to de-stabilize overlay performance on standard overlay measurement target designs

  3. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  4. Axial compression behavior of concrete masonry wallettes strengthened with cement mortar overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. De Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a series of axial compression tests on concrete block wallettes coated with cement mortar overlays. Different types of mortars and combinations with steel welded meshes and fibers were tested. The experimental results were discussed based on different theoretical approaches: analytical and Finite Element Method models. The main conclusions are: a the application of mortar overlays increases the wall strength, but not in a uniform manner; b the strengthening efficiency of wallettes loaded in axial compression is not proportional to the overlay mortar strength because it can be affected by the failure mechanisms of the wall; c steel mesh reinforced overlays in combination with high strength mortar show better efficiency, because the steel mesh mitigates the damage effects in the block wall and in the overlays themselves; d simplified theoretical methods of analysis as described in this paper can give satisfactory predictions of masonry wall behavior up to a certain level.

  5. Torque strength of an endplate welding due to process parameters using a fuel assembling welder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As fuel bundles in a PHWR core irradiated, inner pressure in the claddings of the fuel rods increases owing to the outer pressure and fission products of the nuclear fissions. Because of a leak possibility from a welding between a cladding and end plug, this welding part is connected with the safety of nuclear fuel rods. Endplug-cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in a PHWR takes advantage of a resistance upset butt welding. The weldment between a cladding and endplug is to be sound to prevent a leakage of fission products from a cladding as a UO{sub 2} pellet is irradiated. Weld flash was made from a deformation due to a welding heat and increasing the pressure of the resistivity and resistance from a cladding and endplug. Weld line of a welding interface, microstructure of a weldment and a crystallographic structure change were sources of an iodine induced SCC in a reactor. The soundness of a weldment is important because a weld line connects the leakage of fission products from an operational reactor. In this study, welding specimens were fabricated by a resistance welding method using a bundle fuel welder to measure and analyze the torque of an endplug-endplate welding. The torque of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was measured and analyzed with the welding time. The weldability of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was investigated by a metallographic examination.

  6. Photoelectron emission from thin overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Weak influence of the support on photoemission from an overlayer. ► Accurate description of photoelectron intensity from overlayer by analytical theory. ► Method for overlayer thickness measurements based on analytical formalism. ► Influence of photoelectron elastic scattering on calculated thickness. -- Abstract: Photoelectron signal intensities calculated for a thin overlayer from theoretical models taking elastic photoelectron collisions into account are shown to be very weakly dependent on the substrate material. This result has been obtained for photoelectrons analyzed in XPS spectrometers equipped with typical X-ray sources, i.e. sources of Mg Kα and Al Kα radiation. Low sensitivity to the substrate material is due to the fact that trajectories of photoelectrons emitted in the overlayer and entering the substrate have a low probability to reach the analyzer without energy loss. On the other hand, the signal intensity of photoelectrons emitted in the overlayer is found to be distinctly affected by elastic photoelectron scattering. Consequently, a theoretical model that can accurately describe the photoelectron intensity from an overlayer deposited on any material (e.g. on a substrate of the same material as the overlayer) can be a useful basis for a universal and convenient method for determination of the overlayer thickness. It is shown that the formalism derived from the kinetic Boltzmann equation within the so-called transport approximation satisfies these requirements. This formalism is postulated for use in overlayer-thickness measurements to avoid time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations of photoelectron transport, and also to circumvent problems with determining the effective attenuation lengths for overlayer/substrate systems.

  7. Cladding Effects on Structural Integrity of Nuclear Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari-Far, Iradi; Andersson, Magnus

    2006-06-01

    Based on this study, the following conclusions and recommendations can be made: Due to significant differences in the thermal and mechanical properties between the austenitic cladding and the ferritic base metal, residual stresses are induced in the cladding and the underlying base metal. These stresses are left in clad components even after Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT). The different restraint conditions of the clad component have a minor influence on the magnitude of the cladding residual stresses in the cladding layer. The thickness of the clad object is the main impacting geometrical dimension in developing cladding residual stresses. A clad object having a base material thickness exceeding 10 times the cladding thickness would be practically sufficient to introduce cladding residual stresses of a thick reactor pressure vessel. For a clad component that received PWHT, the peak tensile stress is in the cladding layer, and the residual stresses in the underlying base material are negligible. However, for clad components not receiving PWHT, for instance the repair welding of the cladding, the cladding residual stresses of tensile type exist even in the base material. This implies a higher risk for underclad cracking for clad repairs that received no PWHT. For certain clad geometries, like nozzles, the profile of the cladding residual stresses depends on the clad thickness and position, and significant tensile stresses can also exist in the base material. Based on different measurements reported in the literature, a value of 150 GPa can be used as Young's Modulus of the austenitic cladding material at room temperature. The control measurements of small samples from the irradiated reactor pressure vessel head did not reveal a significant difference of Young's Modulus between the irradiated and the unirradiated cladding material condition. No significant differences between the axial and tangential cladding residual stresses are reported in the measurement of

  8. Cladding Effects on Structural Integrity of Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari-Far, Iradi; Andersson, Magnus [lnspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Based on this study, the following conclusions and recommendations can be made: Due to significant differences in the thermal and mechanical properties between the austenitic cladding and the ferritic base metal, residual stresses are induced in the cladding and the underlying base metal. These stresses are left in clad components even after Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT). The different restraint conditions of the clad component have a minor influence on the magnitude of the cladding residual stresses in the cladding layer. The thickness of the clad object is the main impacting geometrical dimension in developing cladding residual stresses. A clad object having a base material thickness exceeding 10 times the cladding thickness would be practically sufficient to introduce cladding residual stresses of a thick reactor pressure vessel. For a clad component that received PWHT, the peak tensile stress is in the cladding layer, and the residual stresses in the underlying base material are negligible. However, for clad components not receiving PWHT, for instance the repair welding of the cladding, the cladding residual stresses of tensile type exist even in the base material. This implies a higher risk for underclad cracking for clad repairs that received no PWHT. For certain clad geometries, like nozzles, the profile of the cladding residual stresses depends on the clad thickness and position, and significant tensile stresses can also exist in the base material. Based on different measurements reported in the literature, a value of 150 GPa can be used as Young's Modulus of the austenitic cladding material at room temperature. The control measurements of small samples from the irradiated reactor pressure vessel head did not reveal a significant difference of Young's Modulus between the irradiated and the unirradiated cladding material condition. No significant differences between the axial and tangential cladding residual stresses are reported in the

  9. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  10. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  11. Influência da energia de soldagem na microestrutura e na microdureza de revestimentos de aço inoxidável duplex Influence of the heat input on the microstructure and microhardness of weld overlay of duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Barbosa Nunes

    2012-06-01

    influence of the heat input on the microstructure and the microhardness of the weld metal of the DSS. The weld overlay were performed with deposition of two layers on the structural steel ASTM A516 Gr.60, using as filler metal the AWS E2209-17 coated electrode. Three energy levels (15, 20 and 24 kJ/ cm were used, varying the welding current and speed. It was verified that for energy levels used didn't have significant difference on the ferrite content, but the first bead deposited had a higher austenite content in relation to other beads. All conditions got microhardness below the critical value.

  12. Temperature measurements of the aluminium claddings of fuel elements in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1986-01-01

    A method for embedding the sheathed thermocouples in the aluminium claddings of some fuel elements of experimental reactors by ultrasonic welding technique is described. The measurement results of the cladding temperature of fuel elements in reactors are given. By means of this method, the joint between the sheathed thermocouples and the cladding of fuel elements can be made very tight, there are no bulges on the cladding surfaces, and the sheathed thermocouples are embedded strongly and reliably. Therefore an essential means is provided for acquiring the stable and dynamic state data of the cladding temperature of in-core fuel elements

  13. Residual Stress Evaluation of Weld Inlay Process on Reactor Vessel Nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kihyun; Cho, Hong Seok [KEPCO KPS, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Weld overlay, weld inlay and stress improvement are mitigation technologies for butt joints. Weld overlay is done on pressurizer nozzles which are the highest potential locations occurring PWSCC due to high temperature in Korea. Reactor vessel nozzles are other big safety concerns for butt joints. Weld overlay and stress improvement should be so difficult to apply to those locations because space is too limited. Weld inlay should be one of the solutions. KEPCO KPS has developed laser welding system and process for reactor nozzles. Welding residual stress analysis is necessary for flaw evaluation. United States nuclear regulatory commission has calculated GTAW(Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) residual stress using ABAQUS. To confirm effectiveness of weld inlay process, welding residual stress analysis was performed. and difference between GTAW and LASER welding process was compared. Evaluation of weld inlay process using ANSYS and ABAQUS is performed. All of the both results are similar. The residual stress generated after weld inlay was on range of 450-500 MPa. Welding residual stresses are differently generated by GTAW and LASER welding. But regardless of welding process type, residual tensile stress is generated on inside surface.

  14. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  15. Ferrous alloy metallurgy - liquid lithium corrosion and welding. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth has been used to evaluate the interaction between liquid lithium and an imposed stress. Fatigue crack growth data on type 304L stainless steel at 700C and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel between 500 and 700C show that for all imposed test conditions (i.e. frequency, temperature, and nitrogen content in the lithium) the interaction of lithium with the strain at the crack tip results in enhanced crack growth rates. The enhanced growth rates result from the effects of either enhanced grain boundary penetration or a change in crack propagation mechanism due to liquid metal embrittlement. Auger spectroscopy of grain boundary penetrated specimen shows that a lithium-oxygen compound forms at the grain boundary. Moessbauer evaluations of the ferrite layer of corroded type 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a model for weight loss in liquid lithium. The welding research in progress is directed to characterize the influence of variations of the austenitic weld metal composition on the microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weldments. Weldments of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to 316 stainless steel have been investigated for fusion microstructure, thermal expansion impact strength and characterization of specific long time in-service failures. Modification of weld metal microstructures by microalloy additions is being investigated as a concept to improve weld metal properties. The behavior of a strip electrode in a gas metal arc is being investigated to determine the feasibility of gas metal arc weld strip overlay cladding

  16. Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...

  17. End plug for fuel rod and welding method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kazuo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    An end plug of a fuel rod comprises a pressure-insertion portion having a diameter somewhat greater than the inner diameter of a fuel cladding tube and a welding portion having a diameter substantially the same as the outer diameter of the cladding tube. A V-shaped recess having an outer diameter smaller than the greatest outer diameter of the pressure-insertion portion is formed over the entire circumferential surface of the outer circumference of the connection portion of the pressure-insertion portion and the welding portion. The pressure-insertion portion of the end plug is inserted to the end of the cladding tube till the end of the cladding tube abuts against the inclined surface of the V-shaped recess. The abutting surfaces of the end plug and the cladding tube are subjected to resistance welding in this state. The inner portion bulged from the inclined surface of the V-shaped recess is filled in the recess in a molten state. Lowering of temperature of the cladding tube in the vicinity of the welded portion is decreased by γ heat during reactor operation. Accordingly, lowering of ductility of the cladding tube and degradation of material of the welded region due to segregation of hydrogen in the cladding tube can be suppressed. (I.N.)

  18. TIG welding method and TIG welding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Eishi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of TIG welding for members having different heat capacities including a cladding tube and an end plug of a fuel rod to be used, for example, in a reactor, and a device therefor. Namely, in the TIG welding method, the flow rate of a sealed gas to the side of a member having smaller heat capacity is made greater than that on the side of the member having greater heat capacity bordered on the top end of a welding electrode. Since the sealed gas is jetted being localized relative to the welding electrode, arc is restricted in a region of the member having smaller heat capacity and is increased at a region having a larger heat capacity. As a result, the arc is localized, so that the heat input amount to the region having a large heat capacity is increased, and then a plurality of members at the abutting portion are melted uniformly thereby capable of obtaining a uniform molten pool. A bead is formed at the abutting portion thereby capable of obtaining a welded portion with less unevenness and having large strength. (I.S.)

  19. Evaluation of cladding residual stresses in clad blocks by measurements and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Moinereau, D.

    1996-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessels are internally clad with austenitic stainless steel. This welding operation generates residual stresses which can have an important role in integrity assessments. In order to evaluate these stresses, an experimental and numerical programme has been conducted. The experiments includes cladding operations, macrographic analyses, temperature and residual stresses measurements with different methods. According to these measurements, transversal stresses (perpendicular to the welding direction) and longitudinal stresses (parallel to the welding direction) are highly tensile in stainless steel and they are compressive in the HAZ. Finite element calculations were used to simulate both welding operations and post weld heat treatment. These calculations coupled the thermal, metallurgical and mechanical aspects in a 2D representation. Different models were studied including effect of generalised plane strain, transformation plasticity, creep and tempering. The transversal stresses calculated are similar to the measured ones, but the longitudinal stresses showed to be very sensitive to the model used. As expected because of the two-dimension model, the longitudinal stresses can't be well estimated. More work is needed to improve measurements of stresses in depth (important differences appeared between the different methods). A predictive model would be also very useful to determine the thermal loading which is at present dependant on measurements. A 3D calculation appears to be necessary to evaluate longitudinal stresses. (orig.)

  20. Automatization and mechanization of welding in nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ma, I E; Kupin, N V

    1986-02-01

    The state of welding and cladding works, which constitute more than 12% of total labour content of NPP equipment production, is described. Special attention is paid to a considerable part of manual labour in the processes of thermal cutting and welding of joints inside the vessels. The necessity of perspective technology introduction is pointed out. It means, in particular, the introduction of technological complex robotics for automatic welding of pipes with tube plates in heat exchanger, the mechanization of cladding processes for sealing surfaces of locking equipment, facility equipment for the welding of steam generator vessels to bottoms by means of preliminary and concomitant heating devices.

  1. Automatization and mechanization of welding in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ma, I.E.; Kupin, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    The state of welding and cladding works, which constitute more than 12% of total labour content of NPP equipment production, is described. Special attention is paid to a considerable part of manual labour in the processes of thermal cutting and welding of joints inside the vessels. The necessity of perspective technology introduction is pointed out. It means, in particular, the introduction of technological complex robotics for automatic welding of pipes with tube plates in heat exchanger, the mechanization of cladding processes for sealing surfaces of locking equipment, facility equipment for the welding of steam generator vessels to bottoms by means of preliminary and concomitant heating devices

  2. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  3. Strengthening of the nuclear valve sealing surface by laser cladding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Huang Guodong

    1998-07-01

    A 5 kW laser with CO 2 flow transverse for cladding Co-base alloy or Ni-base alloy coat on the austenite matrix of the nuclear valve sealing surface is introduced. The results show that, after the sealing surface of valve is processed by the laser cladding, the coat of 3.0 mm thick can be made with smooth surface. The test and comparison analysis indicate that the structure and all performance have obvious advantages over that of the plasma spurt welding, bead welding and flame welding processing

  4. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  5. A knowledge-based diagnosis system for welding machine problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnieres, P. de; Boutes, J.L.; Calas, M.A.; Para, S.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a knowledge-based diagnosis system which can be a valuable aid in resolving malfunctions and failures encountered using the automatic hot-wire TIG weld cladding process. This knowledge-based system is currently under evaluation by welding operators at the Framatome heavy fabricating facility. Extension to other welding processes is being considered

  6. A Relationship of the Torque Strength between Endplates and Endcaps due to the Welding Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Kim, Soo Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    As fuel bundles in a PHWR core irradiated, inner pressure in the claddings of the fuel rods increases owing to the outer pressure and fission products of the nuclear fissions. Because of a leak possibility from a welding between a cladding and an endcap, this welding part is connected with the safety of nuclear fuel rods. Endcap-cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in a PHWR takes advantage of a resistance upset butt welding. The weldment between a cladding and an endcap is to be sound to prevent a leakage of fission products from a cladding as a UO{sub 2} pellet is irradiated. Weld flash was made from a deformation due to a welding heat and increasing the pressure of the resistivity and resistance from a cladding and an endcap. Weld line of a welding interface, microstructure of a weldment and a crystallographic structure change were sources of an iodine induced SCC in a reactor. The soundness of a weldment is important because a weld line connects the leakage of fission products from an operational reactor. In this study, welding specimens were fabricated by a resistance welding method using a fuel bundle welder to measure and analyze the torque strength of an endplate-endcap welding. The torque strength between endplates and endcaps was measured and analyzed with the welding current and the welding time. The torque strength between endplates and endcaps was, on the whole, within 6.9-12.7 N{center_dot}m in the range of fabrication specification of the fuel bundles. The weldability of between an endplate and an endcap was investigated by a metallographic examination.

  7. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  8. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  9. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  10. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  11. Cladding Alloys for Fluoride Salt Compatibility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    This interim report provides an overview of several candidate technologies for cladding nickel-based corrosion protection layers onto high-temperature structural alloys. The report also provides a brief overview of the welding and weld performance issues associated with joining nickel-clad nickel-based alloys. From the available techniques, two cladding technologies were selected for initial evaluation. The first technique is a line-of-sight method that would be useful for coating large structures such as vessel interiors or large piping. The line-of-sight method is a laser-based surface cladding technique in which a high-purity nickel powder mixed into a polymer binder is first sprayed onto the surface, baked, and then rapidly melted using a high power laser. The second technique is a vapor phase technique based on the nickel-carbonyl process that is suitable for coating inaccessible surfaces such as the interior surfaces of heat exchangers. The final project report will feature an experimental evaluation of the performance of the two selected cladding techniques.

  12. Evaluating diffraction-based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Jung, JinWoo; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Hu, Jiangtao; Ham, Boo-Hyun; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluate diffraction-based overlay (DBO) metrology using two test wafers. The test wafers have different film stacks designed to test the quality of DBO data under a range of film conditions. We present DBO results using traditional empirical approach (eDBO). eDBO relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to the overlay displacement within a small range. It requires specially designed targets that consist of multiple pads with programmed shifts. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. We measure five DBO targets designed with different pitches and programmed shifts. The correlations of five eDBO targets and the correlation of eDBO to image-based overlay are excellent. The targets of 800nm and 600nm pitches have better dynamic precision than targets of 400nm pitch, which agrees with simulated results on signal/noise ratio. 3σ of less than 0.1nm is achieved for both wafers using the best configured targets. We further investigate the linearity assumption of eDBO algorithm. Simulation results indicate that as the pitch of DBO targets gets smaller, the nonlinearity error, i.e., the error in the overlay measurement results caused by deviation from ideal linear response, becomes bigger. We propose a nonlinearity correction (NLC) by including higher order terms in the optical response. The new algorithm with NLC improves measurement consistency for DBO targets of same pitch but different programmed shift, due to improved accuracy. The results from targets with different pitches, however, are improved marginally, indicating the presence of other error sources.

  13. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  14. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  15. Stone cladding engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camposinhos, Rui de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    .... Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements...

  16. Cladding creepdown under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1977-01-01

    Light-water power reactors use Zircaloy tubing as cladding to contain the UO 2 fuel pellets. In-service operating conditions impose an external hydrostatic force on the cladding, causing it to creep down into eventual contact with the fuel. Knowledge of the rate of such creepdown is of great importance to modelers of fuel element performance. An experimental system was devised for studying creepdown that meets several severe requirements by providing (1) correct stress state, (2) multiple positions for measuring radial displacement of the cladding surface, (3) high-precision data, and (4) an experimental configuration compact enough to fit in-reactor. A microcomputer-controlled, eddy-current monitoring system was developed for this study and has proven highly successful in measuring cladding deformation with time at temperatures of 371 0 C (700 0 F) and higher, and at pressures as high as 21 MPa

  17. Study on laser beam welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Shiihara, Katsunori; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kono, Wataru; Obata, Minoru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Laser beam welding is one of the jointing processes by irradiating laser beam on the material surface locally and widely used at various industrial fields. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and already applied them to several existing nuclear power plants. Laser cladding is a technique to weld the corrosion resistant metal onto a substrate surface by feeding filler wire to improve the corrosion resistance. Temper-bead welding is the heat input process to provide the desired microstructure properties of welded low alloy steels without post weld heat treatment, by inducing proper heat cycle during laser welding. Both laser welding technologies would be performed underwater by blowing the shielding gas for creating the local dry area. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics by temper-bead welding to target at Reactor Coolant System nozzle of PWR are presented. (author)

  18. Development of endplug welding technology for irradiation testing capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Shin, Y. T.; Kim, S. S.; Kim, B. K.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of newly developed nuclear fuel, it is necessary to irradiate the fuel at a research reactor and examine the irradiated fuel. For the irradiation test in a reasearch reactor, a fuel assembly which is generally called a capsule should be fabricated, considering the fuel irradiation plan and the characteristics of the reactor to be used. And also the fuel elements containing the developed fuel pellets should be made and assembled into a capsule. In this study, the welding method, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make fuel elements for the irradiation test at the HANARO research reactor. The TIG welding method using automatic orbital tube welding system was adopted and the welding joint design was developed for the fabrication of various kinds of irradiation fuel elements. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established for the endplug welding of Zircaloy-4 cladding tube.

  19. Examination of stainless steel-clad Connecticut Yankee fuel assembly S004 after storage in borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, D.C.; Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Landow, M.P.; Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R.W.

    1982-09-01

    A Connecticut Yankee fuel assembly (S004) was tested nondestructively and destructively. It was concluded that no obvious degradation of the 304L stainless steel-clad spent fuel from assembly S004 occurred during 5 y of storage in borated water. Furthermore, no obvious degradation due to the pool environment occurred on 304 stainless steel-clad rods in assemblies H07 and G11, which were stored for shorter periods but contained operationally induced cladding defects. The seam welds in the cladding on fuel rods from assembly S004, H07, and G11 were similar in that they showed a wrought microstructure with grains noticeably smaller than those in the cladding base metal. The end cap welds showed a dendritically cored structure, typical of rapidly quenched austenitic weld metal. Some intergranular melting may have occurred in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in the cladding adjacent to the end cap welds in rods from assemblies S004 and H07. However, the weld areas did not show evidence of corrosion-induced degradation

  20. Laser cladding of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepeleva, L.; Medres, B.; Kaplan, W.D.; Bamberger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of two different techniques for the application of wear-resistant coatings for contact surfaces of shroud shelves of gas turbine engine blades (GTE) has been conducted. Wear-resistant coatings were applied on In713 by laser cladding with direct injection of the cladding powder into the melt pool. Laser cladding was conducted with a TRUMPF-2500, CW-CO 2 laser. The laser cladding was compared with commercially available plasma cladding with wire. Both plasma and laser cladded zones were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the laser cladded zone has a higher microhardness value (650-820 HV) compared with that of the plasma treated material (420-440 HV). This is a result of the significant reduction in grain size in the case of laser cladding. Unlike the plasma cladded zones, the laser treated material is free of micropores and microcracks. (orig.)

  1. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  2. Development of end plug welding method in the fabrication of FBR fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Seiji; Sawayama, Takeo; Tateishi, Yoshinori

    1977-01-01

    As a part of the development of the automatic and remote controlled fabrication of FBR fuel pins, welding of fuel pin end plugs has been examined. Cladding tubes and end plugs used for this experiment are made of SUS 316, and they are the components of fuel pins for the prototype fast breeder reactor (Monju) or the second core of Joyo (Joyo MK-II). The welding tests of cladding tubes and four kinds of end plugs were carried out by means of two techniques; tungsten inert gas welding and laser welding. It can be said that no considerable difference was observed in weld penetration, occurrence rate of weld defects and breaking strength between the tight fit and the loose fit plugs. The face-to-face fit welding requires the least welding heat input, but involves much difficulty in the control of weld penetration and bead zone diameter. The good concentrative property and high energy density of laser beam make the face of weld hollow due to the vaporization of weld metal. However, this problem can be easily solved by changing the shape of end plugs. Good results in the other characteristics of the weld also were obtained by this laser welding. Further experiment is needed in connection with the compatibility of weld metal with sodium and neutron irradiation before final judgement is made on the laser welding technique. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Initial Cladding Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  4. Development of austenitic stainless steel tubes for nuclear reactor cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, A.F.; Ferreira, P.I.; Andrade, P.I.; Andrade, A.H.P. de; Meyerhof, S.; Mauricio, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the development of thin wall tubes for nuclear reactor fuel cladding applications, a great number of activities, related to the fabrication process as the qualification are involved. A test program was envisaged to verify the quality of seam welded stainless steel tubes (AISI 304), obtained as a result of an effort by the IPEN-CNEN/SP and the brazilian industry. The relevant aspects involved in the preparation of the tubes and some preliminary test results are presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  6. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  7. Gas sealing welding method and device for nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Motokuni; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Yagi, Eiji; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Kobogata, Sadao; Taniguchi, Jun-ichi; Uesugi, Yoshisaku.

    1995-01-01

    An end plug and a cladding tube are held by clamping, respectively, by opposing movable electrode and static electrode. The movable electrode is forwarded toward the static electrode. The end plug and the cladding tube are abutted and held at a slight gap between their end faces. A region to be welded is surrounded by a pressurizing chamber and the side of the chamber is evacuated and He gas is filled in the cladding tube. Then, one of the electrodes is forwarded, to seal the abutted end faces of the end plug and the cladding tube. Then, pressure and welding current required for welding are applied to the abutted ends, and He gas is sealed in the vessel. The displacement of pressurization caused by slipping when the required pressure is applied to the abutted ends is detected by a sensor, and the operation of the welding control device for starting current supply is terminated by the detection signals. Abutment accuracy between the abutment of the cladding tube and the end plug as a nuclear fuel rod can be ensured, to further improve and stabilize the welding quality. (N.H.)

  8. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  9. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO 2 and/or H 2 S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  10. Diffusion in cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.S.; Pande, B.M.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium has been used as a cladding material in most research reactors because its low neutron absorption cross section and ease of fabrication. However, it is not suitable for cladding in power reactors and as such zircaloy-2 is normally used as a clad because it can withstand high temperature. It has low neutron absorption cross section, good oxidation, corrosion, creep properties and possesses good mechanical strength. With the passage of time, further development in this branch of science took place and designers started looking for better neutron economy and less hydrogen pickup in PHW reactors. The motion of fission products in the cladding material could pose a problem after long operation. In order to understand their behaviour under reactor environment, it is essential to study first the diffusion under normal conditions. These studies will throw light on the interaction of defects with impurities which would in turn help in understanding the mechanism of diffusion. In this article, it is intended to discuss the diffusion behaviour of impurities in cladding materials.(i.e. aluminium, zircaloy-2, zirconium-niobium alloy etc.). (author). 94 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Welding of metallic fuel elements for the irradiation test in JOYO. Preliminary tests and welding execution tests (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Kinya; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation tests of metallic fuels elements in fast test reactor JOYO are planned under the joint research of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Six U-Pu-Zr fuel elements clad with ferritic martensitic steel are fabricated in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) of JAEA-Oarai for the first time in Japan. In PFRF, the procedures of fabrication of the fuel elements were determined and the test runs of the equipments were carried out before the welding execution tests for the fuel elements. Test samples for confirming the welding condition between the cladding tube and top and bottom endplugs were prepared, and various test runs were carried out before the welding execution tests. As a result, the welding conditions were finalized by passing the welding execution tests. (author)

  12. Optimization of cladding parameters for resisting corrosion on low carbon steels using simulated annealing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, A. V.; Shivasankaran, N.; Magibalan, S.

    2018-04-01

    Low carbon steels used in chemical industries are frequently affected by corrosion. Cladding is a surfacing process used for depositing a thick layer of filler metal in a highly corrosive materials to achieve corrosion resistance. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is preferred in cladding process due to its augmented efficiency and higher deposition rate. In this cladding process, the effect of corrosion can be minimized by controlling the output responses such as minimizing dilution, penetration and maximizing bead width, reinforcement and ferrite number. This paper deals with the multi-objective optimization of flux cored arc welding responses by controlling the process parameters such as wire feed rate, welding speed, Nozzle to plate distance, welding gun angle for super duplex stainless steel material using simulated annealing technique. Regression equation has been developed and validated using ANOVA technique. The multi-objective optimization of weld bead parameters was carried out using simulated annealing to obtain optimum bead geometry for reducing corrosion. The potentiodynamic polarization test reveals the balanced formation of fine particles of ferrite and autenite content with desensitized nature of the microstructure in the optimized clad bead.

  13. An overview of the HSST Full-Thickness Shallow-Crack Clad Beam Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Theiss, T.J.; McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    A testing program is described that will utilize full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow flaws in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow flaws in the beam specimen include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. Fracture toughness tests focusing on shallow flaws in plate and weld material will also provide data for evaluating the relative influence of absolute and normalized crack depth on constraint conditions. Pretest finite-element analyses are described that provide near-tip stress and strain fields for characterization of constraint in the shallow-crack specimens in terms of the Q-stress. Analysis results predict a constraint loss in the shallow-crack clad beam specimen similar to that determined for a previously tested shallow-crack single-edge notch homogeneous bend specimen with the same normalized crack depth

  14. Electra-Clad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study relates to the use of building-integrated photovoltaics. The Electra-Clad project sought to use steel-based cladding as a substrate for direct fabrication of a fully integrated solar panel of a design similar to the ICP standard glass-based panel. The five interrelated phases of the project are described. The study successfully demonstrated that the principles of the panel design are achievable and sound. But, despite intensive trials, a commercially realistic solar performance has not been achieved: the main failing was the poor solar conversion efficiency as the active area of the panel was increased in size. The problem lies with the coating used on the steel cladding substrates and it was concluded that a new type of coating will be required. ICP Solar Technologies UK carried out the work under contract to the DTI.

  15. Nuclear fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahigashi, Shigeo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To largely improve the durability and the safety of fuel cladding material. Constitution: Diffusion preventive layers, e.g., aluminum or the like are covered on both sides of a zirconium alloy base layer of thin material, and corrosion resistant layers, e.g., copper or the like are covered thereon. This thin plate material is intimately wound in a circularly tubular shape in a plurality of layers to form a fuel cladding tube. With such construction, corrosion of the tube due to fuel and impurity can be prevented by the corrosion resistant layers, and the diffusion of the corrosion resistant material to the zirconium alloy can be prevented by the diffusion preventive layers. Since a plurality of layers are cladded, even if the corrosion resistant layers are damaged or cracked due to stress corrosion, only one layer is damaged or cracked, but the other layers are not affected. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Development of an Overlay Design Procedure for Composite Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The composite overlay design procedure currently used by ODOT sometimes produces very large overlay thicknesses that are deemed structurally unnecessary, especially for composite pavements already with thick asphalt overlays. This study was initiated...

  17. Overlay accuracy with respect to device scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

    2012-03-01

    Overlay metrology performance is usually reported as repeatability, matching between tools or optics aberrations distorting the measurement (Tool induced shift or TIS). Over the last few years, improvement of these metrics by the tool suppliers has been impressive. But, what about accuracy? Using different target types, we have already reported small differences in the mean value as well as fingerprint [1]. These differences make the correctables questionable. Which target is correct and therefore which translation, scaling etc. values should be fed back to the scanner? In this paper we investigate the sources of these differences, using several approaches. First, we measure the response of different targets to offsets programmed in a test vehicle. Second, we check the response of the same overlay targets to overlay errors programmed into the scanner. We compare overlay target designs; what is the contribution of the size of the features that make up the target? We use different overlay measurement techniques; is DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay) more accurate than IBO (Image Based Overlay)? We measure overlay on several stacks; what is the stack contribution to inaccuracy? In conclusion, we offer an explanation for the observed differences and propose a solution to reduce them.

  18. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  19. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  20. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established

  1. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established.

  2. Welding Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2009-01-01

    About 95% of all manufactured goods in this country are welded or joined in some way. These welded products range in nature from bicycle handlebars and skyscrapers to bridges and race cars. The author discusses what students need to know about careers for welding technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career advancement…

  3. Disordering kinetics in surface overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesina, A.; Tringides, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The disordering kinetics of the O/W(110)-p(2x1)+p(2x2) overlayer, prepared initially in a well-ordered state, are studied with low-energy electron diffraction profile analysis. The decay of the peak intensity, used as a measure of the growing disorder, cannot be fitted to a power law as in the case of ordering processes. The full width at half maximum of the time-dependent structure factor S(q,t) is constant with time, which suggests that the average size remains constant. Diffusion activation energy extracted for the temperature dependence of the disordering is 1.0±0.05 eV, which is different from the value of 0.6 eV measured in ordering processes. The difference can be explained by the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, which contribute differently to the diffusion barrier, in the two experiments

  4. Development of resistance welding process. 4. Preparation of pressuring enclosed creep test specimen of 7A material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hideo; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya

    2001-02-01

    Mechanical strength in the position welded by resistance welding system was examined in 1999. The test specimens were destroyed in the welding position in a shorter time than expected in the creep test. Therefore, test specimens were prepared to evaluate the cause of destruction. Inner-pressure enclosed creep test specimens were prepared by resistance welding method. Cladding material with low deviation of thickness and high re-crystallization rate was used. Heat treatment after resistance welding was performed to remove the influence of residual stress and the precipitation of carbides. (1) Before preparation of specimens, the welding condition was fixed. Three test specimens were prepared. Two specimens without heat treatment were transported to MMS in Oarai Engineering Center on Aug. 4, 2000. One specimen with heat treatment was transported to MMS after evaluating the residual stress to get optimum heat treatment condition. (2) Specimens were prepared with welding end plugs to both ends of ferritic ODS cladding. Enclosing sides were welded with highly strong Ferritic/Martensitic steel end plugs. The other sides were welded with ferritic ODS end plugs. (3) Some kinds of electrical wave data were obtained during performing welding. Welding position was evaluated with supersonic detector after performing welding. (4) Mechanical strength of welding position in high temperature 800degC was confirmed to be equal to or larger than that of cladding material. The highly qualified specimens in the present were successfully prepared. (author)

  5. The effect of individually-induced processes on image-based overlay and diffraction-based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, SeungHwa; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Seungyoon; Hwang, Chan; Choi, Gilheyun; Kang, Ho-Kyu; Jung, EunSeung

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, set of wafers with separated processes was prepared and overlay measurement result was compared in two methods; IBO and DBO. Based on the experimental result, theoretical approach of relationship between overlay mark deformation and overlay variation is presented. Moreover, overlay reading simulation was used in verification and prediction of overlay variation due to deformation of overlay mark caused by induced processes. Through this study, understanding of individual process effects on overlay measurement error is given. Additionally, guideline of selecting proper overlay measurement scheme for specific layer is presented.

  6. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  7. Diffraction based overlay re-assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; D'havé, Koen; Cheng, Shaunee

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, numerous authors have reported the advantages of Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) over Image Based Overlay (IBO), mainly by comparison of metrology figures of merit such as TIS and TMU. Some have even gone as far as to say that DBO is the only viable overlay metrology technique for advanced technology nodes; 22nm and beyond. Typically the only reported drawback of DBO is the size of the required targets. This severely limits its effective use, when all critical layers of a product, including double patterned layers need to be measured, and in-die overlay measurements are required. In this paper we ask whether target size is the only limitation to the adoption of DBO for overlay characterization and control, or are there other metrics, which need to be considered. For example, overlay accuracy with respect to scanner baseline or on-product process overlay control? In this work, we critically re-assess the strengths and weaknesses of DBO for the applications of scanner baseline and on-product process layer overlay control. A comprehensive comparison is made to IBO. For on product process layer control we compare the performance on critical process layers; Gate, Contact and Metal. In particularly we focus on the response of the scanner to the corrections determined by each metrology technique for each process layer, as a measure of the accuracy. Our results show that to characterize an overlay metrology technique that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

  8. Temper-bead repair-welding of neutron-irradiated reactor (pressure) vessel by low-heat-input TIG and YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kiyotomo; Ozawa, Masayoshi; Kamo, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Weldability in neutron-irradiated low alloy steel for reactor (pressure) vessel has been studied by temper-bead repair-welding of low-heat-input TIG and YAG laser welding. A low alloy steel and its weld, and stainless steel clad and nickel (Ni)-based alloy clad were irradiated in a materials test reactor (LVR-15, Czech Republic) up to 1.4 x 10 24 n/m 2 (>1 MeV) at 290degC, which approximately corresponds to the maximum neutron fluence of 60-year-operation plants' vessels. The He concentration in the irradiated specimens was estimated to be up to 12.9 appm. The repair-welding was carried out by TIG and YAG laser welding at a heat input from 0.06 to 0.86 MJ/m. The mechanical tests of tensile, impact, side bend and hardness were carried out after the repair-welding. Cracks were not observed in the irradiated low alloy steel and its weld by temper-bead repair-welding. Small porosities were formed in the first and second layers of the repair-welds of low alloy steel (base metal). However, only a few porosities were found in the repair-welds of the weld of low alloy steel. From the results of mechanical tests, the repair-welding could be done in the irradiated weld of low alloy steel containing a He concentration up to 12.9 appm, although repair-welding could be done in base metal of low alloy steel containing up to only 1.7 appmHe. On the other hand, cracks occurred in the heat affected zones of stainless steel and Ni-based alloy clads by repair-welding, except by YAG laser repair-welding at a heat input of 0.06 MJ/m in stainless steel clad containing 1.7 appmHe. Based on these results, the determination processes were proposed for optimum parameters of repair-welding of low alloy steel and clad used for reactor (pressure) vessel. (author)

  9. Preliminary experiments for the fabrication of clad for a spherical fuel for a research fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary experiments using 1100 aluminum 0,5mm thick hemispheres welded on 10mm diameter steel and ceramic spheres in order to determine a method to clad spherical fuel for a research fluidized bed nuclear reactor were studied. The processes of hot press, T.I.G. and resistance we use for welding. A qualitative compression and metalographic tests of welded pieces are performed. By the analysis of the results of the tests we conclude that the resistance welding was the best. The experimental methods and the results with their analysis are presented in the paper. (Author) [pt

  10. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen

  11. Overlay field application program, Pennsylvania US-119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Concrete Overly Filed Application program is administered by FHWA and the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center (CP Tech Center). The overall objective of this program is to increase the awareness and knowledge of concrete overlay applicat...

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  13. A comparison of advanced overlay technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Smith, Nigel; Goelzer, Gary; Liu, Zhuan; Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Koh, Chin Hwee

    2010-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 22nm and beyond by Double Patterning Technology is often challenged by CDU and overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budgets in the sub-nm range, relying on traditional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) estimates alone is no longer sufficient. In this paper we will report scatterometry overlay measurements data from a set of twelve test wafers, using four different target designs. The TMU of these measurements is under 0.4nm, within the process control requirements for the 22nm node. Comparing the measurement differences between DBO targets (using empirical and model based analysis) and with image-based overlay data indicates the presence of systematic and random measurement errors that exceeds the TMU estimate.

  14. Diffraction based overlay and image based overlay on production flow for advanced technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for lithography step is the overlay control. For the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, the overlay budget becomes very tight. Two overlay techniques compete in our advanced semiconductor manufacturing: the Diffraction based Overlay (DBO) with the YieldStar S200 (ASML) and the Image Based Overlay (IBO) with ARCHER (KLA). In this paper we will compare these two methods through 3 critical production layers: Poly Gate, Contact and first metal layer. We will show the overlay results of the 2 techniques, explore the accuracy and compare the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) for the standard overlay targets of both techniques. We will see also the response and impact for the Image Based Overlay and Diffraction Based Overlay techniques through a process change like an additional Hardmask TEOS layer on the front-end stack. The importance of the target design is approached; we will propose more adapted design for image based targets. Finally we will present embedded targets in the 14 FDSOI with first results.

  15. Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Welded Joints of Alloy 1151 in Marine Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulo, A. V.; Yakushin, B. F.; Puchkov, Yu. A.

    2017-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of joints formed by TIG and IMIG welding from clad sheets of heat-hardenable aluminum alloy 1151 of the Al - Cu - Mg system is studied. The corrosion tests are performed in an aqueous solution of NaCl in a salt-spray chamber. The welded joints are subjected to a metallographic analysis.

  16. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  17. WELDING TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correy, T.B.

    1961-10-01

    A welding torch into which water and inert gas are piped separately for cooling and for providing a suitable gaseous atmosphere is described. A welding electrode is clamped in the torch by a removable collet sleeve and a removable collet head. Replacement of the sleeve and head with larger or smaller sleeve and head permits a larger or smaller welding electrode to be substituted on the torch. (AEC)

  18. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  19. Application of the pulsed magnetic welding process to nuclear breeder reactor fuel pin end closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic welding process is a solid state welding process in which metallurgical bonding is effected by impacting metal or alloy parts against each other at high velocity by use of controlled high frequency, high intensity pulsed magnetic fields. This process is similar to the explosive welding process except that magnetic energy is used for impacting the parts together instead of using explosive energy. The pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) process is readily applied to the welding of cylindrical plugs to small diameter tubes. Although breeder reactor fuel pin design may vary in size, the application described here consisted of cladding tubes approximately 6.4 mm in diameter by 244 cm long with a wall thickness of 0.38 mm. After the cladding tubes are filled with fuel pellets and associated metal hardware, tapered end plugs are inserted into the end of the tubes and welded. A typical setup for PMW is described

  20. Mechanical and temperature contact in fuel rod cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, B.E.; Rydholm, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents results for the effect of different types of slip rules on the contact stress distribution. It is shown that the contact shear stress is smaller for the hardening model than for the ideal model. It is also shown that a crack in the fuel increases the contact stresses and that at temperature decrease high tensile stresses arise after eventual welding. It is also shown how particles between fuel and cladding influence the stresses. Also here the effect of eventual welding is studied. The present method is well suited to study cracks and crack propagation. The surfaces of the existing cracks are defined as contact surfaces and the crack extension work is calculated by releasing the nodes at the crack tip. As the crack surfaces are defined as contact surfaces eventual crack closure is automatically taken into account. Crack extension work is calculated for existing cracks in the cladding. It is shown that cracks in the fuel and particles between fuel and cladding will increase the crack extension work

  1. Laser repair welding of molds with various pulse shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pleterski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair welding of cold-work tool steels with conventional methods is very difficult due to cracking during remelting or cladding and is generally performed with preheating. As an alternative, repair welding with laser technology has recently been used. This paper presents the influence of different pulse shapes on welding of such tools with the pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Repair welding tests were carried out on AISI D2 tool steel, quenched and tempered to hardness of 56 HRc, followed by microstructural analysis and investigation of defects with scanning electron microscopy. Test results suggest that it is possible to obtain sound welds without preheating, with the right selection of welding parameters and appropriate pulse shape.

  2. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  3. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding for Fabrication of SFR Fuel Rodlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Jeong Yong; Kim, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the PGSFR fuel performance, the irradiation test in HANARO research reactor was planned and the fuel rodlet to be used for irradiation test should be fabricated under the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) program. For the fabrication of PGSFR metallic fuel rodlets, the end plug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of end plug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the end plug welding of fuel rodlet for irradiation test in HANARO was carried out based on the qualified welding technique as reported in the previous paper. The end plug welding of fuel rodlets for irradiation test in HANARO was successfully carried out under the appropriate QA program. The results of the quality inspections on the end plug weld satisfied well the quality criteria on the weld. Consequently the fabricated fuel rodlets are ready for irradiation test in HANARO.

  4. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  5. Process of welding gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speigel, Lyle B.; White, Raymond Alan; Murphy, John Thomas; Nowak, Daniel Anthony

    2003-11-25

    A process for welding superalloys, and particularly articles formed of gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys whose chemistries and/or microstructures differ. The process entails forming the faying surface of at least one of the articles to have a cladding layer of a filler material. The filler material may have a composition that is different from both of the articles, or the same as one of the articles. The cladding layer is machined to promote mating of the faying surfaces, after which the faying surfaces are mated and the articles welded together. After cooling, the welded assembly is free of thermally-induced cracks.

  6. Performance of indigenous resistance welding equipment for PHWR fuel fabrication in NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Prakash, M.S.; Gupta, U.C.; Ganguly, C.

    1999-01-01

    Indigenisation of critical equipment for manufacturing of PHWR fuel and automation in the production line have been the main thrust in NFC in recent years. As part of this endeavour, resistance welding equipment for end plug welding of Zircaloy-4 clad Uranium Oxide fuel pin and end plates of 19-element fuel bundles have been developed. The paper discusses the equipment design features, critical operating parameters and performance of these indigenous welding machines. (author)

  7. Enhacement of intrafield overlay using a design based metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyoyeon; Ji, Sunkeun; Kim, Shinyoung; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2016-03-01

    As the scales of the semiconductor devices continue to shrink, accurate measurement and control of the overlay have been emphasized for securing more overlay margin. Conventional overlay analysis methods are based on the optical measurement of the overlay mark. However, the overlay data obtained from these optical methods cannot represent the exact misregistration between two layers at the circuit level. The overlay mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the real pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by CMP or etching, could be a source of the overlay mismatch as well. Another issue is the overlay variation in the real circuit pattern which varies depending on its location. The optical overlay measurement methods, such as IBO and DBO that use overlay mark on the scribeline, are not capable of defining the exact overlay values of the real circuit. Therefore, the overlay values of the real circuit need to be extracted to integrate the semiconductor device properly. The circuit level overlay measurement using CDSEM is time-consuming in extracting enough data to indicate overall trend of the chip. However DBM tool is able to derive sufficient data to display overlay tendency of the real circuit region with high repeatability. An E-beam based DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool can be an alternative overlay measurement method. In this paper, we are going to certify that the overlay values extracted from optical measurement cannot represent the circuit level overlay values. We will also demonstrate the possibility to correct misregistration between two layers using the overlay data obtained from the DBM system.

  8. Study on Co-free amorphous material cladding using a laser beam to improve the resistance of primary system parts in NPPs to wear/erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Woo, S. S.; Seo, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on Co-free amorphous material, ARMACOR M, cladding using a laser beam has been performed to improve resistance of the primary system main parts on nuclear power plants to wear/erosion-corrosion. The wear/erosion-corrosion properties of ARMACRO M cladded speciemens were characterized in air at room temperature and 300 .deg. C and in air at room temperature, and compared to those of other hardfacing materials, such as Stellite 6, NOREM 02, Deloro 50, TIG-welde or laer cladded. According to the results, ARMACOR M laser-cladded specimen showed to have the highest resistance to wear/erosion-corrosion

  9. Widely tunable asymmetric long-period fiber grating with high sensitivity using optical polymer on laser-ablated cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan-Kuang; Hsu, Der-Yi; Chi, Sien

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency, wideband-tunable, laser-ablated long-period fiber gratings that use an optical polymer overlay. Portions of the fiber cladding are periodically removed by CO(2) laser pulses to induce periodic index changes for coupling the core mode into cladding modes. An optical polymer with a high thermo-optic coefficient with a dispersion distinct from that of silica is used on a deep-ablated cladding structure so that the effective indices of cladding modes become dispersive and the resonant wavelengths can be efficiently tuned. The tuning efficiency can be as high as 15.8 nm/ degrees C, and the tuning range can be wider than 105 nm (1545-1650 nm).

  10. WELDING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  11. Characterization of electron beam welded Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishetty, Sharath; Manna, I.; Majumdar, J. Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) alloys are the backbone materials for thermal reactors because of their low neutron absorption cross section and in addition have suitable properties like high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties. For various structural applications, different Zirconium based alloys are used. Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) is most commonly used as channel boxes in boiling water reactors (BWRs), intermediate grid applications in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in fuel cladding. Zircaloy cladding acts as a barrier between the radioactive fuel and exterior coolants. Therefore, the structural integrity of the cladding tube is extremely important in the safe operation of reactors. Efforts are being made to produce Zircaloy-4 products with better mechanical properties. Different routes of processing are involved like forging, pilgering and extrusion are developed over years in fabricating components to improve in-reactor performance. In this study, microstructure and hardness properties of electron beam welded Zr-4 was evaluated

  12. Fabrication and use of zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed cladding thermocouples and molybdenum/rhenium-sheathed fuel centerline thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.; Sepold, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The thermocouples described in this report are zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed and molybdenum/rhenium alloy-sheathed instruments intended for fuel rod cladding and fuel centerline temperature measurements, respectively. Both types incorporate beryllium oxide insulation and tungsten/rhenium alloy thermoelements. These thermocouples, operated at temperatures of 2000 0 C and above, were developed for use in the internationally sponsored Severe Fuel Damage test series in the Power Burst Facility. The fabrication steps for both thermocouple types are described in detail. A laser-welding attachment technique for the cladding-type thermocouple is presented, and experience with alternate materials for cladding and fuel therocouples is discussed

  13. Development and fabrication of seamless Aluminium finned clad tubes for metallic uranium fuel rods for research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Jayachandran, N.K.; Abdulla, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Natural uranium metal or its alloy is used as fuel in nuclear reactors. Usually fuel is clad with compatible material to prevent its direct contact with coolant which prevents spread of activity. One of the methods of producing fuel for nuclear reactor is by co-drawing finished uranium rods with aluminum clad tube to develop intimate contact for effective heat removal during reactor operation. Presently seam welded Aluminium tubes are used as clad for Research Reactor fuel. The paper will highlight entire fabrication process followed for the fabrication of seamless Aluminium finned tubes along with relevant characterisation results

  14. Study on laser beam welding technology for nuclear power plants title

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Shiihara, Katsunori; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kono, Wataru; Obata, Minoru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Laser beam welding is one of the jointing processes by irradiating laser beam on the material surface locally and widely used at various industrial fields. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and already applied them to several existing nuclear power plants. Laser cladding is a technique to weld the corrosion resistant metal onto a substrate surface by feeding filler wire to improve the corrosion resistance. Temper-bead welding is the heat input process to provide the desired microstructure properties of welded low alloy steels without post weld heat treatment, by inducing proper heat cycle during laser welding. Both laser welding technologies would be performed underwater by blowing the shielding gas for creating the local dry area. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics by temper-bead welding to target at Reactor Coolant System nozzle of PWR are presented. (author)

  15. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  16. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  17. On Adding Structure to Unstructured Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Carvalho, Nuno A.; Pereira, José; Oliveira, Rui; Rodrigues, Luís

    Unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks are very resilient to churn and topology changes, while requiring little maintenance cost. Therefore, they are an infrastructure to build highly scalable large-scale services in dynamic networks. Typically, the overlay topology is defined by a peer sampling service that aims at maintaining, in each process, a random partial view of peers in the system. The resulting random unstructured topology is suboptimal when a specific performance metric is considered. On the other hand, structured approaches (for instance, a spanning tree) may optimize a given target performance metric but are highly fragile. In fact, the cost for maintaining structures with strong constraints may easily become prohibitive in highly dynamic networks. This chapter discusses different techniques that aim at combining the advantages of unstructured and structured networks. Namely we focus on two distinct approaches, one based on optimizing the overlay and another based on optimizing the gossip mechanism itself.

  18. Exploring overlay journals: the RIOJA project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Researchers in cosmology and astrophysics depend on the arXiv repository for the registration and dissemination of their work, as well as for current awareness, yet they continue to submit papers to journals for review. Could rapid quality certification be overlaid directly onto the arXiv repository? This presentation introduces the RIOJA (Repository Interface to Overlaid Journal Archives) project, on which a group of cosmology researchers from the UK is working with UCL Library Services and Cornell University. The project is creating a tool to support the overlay of journals onto repositories, and will demonstrate a cosmology journal overlaid on top of arXiv. RIOJA will also work with the cosmology community to explore the social and economic aspects of journal overlay in this discipline: what other value, besides the quality stamp, does journal publication typically add? What are the costs of the ideal overlay journal for this community, and how could those costs be recovered? Would researchers real...

  19. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  20. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  1. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  2. Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti-SS dissimilar combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugarajan, B.; Padmanabham, G.

    2012-11-01

    Laser welding investigations were carried out on dissimilar Ti-SS combination. The study is aimed to improve the weld strength and ductility by minimizing harmful intermetallics and taking advantage of high cooling rates in laser welding. Results of continuous wave 3.5 kW CO2 laser welding of totally dissimilar combination of Titanium and stainless steel (304) have been discussed. Bead on plate welding experiments were conducted to identify the laser welding parameters using depth of penetration as criteria. The welding of dissimilar combination has been attempted both autogenously and with interlayers such as Vanadium (V) and Tantalum (Ta) in the form of laser cladding as well as strip. Autogenous welds were carried out by varying the laser power, welding speed and position of the laser beam with respect to the joint centre. The resultant welds are characterized by macrostructure analysis, SEM/EDAX and XRD and as welded tensile test in UTM. The autogenous welds have exhibited extensive cracking even when welded at high speeds or by manipulating the beam position with respect to the joint. Similarly Vandaium as interlayer could not achieve crack free joint. A joint with 40 MPa strength could be made with Ta as interlayer. Results and analysis of these variants of laser welded joints are reported and discussed.

  3. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  4. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements can be one of the most : significant factors affecting overlay service life. Various factors may affect the bonding condition at the interface, incl...

  5. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays : accelerated pavement test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one : of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, : tack coat t...

  6. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  7. Processing and structure of in situ Fe-Al alloys produced by gas tungsten arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-02-14

    Iron aluminide weld overlays are being investigated for corrosion and erosion protection of boiler tubes in low NOx burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay compositions which can be deposited in a crack-free condition and provide corrosion protection in moderately reducing environments. In the current phase of work, Fe-Al alloy weld overlays were produced by depositing commercially pure aluminum wire on to low carbon steel substrates using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. A systematic variation of the wire feed speed and current, two major factors affecting dilution, resulted in a variation in aluminum contents of the welds ranging from 3--42 wt% aluminum. The aluminum content was observed to increase with wire feed speed and a decrease in the current. The aluminum content was also found to affect the cracking susceptibility of the overlays. At 10wt% aluminum, few to no cracks were observed in the deposits. Above this value, cracking was prevalent throughout the weld. In addition, two types of microstructures were found correlating to different concentrations of aluminum. A homogeneous matrix with second phase particles consisting of coarse columnar grains was found for low aluminum concentrations. With higher aluminum contents, a two-phase constituent was observed to surround primary dendrites growing from the substrate. The transition of the microstructures occurred between 24 and 32 wt% Al.

  8. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  9. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  10. Optimization of pulsed TIG cladding process of stellite alloy on carbon steel using RSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madadi, F., E-mail: f.madadi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafizadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, M., E-mail: shamanian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: > This study is useful to optimize the welding process variables in order to control the heat input and cooling rates such that the hardness and dilution of the clad could be estimated. > Central composite rotatable design technique with five-level, four-factor full-factorial design matrix and mathematical models was used to predict hardness and dilution of pulsed gas tungsten arc weld cladding of stellite6 on carbon steel with high accuracy. > The welding current is an effective parameter affecting heat input and melting. In this regard, it is the most important process parameter which influences the dilution. Increase welding current leads to increase in dilution percentage and vice versa. The effect of percentage on time is less important when compared to the other factors. > The results predicted by mathematical models were close to those obtained by experiments. The confirmation tests also indicated high correlation between the mentioned values. > All of the chosen pulse GTAW parameters were significant and showed a noticeable influence on clad dilution. - Abstract: Stellite 6 is a cobalt-base alloy which is resistant to wear and corrosion and retains these properties at high temperatures. The exceptional wear resistance of Stellite 6 is mainly due to the unique inherent characteristics of the hard carbides dispersed in a Co-Cr alloy matrix. In this study, pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) cladding process was carried out to deposit Stellite 6 on plain carbon steel plate. The beneficial effects of this cladding process are low heat input, low distortion, controlled weld bead volume, less hot cracking tendency, less absorption of gases by weld pool and better control of the fusion zone. The dilution effect is a key issue in the quality of cladded layers and, in this regard, the pulsed current tungsten inert gas (PCTIG) was performed to decrease excess heat input and melting of substrate. This paper deals with the investigation of the hardness and

  11. Inconel alloy 625 clad steel for application in wet scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, S.L.; Shoemaker, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Test panels from INCONEL 625 clad plate were successfully installed in two wet flue gas scrubber systems. In one system INCONEL 625 clad plate was located in the roof section of the absorber just ahead of the outlet ducting. The test plates, including weld seams, showed no signs to corrosion after six months of exposure. In the other scrubber test plates located in the outlet duct of an I.D. fan house, in the stack lining, and in the absorber quench area were unattacked after nine months

  12. Some remarks on the analysis of stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless-steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, I.; Nrkous, P.

    1977-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking is greatly influenced by tensile stresses in the material. The occurrence of tensile stresses in the material under consideration results from residual stresses brought about during manufacturing processes and from stress caused by operation. In the case of an austenitic steel cladding the residual stresses arise in the course of welding and thermal treatment. The technique of residual stress measurement in austenitic cladding materials is described and the results are given. Both the longitudinal and transverse components of the stresses show in all cases similar behaviour not only prior to, but also after heat treatment. (J.B.)

  13. Cladding and structural materials. Semi-annual progress report, July 1975--January 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1976-04-01

    Progress on experimental programs and evaluation of results is given for radiation damage studies to LMFBR cladding and structural materials. The primary material being studied is 316 SS in various conditions of cold work and in the welded condition. Tensile, creep, and swelling property data on unirradiated and irradiated 316 SS cladding and duct specimens at various test conditions are provided. The importance of stress on the properties of 316 SS is highlighted. Results on core dosimetry and damage analysis indicate the increasing value of detailed core characterization. 105 figures, 21 tables

  14. Effect of Heat Input on Geometry of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Bead on Low Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Kumar; Hazra, Ritesh; Mondal, Ajit; Das, Santanu

    2018-05-01

    Among different weld cladding processes, gas metal arc welding (GMAW) cladding becomes a cost effective, user friendly, versatile method for protecting the surface of relatively lower grade structural steels from corrosion and/or erosion wear by depositing high grade stainless steels onto them. The quality of cladding largely depends upon the bead geometry of the weldment deposited. Weld bead geometry parameters, like bead width, reinforcement height, depth of penetration, and ratios like reinforcement form factor (RFF) and penetration shape factor (PSF) determine the quality of the weld bead geometry. Various process parameters of gas metal arc welding like heat input, current, voltage, arc travel speed, mode of metal transfer, etc. influence formation of bead geometry. In the current experimental investigation, austenite stainless steel (316) weld beads are formed on low alloy structural steel (E350) by GMAW using 100% CO2 as the shielding gas. Different combinations of current, voltage and arc travel speed are chosen so that heat input increases from 0.35 to 0.75 kJ/mm. Nine number of weld beads are deposited and replicated twice. The observations show that weld bead width increases linearly with increase in heat input, whereas reinforcement height and depth of penetration do not increase with increase in heat input. Regression analysis is done to establish the relationship between heat input and different geometrical parameters of weld bead. The regression models developed agrees well with the experimental data. Within the domain of the present experiment, it is observed that at higher heat input, the weld bead gets wider having little change in penetration and reinforcement; therefore, higher heat input may be recommended for austenitic stainless steel cladding on low alloy steel.

  15. The properties and microstructure of padding welds built up on the surface of forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pytel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents selected results of the examinations of the properties and microstructure of weld overlays built up with the UTOP38,F-812 and F-818 welding wires on a substrate of the 42CrMo4 structural steel. Among others, the following investigations were carriedout: bend tests, hardness measurements and determination of ferrite content in a bainitic-martensitic microstructure of UTOP38 and F-812layers.

  16. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  17. Development of TIG Welding System for a Nuclear Fuel Test Rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Changyoung; Ahn, Sungho; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye

    2013-01-01

    The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rig and rods jointing the various sensors and end caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. Thus, we designed and fabricated the precision welding system consisting of an orbital TIG welder, a low-pressure chamber, and a high-pressure chamber. Using this system, the performance tests were performed with the round and seal spot welds for each welding condition. This paper describes not only the contents for the fabrication of precision TIG welding system but also some results from weld tests using the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers to verify the performance of this system. The TIG welding system was developed to manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. It has been configured to be able to weld the nuclear fuel test rigs and rods by applying the TIG welder using a low-pressure chamber and a high-pressure chamber. The performance tests using this system were performed with the round and seal spot welds for the welding conditions. The soundness of the orbital TIG welding system was confirmed through performance tests in the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers

  18. Development of TIG Welding System for a Nuclear Fuel Test Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Ahn, Sungho; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rig and rods jointing the various sensors and end caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. Thus, we designed and fabricated the precision welding system consisting of an orbital TIG welder, a low-pressure chamber, and a high-pressure chamber. Using this system, the performance tests were performed with the round and seal spot welds for each welding condition. This paper describes not only the contents for the fabrication of precision TIG welding system but also some results from weld tests using the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers to verify the performance of this system. The TIG welding system was developed to manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. It has been configured to be able to weld the nuclear fuel test rigs and rods by applying the TIG welder using a low-pressure chamber and a high-pressure chamber. The performance tests using this system were performed with the round and seal spot welds for the welding conditions. The soundness of the orbital TIG welding system was confirmed through performance tests in the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers.

  19. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Su, Yudong; Liu, Chunlan; Nie, Xiangfei; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yonghui

    2017-12-09

    By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  20. Temperature measurement on Zircaloy-clad fuel pins during high temperature excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meservey, R.H.

    1976-04-01

    The development of a sheathed thermocouple suitable for attachment to zircaloy-clad fuel rods and for use during high temperature (2,800 0 F) excursions under loss-of-coolant accident conditions is described. Development, fabrication, and testing of the thermocouples is covered in detail. In addition, the development of a process for laser welding the thermocouples to fuel rods is discussed. The thermocouples and attachment welds have been tested for resistance to corrosion and nuclear radiation and have been subjected to fast thermal cycle, risetime, and blowdown accident tests

  1. Welding template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Venue, R.J. of.

    1976-01-01

    A welding template is described which is used to weld strip material into a cellular grid structure for the accommodation of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. On a base plate the template carries a multitude of cylindrical pins whose upper half is narrower than the bottom half and only one of which is attached to the base plate. The others are arrested in a hexagonal array by oblong webs clamped together by chuck jaws which can be secured by means of screws. The parts are ground very accurately. The template according to the invention is very easy to make. (UWI) [de

  2. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2016-11-30

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in interference limited networks as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. In this paper, we implement the IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the primary network quality of service requirements. In particular, we consider full and partial channel knowledge scenarios and derive the feasibility conditions of operating the overlay cognitive radio systems. Moreover, we derive the superiority conditions of the IGS schemes over the PGS schemes supported with closed form expressions for the corresponding power distribution and the circularity coefficient and parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  3. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  4. Influence of heat input on weld bead geometry using duplex stainless steel wire electrode on low alloy steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Mondal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.

  5. Clad Treatment in KARMA Code and Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-yeup; Lee, Hae-chan; Woo, Hae-seuk [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Zirconium is the main components in clad materials. The subgroup parameters of zirconium were generated with effective cross section which obtained by using flux distribution in clad region. It decreases absorption reaction rate differences with reference MCNP results. Use of composite nuclide is acceptable to increase efficiency but should be limited to specific target composition. Therefore, the use of the composite nuclide of Zircaloy-2 should be limited when HANA clad material is used for clad. Either using explicit components or generating composite nuclide for HANA is suggested. This paper investigates the clad analysis model for KARMA whether current method is applicable to HANA clad material.

  6. Development of laser cladding technology for maintenance of pipe wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oka, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We are developing the laser welding and cladding device for the maintenance of heat exchanger pipes. In the case of flow accelerated corrosion where pipe wall thinning occurred after a long time operation, laser cladding is mostly expected. A laser processing head was proposed in order to access the pipe wall. A composite-type optical fiber scope was used for real time observation and laser processing. An air-cooled compact fiber laser was used for spot heating. We present the concept of the laser cladding device which have the following features: 1) Wire feeding modules, 2) Module capable of laser irradiation in the vertical heat exchanger pipe, 3) Assist gas injection module. (author)

  7. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  8. High-throughput electrical characterization for robust overlay lithography control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender, Devender; Shen, Xumin; Duggan, Mark; Singh, Sunil; Rullan, Jonathan; Choo, Jae; Mehta, Sohan; Tang, Teck Jung; Reidy, Sean; Holt, Jonathan; Kim, Hyung Woo; Fox, Robert; Sohn, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    Realizing sensitive, high throughput and robust overlay measurement is a challenge in current 14nm and advanced upcoming nodes with transition to 300mm and upcoming 450mm semiconductor manufacturing, where slight deviation in overlay has significant impact on reliability and yield1). Exponentially increasing number of critical masks in multi-patterning lithoetch, litho-etch (LELE) and subsequent LELELE semiconductor processes require even tighter overlay specification2). Here, we discuss limitations of current image- and diffraction- based overlay measurement techniques to meet these stringent processing requirements due to sensitivity, throughput and low contrast3). We demonstrate a new electrical measurement based technique where resistance is measured for a macro with intentional misalignment between two layers. Overlay is quantified by a parabolic fitting model to resistance where minima and inflection points are extracted to characterize overlay control and process window, respectively. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy show good correlation between actual overlay performance and overlay obtained from fitting. Additionally, excellent correlation of overlay from electrical measurements to existing image- and diffraction- based techniques is found. We also discuss challenges of integrating electrical measurement based approach in semiconductor manufacturing from Back End of Line (BEOL) perspective. Our findings open up a new pathway for accessing simultaneous overlay as well as process window and margins from a robust, high throughput and electrical measurement approach.

  9. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  10. Modelling of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of cracks in claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Anders; Zagbai, Theo

    2006-05-01

    Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry. To develop and qualify the methods extensive experimental work with test blocks is usually required. This can be very time-consuming and costly and it also requires a good physical intuition of the situation. A reliable mathematical model of the testing situation can, therefore, be very valuable and cost-effective as it can reduce experimental work significantly. A good mathematical model enhances the physical intuition and is very useful for parametric studies, as a pedagogical tool, and for the qualification of procedures and personnel. The present project has been concerned with the modelling of defects in claddings. A cladding is a layer of material that is put on for corrosion protection, in the nuclear power industry this layer is often an austenitic steel that is welded onto the surface. The cladding is usually anisotropic and to some degree it is most likely also inhomogeneous, particularly in that the direction of the anisotropy is varying. This degree of inhomogeneity is unknown but probably not very pronounced so for modelling purposes it may be a valid assumption to take the cladding to be homogeneous. However, another important complicating factor with claddings is that the interface between the cladding and the base material is often corrugated. This corrugation can have large effects on the transmission of ultrasound through the interface and can thus greatly affect the detectability of defects in the cladding. In the present project the only type of defect that is considered is a planar crack that is situated inside the cladding. The investigations are, furthermore, limited to two dimensions, and the crack is then only a straight line. The crack can be arbitrarily oriented and situated, but it must not intersect the interface to the base material. The crack can be surface-breaking, and this is often the case of most practical interest, but it should then be

  11. Modelling of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of cracks in claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Anders; Zagbai, Theo [Calmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Mechanics

    2006-05-15

    Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry. To develop and qualify the methods extensive experimental work with test blocks is usually required. This can be very time-consuming and costly and it also requires a good physical intuition of the situation. A reliable mathematical model of the testing situation can, therefore, be very valuable and cost-effective as it can reduce experimental work significantly. A good mathematical model enhances the physical intuition and is very useful for parametric studies, as a pedagogical tool, and for the qualification of procedures and personnel. The present project has been concerned with the modelling of defects in claddings. A cladding is a layer of material that is put on for corrosion protection, in the nuclear power industry this layer is often an austenitic steel that is welded onto the surface. The cladding is usually anisotropic and to some degree it is most likely also inhomogeneous, particularly in that the direction of the anisotropy is varying. This degree of inhomogeneity is unknown but probably not very pronounced so for modelling purposes it may be a valid assumption to take the cladding to be homogeneous. However, another important complicating factor with claddings is that the interface between the cladding and the base material is often corrugated. This corrugation can have large effects on the transmission of ultrasound through the interface and can thus greatly affect the detectability of defects in the cladding. In the present project the only type of defect that is considered is a planar crack that is situated inside the cladding. The investigations are, furthermore, limited to two dimensions, and the crack is then only a straight line. The crack can be arbitrarily oriented and situated, but it must not intersect the interface to the base material. The crack can be surface-breaking, and this is often the case of most practical interest, but it should then be

  12. Fracture behavior of shallow cracks in full-thickness clad beams from an RPV wall section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in weld material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from an RPV shell segment that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients and material inhomogeneities in welded regions. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for in-plane loss of constraint for uniaxially tested beams, but cannot predict the observed effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on shallow-crack fracture toughness. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation (based on plastic zone width) performed acceptably when applied to the uniaxial and biaxial shallow-crack fracture toughness data

  13. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796])

  14. Pin clad strains in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.

    1979-07-01

    The Phenix reactor has operated for 4 years in a satisfactory manner. The first 2 sub-assembly loadings contained pins clad in solution treated 316. The principal pin strains are: diametral strain (swelling and irradiation creep), ovality and spiral bending of the pin (interaction of wire and pin cluster and wrapper). A pin cluster irradiated to a dose of 80 dpa F reached a pin diameter strain of 5%. This strain is principally due to swelling (low fission gas pressure). The principal parameters governing the swelling are instantaneous dose, time and temperature for a given type of pin cladding. Other types of steel are or will be irradiated in Phenix. In particular, cold-worked titanium stabilised 316 steel should contribute towards a reduction in the pin clad strains and increase the target burn-up in this reactor. (author)

  15. Fuel-cladding chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, C.; Piron, J.P.; Dumas, J.C.; Bouineau, V.; Iglesias, F.C.; Lewis, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The chemistry of the nuclear fuel is very complex. Its chemical composition changes with time due to the formation of fission products and depends on the temperature level history within the fuel pellet and the clad during operation. Firstly, in thermal reactors, zircaloy oxidation from reaction with UO 2 fuel under high-temperature conditions will be addressed. Then other fuel-cladding interaction phenomena occurring in fast reactors will be described. Large thermal gradients existing between the centre and the periphery of the pellet induce the radial redistribution of the fuel constituents. The fuel pellet can react with the clad by different corrosion processes which can involve actinide and/or fission product transport via gas, liquid or/and solid phases. All these phenomena are briefly described in the case of different kinds of fuels (oxide, carbide, nitride, metallic) to be used in fast reactors. The way these phenomena are taken into account in fuel performance codes is presented. (authors)

  16. WELDABILITY, WELDING METALLURGY, WELDING CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjito Jokosisworo

    2012-01-01

    Sambungan las merupakan bagian penting dari stuktur/bangunan yang dilas, dan kunci dari logam induk yang baik adalah kemampuan las (weld ability). Kemampuan las yang baik dan kemudahan dalam fabrikasi dari suatu logam merupakan pertimbangan dalam memilih suatu logam untuk konstruksi.

  17. Resistance Upset Welding of ODS Steel Fuel Claddings—Evaluation of a Process Parameter Range Based on Metallurgical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Corpace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance upset welding is successfully applied to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel fuel cladding. Due to the strong correlation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the ODS steel, this study focuses on the consequences of the welding process on the metallurgical state of the PM2000 ODS steel. A range of process parameters is identified to achieve operative welding. Characterizations of the microstructure are correlated to measurements recorded during the welding process. The thinness of the clad is responsible for a thermal unbalance, leading to a higher temperature reached. Its deformation is important and may lead to a lack of joining between the faying surfaces located on the outer part of the join which can be avoided by increasing the dissipated energy or by limiting the clad stick-out. The deformation and the temperature reached trigger a recrystallization phenomenon in the welded area, usually combined with a modification of the yttrium dispersion, i.e., oxide dispersion, which can damage the long-life resistance of the fuel cladding. The process parameters are optimized to limit the deformation of the clad, preventing the compactness defect and the modification of the nanoscale oxide dispersion.

  18. Effect of welding process on microstructure, microhardness and composition chemistry of stainless steel coatings applied by welding; Efeito do processo de soldagem na microestrutura, microdureza e composicao quimica de revestimentos de aco inoxidavel aplicados por soldagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, R.H.F. de; Maciel, T.M., E-mail: raphael.engmec@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Mecanica; Costa, J.; Santa, R.A.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Cuite, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates the influence of welding parameters on the chemical composition of weld overlays of the AWS E 308-L T1 applied by the FCAW and SAW process, as well as their influence on the microstructure and microhardness of the weld overlays. The characterization of chemical composition was performed by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis), the microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness. The contents of Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, Nb and Si varied as a function of welding parameters, the microstructure and microhardness varied as a function of heat input and chemical composition. The resulting microstructure showed an austenitic matrix with lacy ferrite and ferrite FA, with an average hardness of 191.6 HV for the FCAW process and 210 HV for the SAW process. (author)

  19. Interaction between thorium and potential clad materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, G.B.; Gawde, P.S.; Sengupta, Pranesh

    2005-01-01

    Thorium based fuels are being used for nuclear reactors. The structural stability of fuel-clad assemblies in reactor systems depend upon the nature of interdiffusion reaction between fuel-cladding materials. Interdiffusion reaction thorium and various cladding materials is presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Optical resonance analysis of reflected long period fiber gratings with metal film overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiju; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinua; Zhao, Minfu

    2008-11-01

    We present the experimental results of a novel single-ended reflecting surface plasma resonance (SPR) based long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. A long period fiber grating sensing device is properly designed and fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser writing system. Different nm-thick thin metal films are deposited on the fiber cladding and the fiber end facet for the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) and the reflection of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with doubled interaction between metal-dielectric interfaces of the fiber to enhance the SPW of the all-fiber SPR-LPFG sensing system. Different thin metal films with different thicknesses are investigated. The effect of the excited SPW transmission along the fiber cladding-metal interface with silver and aluminum films is observed. It is found that different thicknesses of the metal overlay show different resonant behaviors in terms of resonance peak situation, bandwidth and energy loss. Within a certain range, thinner metal film shows narrower bandwidth and deeper peak loss.

  1. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  2. The hilum overlay sign in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Van Wyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 9-month-old girl presented with a 1-month history of coughing. A chest X-ray (CXR was performed, and the antero-posterior view demonstrated the hilum overlay sign. Furthermore, there was absence of the azygo-oesophageal line and bilateral paraspinal lines. The lateral CXR revealed a posterior mediastinal mass. Subsequently, a computed tomogram of the chest confirmed a posterior mediastinal mass, with calcifications and intraspinal extension consistent with neuroblastoma. Histological analysis confirmed this mass as a neuroblastoma.

  3. Reaching for the true overlay in advanced nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Hamieh, Bassem; Felix, Nelson; Gaudiello, John

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) of overlay metrology focuses on dynamic precision, toolinduced-shift, and matching, while rarely examining inaccuracy. However, some researchers have recently shown that measurement inaccuracy can still be large despite optimized small TMU. Moreover, this inaccuracy can consume a significant portion of the overlay budget in the advanced nodes. In addition to qualifying the overlay error of inline wafers, overlay metrology is also used for improving on-product overlay as it provides corrective feedback to the lithography scanner. The accuracy of the correction terms as a result depends directly upon the measurement accuracy. As such, enhanced overlay accuracy will improve the overlay performance of reworked wafers, or subsequently exposed wafers. We have previously shown that a segmented Blossom target is more prone to asymmetry-induced inaccuracy than a nonsegmented target is [1]. Since target segmentation is inevitable for SADP and SAQP patterning processes, their resulting overlay performance leaves a lot to be desired. In our quest to reach for the true overlay, this paper reports our investigations on accuracy enhancement techniques for image-based targets, such as redundancy and self-calibration, and on the use of simulation-optimized scatterometry-based targets.

  4. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  5. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  6. Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

    2014-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

  7. Investigation of TIG welding characteristics with a dual cooled rod for the fuel irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    To establish the fabrication process, and for satisfying the requirements of the irradiation test, an TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding machine for the dual cooled rods specimens was developed, and the preliminary welding experiments were performed to optimize the welding process conditions. Cladding tubes of 15.9 and 9 mm for the outer and inner diameters, respectively with a 0.57 mm thickness and end caps were used for the specimens. This paper describes the experimental results of the TIG welds and the micrograph examinations of the TIG welded specimens corresponding to various welding conditions for the dual cooled fuel irradiation test. The investigations revealed that the present TIG process satisfied the requirements for the fuel irradiation test in the HANARO research reactor

  8. Application of CO2 laser beam weld for repair of fuel element of nuclear reactor 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagi, Hideharu; Sukegawa, Toshio; Saito, Isao; Sasuga, Norihiko; Aizawa, Nagaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    The present studies are to develop CO 2 laser beam welding techniques in order to apply for repoint of nuclear reactor fuel of Fast Neutron Source Reactor YAYOI. For that purpos, many experiments were conduted to obtain various effects of laser welding variables with use of SUS 304 plates, pipes and simulated dumy fuels. These experiments provided us an optimal welding condition through metallurgical observations, non-destructive and mechanical tests. It was found that the laser welds exhibited properties equivalent to those of the base metal, in addition they provided us a favorable system than that of electron beam welds against a cladding of radioactive nuclear fuel in a hot cell. The present paper reports on the characteristics of laser welds, structural analysis of fuel element and a system design of remotely operated devices setting in a hot cell. (author)

  9. Microstructural and wear characteristics of cobalt free, nickel base intermetallic alloy deposited by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural and wear characteristics of Ni base intermetallic hardfacing alloy (Tribaloy-700) deposited on stainless steel-316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Cobalt base hardfacing alloys have been most commonly used hardfacing alloys for application involving wear, corrosion and high temperature resistance. However, the high cost and scarcity of cobalt led to the development of cobalt free hardfacing alloys. Further, in the nuclear industry, the use of cobalt base alloys is limited due to the induced activity of long lived radioisotope 60 Co formed. These difficulties led to the development of various nickel and iron base alloys to replace cobalt base hardfacing alloys. In the present study Ni base intermetallic alloy, free of Cobalt was deposited on stainless steel- 316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Traditionally, welding and thermal spraying are the most commonly employed hardfacing techniques. Laser cladding has been explored for the deposition of less diluted and fusion-bonded Nickel base clad layer on stainless steel substrate with a low heat input. The laser cladding parameters (Laser power density: 200 W/mm 2 , scanning speed: 430 mm/min, and powder feed rate: 14 gm/min) resulted in defect free clad with minimal dilution of the substrate. The microstructure of the clad layer was examined by Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The clad layer exhibited sharp substrate/clad interface in the order of planar, cellular, and dendritic from the interface upwards. Dilution of clad with Fe from substrate was very low passing from ∼ 15% at the interface (∼ 40 μm) to ∼ 6% in the clad layer. The clad layer was characterized by the presence of hexagonal closed packed (hcp, MgZn 2 type) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in the eutectic of Laves and face centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution. The

  10. Development of Welding and Instrumentation Technology for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang Young; Ahn, Sung Ho; Heo, Sung Ho; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Ka Hye

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to develop various types of welding, instrumentation and helium gas filling techniques that can conduct TIG spot welding exactly at a pin-hole of the end-cap on the nuclear fuel rod to fill up helium gas. The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rod. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rod, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rod jointing the various sensors and end-caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. We therefore designed and fabricated an orbital TIG welding system and a laser welding system. This paper describes not only some experiment results from weld tests for the parts of a nuclear fuel test rod, but also the contents for the instrumentation process of the dummy fuel test rod installed with the C-type T. C. A dummy nuclear fuel test rod was successfully fabricated with the welding and instrumentation technologies acquired with various tests. In the test results, the round welding has shown a good weldability at both the orbital TIG welding system and the fiber laser welding system. The spot welding to fill up helium gas has shown a good welding performance at a welding current of 30A, welding time of 0.4 sec and gap of 1 mm in a helium gas atmosphere. The soundness of the nuclear fuel test rod sealed by a mechanical sealing method was confirmed by helium leak tests and microstructural analyses

  11. Development of Welding and Instrumentation Technology for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang Young; Ahn, Sung Ho; Heo, Sung Ho; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Ka Hye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is necessary to develop various types of welding, instrumentation and helium gas filling techniques that can conduct TIG spot welding exactly at a pin-hole of the end-cap on the nuclear fuel rod to fill up helium gas. The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rod. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rod, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rod jointing the various sensors and end-caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. We therefore designed and fabricated an orbital TIG welding system and a laser welding system. This paper describes not only some experiment results from weld tests for the parts of a nuclear fuel test rod, but also the contents for the instrumentation process of the dummy fuel test rod installed with the C-type T. C. A dummy nuclear fuel test rod was successfully fabricated with the welding and instrumentation technologies acquired with various tests. In the test results, the round welding has shown a good weldability at both the orbital TIG welding system and the fiber laser welding system. The spot welding to fill up helium gas has shown a good welding performance at a welding current of 30A, welding time of 0.4 sec and gap of 1 mm in a helium gas atmosphere. The soundness of the nuclear fuel test rod sealed by a mechanical sealing method was confirmed by helium leak tests and microstructural analyses.

  12. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  13. Clad-coolant chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, F.C.; Lewis, B.J.; Desgranges, C.; Toffolon, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the kinetics for zircaloy clad oxidation behaviour in steam and air during reactor accident conditions. The generation of chemical heat from metal/water reaction is considered. Low-temperature oxidation of zircaloy due to water-side corrosion is further described. (authors)

  14. Development of high performance cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  15. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the range of available welding technologies. This title includes chapters on individual techniques that cover principles, equipment, consumables and key quality issues. It includes material on such topics as the basics of electricity in welding, arc physics, and distortion, and the weldability of particular metals.$bThe first edition of Welding processes handbook established itself as a standard introduction and guide to the main welding technologies and their applications. This new edition has been substantially revised and extended to reflect the latest developments. After an initial introduction, the book first reviews gas welding before discussing the fundamentals of arc welding, including arc physics and power sources. It then discusses the range of arc welding techniques including TIG, plasma, MIG/MAG, MMA and submerged arc welding. Further chapters cover a range of other important welding technologies such as resistance and laser welding, as well as the use of welding techniqu...

  16. Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  17. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  18. Development of Preemptive Repair Technology for Alloy 600 J-Groove Welds of Reactor Vessel Upper Head CEDM Nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwang Woon; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Choi, Kwang Min; Choi, Dong Chul; Cho, Sang Beum; Cho, Hong Seok [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    After 2000, PWSCC in numerous NPPs around the world has been generated, and recently, PWSCC in several CEDM nozzles of domestic NPP Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 was founded and repaired with embedded flaw repair(EFR) welding method by Westinghouse. In this study, development status of EFR equipment and basic experimental results for preventive PWSCC of RVUH CEDM nozzles will be introduced. The development of EFR seal welding equipment and welding process for the preemptive repair with original Alloy 600 J-Groove welds of RVUHP was conducted. The EFR welding equipment was tested to be possible seal welding to track J-Groove welds with three dimensional curved surfaces and OD penetration with vertical welding position. Through several BOP and overlay welding experiments, it was verified that good weld beads with no defects, such as cracks, spatter, undercut at the stable welding conditions with heat input of 27.4-32.5 KJ/in were well produced. Consequently, it is expected that the EFR seal welding technique will be applicable on the site.

  19. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  20. Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  1. Welding nuclear reactor fuel rod end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for applying a vacuum to a nuclear fuel rod cladding tube's interior through its open end while girth welding an inserted end plug to its other end. An airtight housing has an orifice with a seal which can hermetically engage the tube's open end. A vacuum hose has one end connected to the housing and the other end connected to a vacuum pump. A mechanized device which moves the housing to engage or disengage its seal with the tube's open end includes at least one arm having one end attached to the housing and the other end pivotally attached to a movable table; an arm rotating device to coaxially align the housing's orifice with the welding-positioned tube; and a table moving device to engage the seal of the coaxially aligned orifice with the tube's open end. (author)

  2. Introduction to Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    This curriculum guide provides six units of instruction on basic welding. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment opportunities for welders, welding safety and first aid, welding tools and equipment, basic metals and metallurgy, basic math and measuring, and procedures for applying for a welding job.…

  3. Distortion Control during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

  4. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  5. Strategic intelligence on emerging technologies: Scientometric overlay mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.M.; Leydesdorff, L.

    This paper examines the use of scientometric overlay mapping as a tool of “strategic intelligence” to aid the governing of emerging technologies. We develop an integrative synthesis of different overlay mapping techniques and associated perspectives on technological emergence across geographical,

  6. Multi-level Reconfigurable Self-organization in Overlay Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale decentralized systems organized in overlay networks are complex to manage. Such systems integrate organizational complexity in the application-level resulting in low abstraction and modularity in their services. This thesis introduces a multi-level conceptual architecture for overlay

  7. Diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Korlahalli, Rahul; Li, Jie; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 32nm and beyond is made possible by Double Patterning Techniques (DPT) at critical levels of the process flow. The ease of DPT implementation is hindered by increased significance of critical dimension uniformity and overlay errors. Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) has shown to be an effective metrology solution for accurate determination of the overlay errors associated with double patterning [1, 2] processes. In this paper we will report its use in litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) and spacer double patterning technology (SDPT), which are pitch splitting solutions that reduce the significance of overlay errors. Since the control of overlay between various mask/level combinations is critical for fabrication, precise and accurate assessment of errors by advanced metrology techniques such as spectroscopic diffraction based overlay (DBO) and traditional image-based overlay (IBO) using advanced target designs will be reported. A comparison between DBO, IBO and CD-SEM measurements will be reported. . A discussion of TMU requirements for 32nm technology and TMU performance data of LFLE and SDPT targets by different overlay approaches will be presented.

  8. Weld Joint Design for SFR Metallic Fuel Element Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system is among the six systems selected for Gen-IV promising systems and expected to become available for commercial introduction around 2030. In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the joint designs for endplug welding were investigated. For the irradiation test of SFR metallic fuel element, the TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed based on the welding conditions and parameters established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the weld joint design was developed based on the TIG welding technique.

  9. Reduction of residual strains in weldments in explosion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsemakhovich, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Peculiarities of large-size item strains in explosion cladding have been investigated. Causes of explosion-welded item destruction under the action of reflected waves have been established by means of the acoustic analysis of the item-support system. It is suggested to use grit as a support which permits to decrease 3-4 times and stabilize residual strains and reduce to minimum the probability of crack appearance

  10. Testing of dissimilar metal welds according KTA 3201.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersbeck, Kai; Huenies, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The amended German standard KTA 3201.4 from 2010 has triggered intensified requirements of the mechanized ultrasonic testing methodology. The report discusses the most important changes of KTA 3201.4 concerning the issues reference block, qualification of the testing methodology, testing of cladded surfaces, dissimilar metal joints, thermal conduits. The demonstration of dissimilar metal weld testing using intelligent NDT is demonstrated for the nozzles in German nuclear power plants.

  11. BASIC overlay for CAMAC data and command handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftcioglu, O [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Inst. for Nuclear Energy

    1979-11-15

    A BASIC overlay has been developed for the BASIC language run in the PDP-11 series of computers. The overlay has particularly been wirtten for a dedicated Camac Crate Controller DC-011 from Ortec. By means of the overlay, any command comprising C, N, A, F information can easily be issued by the host system to communicate with the peripherals connected to the CAMAC system, through the CAMAC interface. The overlay is particularly useful for rather slow control systems and data handling between two different operating systems with incompatible formats for the data files having the CAMAC system as a mutual system component controllable by each of the operating systems individually. The overlay can easily be modified to be used for a Standard controller (type A-1) or any other type of dedicated controller.

  12. Accuracy optimization with wavelength tunability in overlay imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Kang, Yoonshik; Han, Sangjoon; Shim, Kyuchan; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, Dongyoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Kim, Youngsik; Marciano, Tal; Klein, Dana; Hajaj, Eitan M.; Aharon, Sharon; Ben-Dov, Guy; Lilach, Saltoun; Serero, Dan; Golotsvan, Anna

    2018-03-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing technology progresses and the dimensions of integrated circuit elements shrink, overlay budget is accordingly being reduced. Overlay budget closely approaches the scale of measurement inaccuracies due to both optical imperfections of the measurement system and the interaction of light with geometrical asymmetries of the measured targets. Measurement inaccuracies can no longer be ignored due to their significant effect on the resulting device yield. In this paper we investigate a new approach for imaging based overlay (IBO) measurements by optimizing accuracy rather than contrast precision, including its effect over the total target performance, using wavelength tunable overlay imaging metrology. We present new accuracy metrics based on theoretical development and present their quality in identifying the measurement accuracy when compared to CD-SEM overlay measurements. The paper presents the theoretical considerations and simulation work, as well as measurement data, for which tunability combined with the new accuracy metrics is shown to improve accuracy performance.

  13. Ablative overlays for Space Shuttle leading edge ascent heat protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ablative overlays were evaluated via a plasma-arc simulation of the ascent pulse on the leading edge of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Overlay concepts included corkboard, polyisocyanurate foam, low-density Teflon, epoxy, and subliming salts. Their densities ranged from 4.9 to 81 lb per cu ft, and the thicknesses varied from 0.107 to 0.330 in. Swept-leading-edge models were fabricated from 30-lb per cu ft silicone-based ablators. The overlays were bonded to maintain the surface temperature of the base ablator below 500 F during ascent. Foams provided minimum-weight overlays, and subliming salts provided minimum-thickness overlays. Teflon left the most uniform surface after ascent heating.

  14. Development of advanced claddings for suppressing the hydrogen emission in accident conditions. Development of advanced claddings for suppressing the hydrogen emission in the accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; KIM, Hyun-Gil; JUNG, Yang-Il; PARK, Dong-Jun; KOO, Yang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    ceramic composite layer and a surface coating layer. - The Zr liner is not a main concern in the hybrid cladding, though the manufacturing process needs to be modified to adapt the design change. - The ceramic composite layer has to be developed to meet the requirements of the fuel cladding. SiC composite was selected as a primary candidate. The filament winding process is being developed in collaboration with the specialised industry using Tyranno-S fiber. The polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process was investigated for a matrix impregnation method for the SiC composite layer of hybrid cladding. The manufacturing technology for SiC composite layer will be optimised by changing the variables in each step of PIP process. - The surface coating layer acting as a corrosion or oxidation barrier is being developed using a sol-gel process, which can make the overall manufacturing process simpler since the sol-gel coating is basically the same process with the PIP. The joining technology for SiC was also developed, although the joining of SiC was not necessary in the hybrid cladding using Zr liner. Many types of interlayer such as Ti, Zr and Mo were inserted among the SiC specimens and then a laser welding was carried out to join the SiC specimens. The joining technology for SiC will be improved by changing the interlayer types and the laser welding condition

  15. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  16. Laser cladding of quasicrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, F.; Sirkin, H.; Colaco, R.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Quasicrystals are a new class of ordinated structures with metastable characteristics room temperature. Quasicrystalline phases can be obtained by rapid quenching from the melt of some alloys. In general, quasicrystals present properties which make these alloys promising for wear and corrosion resistant coatings applications. During the last years, the development of quasicrystalline coatings by means of thermal spray techniques has been impulsed. However, no references have been found of their application by means of laser techniques. In this work four claddings of quasicrystalline compositions formed over aluminium substrate, produced by a continuous CO 2 laser using simultaneous powders mixture injection are presented. The claddings were characterized by X ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness. (Author) 18 refs

  17. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database

  18. Microcontroller based automation system for end plug welding of test fuel pins in solgel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar Rao, J.; Srinivas, K.C.; Prabhu, T.V.; Ravi, N.

    2010-01-01

    A microcontroller based stepper motor control and driver Unit for 'XY' positioning system is designed and developed to perform the 'pick-place' of fuel tube to pre-determined coordinates. This Unit provides a fine movement of the fuel tube to get perfect position for welding. The Graphical User Interface software running on PC displays the absolute position of the XY system and provides all the required control buttons to achieve the accurate positioning. The welding of clad tube with end plug is carried out in a high precision welding fixture by operating it remotely. This paper discusses about the Hardware and Software features and implementation of the instrumentation. (author)

  19. Review and evaluation of cladding attack of LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, M.; Nagai, S.; Furuya, H.; Muto, T.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of cladding inner wall corrosion during irradiation was evaluated in terms of fuel density, fuel form, O/M ratio, plutonium concentration, cladding composition, cladding pretreatment, cladding inner diameter, burnup and cladding inner wall temperature. Factors which influence the corrosion are O/M ratio (oxygen to metal ratio), burn up, cladding inner diameter and cladding inner wall temperature. Maximum cladding inner wall corrosion depth was formulated as a function of O/M ratio, burn up and cladding inner wall temperature

  20. Flow-Induced Vibration Measurement of an Inner Cladding Tube in a Simulated Dual-Cooled Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    To create an internal coolant flow passage in a dual cooled fuel rod, an inner cladding tube cannot have intermediate supports enough to relieve its vibration. Thus it can be suffered from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) more severely than an outer cladding tube which will be supported by series of spacer grids. It may cause a fatigue failure at welding joints on the cladding's end plug or fluid elastic instability of long, slender inner cladding due to decrease of a critical flow velocity. This is one of the challenging technical issues when a dual cooled fuel assembly is to be realized into a conventional reactor core To study an actual vibration phenomenon of a dual cooled fuel rod, FIV tests using a small-scale test bundle are being carried out. Measurement results of inner cladding tube of two typically simulated rods are presented. Causes of the differences in the vibration amplitude and response spectrum of the inner cladding tube in terms of intermediate support condition and pellet stacking are discussed.

  1. Dilution and Ferrite Number Prediction in Pulsed Current Cladding of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at relatively low temperatures and can be used as a coating to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of low carbon and low alloy steels. Such coatings can be produced using weld cladding. In this study, pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process was utilized to deposit super-duplex stainless steel on high strength low alloy steel substrates. In such claddings, it is essential to understand how the dilution affects the composition and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel layer in order to be able to estimate its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the current study, the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process parameters on the dilution and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel clad layer was investigated by applying response surface methodology. The validity of the proposed models was investigated by using quadratic regression models and analysis of variance. The results showed an inverse relationship between dilution and ferrite number. They also showed that increasing the heat input decreases the ferrite number. The proposed mathematical models are useful for predicting and controlling the ferrite number within an acceptable range for super-duplex stainless steel cladding.

  2. Fundamentals and industrial applications of high power laser beam cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruck, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser beam cladding has been refined such that clad characteristics are precisely determined through routine process control. This paper reviews the state of the art of laser cladding optical equipment, as well as the fundamental process/clad relationships that have been developed for high power processing. Major categories of industrial laser cladding are described with examples chose to highlight particular process attributes

  3. Selected Welding Techniques, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1964-01-01

    Partial contents: CONVENTIONAL WELD JOINTS VERSUS BUTT JOINTS IN 1-INCH ALUMINUM PLATE, SPECIAL WELD JOINT PREPARATION, UPSET METAL EDGES FOR INCREASED WELD JOINT STRENGTH, OUT-OF-POSITION WELDING OF HEAVY GAGE...

  4. Effects of stop–start features on residual stresses in a multipass austenitic stainless steel weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, M.; Francis, J.A.; Hurrell, P.R.; Bate, S.K.; Hiller, S.; Withers, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe experiments that characterise and quantify the localised perturbations in residual stress associated with both ramped and abrupt stop–start features in a multipass weld. Residual stress distributions in AISI Grade 304L/308L stainless steel groove-welded specimens, containing weld interruptions that were introduced in a controlled manner, have been characterised using both neutron diffraction and the incremental deep hole drilling method. The extent to which the localised stresses associated with the interruptions were annealed by overlayed passes was also assessed. The results suggest that, regardless of the type of interruption, there can be significant localised increases in residual stress if the stop–start feature is left exposed. If further weld passes are deposited, then the localised increases in stress are likely to persist if the interruption was abrupt, whereas for a ramped interruption they may be dissipated. - Highlights: ► In this study the residual stress-field surrounding weld interruptions was measured. ► Localised stresses were found to increase at weld interruptions. ► Both ramped and abrupt weld interruptions were investigated. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses persisted for abrupt interruptions. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses dissipated for ramped interruptions.

  5. Unirradiated cladding rip-propagation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.; Hunter, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    The size of cladding rips which develop when a fuel pin fails can affect the subassembly cooling and determine how rapidly fuel escapes from the pin. The object of the Cladding Rip Propagation Test (CRPT) was to quantify the failure development of cladding so that a more realistic fuel pin failure modeling may be performed. The test results for unirradiated 20% CS 316 stainless steel cladding show significantly different rip propagation behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, the rip growth is stable as the rip extension increases monotonically with the applied deformation. At 500 0 C, the rip propagation becomes unstable after a short period of stable rip propagation. The rapid propagation rate is approximately 200 m/s, and the critical rip length is 9 mm. At test temperatures above 850 0 C, the cladding exhibits very high failure resistances, and failure occurs by multiple cracking at high cladding deformation. 13 figures

  6. Cladding temperature measurement by thermocouples at preirradiated LWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiling, W.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the technique to measure cladding temperatures of test fuel rod samples, applied during the in-pile tests on fuel rod failure in the steam loop of the FR2 reactor. NiCr/Ni thermocouples with stainless steel and Inconel sheaths, respectively,of 1 mm diameter were resistance spot weld to the outside of the fuel rod cladding. For the pre-irradiated test specimens, welding had to be done under hot-cell conditions, i.e. under remote handling. In order to prevent the formation of eutectics between zirconium and the chemical elements of the thermocouple sheath at elevated temperatures, the thermocouples were covered with a platinum jacket of 1.4 mm outside diameter swaged onto the sheath in the area of the measuring junction. This thermocouple design has worked satisfactorily in the in-pile experiments performed in a steam atmosphere. Even in the heatup phase, in which cladding temperatures up to 1050 0 C were reached, only very few failures occured. This good performance is to a great part due to a careful control and a thorough inspection of the thermocouples. (orig.) [de

  7. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, J.M.; Tobar, M.J.; Alvarez, J.C.; Lamas, J.; Yanez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed

  8. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain); Tobar, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)], E-mail: cote@udc.es; Alvarez, J.C.; Lamas, J.; Yanez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, Universidade da Coruna, Mendizabal s/n, Ferrol E-15403 (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  9. Control of welding residual stress for ensuring integrity against fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    The availability of several techniques for residual stress control is discussed in this paper. The effectiveness of these techniques in protecting from fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking is verified by numerical analysis and actual experiment. In-process control during welding for residual stress reduction is easier to apply than using post-weld treatment. As an example, control of the welding pass sequence for multi-pass welding is applied to cruciform joints and butt-joints with an X-shaped groove. However, residual stress improvement is confirmed for post-weld processes. Water jet peening is useful for obtaining a compressive residual stress on the surface, and the tolerance against both fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking is verified. Because cladding with a corrosion-resistant material is also effective for preventing stress-corrosion cracking from a metallurgical perspective, the residual stress at the interface of the base metal is carefully considered. The residual stress of the base metal near the clad edge is confirmed to be within the tolerance of crack generation. Controlling methods both during and after welding processes are found to be effective for ensuring the integrity of welded components

  10. In-cell overlay metrology by using optical metrology tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Park, Hyowon; Liang, Waley; Choi, DongSub; Kim, Nakyoon; Lee, Jeongpyo; Pandev, Stilian; Jeon, Sanghuck; Robinson, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Overlay is one of the most critical process control steps of semiconductor manufacturing technology. A typical advanced scheme includes an overlay feedback loop based on after litho optical imaging overlay metrology on scribeline targets. The after litho control loop typically involves high frequency sampling: every lot or nearly every lot. An after etch overlay metrology step is often included, at a lower sampling frequency, in order to characterize and compensate for bias. The after etch metrology step often involves CD-SEM metrology, in this case in-cell and ondevice. This work explores an alternative approach using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) metrology and a machine learning analysis technique. Advanced 1x nm DRAM wafers were prepared, including both nominal (POR) wafers with mean overlay offsets, as well as DOE wafers with intentional across wafer overlay modulation. After litho metrology was measured using optical imaging metrology, as well as after etch metrology using both SE and CD-SEM for comparison. We investigate 2 types of machine learning techniques with SE data: model-less and model-based, showing excellent performance for after etch in-cell on-device overlay metrology.

  11. LASER SURFACE CLADDING FOR STRUCTURAL REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    SANTANU PAUL

    2018-01-01

    Laser cladding is a powder deposition technique, which is used to deposit layers of clad material on a substrate to improve its surface properties. It has widespread application in the repair of dies and molds used in the automobile industry. These molds and dies are subjected to cyclic thermo-mechanical loading and therefore undergo localized damage and wear. The final clad quality and integrity is influenced by various physical phenomena, namely, melt pool morphology, microst...

  12. Advanced diffraction-based overlay for double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Hu, Jiangtao; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges as the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink. Several studies published recently have demonstrated that the performance of DBO technologies has the potential to meet the overlay metrology budget for 22nm technology node. However, several hurdles must be cleared before DBO can be used in production. One of the major hurdles is that most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. A more advanced spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technology-Mueller Matrix SE (MM-SE) is developed to address the challenge. We use a double patterning sample to demonstrate the potential of MM-SE as a DBO candidate. Sample matrix (the matrix that describes the effects of the sample on the incident optical beam) obtained from MM-SE contains up to 16 elements. We show that the Mueller elements from the off-diagonal 2x2 blocks respond to overlay linearly and are zero when overlay errors are absent. This superior property enables empirical DBO (eDBO) using two pads per direction. Furthermore, the rich information in Mueller matrix and its direct response to overlay make it feasible to extract overlay errors from only one pad per direction using modeling approach (mDBO). We here present the Mueller overlay results using both eDBO and mDBO and compare the results with image-based overlay (IBO) and CD-SEM results. We also report the tool induced shifts (TIS) and dynamic repeatability.

  13. Nuclear-powered pacemaker fuel cladding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    The fabrication of fuel capsules with refractory metal and alloy clads used in nuclear-powered cardiac pacemakers precludes the expedient dissolution of the clad in inorganic acid solutions. An experiment to measure penetration rates of acids on commonly used fuel pellet clads indicated that it is not impossible, but that it would be very difficult to dissolve the multiple cladding. This work was performed because of a suggestion that a 238 PuO 2 -powered pacemaker could be transformed into a terrorism weapon

  14. Laser surface cladding:a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gedda, Hans

    2000-01-01

    This work consists of a literature survey of a laser surface cladding in order to investigate techniques to improve the cladding rate for the process. The high local heat input caused by the high power density of the laser generates stresses and the process is consider as slow when large areas are processed. To avoid these disadvantages the laser cladding process velocity can be increased three or four times by use of preheated wire instead of the powder delivery system. If laser cladding is ...

  15. Modelling cladding response to changing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulkki, Ville; Ikonen, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland ltd (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    The cladding of the nuclear fuel is subjected to varying conditions during fuel reactor life. Load drops and reversals can be modelled by taking cladding viscoelastic behaviour into account. Viscoelastic contribution to the deformation of metals is usually considered small enough to be ignored, and in many applications it merely contributes to the primary part of the creep curve. With nuclear fuel cladding the high temperature and irradiation as well as the need to analyse the variable load all emphasise the need to also inspect the viscoelasticity of the cladding.

  16. Pulsed Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, A.; Stanciu, E. M.; Croitoru, C.; Roata, I. C.; Tierean, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the operational parameters and quality of one step Metco Inconel 718 atomized powder laser cladded tracks, deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate by means of a 1064 nm high power pulsed laser, together with a Precitec cladding head manipulated by a CLOOS 7 axes robot. The optimization of parameters and cladding quality has been assessed through Taguchi interaction matrix and graphical output. The study demonstrates that very good cladded layers with low dilution and increased mechanical proprieties could be fabricated using low laser energy density by involving a pulsed laser.

  17. Cladding creepdown model for FRAPCON-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Tolli, J.E.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents a cladding deformation model developed to analyze cladding creepdown during steady state operation in both a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR). This model accounts for variations in zircaloy cladding heat treatment; cold worked and stress relieved material, typically used in a PWR, and fully recrystallized material, typically used in a BWR. The model calculates cladding creepdown as a function of hoop stress, fast neutron flux, exposure time, and temperature. This report also presents a comparison between cladding creep calculations by this model and corresponding measurements from the KWU/CE program, ORNL HOBBIE experiments, and EPRI/Westinghouse Engineering cooperative project. The comparisons show that the model calculates cladding creep strains well. The analyses of non-fueled rods by FRAPCON-2 show that the cladding creepdown model was correctly incorporated. Also, analysis of a PWR rod test case shows that the FRAPCON-2 code can analyze pellet-cladding mechanical interaction caused by cladding creepdown and fuel swelling

  18. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  19. Automatic welding of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, J.

    1958-01-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [fr

  20. Detecting flaws in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodacre, A.; Lawton, H.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for detecting flaws in welds in a workpiece, the portion of the workpiece containing the weld is maintained at a constant temperature and the weld is scanned by an infra red detector. The weld is then scanned again with the workpiece in contact with a cooling probe to produce a steeper temperature gradient across the weld. Comparison of the signals produced by each scan reveals the existence of defects in the welds. The signals may be displayed on an oscilloscope and the display may be observed by a TV camera and recorded on videotape. (UK)

  1. Fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  2. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  3. Weld controller for automated nuclear service welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, K.L.; Strubhar, P.M.; Green, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT) uses many different types of weld heads for automated welding in the commercial nuclear service industry. Some weld heads are purchased as standard items, while others are custom designed and fabricated by BWNT requiring synchronized multiaxis motion control. BWNT recently completed a development program to build a common weld controller that interfaces to all types of weld heads used by BWNT. Their goal was to construct a system that had the flexibility to add different modules to increase the capability of the controller as different application needs become necessary. The benefits from having a common controller are listed. This presentation explains the weld controller system and the types of applications to which it has been applied

  4. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels: Part 1, medium-sulfur forging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium- sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O 2 < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 degrees C, under loading conditions (ΔK, R, and cyclic frequency) conductive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC

  5. End plug welding of nuclear fuel elements-AFFF experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Singh, S.; Aniruddha Kumar; Amit; Arun Kumar; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility is engaged in the fabrication of mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 fuel elements of various types of nuclear reactors. Fabrication of fuel elements involves pellet fabrication, stack making, stack loading and end plug welding. The requirement of helium bonding gas inside the fuel elements necessitates the top end plug welding to be carried out with helium as the shielding gas. The severity of the service conditions inside a nuclear reactor imposes strict quality control criteria, which demands for almost defect free welds. The top end plug welding being the last process step in fuel element fabrication, any rejection at this stage would lead to loss of effort prior to this step. Moreover, the job becomes all the more difficult with mixed oxide (MOX) as the entire fabrication work has to be carried out in glove box trains. In the case of weld rejection, accepted pellets are salvaged by cutting the clad tube. This is a difficult task and recovery of pellets is low (requiring scrap recovery operation) and also leads to active metallic waste generation. This paper discusses the experience gained at AFFF, in the past 12 years in the area of end plug welding for different types of MOX fuel elements

  6. Improvement technique of sensitized HAZ by GTAW cladding applied to a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Kurosawa, Kouichi; Chiba, Isao; Nomura, Keiichi.

    1995-01-01

    A SCC(Stress Corrosion Cracking)-resistant technique, in which the sleeve installed by expansion is melted by GTAW process without filler metal with outside water cooling, was developed. The technique was applied to ICM (In-Core Monitor) housings of a BWR power plant in 1993. The ICM housings of which materials are type 304 Stainless Steels are sensitized with high tensile residual stresses by welding to the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel). As the result, ICM housings have potential of SCC initiation. Therefore, the improvement technique resistant to SCC was needed. The technique can improve chemical composition of the housing inside and residual stresses of the housing outside at the same time. Sensitization of the housing inner surface area is eliminated by replacing low-carbon with proper-ferrite microstructure clad. High tensile residual stresses of housing outside surface area is improved into compressive side. Compressive stresses of outside surface are induced by thermal stresses which are caused by inside cladding with outside water cooling. The clad is required to be low-carbon metal with proper ferrite and not to have the new sensitized HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) on the surface by cladding. The effect of the technique was qualified by SCC test, chemical composition check, ferrite content measurement and residual stresses measurement etc. All equipment for remote application were developed and qualified, too. The technique was successfully applied to a BWR plant after sufficient training

  7. Microstructural transformations and mechanical properties of cast NiAl bronze: Effects of fusion welding and friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.D.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhilyaev, A.P.; McNelley, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A plate of as-cast NiAl bronze (NAB) material was sectioned from a large casting. A six-pass fusion weld overlay was placed in a machined groove; a portion of the weld reinforcement was removed by milling and a single friction stir processing (FSP) pass was conducted in a direction transverse to the axis of and over the weld overlay. A procedure was developed for machining of miniature tensile samples and the distributions of strength and ductility were evaluated for the fusion weld metal; for the stir zone (SZ) produced by the friction stir processing; and for a region wherein friction stir processing had taken place over the fusion weld. A region of low ductility in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the fusion weld and in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) of friction stir processed material was attributed to partial reversion of an equilibrium lamellar eutectoid constituent upon local heating above ∼800 deg. C and formation of non-equilibrium transformation products upon subsequent cooling. The adverse effect on ductility is worse in the heat affected zone of the fusion weld than in the thermomechanically affected zone of friction stir processing due to the lower heat input of the latter process. The implications of this work to engineering applications of friction stir processing are discussed

  8. Electronic structure of metal overlayers on rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, P.J.; Hamann, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated work functions, surface core-level shifts, and surface band dispersions for clean, Ag-covered, and Pd-covered Rh(100) surfaces, and for clean and Ag-covered Rh(111). The calculations were performed self-consistently, using the surface-linearized augmented-plane-wave method. As expected from the Pauling electronegativities, Ag adsorption lowers the work function from the clean Rh value, by several tenths of an eV, while Pd has an almost negligible effect. The values calculated for the core-level shifts of various films are shown to correspond to expectations based on surface band narrowing and layerwise charge neutrality. Using the core-level shifts, we predict heat-of-adsorption differences (for Ag on Pd vs Ag on Rh, etc.) that are in quite good agreement with the empirical predictions of Miedema and Dorleijn. Finally, the chemical inactivity of the Ag-covered Rh surface is associated with the fact that, for that system, the outer-layer local density of states is essentially that of Ag, with a characteristically low value at the Fermi energy. On the other hand, the Pd-covered Rh surface should behave much like clean Rh with an extra electron per surface atom. The surface band dispersions for the Pd-covered and clean Rh surfaces are closely similar. This result contrasts sharply with the case of Pd-covered Nb, for which, because of the appreciable electronegativity difference, the Pd overlayer is effectively ''noble.''

  9. Forensic Study of Early Failures with Unbonded Concrete Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    A forensic investigation was conducted to identify failure mechanisms responsible for early failures of unbonded concrete overlays on selected projects in Ohio, including I-70 in Madison County, I-77 in Washington and Noble Counties, and I-90 in Lake...

  10. Improving Overlay in Nanolithography with a Deformable Mask Holder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harriott, L. R

    2004-01-01

    In very fine-line VLSI photolithography, alignment and overlay errors due to distortion in the projected image of a photomask relative to an existing pattern on a silicon wafer are becoming such serious problems...

  11. Iowa task report : US 18 concrete overlay construction under traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa Department of Transportation, and Federal Highway Administration set out to demonstrate and document the design and construction of portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays on two-lane roadways wh...

  12. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Zafar, Ammar; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying

  13. Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A series of five experimental projects and three demonstration projects were constructed to better understand the performance of pavement overlays using various levels of asphalt binder replacement (ABR) from reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycle...

  14. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  15. Wafer edge overlay control solution for N7 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Richard; Calado, Victor; van Dijk, Leon; Hermans, Jan; Kumar, Kaushik; Yamashita, Fumiko

    2018-03-01

    Historically, the on-product overlay performance close to the wafer edge is lagging with respect to the inner part of the wafer. The reason for this is that wafer processing is less controlled close to the wafer edge as opposed to the rest of the wafer. It is generally accepted that Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of stressed layers that cause wafer warp, wafer table contamination, Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), and Reactive Ion Etch (RIE) may deteriorate the overlay performance and/or registration close to the wafer edge. For the N7 technology node and beyond, it is anticipated that the tight on-product overlay specification is required across the full wafer which includes the edge region. In this work, we highlight one contributor that may negatively impact the on-product overlay performance, namely the etch step. The focus will be mainly on the wafer edge region but the remaining part of the wafer is considered as well. Three use-cases are examined: multiple Litho-Etch steps (LEn), contact hole layer etch, and the copper dual damascene etch. We characterize the etch contribution by considering the overlay measurement after resist development inspect (ADI) and after etch inspect (AEI). We show that the Yieldstar diffraction based overlay (μDBO) measurements can be utilized to characterize the etch contribution to the overlay budget. The effects of target asymmetry as well as overlay shifts are considered and compared with SEM measurements. Based on the results above, we propose a control solution aiming to reduce or even eliminate the delta between ADI and AEI. By doing so, target/mark to device offsets due to etch might be avoided.

  16. Cladding and structural materials semi-annual progress report, January 1975--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1975-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental programs are in progress to determine the effects of fast neutron radiation on the mechanical properties and swelling of 3C4 and 316SS cladding and duct materials. Detailed specimen characterization and detailed test conditions are required in order to provide the 2 to 5 percent accuracy of results at 1γ. Preliminary swelling tests show that swelling in stressed assemblies is much larger than in unstressed structural components. Correlation of swelling data from high exposure cladding (11.4 at. percent burnup) agrees with previous data and with the current design equation for 20 percent CW 316 stainless steel. Improved techniques for TEM specimen preparation are described along with recent results on crack propagation. Initial results are given for the effects of aging on Inconel 718 base and weld materials. Compilations of these design values of materials properties have been issued in the form of the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook

  17. Flaw density examinations of a clad boiling water reactor pressure vessel segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Flaw density is the greatest uncertainty involved in probabilistic analyses of reactor pressure vessel failure. As part of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program, studies have been conducted to determine flaw density in a section of reactor pressure vessel cut from the Hope Creek Unit 2 vessel [nominally 0.7 by 3 m (2 by 10 ft)]. This section (removed from the scrapped vessel that was never in service) was evaluated nondestructively to determine the as-fabricated status. We had four primary objectives: (1) evaluate longitudinal and girth welds for flaws with manual ultrasonics, (2) evaluate the zone under the nominal 6.3-mm (0.25-in.) clad for cracking (again with manual ultrasonics), (3) evaluate the cladding for cracks with a high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrant method, and (4) determine the source of indications detected

  18. Nondestructive testing: welding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Subramanian, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter highlights various conventional and advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that have been used for weld evaluation. Welding Codes and Standards of International and National organisations that have been followed in India for various weld evaluation purposes are also included. The chapter also emphasises the importance of NDT by way of a few case studies that have been carried out on important critical welded components. (author). 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 appendix

  19. BWR fuel clad behaviour following LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, S.M.; Vyas, K.N.; Dinesh Babu, R.

    1996-01-01

    Flow and pressure through the fuel coolant channel reduce rapidly following a loss of coolant accident. Due to stored energy and decay heat, fuel and cladding temperatures rise rapidly. Increase in clad temperature causes deterioration of mechanical properties of clad material. This coupled with increase of pressure inside the cladding due to accumulation of fission gases and de-pressurization of coolant causes the cladding to balloon. This phenomenon is important as it can reduce or completely block the flow passages in a fuel assembly causing reduction of emergency coolant flow. Behaviour of a BWR clad is analyzed in a design basis LOCA. Fuel and clad temperatures following a LOCA are calculated. Fission gas release and pressure is estimated using well established models. An elasto-plastic analysis of clad tube is carried out to determine plastic strains and corresponding deformations using finite-element technique. Analysis of neighbouring pins gives an estimate of flow areas available for emergency coolant flow. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Cladding properties under simulated fuel pin transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.W.; Johnson, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the HEDL fuel pin testing program utilizing a recently developed Fuel Cladding Transient Tester (FCTT) to generate the requisite mechanical property information on irradiated and unirradiated fast reactor fuel cladding under temperature ramp conditions. The test procedure is described, and data are presented

  1. Analysis of corrosion behavior of KOFA cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, Ki Hang; Seo, Keum Seok; Chung, Jin Gon

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of KOFA cladding was analyzed using the oxide measurement data of KOFA fuel irradiated up to the fuel rod burnup of 35,000 MWD/MTU for two cycles in Kori-2. Even though KOFA cladding is a standard Zircaloy-4 manufactured by Westinghouse according to the Siemens/KWU's HCW (Highly Cold Worked) standard Zircaloy-4 specification, it was expected that in-pile corrosion behavior of KOFA cladding would not be equivalent to that of Siemens/KWU's cladding due to the differences in such manufacturing processes as cold work and heat treatment. The analysis of measured KOFA cladding oxidation showed that oxidation of KOFA cladding is at least 19 % lower than the design analysis based upon Siemens/KWU's HCW standard Zircaloy-4 cladding. Lower corrosion of KOFA cladding seems to result from the differences in the manufacturing processes and chemical composition although the burnup and oxide layer thickness of the measured fuel rods is relatively low and the amount of the oxidation data base is small

  2. Development of advanced zirconium fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.

    2007-04-01

    This report includes the manufacturing technology developed for HANA TM claddings, a series of their characterization results as well as the results of their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests which were carried out to develop some fuel claddings for a high burn-up (70,000MWd/mtU) which are competitive in the world market. Some of the HANA TM claddings, which had been manufactured based on the results from the 1st and 2nd phases of the project, have been tested in a research reactor in Halden of Norway for an in-pile performance qualification. The results of the in-pile test showed that the performance of the HANA TM claddings for corrosion and creep was better than 50% compared to that of Zircaloy-4 or A cladding. It was also found that the out-of pile performance of the HANA TM claddings for such as LOCA and RIA in some accident conditions corrosion creep, tensile, burst and fatigue was superior or equivalent to that of the Zircaloy-4 or A cladding. The project also produced the other many data which were required to get a license for an in-pile test of HANA TM claddings in a commercial reactor. The data for the qualification or characterization were provided for KNFC to assist their activities to get the license for the in-pile test of HANA TM Lead Test Rods(LTR) in a commercial reactor

  3. Corrosion characteristics of K-claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Choi, B. K.; Jung, Y. H.; Jung, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Improvement of the corrosion resistance of nuclear fuel claddings is the critical issue for the successful development of the high burn-up fuel. KAERI have developed the K-claddings having a superior corrosion resistance by controlling the alloying element addition and optimizing the manufacturing process. The comparative evaluation of the corrosion resistance for K-claddings and the foreign claddings was performed and the effect of the heat treatment on the corrosion behavior of K-claddings was also examined. Corrosion tests were carried out in the conditions of 360 .deg. C pure water, PWR-simulating loop and 400 .deg. C steam, From the results of the corrosion tests, it was found that the corrosion resistance of K-claddings is superior to those of Zry4 and A claddings and K6 showed a better corrosion resistance than K3. The corrosion behavior of K-cladding was strongly influenced by the final annealing rather than the intermediate annealing, and the corrosion resistance increased with decreasing the final annealing temperature

  4. Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

    2014-04-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

  5. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  6. Welding Course Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genits, Joseph C.

    This guide is intended for use in helping students gain a fundamental background on the major aspects of the welding trade. The course emphasis is on mastery of the manipulative skills necessary to develop successful welding techniques and on acquisition of an understanding of the specialized tools and equipment used in welding. The first part…

  7. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  8. Welding Over Paint Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Kevin S; Liu, Stephen; Olson, David L

    1998-01-01

    .... According to the hydrogen-oxygen and }hydrogen-fluorine equilibrium considerations, an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen or fluorine could decrease the partial pressure of hydrogen within the welding arc. Consequently, a welding consumable that contains chemical ingredients of high oxygen and fluorine potential would be capable of minimizing hydrogen pick-up in the weld pool.

  9. Some proposed mechanisms for internal cladding corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Pickering, S.; Whitlow, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    In spite of extensive research during recent years, a comprehensive model for internal cladding corrosion in fast reactor oxide fuel pins has not yet been established. In this paper, a model is proposed which accounts for many of the features normally associated with this type of corrosion. The model is composed of a number of parts which describe the chronological sequence of events at the fuel/cladding interface. The corrosion reaction is visualised as being primarily chemical in character, involving the cladding steel, the fuel and the more aggressive fission products, notably caesium in the presence of oxygen. The model attempts to explain how corrosion starts, how it depends on the oxygen potential, why it occurs non-uniformly; also covered are phase changes within the cladding steel and morphological features such as the intergranular form of attack and the distribution of corrosion products in the fuel/cladding gap. (author)

  10. Some proposed mechanisms for internal cladding corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M H; Pickering, S; Whitlow, W H [EURATOM (United Kingdom)

    1977-04-01

    In spite of extensive research during recent years, a comprehensive model for internal cladding corrosion in fast reactor oxide fuel pins has not yet been established. In this paper, a model is proposed which accounts for many of the features normally associated with this type of corrosion. The model is composed of a number of parts which describe the chronological sequence of events at the fuel/cladding interface. The corrosion reaction is visualised as being primarily chemical in character, involving the cladding steel, the fuel and the more aggressive fission products, notably caesium in the presence of oxygen. The model attempts to explain how corrosion starts, how it depends on the oxygen potential, why it occurs non-uniformly; also covered are phase changes within the cladding steel and morphological features such as the intergranular form of attack and the distribution of corrosion products in the fuel/cladding gap. (author)

  11. Cast-to-cast variation in end-plug welds for TRIGA fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondac, C.; Truta, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti - TRIGA Reactor Department there are under development activities for assembling TRIGA-LEU fuel elements locally manufactured, through autogenous Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG) welding. Due to specific problems occurring in welding Ni alloys, namely the dissimilar joint between Inconel 600 and Inconel 800 at the end-plug weld, weldability tests on Inconel 600 under various conditions were performed. The tests had been carried out in two stages: basic tests, on simple turned rods of Inconel 600; confirmation tests, on real (actual) end plug –to – clad welding. The basic tests had been done on simple rods machined (turned) at 13.8 mm (main diameter of the plugs) on which there have been made simple semicircular weldings ( no joint involved). Confirmation tests were done on the plug-clad assembly (dissimilar welding Incoloy-Inconel), with the welding parameters resulted from the preliminary conclusions of the basic tests. After welding, the samples were transversally sectioned, prepared for metallographic examination according to the specific procedure. The samples were examined at the metallographic microscope, and photo records for each sectioned welding bead have been taken . Measurements have been made on the recorded photos resulting the essential characteristics of the penetration: width W, depth d and ratio W/d. From the obtained results the following conclusions can be formulated: the penetration depth of the end-plug weld at the TRIGA fuel element varies substantially depending on the material cast of which the plug is produced; the optimization tests had covered the whole range of parameters in which do not appear systematic defects in welds that are specific to the alloys of Nickel ( porosity, hot cracking); for 2011-2012 casts higher energy (640 As) is required compared to the welding energy used for the 2009 batch, but to be sure that the manufacturing requirements are fulfilled, it is necessary to carry

  12. Laser welding study for further development in essential power plant part repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isarawit Chaopanich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to study the effects of laser welding when compared with shield metal arc welding (SMAW process on the heat input, welded deposit rate, residual stress, distortion, microstructure and micro hardness. The martensitic stainless steel grade 431 specimens were overlay welded with the stainless steel filler metals. From the results, the heat input of 0.26 kJ/mm in laser welding calculated was significantly lower than that of 1.66 kJ/mm in SMAW, and contributed to low level residual stress, minimal distortion, very small penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ of less than 100 µm. The micro hardness results indicated that the maximum value from laser welding in the HAZ was 370.2 HV lower than the value from SMAW of 525.5 HV. The welded deposit rate for laser welding was with 26.5 mm3 /min remarkably lower than the rate for SMAW of 1,800 mm3 /min.

  13. Performance of ASML YieldStar μDBO overlay targets for advanced lithography nodes C028 and C014 overlay process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe; Depre, Jerome; Miqyass, Mohamed; Beltman, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Continued tightening of overlay control budget in semiconductor lithography drives the need for improved metrology capabilities. Aggressive improvements are needed for overlay metrology speed, accuracy and precision. This paper is dealing with the on product metrology results of a scatterometry based platform showing excellent production results on resolution, precision, and tool matching for overlay. We will demonstrate point to point matching between tool generations as well as between target sizes and types. Nowadays, for the advanced process nodes a lot of information is needed (Higher order process correction, Reticle fingerprint, wafer edge effects) to quantify process overlay. For that purpose various overlay sampling schemes are evaluated: ultra- dense, dense and production type. We will show DBO results from multiple target type and shape for on product overlay control for current and future node down to at least 14 nm node. As overlay requirements drive metrology needs, we will evaluate if the new metrology platform meets the overlay requirements.

  14. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, J.B. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Yu, C.; Shiue, R.K. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsay, L.W., E-mail: b0186@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray. - Highlights: • ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as fillers for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L SS. • U-bend and weight-loss tests in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C were performed. • The dissolution of solidified structure caused the SCC of the welds in a salt spray. • Sensitization treatment increased the weight loss and SCC susceptibility of the deposits. • The weight loss of the weld deposits was related to their SCC susceptibility in a salt spray.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J.B.; Yu, C.; Shiue, R.K.; Tsay, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray. - Highlights: • ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as fillers for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L SS. • U-bend and weight-loss tests in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C were performed. • The dissolution of solidified structure caused the SCC of the welds in a salt spray. • Sensitization treatment increased the weight loss and SCC susceptibility of the deposits. • The weight loss of the weld deposits was related to their SCC susceptibility in a salt spray.

  17. Orbital welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [de

  18. Investigations of the interaction between ballooning Zircaloy cladding and emergency core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiehr, K.; Barth, S.; Erbacher, F.; Hame, W.; Harten, U.; Just, W.; Megerle, A.; Mueller, S.; Neitzel, H.J.; Reimann; Schaeffner, P.; Schmidt, H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of fabrication methods for the production of fuel rod simulators has been largely terminated. For welding of Zircaloy-4 and inconel 600 explosive welding has proved to be promissory in preliminary tests. A prototype fuel rod simulator was tested at full power. Its performance was faultless and the fuel rod and ring pellets could be easily dismantled and reused after the experiment. Planning of the test rig and electricity supply were terminated. Most of the assembly work has been finished. For electric heating of the fuel rod simulators a special device was built and tested which allows to program the power control. The radiographic system recording ballooning of the Zircaloy clad was erected outside the test space and put into operation. First trial pictures yielded good results. (orig.) [de

  19. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  20. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  1. Fuel cladding mechanical interaction during power ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding may occur as a consequence of two types of phenomenon: i) fuel swelling especially at levels of caesium accumulation, and ii) thermal differential expansion during power changes. Slow overpower ramps which may occur during incidental events are of course one of the circumstances responsible for this second type of fuel cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI). Experiments and analysis of this problem that have been done at C.E.A. allow to determine the main parameters which will fix the level of stress and the risk of damage induced by the fuel in the cladding during overpower transients

  2. Location-Aware Cross-Layer Design Using Overlay Watermarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system embedded with overlay watermarks for location-aware cross-layer design is proposed in this paper. One major advantage of the proposed system is the multiple functionalities the overlay watermark provides, which includes a cross-layer signaling interface, a transceiver identification for position-aware routing, as well as its basic role as a training sequence for channel estimation. Wireless terminals are typically battery powered and have limited wireless communication bandwidth. Therefore, efficient collaborative signal processing algorithms that consume less energy for computation and less bandwidth for communication are needed. Transceiver aware of its location can also improve the routing efficiency by selective flooding or selective forwarding data only in the desired direction, since in most cases the location of a wireless host is unknown. In the proposed OFDM system, location information of a mobile for efficient routing can be easily derived when a unique watermark is associated with each individual transceiver. In addition, cross-layer signaling and other interlayer interactive information can be exchanged with a new data pipe created by modulating the overlay watermarks. We also study the channel estimation and watermark removal techniques at the physical layer for the proposed overlay OFDM. Our channel estimator iteratively estimates the channel impulse response and the combined signal vector from the overlay OFDM signal. Cross-layer design that leads to low-power consumption and more efficient routing is investigated.

  3. Electronic structure of uranium overlayers on magnesium and aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, T.

    1997-06-01

    We studied U overlayers on polycrystalline Mg and Al by X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS, respectively), and compared the mode of growth and the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of coverage. The goal of this work was to detect localization, or at least correlation effects, in U overlayers and U substrate near surface alloys, which were expected to occur because of the reduced U 5f bandwidth in these systems. On Mg, U deposits as a pure overlayer without any interdiffusion, while on Al spontaneous interdiffusion takes place. The U 4f spectra of {U}/{Mg} show only weak correlation satellites. Nevertheless, the asymmetrical shape of the U 4f peak indicates 5f band narrowing. On Al, strong correlation satellites are observed in addition to plasmon loss features. It seems that U-substrate interactions promote correlation effects, while the reduced coordination in overlayers plays a less important role. UPS valence-band (VB) spectra of the two systems look remarkably similar. They do not show any correlation satellites. With decreasing overlayer thickness the 5f peak narrows, which is attributed to 5f band narrowing at the surface.

  4. Chemical compatibility between cladding alloys and advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1975-05-01

    The National Advanced Fuels Program requires chemical, mechanical, and thermophysical properties data for cladding alloys. The compatibility behavior of cladding alloys with advanced fuels is critically reviewed. in carbide fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding carburization, diffusion of carbon into the cladding matrix accompanied by carbide precipitation. Carburization changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. The extent of carburization increases in sodium (versus gas) bonded fuels. The depth of carburization increases with increasing sesquicarbide (M 2 C 3 ) content of the fuel. In nitride fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding nitriding, diffusion of nitrogen into the cladding matrix accompanied by nitride precipitation. Nitriding changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. In both carbide and nitride fuel pins, fission products do not migrate appreciably to the cladding and do not appear to contribute to cladding attack. 77 references. (U.S.)

  5. Friction Surface Cladding of AA1050 on AA2024-T351; influence of clad layer thickness and tool rotation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaojie; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    Friction Surfacing Cladding (FSC) is a recently developed solid state process to deposit thin metallic clad layers on a substrate. The process employs a rotating tool with a central opening to supply clad material and support the distribution and bonding of the clad material to the substrate. The

  6. Evaluation and characterization of General Purpose Heat Source girth welds for the Cassini mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, C.M.; Moniz, P.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs) are components of Radioisotopic thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for deep space missions. Each GPHS consists of a 238 Pu oxide ceramic pellet encapsulated in a welded iridium alloy shell which forms a protective barrier against the release of plutonia in the unlikely event of a launch-pad failure or reentry incident. GPHS fueled clad girth weld flaw detection was paramount to ensuring this safety function, and was accomplished using both destructive and non-destructive evaluation techniques. The first girth weld produced from each welding campaign was metallographically examined for flaws such as incomplete weld penetration, cracks, or porosity which would render a GPHS unacceptable for flight applications. After an acceptable example weld was produced, the subsequently welded heat sources were evaluated non-destructively for flaws using ultrasonic immersion testing. Selected heat sources which failed ultrasonic testing would be radiographed, and/or, destructively evaluated to further characterize and document anomalous indications. Metallography was also performed on impacted heat sources to determine the condition of the welds

  7. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Varma, P.V.; Gupta, Amit; Amit, K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-02-01

    End plug welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) fuel elements involves welding of fully Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASS) of grade D9 clad tube with 316M end plug. Pulsed Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is being used for the production of PFBR fuel elements at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF). GTAW is an established process for end plug welding and hence adopted by many countries. GTAW has got certain limitations like heat input, arc gap sensitivity and certain sporadic defects like tungsten inclusion. Experiments have been carried out at AFFF to use Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technique as LBW offers a number of advantages over the former process. This report mainly deals with the optimization of laser parameters for welding of PFBR fuel elements. To facilitate pulsed Nd-YAG laser spot welding, parameters like peak power, pulse duration, pulse energy, frequency and defocusing of laser beam on to the work piece have been optimized. On the basis of penetration requirement laser welding parameters have been optimized. (author)

  8. Assembly and Delivery of Rabbit Capsules for Irradiation of Silicon Carbide Cladding Tube Specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Neutron irradiation of silicon carbide (SiC)-based fuel cladding under a high radial heat flux presents a critical challenge for SiC cladding concepts in light water reactors (LWRs). Fission heating in the fuel provides a high heat flux through the cladding, which, combined with the degraded thermal conductivity of SiC under irradiation, results in a large temperature gradient through the thickness of the cladding. The strong temperature dependence of swelling in SiC creates a complex stress profile in SiCbased cladding tubes as a result of differential swelling. The Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) Program within the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting research efforts to improve the scientific understanding of the effects of irradiation on SiC cladding tubes. Ultimately, the results of this project will provide experimental validation of multi-physics models for SiC-based fuel cladding during LWR operation. The first objective of this project is to irradiate tube specimens using a previously developed design that allows for irradiation testing of miniature SiC tube specimens subjected to a high radial heat flux. The previous “rabbit” capsule design uses the gamma heating in the core of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to drive a high heat flux through the cladding tube specimens. A compressible aluminum foil allows for a constant thermal contact conductance between the cladding tubes and the rabbit housing despite swelling of the SiC tubes. To allow separation of the effects of irradiation from those due to differential swelling under a high heat flux, a new design was developed under the NSUF program. This design allows for irradiation of similar SiC cladding tube specimens without a high radial heat flux. This report briefly describes the irradiation experiment design concepts, summarizes the irradiation test matrix, and reports on the successful delivery of six rabbit capsules to the HFIR. Rabbits of both low and high

  9. High-volume manufacturing device overlay process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Woo, Jaeson; Lee, DongYoung; Song, ChangRock; Heo, Hoyoung; Brinster, Irina; Choi, DongSub; Robinson, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control based on DI metrology of optical targets has been the primary basis for run-to-run process control for many years. In previous work we described a scenario where optical overlay metrology is performed on metrology targets on a high frequency basis including every lot (or most lots) at DI. SEM based FI metrology is performed ondevice in-die as-etched on an infrequent basis. Hybrid control schemes of this type have been in use for many process nodes. What is new is the relative size of the NZO as compared to the overlay spec, and the need to find more comprehensive solutions to characterize and control the size and variability of NZO at the 1x nm node: sampling, modeling, temporal frequency and control aspects, as well as trade-offs between SEM throughput and accuracy.

  10. Welding skate with computerized controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    New welding skate concept for automatic TIG welding of contoured or double-contoured parts combines lightweight welding apparatus with electrical circuitry which computes the desired torch angle and positions a torch and cold-wire guide angle manipulator.

  11. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING TUBES CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Cech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes materials made of zirconium-based alloys used for nuclear fuel cladding fabrication. It is focused on corrosion problems their theoretical description and modeling in nuclear engineering.

  12. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. GSGG edge cladding development: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumitani, T.; Meissner, H.E.; Toratani, H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been: (1) Investigate the possibility of chemical etching of GSGG crystal slabs to obtain increased strength. (2) Design and construct a simplified mold assembly for casting cladding glass to the edges of crystal slabs of different dimensions. (3) Conduct casting experiments to evaluate the redesigned mold assembly and to determine stresses as function of thermal expansion coefficient of cladding glass. (4) Clad larger sizes of GGG slabs as they become available. These tasks have been achieved. Chemical etching of GSGG slabs does not appear possible with any other acid than H 3 PO 4 at temperatures above 300 0 C. A mold assembly has been constructed which allowed casting cladding glass around the edges of the largest GGG slabs available (10 x 20 x 160 mm) without causing breakage through the annealing step

  14. Duplex stainless steel surface bay laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, V.; Pineda, Y.; Segovia, F.; Vicente, A.

    2004-01-01

    Laser cladding is one of the most promising techniques to restore damaged surfaces and achieve properties similar to those of the base metal. In this work, duplex stainless steels have been cladded by a nickel alloy under different processing conditions. The influence of the beam speed and defocusing variables ha been evaluated in the microstructure both of the cladding and heat affected zone, HAZ. These results have been correlated to mechanical properties by means of microhardness measurements from cladding area to base metal through the interface. This technique has shown to be very appropriate to obtain controlled mechanical properties as they are determined by the solidification microstructure, originated by the transfer of mass and heat in the system. (Author) 21 refs

  15. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  16. CREEP STRAIN CORRELATION FOR IRRADIATED CLADDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Macheret

    2001-01-01

    In an attempt to predict the creep deformation of spent nuclear fuel cladding under the repository conditions, different correlations have been developed. One of them, which will be referred to as Murty's correlation in the following, and whose expression is given in Henningson (1998), was developed on the basis of experimental points related to unirradiated Zircaloy cladding (Henningson 1998, p. 56). The objective of this calculation is to adapt Murty's correlation to experimental points pertaining to irradiated Zircaloy cladding. The scope of the calculation is provided by the range of experimental parameters characterized by Zircaloy cladding temperature between 292 C and 420 C, hoop stress between 50 and 630 MPa, and test time extending to 8000 h. As for the burnup of the experimental samples, it ranges between 0.478 and 64 MWd/kgU (i.e., megawatt day per kilogram of uranium), but this is not a parameter of the adapted correlation

  17. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  18. Optimization of metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, N.; Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the optimization of metal-clad waveguides for sensor applications to achieve high sensitivity for adlayer and refractive index measurements. By using the Fresnel reflection coefficients both the angular shift and the width of the resonances in the sensorgrams are taken...... into account. Our optimization shows that it is possible for metal-clad waveguides to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 600% compared to surface-plasmon-resonance sensors....

  19. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  20. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  1. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  2. OVERLAY DENTURES: A REVIEW AND REPORT OF FOUR CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha SHARMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ectodermal dysplasia or having under‑ gone cleft surgery with anodontia or hypodontia, hypo‑ plastic conical teeth and patients with severely worn dentition are difficult to treat because of the poor remaining tooth structure. These patients often exhibit loss of vertical dimension of occlusion and aesthetic problems and usually need complex prosthetic treatments. Financial constraints or other priorities often restrict one from choosing the most desirable treatment. The overlay removable denture is a covering prosthesis partially supported by natural teeth, tooth roots, or dental implants, providing an efficient alter‑ native of treatment. Clinical reports describe the various applications of overlay dentures.

  3. Combination of Bayesian Network and Overlay Model in User Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loc Nguyen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The core of adaptive system is user model containing personal information such as knowledge, learning styles, goals… which is requisite for learning personalized process. There are many modeling approaches, for example: stereotype, overlay, plan recognition… but they don’t bring out the solid method for reasoning from user model. This paper introduces the statistical method that combines Bayesian network and overlay modeling so that it is able to infer user’s knowledge from evidences collected during user’s learning process.

  4. Development of remote welding technology for nuclear fuel end capping (A study on the weldability of Zircaloy-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Jin Hyun; Sung, Ho Hyun; Hyun, Yong Kyu; Suh, Hee Kang [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea)

    1998-03-01

    The integrity of nuclear fuel end cap welds is essential to the nuclear fuel performance and safety as well as the usability of power plant. The first aim of this project is to obtain experimental data on the nuclear fuel cladding materials of Zircaloy-4 with welding processes such as plasma arc, gas tungsten arc and laser beam welding. the data obtained in this study will be applicable to the nuclear fuel design, fabrication and nuclear fuel quality control. In addition, the welding processes applicable to the Zircaloy-4 welding were compared and contrasted. The weldability of Zircaloy-4 was evaluated from the metallurgical and mechanical standpoints. 88 refs., 57 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  5. Laser cladding technology to small diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimagari, H.; Hagiwara, M.; Kojima, T.

    2000-01-01

    A laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resistant material coating layers (cladding) on the austenitic stainless steel (type 304 SS) pipe inner surface was developed to prevent SCC (stress corrosion cracking) occurrence. This technology is applicable to a narrow and long distance area from operators, because of the good accessibility of the YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser beam that can be transmitted through an optical fiber. In this method a mixed paste metallic powder and heating-resistive organic solvent are firstly placed on the inner surface of a small pipe, and then a YAG laser beam transmitted through an optical fiber irradiates to the pasted area. A mixed paste will be melted and form a cladding layer subsequently. A cladding layer shows as excellent corrosion resistance property. This laser cladding (LC) method had already applied to several domestic nuclear power plants and had obtained a good reputation. This report introduces the outline of laser cladding technology, the developed equipment for practical application in the field, and the circumstance in actual plant application. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary Study for Development of Welds Integrity Verification Equipment for the Small Bore Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Geun Suk; Lee, Jong Eun; Ryu, Jung Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Youn; Sohn, Myoung Sung; Lee, Sanghoon; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Hong Seok

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported leakage accident of small-bore piping in Korea. Leakage accident of small-bore pipes are those that will increase due to the aging of the nuclear power plant. And if leakage of the pipe is repaired by using the clamping device when it occur accident, it is economically benefits. The clamping device is a fastening device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. However, when the accident occurs, it can't immediately respond because maintenance and repairing technology are not institutionalized in KEPIC. Thus it appears an economic loss. The technology for corresponding thereto is necessary for the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this research is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe in the nuclear power plant. Specifically, detailed studies are as follows : • Development of weld overlay method of safety class socket welded connections • Development of Mechanical Clamping Devices for Safety Class 2, 3 small-bore pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe, resulting in degraded plant systems. And it is necessary to institutionalize the technology. The fatigue crack testing of socket welded overlay will be performed and fatigue life evaluation method will be developed in second year. Also prototype fabrication of mechanical clamping device will be completed. Base on final goal, the intent is to propose practical evaluation tools, design and fabrication methods for socket welded connection integrity. And result of this study is to development of KEPIC code case approved technology for on-line repairing system of socket welded connection and fabrication of mechanical clamping device

  7. Diffraction-based overlay for spacer patterning and double patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Park, JeongSu; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Sarohan; Lim, ChangMoon; Yim, Dong-Gyu; Park, Sungki; Ryu, Chan-Ho; Morgan, Stephen; van de Schaar, Maurits; Fuchs, Andreas; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2011-03-01

    Overlay performance will be increasingly important for Spacer Patterning Technology (SPT) and Double Patterning Technology (DPT) as various Resolution Enhancement Techniques are employed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Continuous shrinkage of devices makes overlay accuracy one of the most critical issues while overlay performance is completely dependent on exposure tool. Image Based Overlay (IBO) has been used as the mainstream metrology for overlay by the main memory IC companies, but IBO is not suitable for some critical layers due to the poor Tool Induced Shift (TIS) values. Hence new overlay metrology is required to improve the overlay measurement accuracy. Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is regarded to be an alternative metrology to IBO for more accurate measurements and reduction of reading errors. Good overlay performances of DBO have been reported in many articles. However applying DBO for SPT and DPT layers poses extra challenges for target design. New vernier designs are considered for different DPT and SPT schemes to meet overlay target in DBO system. In this paper, we optimize the design of the DBO target and the performance of DBO to meet the overlay specification of sub-3x nm devices which are using SPT and DPT processes. We show that the appropriate vernier design yields excellent overlay performance in residual and TIS. The paper also demonstrated the effects of vernier structure on overlay accuracy from SEM analysis.

  8. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  9. Electric arc welding gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  10. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  11. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  12. Use of servo controlled weld head for end closure welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    In the PHWR fuel fabrication line resistance welding processes are used for joining various zirconium based alloy components to fuel tube of similar material. The quality requirement of these welding processes is very stringent and has to meet all the product requirements. At present these welding processes are being carried out by using standard resistance welding machines. In the resistance welding process in addition to current and time, force is one of the critical and important parameter, which influences the weld quality. At present advanced feed back type fast response medium frequency weld controllers are being used. This has upslope/down slope, constant and repetitive weld pattern selection features makes this critical welding process more reliable. Compared to weld controllers, squeeze force application devices are limited and normally standard high response pneumatic cylinders are used in the welding process. With this type of devices the force is constant during welding process and cannot be varied during welding process as per the material deformation characteristics. Similarly due to non-availability of feed back systems in the squeeze force application systems restricts the accuracy and quality of the welding process. In the present paper the influence of squeeze force pattern on the weld quality using advanced feed back type servo based force control system was studied. Different squeeze forces were used during pre and post weld heat periods along with constant force and compared with the weld quality. (author)

  13. Clad Degradation- Summary and Abstraction for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Stahl

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to develop the summary cladding degradation abstraction that will be used in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Most civilian commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. The model addressed in this report is intended to describe the postulated condition of commercial Zircaloy-clad fuel as a function of postclosure time after it is placed in the repository. Earlier total system performance assessments analyzed the waste form as exposed UO 2 , which was available for degradation at the intrinsic dissolution rate. Water in the waste package quickly became saturated with many of the radionuclides, limiting their release rate. In the total system performance assessments for the Viability Assessment and the Site Recommendation, cladding was analyzed as part of the waste form, limiting the amount of fuel available at any time for degradation. The current model is divided into two stages. The first considers predisposal rod failures (most of which occur during reactor operation and associated activities) and postdisposal mechanical failure (from static loading of rocks) as mechanisms for perforating the cladding. Other fuel failure mechanisms including those caused by handling or transportation have been screened out (excluded) or are treated elsewhere. All stainless-steel-clad fuel, which makes up a small percentage of the overall amount of fuel to be stored, is modeled as failed upon placement in the waste packages. The second stage of the degradation model is the splitting of the cladding from the reaction of water or moist air and UO 2 . The splitting has been observed to be rapid in comparison to the total system performance assessment time steps and is modeled to be instantaneous. After the cladding splits, the rind buildup inside the cladding widens the split, increasing the diffusion area from the fuel rind to the waste package interior. This model report summarizes the

  14. Feasibility of long-life and corrosion-resistant canister with titanium cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2008-01-01

    In order to store nuclear spent fuels for a long term, we propose the concept of stainless steel canister with titanium cladding. The stainless canister is first brazed to titanium plates, and then the brazed joints are covered with other titanium plates. A MIG brazing for titanium and stainless steel was demonstrated with a brazing metal of Cu-1Mn-3Si alloy (MG960). JIS G 0601 shear strength, tensile shear stress and peel strength tests are conducted for the optimized MIG brazing conditions. These results showed the MIG brazing specimens possess adequate structural strength. After the salt spray test on the basis of JIS Z 2371, there were no pitting and general corrosions on a TIG welding specimen between titanium plates. The corrosion resistance is therefore, sufficiently high. Manufacturing cost estimation suggests that the titanium cladding concept is feasible thereby using 1-mm-thick titanium plates to reduce the material cost. In addition to this concept, we propose another concept of the canister by using titanium-stainless steel cladding plates to reduce a number of brazing joints. (author)

  15. Latex-modified fiber-reinforced concrete bridge deck overlay : construction/interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Latex-modified concrete (LMC) is Portland cement concrete (PCC) with an admixture of latex. LMC is considered to be nearly impermeable to chlorides and is extensively used to construct bridge deck overlays. Unfortunately, some of these overlays have ...

  16. Estimation of residual stresses in reactor pressure vessel steel specimens clad by stainless steel strip electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, H.A.; Ruge, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The equations to determine a two-dimensional state of residual stress in flat laminated plates are well known from an earlier work by one of the authors. The derivation of these equations leads to a linear, inhomogeneous system of Volterra's integral equations of the second kind. To ascertain the unknown residual stresses from these equations it is necessary to cut down the thickness of the test plate layer by layer. This results in two-dimensional deformation reactions in the rest of the test plate, which can be measured, e.g. by a strain gauge rosette applied to the opposite side of the plate. The above-mentioned stress analysis has been transferred to 86mm thick reactor pressure vessel steel specimens (Type 22NiMoCr 37, DIN-No. 1.6751, similar to ASTM A508, Class 2) double-run clad by austenitic stainless steel strip electrodes (first layer 24/13 Cr-Ni steel, second layer 21/10 Cr-Ni steel). The overall dimensions of the clad specimens investigated amounted to 200 x 200 x (86+4.5+4.5)mm. At the surface of the austenitic cladding there is a two-dimensional tensile normal stress state of about 200N/mm 2 parallel, and about 300N/mm 2 transverse, to the welding direction. The maximum tensile stress was 8mm below the interface (fusion line, material transition) in the parent material. The stress distributions of the specimens investigated, determined on the basis of the above-mentioned combined experimental mathematical procedure, are presented graphically for the as-welded (as-delivered) and annealed (600 0 C/12hr) conditions. (author)

  17. Design and performance evaluation of very thin overlays in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Very thin overlays 1-inch thick or less were placed as surface layers on five major highways in Texas. : These mixes were designed in the laboratory to have a balance of good rut resistance as measured by : TxDOTs Hamburg Wheel Tracking test and g...

  18. Visualization of disciplinary profiles: Enhanced science overlay maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carley, S.; Porter, A.L.; Rafols, I.; Leydesdorff, L.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps.

  19. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  20. Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It

  1. Accident tolerant fuel cladding development: Promise, status, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, Kurt A.

    2018-04-01

    The motivation for transitioning away from zirconium-based fuel cladding in light water reactors to significantly more oxidation-resistant materials, thereby enhancing safety margins during severe accidents, is laid out. A review of the development status for three accident tolerant fuel cladding technologies, namely coated zirconium-based cladding, ferritic alumina-forming alloy cladding, and silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite cladding, is offered. Technical challenges and data gaps for each of these cladding technologies are highlighted. Full development towards commercial deployment of these technologies is identified as a high priority for the nuclear industry.

  2. Visualization of Disciplinary Profiles: Enhanced Science Overlay Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps. Design/methodology/approach: We use the combined set of 2015 Journal Citation Reports for the Science Citation Index (n of journals = 8,778 and the Social Sciences Citation Index (n = 3,212 for a total of 11,365 journals. The set of Web of Science Categories in the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index increased from 224 in 2010 to 227 in 2015. Using dedicated software, a matrix of 227 × 227 cells is generated on the basis of whole-number citation counting. We normalize this matrix using the cosine function. We first develop the citing-side, cosine-normalized map using 2015 data and VOSviewer visualization with default parameter values. A routine for making overlays on the basis of the map (“wc15.exe” is available at http://www.leydesdorff.net/wc15/index.htm. Findings: Findings appear in the form of visuals throughout the manuscript. In Figures 1–9 we provide basemaps of science and science overlay maps for a number of companies, universities, and technologies. Research limitations: As Web of Science Categories change and/or are updated so is the need to update the routine we provide. Also, to apply the routine we provide users need access to the Web of Science. Practical implications: Visualization of science overlay maps is now more accurate and true to the 2015 Journal Citation Reports than was the case with the previous version of the routine advanced in our paper. Originality/value: The routine we advance allows users to visualize science overlay maps in VOSviewer using data from more recent Journal Citation Reports.

  3. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  4. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbay, M.

    1972-01-01

    The bead characteristics and the possible mechanisms of the electron beam penetration are presented. The different welding techniques are exposed and the main parts of an electron beam welding equipment are described. Some applications to nuclear, spatial and other industries are cited [fr

  5. Method for welding beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  6. Method for welding beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  7. A pellet-clad interaction failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howl, D.A.; Coucill, D.N.; Marechal, A.J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A Pellet-Clad Interaction (PCI) failure criterion, enabling the number of fuel rod failures in a reactor core to be determined for a variety of normal and fault conditions, is required for safety analysis. The criterion currently being used for the safety analysis of the Pressurized Water Reactor planned for Sizewell in the UK is defined and justified in this paper. The criterion is based upon a threshold clad stress which diminishes with increasing fast neutron dose. This concept is consistent with the mechanism of clad failure being stress corrosion cracking (SCC); providing excess corrodant is always present, the dominant parameter determining the propagation of SCC defects is stress. In applying the criterion, the SLEUTH-SEER 77 fuel performance computer code is used to calculate the peak clad stress, allowing for concentrations due to pellet hourglassing and the effect of radial cracks in the fuel. The method has been validated by analysis of PCI failures in various in-reactor experiments, particularly in the well-characterised power ramp tests in the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. It is also in accord with out-of-reactor tests with iodine and irradiated Zircaloy clad, such as those carried out at Kjeller in Norway. (author)

  8. Fuel assembly and fuel cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Shinro; Ito, Ken-ichi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Nakajima, Junjiro.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cladding tube is a zirconium liner tube formed by lining a pure zirconium layer on the inner side of a zirconium alloy tube. The fuel cladding tube is formed by extrusion molding of a composite billet formed by inserting a pure zirconium billet into a zirconium alloy billet. Accordingly, the pure zirconium layer and the zirconium alloy tube are strongly joined by metal bond. The fuel cladding tube has an external oxide film on the outer surface of the zirconium alloy tube and an internal oxide film on the inner side of the pure zirconium layer. The external oxide film has a thickness preferably of about 1μm. The internal oxide film has a thickness of not more than 10μm, preferably, from 1 to 5μm. With such a constitution, flaws to be formed on both inner and outer surfaces of the cladding tube upon assembling a fuel assembly can be reduced thereby enabling to reduce the amount of hydrogen absorbed to the cladding tube. (I.N.)

  9. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    1999-01-01

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  10. Transition welds in welding of two-ply steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartushnyj, V.G.; Evsyukov, Yu.G.

    1977-01-01

    Studied were physico-mechanical properties of welds made by various welding wires of chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium steels in submerged arc welding of double-layer steels with main layer of the VSt.3sp. carbon steel. It is shown that service-reliable structures welded of two-layer steels are obtained by providing the content from 11 to 20 % Ni in the automatically welded transition layer

  11. Development of an End-plug Welding Technology for an Instrumented Fuel Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Lee, Chul Yong; Shin, Yoon Taek; Choo, Kee Nam

    2010-01-01

    The irradiation test of end-plug specimens was planned for the evaluation of nuclear fuels performance. To establish the fabrication process, and for satisfying the requirements of the irradiation test, an orbital-GTA weld machine for the specimens of the dual rods was developed, and the preliminary welding experiments for optimizing the process conditions of the specimens of the dual rods were performed. Dual rods with a 9.5mm diameter and a 0.6mm wall thickness of the cladding tubes and end-plugs have been used and the optimum conditions of the pin-hole welding have also been selected. This paper describes the experimental results of the GTA welds of the specimens of the dual rods and the metallography examinations of the GTA welded specimens for various welding conditions for the instrumented fuel irradiation test. These investigations satisfied the requirements of the instrumented irradiation test and the GTA welds for the specimens of the dual rods at the HANARO research reactor

  12. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  13. Prediction of Weld Residual Stress of Narrow Gap Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Seog; Huh, Nam Su

    2010-01-01

    The conventional welding technique such as shield metal arc welding has been mostly applied to the piping system of the nuclear power plants. It is well known that this welding technique causes the overheating and welding defects due to the large groove angle of weld. On the other hand, the narrow gap welding(NGW) technique has many merits, for instance, the reduction of welding time, the shrinkage of weld and the small deformation of the weld due to the small groove angle and welding bead width comparing with the conventional welds. These characteristics of NGW affect the deformation behavior and the distribution of welding residual stress of NGW, thus it is believed that the residual stress results obtained from conventional welding procedure may not be applied to structural integrity evaluation of NGW. In this paper, the welding residual stress of NGW was predicted using the nonlinear finite element analysis to simulate the thermal and mechanical effects of the NGW. The present results can be used as the important information to perform the flaw evaluation and to improve the weld procedure of NGW

  14. Capabilities of infrared weld monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Keske, J.S.; Leong, K.H.; Kornecki, G.

    1997-11-01

    A non-obtrusive pre-aligned, solid-state device has been developed to monitor the primary infrared emissions during laser welding. The weld monitor output is a 100-1000 mV signal that depends on the beam power and weld characteristics. The DC level of this signal is related to weld penetration, while AC portions of the output can be correlated with surface irregularities and part misalignment or contamination. Changes in DC behavior are also noted for both full and deep penetration welds. Full penetration welds are signified by an abrupt reduction in the weld monitor output. Bead on plate welds were made on steel, aluminum, and magnesium with both a CW CO{sub 2} laser and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to explore the relationships between the weld characteristics and the weld monitor output.

  15. Capturing reflected cladding modes from a fiber Bragg grating with a double-clad fiber coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiad, Mohamad Diaa; Gagné, Mathieu; Lemire-Renaud, Simon; De Montigny, Etienne; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Godbout, Nicolas; Boudoux, Caroline; Kashyap, Raman

    2013-03-25

    We present a novel measurement scheme using a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to resolve cladding modes. Direct measurement of the optical spectra and power in the cladding modes is obtained through the use of a specially designed DCFC spliced to a highly reflective FBG written into slightly etched standard photosensitive single mode fiber to match the inner cladding diameter of the DCFC. The DCFC is made by tapering and fusing two double-clad fibers (DCF) together. The device is capable of capturing backward propagating low and high order cladding modes simply and efficiently. Also, we demonstrate the capability of such a device to measure the surrounding refractive index (SRI) with an extremely high sensitivity of 69.769 ± 0.035 μW/RIU and a resolution of 1.433 × 10(-5) ± 8 × 10(-9) RIU between 1.37 and 1.45 RIU. The device provides a large SRI operating range from 1.30 to 1.45 RIU with sufficient discrimination for all individual captured cladding modes. The proposed scheme can be adapted to many different types of bend, temperature, refractive index and other evanescent wave based sensors.

  16. Inspection system for Zircaloy clad fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, M.E.; Porter, E.H.; Hansen, H.R.

    1975-10-01

    A description is presented of the design, development, and performance of a remote scanning system for nondestructive examination of fuel rods. Characteristics that are examined include microcracking of fuel rod cladding, fuel-cladding interaction, cladding thickness, fuel rod diameter variation, and fuel rod bowing. Microcracking of both the inner and outer fuel rod surfaces and variations in wall thickness are detected by using a pulsed eddy current technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Fuel rod diameter variation and fuel rod bowing are detected by using two linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and a signal conditioning system. The system's mechanical features include variable scanning speeds, a precision indexing system, and a servomechanism to maintain proper probe alignment. Initial results indicate that the system is a very useful mechanism for characterizing irradiated fuel rods

  17. Fuel cladding mechanical properties for transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Out-of-pile simulated transient tests have been conducted on irradiated fast-reactor fuel pin cladding specimens at heating rates of 10 0 F/s (5.6 0 K/s) and 200 0 F/s (111 0 K/s) to generate mechanical property information for use in describing cladding behavior during off-normal events. Mechanical property data were then analyzed, applying the Larson-Miller Parameter to the effects of heating rate and neutron fluence. Data from simulated transient tests on TREAT-tested fuel pins demonstrate that Plant Protective System termination of 3$/s transients prevents significant damage to cladding. The breach opening produced during simulated transient testing is shown to decrease in size with increasing neutron fluence

  18. Laser cladding to select new glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, L.L.O.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Kiminami, C.S.; Gargarella, P.; Ramasco, B.

    2016-01-01

    A new experimental technique used to analyze the effect of compositional variation and cooling rate in the phase formation in a multicomponent system is the laser cladding. This work have evaluated the use of laser cladding to discover a new bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the Al-Co-Zr system. Coatings with composition variation have made by laser cladding using Al-Co-Zr alloys powders and the samples produced have been characterized by X ray diffraction, microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results did not show the composition variation as expected, because of incomplete melting during laser process. It was measured a composition variation tendency that allowed the glass forming investigation by the glass formation criterion λ+Δh 1/2 . The results have showed no glass formation in the coating samples, which prove a limited capacity of Zr-Co-Al system to form glass (author)

  19. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented

  20. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  1. Investigation of a weld defect, reactor vessel head Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embring, G.; Pers-Anderson, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    During the summer-outage 1993 Ringhals unit 2 vessel head was inspected at weld-area of Alloy 182. One major defect was found Two plus two ''boat-samples'' were taken out from the zone between the weld and the stainless cladding. All samples were sent to Studsviks laboratories for detailed investigations. The metallographic and fractographic investigations revealed that the major weld-defect had been there from manufacturing. The defect was located between the Alloy 182-buttering and the pressure vessel steel SA 533 grB cl 1. No indications of PWSCC or IDSCC were found. An inspection programme was defined. Different types of reference blocks were provided by Ringhals in cooperation with ABB TRC. Reference reflectors of type flat bottom hole (FBH) and eroded notches (EDM), with different sizes and separation were manufactured. One weld sample with manufacturing defects -lack of fusion and slag was inclusions- was present. ABB TRC performed UT inspection in the gap between the penetration and the thermal sleeve. Inspection results like defect identification, defect separation and defect sizing accuracy were compared with result from the destructive inspection. No relevant additional defects were found. An analysing and repair program was performed. A special designed disc sealed off the defect area. (authors). 5 figs., 3 refs

  2. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  3. Welding method, and welding device for use therein, and method of analysis for evaluating welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aendenroomer, A.J.; Den Ouden, G.; Xiao, Y.H.; Brabander, W.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a method of automatically welding pipes, comprising welding with a pulsation welding current and monitoring, by means of a sensor, the variations occurring in the arc voltage caused by weld pool oscillations. The occurrence of voltage variations with only frequency components below 100

  4. Comparison of corrosion behavior between fusion cladded and explosive cladded Inconel 625/plain carbon steel bimetal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareie Rajani, H.R.; Akbari Mousavi, S.A.A.; Madani Sani, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both explosive and fusion cladding aggravate the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625. ► Fusion cladding is more detrimental to nonuniform corrosion resistance. ► Single-layered fusion coat does not show any repassivation ability. ► Adding more layers enhance the corrosion resistance of fusion cladding Inconel 625. ► High impact energy spoils the corrosion resistance of explosive cladding Inconel 625. -- Abstract: One of the main concerns in cladding Inconel 625 superalloy on desired substrates is deterioration of corrosion resistance due to cladding process. The present study aims to compare the effect of fusion cladding and explosive cladding procedures on corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 cladding on plain carbon steel as substrate. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the role of load ratio and numbers of fusion layers in corrosion behavior of explosive and fusion cladding Inconel 625 respectively. In all cases, the cyclic polarization as an electrochemical method has been applied to assess the corrosion behavior. According to the obtained results, both cladding methods aggravate the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625. However, the fusion cladding process is more detrimental to nonuniform corrosion resistance, where the chemical nonuniformity of fusion cladding superalloy issuing from microsegregation, development of secondary phases and contamination of clad through dilution hinders formation of a stable passive layer. Moreover, it is observed that adding more fusion layers can enhance the nonuniform corrosion resistance of fusion cladding Inconel 625, though this resistance still remains weaker than explosive cladding superalloy. Also, the results indicate that raising the impact energy in explosive cladding procedure drops the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625.

  5. Modelling of pellet-clad interaction during power ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.; Lindback, J.E.; Schutte, H.C.; Jernkvist, L.O.; Massih, A.R.; Massih, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    A computational method to describe the pellet-clad interaction phenomenon is presented. The method accounts for the mechanical contact between fragmented pellets and the zircaloy clad, as well as for chemical reaction of fission products with zircaloy during power ramps. Possible pellet-clad contact states, soft, hard and friction, are taken into account in the computational algorithm. The clad is treated as an elastic-plastic-viscoplastic material with irradiation hardening. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking is described by using a fracture mechanics-based model for crack propagation. This integrated approach is used to evaluate two power ramp experiments made on boiling water reactor fuel rods in test reactors. The influence of the pellet-clad coefficient of friction on clad deformation is evaluated and discussed. Also, clad deformations, pellet-clad gap size and fission product gas release for one of the ramped rods are calculated and compared with measured data. (authors)

  6. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  7. Evaluation of fast experimental reactor claddings, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Makoto; Nagaki, Hiroshi; Koyama, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1974-01-01

    Thin-walled fine tubes of Type 316 austenitic stainless steel are used for fuel cladding in Joyo (experimental FBR). The material exhibits the change of the mechanical properties in long-time annealing at high temperature, resulting from the precipitation of carbide in structure. In this connection, the experiment and the results on the changes of the microstructure and mechanical properties (proof stress and hardness) are described. The test specimens are the fuel cladding tubes produced for trial for Joyo core and those for FFTF core made in the U.S.A. They were heated between 400 0 and 850 0 C for 1000 hr in vacuum. (Mori, K.)

  8. Management of cladding hulls and fuel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from power reactors based on chop-leach technology produces a solid waste product of cladding hulls and other metallic residues. This report describes the current situation in the management of fuel cladding hulls and hardware. Information is presented on the material composition of such waste together with the heating effects due to neutron-induced activation products and fuel contamination. As no country has established a final disposal route and the corresponding repository, this report also discusses possible disposal routes and various disposal options under consideration at present

  9. Inpile (in PWR) testing of cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    As an introduction, the reasons to perform inpile tests are depicted. An overview over general inpile test procedure is given, and test details which are necessary for the development of new alloys for high burnup claddings, like sample geometries and measuring techniques for inpile corrosion testing, are described in detail. Tests for the creep and length change behavior of cladding tubes are described briefly. Finally, conclusions are drawn and literature citations for further test details are given. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  10. Microstructure of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available and martensite with 10% ferrite for Material B. Table 7 - Proposed martensitic stainless steel alloys for laser cladding Material C* Cr Ni Mn Si Mo Co Ms (ºC)* Cr eq Ni eq Material A 0.4 13 - 1 0.5 2.5 5.5 120 16.5 12.5 Material B 0.2 15 2 1 0.7 2.5 5.5 117... dilution, low heat input, less distortion, increased mechanical and corrosion properties excellent repeatability and control of process parameters. Solidification of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel is primarily austenitic. Microstructures...

  11. Phosphate-core silica-clad Er/Yb-doped optical fiber and cladding pumped laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Velmiskin, V V; Yatsenko, Yu P; Sverchkov, S E; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Dianov, E M

    2014-04-07

    We present a composite optical fiber with a Er/Yb co-doped phosphate-glass core in a silica glass cladding as well as cladding pumped laser. The fabrication process, optical properties, and lasing parameters are described. The slope efficiency under 980 nm cladding pumping reached 39% with respect to the absorbed pump power and 28% with respect to the coupled pump power. Due to high doping level of the phosphate core optimal length was several times shorter than that of silica core fibers.

  12. Weld analysis and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  13. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  14. Joining of fuel pin end plugs. Pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), pressurized resistance welding (PRW) and their inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Seki, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    In Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, in order to attain the high burnup of FBR fuel, the development of new cladding tube materials mainly aiming at the improvement of swelling resistance has been advanced. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel has excellent swelling characteristics and high temperature creep strength, but the strength of its welded parts lowers remarkably. As the result of the investigation of solid phase joining, the conclusion that PMW and PRW are promising was obtained. So far, the manufacture of a welder was started first, the welding test was advanced, and the ultrasonic flaw detection technology of high accuracy was developed for the inspection of welding defects. The features, the principle of welding, the welders and the examples of application of the PMW and the PRW are reported. The features of the ultrasonic inspection apparatus are explained. The inspection apparatus comprises 5 pulse motors for driving probes and one pulse motor for turning a sample. The example of flaw detection test results is shown. (K.I.)

  15. Mechanical modelling of transient- to- failure SFR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2014-07-01

    The response of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel rods to transient accident conditions is an important safety concern. During transients the cladding strain caused by the stress due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) can lead to failure. Due to the fact that SFR fuel rods are commonly clad with strengthened material made of stainless steel (SS), cladding is usually treated as an elastic-perfectly-plastic material. However, viscoplastic behaviour can contribute to mechanical strain at high temperature (> 1000 K). (Author)

  16. Analysis of coaxial laser micro cladding processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasova, Tatiana Vasilievna; Gvozdeva, Galina Olegovna; Nowotny, Steffen; Ableyeva, Riana R.; Dolzhikova, Evgenia Yu

    2018-01-01

    The laser build-up cladding is a well-known technique for repair, coatings and additive manufacturing tasks. Modern equipment for the laser cladding enables material to be deposited with the lateral resolution of about 100 μm and to manufacture miniature precise parts. However, the micro cladding regimes are unknown. Determination of these regimes is an expensive task as a well-known relation between laser cladding parameters and melt pool dimensions are changing by technology micro-miniaturi...

  17. Electron beam cladding of titanium on stainless steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomie, Michio; Abe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Masanori; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental characteristics of electron beam cladding was investigated. Titanium foil of 0.2mm thickness was cladded on stainless steel plate of 3mm thickness by scanning electron beam. Surface roughness and cladded layer were analyzed by surface roughness tester, microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron probe micro analyzer. Electron beam conditions were discussed for these fundamental characteristics. It is found that the energy density of the electron beam is one of the most important factor for cladding. (author)

  18. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  19. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  20. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  1. Review of Welding Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses welding terms in accordance with the Lithuanian standard LST EN 1792 „Welding. The multilingual list of welding terms and similar processes”, „The Russian–Lithuanian dictionary of the terms of mechanical engineering technology and welding“ and the examples from postgraduates‘ final works. It analyses the infringement of lexical, word-building and morphological rules. First-year students should already be familiar with the standardized terms of their speciality. More active propagation of the terms should help to avoid terminology mistakes in various scientific spheres.

  2. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  3. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  4. Image-based overlay measurement using subsurface ultrasonic resonance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, M. S.; van der Lans, M. J.; Sadeghian, H.

    2018-03-01

    Image Based Overlay (IBO) measurement is one of the most common techniques used in Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing to extract the overlay error values. The overlay error is measured using dedicated overlay targets which are optimized to increase the accuracy and the resolution, but these features are much larger than the IC feature size. IBO measurements are realized on the dedicated targets instead of product features, because the current overlay metrology solutions, mainly based on optics, cannot provide sufficient resolution on product features. However, considering the fact that the overlay error tolerance is approaching 2 nm, the overlay error measurement on product features becomes a need for the industry. For sub-nanometer resolution metrology, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is widely used, though at the cost of very low throughput. The semiconductor industry is interested in non-destructive imaging of buried structures under one or more layers for the application of overlay and wafer alignment, specifically through optically opaque media. Recently an SPM technique has been developed for imaging subsurface features which can be potentially considered as a solution for overlay metrology. In this paper we present the use of Subsurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) used for IBO measurement. We used SSURFM for imaging the most commonly used overlay targets on a silicon substrate and photoresist. As a proof of concept we have imaged surface and subsurface structures simultaneously. The surface and subsurface features of the overlay targets are fabricated with programmed overlay errors of +/-40 nm, +/-20 nm, and 0 nm. The top layer thickness changes between 30 nm and 80 nm. Using SSURFM the surface and subsurface features were successfully imaged and the overlay errors were extracted, via a rudimentary image processing algorithm. The measurement results are in agreement with the nominal values of the programmed overlay errors.

  5. Perceived effects of coloured overlays on reading material in persons with albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Makgaba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Persons with albinism often complain of glare when reading. They may therefore benefit from coloured filter overlays just as they benefit from tinted lenses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectof coloured overlays on print perception in persons with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA.   Fifty subjects were included in this study, their ages ranged from 12 to 31 years with a mean of 16.12 years (SD = ± 4.56 years.  Following refraction and subsequent compensation for refractive errors, subjective perception of print was examined with the subject looking at the Wilkins® reading rate test chart with and without colored filter overlay/s.  The subjects were asked to respond to questions previously used in a questionnaire by Wilkins (2001. The percentage frequencies of positive (beneficial responses were used to decide whether or not a particular overlay would enhance reading performance.  McNemar’s test was used to establish significant differences between responses to questions without and with overlays. All single overlays gave greater percentages of positive responses (92.0-97.2% than without overlay (85.2%.  The single overlay that provided the highest positive responses was blue (97.2% and the least was purple (92.0%. All double overlays, except grey/grey (82.0% gave greater positive responses than without overlay (85.2%. Aqua/blue gave the greatest positive responses (possible benefits (97.2%, followed by rose/rose (96.8%.  Comparing the responses without overlay with single and double overlays, the difference in responses to the five questions was only significant (p < 0.05 with regard to brightness of the surface. The results suggest that overlays provided a more glare-free reading surface than without an overlay. It was, therefore concluded that the best advantage of the coloured overlays was in glare reduction.  Although this study showed that there were more subjects who preferred single blue and aqua/blue double

  6. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kissel, Ezra [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Swany, D. Martin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  7. The interface microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar joints during multipass laser welding for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Xiaolei; Huang, Jian; Liu, Luwei; Wu, Yixiong

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the interface microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar joints between Inconel 52M overlays and 316L stainless steel during multipass laser welding for nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the microstructure at the interface beside 316L stainless steel consists of cellular with the width of 30-40 μm, which also exhibits numerous Cr and Mo-rich precipitates like flocculent structure and in chains along grain boundaries as a mixed chemical solution for etching. Many dendritic structure with local melting characteristics and Nb-rich precipitates are exhibited at the interface beside Inconel 52M overlays. Such Nb-rich precipitates at the interface beside Inconel 52M overlays deteriorate the tensile strength and toughness of dissimilar joints at room temperature. The tensile strength of 316L stainless steel at 350 °C significantly decreases with the result that dissimilar joints are fractured in 316L stainless steel. The correlation between corrosion behavior and microstructure of weld metals is also discussed. The difference in high corrosion potential between Nb-rich precipitates and the matrix could result in establishing effective galvanic couples, and thus accelerating the corrosion of weld metals.

  8. An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-14

    maximum throughput. Finally, we propose a threshold-based policy (BP-T) and a heuristic policy (OBP), which dynamically control traffic bifurcations...network stability region is available . Second, given any subset of nodes that are controllable, we also wish to develop an optimal routing policy that...case when tunnels do not overlap. We also develop a heuristic overlay control policy for use on general topologies, and show through simulation that

  9. Complexity Leadership Theory: A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    DD-MM-YYYY) 23-04-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity...Monograph Title : Complexity Leadership Theory : A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay Approved by...General Ridgway’s Success in Korea.” Master’s thesis , United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2010. Diana, Gabriel. “Vision, Education

  10. Advancements of diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Weher, Ulrich; Volkman, Catherine; Mazur, Martin; Hu, Jiangtao

    2011-03-01

    As the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink, diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges. Previously data of high accuracy and high precision were reported for litho-etch-litho-etch double patterning (DP) process using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry on specially designed targets composed of 1D gratings in x and y directions. Two measurement methods, empirical algorithm (eDBO) using four pads per direction (2x4 target) and modeling based algorithm (mDBO) using two pads per direction (2x2 target) were performed. In this work, we apply DBO techniques to measure overlay errors for a different DP process, litho-freeze-litho-etch process. We explore the possibility of further reducing number of pads in a DBO target using mDBO. For standard targets composed of 1D gratings, we reported results for eDBO 2x4 targets, mDBO 2x2 targets, and mDBO 2x1 target. The results of all three types of targets are comparable in terms of accuracy, dynamic precision, and TIS. TMU (not including tool matching) is less than 0.1nm. In addition, we investigated the possibility of measuring overlay with one single pad that contains 2D gratings. We achieved good correlation to blossom measurements. TMU (not including tool matching) is ~ 0.2nm. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that DBO results are reported on a single pad. eDBO allows quick recipe setup but takes more space and measurement time. Although mDBO needs details of optical properties and modeling, it offers smaller total target size and much faster throughput, which is important in high volume manufacturing environment.

  11. Investigation of Tensile Creep of a Normal Strength Overlay Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Martin; Theiner, Yvonne; Hofstetter, Günter

    2018-06-12

    The present contribution deals with the experimental investigation of the time-dependent behavior of a typical overlay concrete subjected to tensile stresses. The latter develop in concrete overlays, which are placed on existing concrete structures as a strengthening measure, due to the shrinkage of the young overlay concrete, which is restrained by the substrate concrete. Since the tensile stresses are reduced by creep, creep in tension is investigated on sealed and unsealed specimens, loaded at different concrete ages. The creep tests as well as the companion shrinkage tests are performed in a climatic chamber at constant temperature and constant relative humidity. Since shrinkage depends on the change of moisture content, the evolution of the mass water content is determined at the center of each specimen by means of an electrolytic resistivity-based system. Together with the experimental results for compressive creep from a previous study, a consistent set of time-dependent material data, determined for the same composition of the concrete mixture and on identical specimens, is now available. It consists of the hygral and mechanical properties, creep and shrinkage strains for both sealed and drying conditions, the respective compliance functions, and the mass water contents in sealed and unsealed, loaded and load-free specimens.

  12. Recent developments in pipeline welding practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen chapters are included: overview of pipeline welding systems and quality assurance, CRC automatic welding system, H.C. Price Co. automatic welding system, semi-automatic MIG-welding process, partial penetration welding of steel pipes for gas distribution, construction procedures and quality control in offshore pipeline construction, welding in repair and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines, British Gas studies of welding on pressurized gas transmission pipelines, hot tapping pipelines, underwater welding for offshore pipelines and associated equipment, radial friction welding, material composition vs weld properties, review of NDT of pipeline welds, and safety assurance in pipeline construction. A bibliography of approximately 150 references is included, arranged according to subject and year.

  13. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  14. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  15. Experimental assessment of fuel-cladding interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Elizabeth Sooby [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A range of fuel concepts designed to better tolerate accident scenarios and reactor transients are currently undergoing fundamental development at national laboratories as well as university and industrial partners. Pellet-clad mechanical and chemical interaction can be expected to affect fuel failure rates experienced during steady state operation, as well as dramatically impact the response of the fuel form under loss of coolant and other accident scenarios. The importance of this aspect of fuel design prompted research initiated by AFC in FY14 to begin exploratory efforts to characterize this phenomenon for candidate fuelcladding systems of immediate interest. Continued efforts in FY15 and FY17 aimed to better understand and simulate initial pellet-clad interaction with little-to-no pressure on the pellet-clad interface. Reported here are the results from 1000 h heat treatments at 400, 500, and 600°C of diffusion couples pairing UN with a FeCrAl alloy, SiC, and Zr-based cladding candidate sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules. No gross reactions were observed, though trace elemental contaminants were identified.

  16. The measurement of residual stresses in claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, G.; Bender, N.

    1978-01-01

    The ring core method, a variation of the hole drilling method for the measurement of biaxial residual stresses, has been extended to measure stresses from depths of about 5 to 25mm. It is now possible to measure the stress profiles of clad material. Examples of measured stress profiles are shown and compared with those obtained with a sectioning technique. (author)

  17. Cladding For Transversely-Pumped Laser Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.; Fan, Tso Yee

    1989-01-01

    Combination of suitable dimensioning and cladding of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet of similar solid-state laser provides for more efficient utilization of transversely-incident pump light from diode lasers. New design overcomes some of limitations of longitudinal- and older transverse-pumping concepts and promotes operation at higher output powers in TEM00 mode.

  18. Prevention of nuclear fuel cladding materials corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Yang, J.C.; Lee, I.C.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, S.W.; Whang, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    The only way which could be performed by the operator of nuclear power plant to minimizing the degradation of nuclear fuel cladding material is to control the water quality of primary coolant as specified standard conditions which dose not attack the cladding material. If the water quality of reactor coolant does not meet far from the specification, the failure will occure not only cladding material itself but construction material of primary system which contact with the coolant. The corrosion product of system material are circulate through the whole primary system with the coolant and activated by the neutron near the reactor core. The activated corrosion products and fission products which released from fuel rod to the coolant, so called crud, will repeate deposition and redeposition continuously on the fuel rod and construction material surface. As a result we should consider heat transfer problem. In this study following activities were performed; 1. The crud sample was taken from the spent fuel rod surface of Kori unit one and analized for radioactive element and non radioactive chemical species. 2. The failure mode of nuclear fuel cladding material was estimated by the investigation of releasing type of fission products from the fuel rod to the reactor coolant using the iodine isotopes concentration of reactor coolants. 3. A study was carried out on the sipping test results of spent fuel and a discussion was made on the water quality control records through the past three cycle operation period of Kori unit one plant. (Author)

  19. Mechanism for iodine cracking of zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of iodine cracking of zirconium cladding is analyzed taking into account the effect of stresses on diffusion. A decisive effect of the stress gradiemt on crack propagation in an agressive medium is shown. The experimental data are compared with the proposed model

  20. Thermodynamics of pellet-cladding interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoh, Bunkei; Fuji, Kensho

    1987-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations are performed on the U-Zr-Cs-I-O system that is assumed to exist in the fuel-cladding gap of light water reactor (LWR) fuel under pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failure condition. For this purpose a computer program called SOLGASMIX-PV for the calculation of complex multi-component equilibria is used, and the results of postirradiation examination are interpreted. The analysis of the thermodynamics of the system U-Zr-Cs-I-O indicates that cesium and iodine are assumed to be released from fuel pellet into the fuel-cladding gap as CsI, therefore, the Cs/I ratio in fuel-cladding bonding zone is one. The important condensed phases in this region are UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , Cs 2 U 2 O 7 , Cs 2 U 15 O 46 , ZrO 2 and CsI, and the major gaseous species are CsI, I 2 and I. Under this situation where Cs/I ratio is one, cesium-zirconate is not present. If, however, cesium rich phase is partially present then cesium will be associated with zirconium, possibly as Cs 2 ZrO 3 . (author)