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Sample records for weld metal nitrogen

  1. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen steel made of Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microscopic studies were carried out using optical microscopy (OM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. Energy back scattered diffraction (EBSD method was used to determine the phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance in aerated 3.5% NaCl environment using a GillAC electrochemical system. The investigation results showed that the selected Cr–Mn–N type electrode resulted in a maximum reduction in delta-ferrite and improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of the weld zone was attributed to the coarse austenite grains owing to the reduction in active sites of the austenite/delta ferrite interface and the decrease in galvanic interaction between austenite and delta-ferrite.

  2. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was presented in terms of nitrogen and oxygen amount in WMD (weld metal deposit.

  3. Metal Working and Welding Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by metal workers and welders. Addressed in the six individual units of the course are the following topics: weldable metals and their alloys, arc welding, gas welding,…

  4. Metal vaporization from weld pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Eagar, T. W.

    1984-09-01

    Experimental studies of alloy vaporization from aluminum and stainless steel weld pools have been made in order to test a vaporization model based on thermodynamic data and the kinetic theory of gases. It is shown that the model can correctly predict the dominant metal vapors that form but that the absolute rate of vaporization is not known due to insufficient knowledge of the surface temperature distribution and subsequent condensation of the vapor in the cooler regions of the metal. Values of the net evaporation rates for different alloys have been measured and are found to vary by two orders of magnitude. Estimated maximum weld pool temperatures based upon the model are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements of electron beam welds.

  5. Gas Metal Arc Welding. Welding Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching an eight-unit module in gas metal arc welding. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: safety and testing, gas metal arc…

  6. Welding of nickel free high nitrogen stainless steel: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen stainless steel (HNS is a nickel free austenitic stainless steel that is used as a structural component in defence applications for manufacturing battle tanks as a replacement of the existing armour grade steel owing to its low cost, excellent mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance. Conventional fusion welding causes problems like nitrogen desorption, solidification cracking in weld zone, liquation cracking in heat affected zone, nitrogen induced porosity and poor mechanical properties. The above problems can be overcome by proper selection and procedure of joining process. In the present work, an attempt has been made to correlate the microstructural changes with mechanical properties of fusion and solid state welds of high nitrogen steel. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW, electron beam welding (EBW and friction stir welding (FSW processes were used in the present work. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were used to characterize microstructural changes. Hardness, tensile and bend tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of welds. The results of the present investigation established that fully austenitic dendritic structure was found in welds of SMAW. Reverted austenite pools in the martensite matrix in weld zone and unmixed zones near the fusion boundary were observed in GTA welds. Discontinuous ferrite network in austenite matrix was observed in electron beam welds. Fine recrystallized austenite grain structure was observed in the nugget zone of friction stir welds. Improved mechanical properties are obtained in friction stir welds when compared to fusion welds. This is attributed to the refined microstructure consisting of equiaxed and homogenous austenite grains.

  7. Welding residual stress distributions for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Ju Hee; Bae, Hong Yeol; OH, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungsoo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Kwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    In pressurized water nuclear reactors, dissimilar metal welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking. To access this problem, accurate estimation of welding residual stresses is important. This paper provides general welding residual stress profiles in dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds using finite element analysis. By introducing a simplified shape for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds, changes in the welding residual stress distribution can be seen using a geometry variable. Based on the results, a welding residual stress profile for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds is proposed that modifies the existing welding residual stress profile for austenitic pipe butt welds.

  8. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was pr...

  9. Welding of a metal-polymer laminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gower, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the weldability of a metal polymer sandwich structure. The welding of the sandwich material proceeds first by welding of the skin layer. The material selected for this research is Steelite, a sandwich structure developed by Corus, with 0.12 mm thick mild

  10. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use by South Carolina vocational education teachers as a continuing set of lesson plans for a two-year course on welding. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: an orientation to welding, oxyacetylene welding, advanced oxyacetylene welding, shielded metal arc welding, TIG…

  11. Femtosecond fiber laser welding of dissimilar metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, welding of dissimilar metals was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by using a high-energy high-repetition-rate femtosecond fiber laser. Metallurgical and mechanical properties were investigated and analyzed under various processing parameters (pulse energy, repetition rate, and welding speed). Results showed that the formation of intermetallic brittle phases and welding defects could be effectively reduced. Strong welding quality with more than 210 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-aluminum and 175 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-magnesium has been demonstrated. A minimal heat affected zone and uniform and homogenous phase transformation in the welding region have been demonstrated. This laser-welding technique can be extended for various applications in semiconductor, automobile, aerospace, and biomedical industries.

  12. Metal Flow in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The plastic deformation field in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is compared to that in metal cutting. A shear surface around the FSW tool analogous to the metal cutting shear plane is identified and comprises the basis of the "rotating plug" flow field model and the "wiping" model of tool interaction with weld metal. Within the context of these models: The FSW shear rate is estimated to be comparable to metal cutting shear rates. The effect of tool geometry on the FSW shear surface is discussed and related to published torque measurements. Various FS W structural features are explained, including a difference in structure of bimetallic welds when alloys on the advancing and retreating sides of the weld seam are exchanged. The joining mechanism and critical parameters of the FSW process are made clear.

  13. Characterization of duplex stainless steel weld metals obtained by hybrid plasma-gas metal arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Yurtisik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its high efficiency, autogenous keyhole welding is not well-accepted for duplex stainless steels because it causes excessive ferrite in as-welded duplex microstructure, which leads to a degradation in toughness and corrosion properties of the material. Combining the deep penetration characteristics of plasma arc welding in keyhole mode and metal deposition capability of gas metal arc welding, hybrid plasma - gas metal arc welding process has considered for providing a proper duplex microstructure without compromising the welding efficiency. 11.1 mm-thick standard duplex stainless steel plates were joined in a single-pass using this novel technique. Same plates were also subjected to conventional gas metal arc and plasma arc welding processes, providing benchmarks for the investigation of the weldability of the material. In the first place, the hybrid welding process enabled us to achieve less heat input compared to gas metal arc welding. Consequently, the precipitation of secondary phases, which are known to be detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, was significantly suppressed in both fusion and heat affected zones. Secondly, contrary to other keyhole techniques, proper cooling time and weld metal chemistry were achieved during the process, facilitating sufficient reconstructive transformation of austenite in the ferrite phase.

  14. Prediction of solidification and phase transformation in weld metals for welding of high performance stainless steels; Kotaishoku kotainetsu stainless koyo yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko hentai no yosoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morimoto, H.; Okita, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-28

    Prediction technology is introduced on the solidification and transformation of weld metals used for high performance stainless steel. A model has been developed which uses Thermo Calc, a multiple balanced calculation program, as a means to analyze the solidification of multi-component alloys including the polyphase solidification such as eutectic and peritectic. Verification has been in progress concerning the adequacy of this model and the adaptability as a practical steel. The following are the prediction technologies for solidification and transformation which have been derived from experiments and applied to welding techniques: the effects of nitrogen on the solidification mode and residual {gamma}quantity of a welding metal that is required for controlling the welding/solidification of high nitrogen content {gamma}system stainless steel; the structural control of weld metal for high corrosion resistance high Mo stainless steel, in which high Ni and high Mo contents are indispensable for attaining the optimum structure; the structural control of weld metal for two-phase stainless steel containing Mo and N, in which it is essential to secure a high nitrogen content and a {delta}/{gamma}phase balance in a weld metal; and the precipitation prediction of intermetallic compound in a high alloy weld metal for a high alloy stainless steel, for which an explanation is there by Cieslak et al. based on the phase stability theory. 22 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Refractory metals welded or brazed with tungsten inert gas equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, J. P.

    1965-01-01

    Appropriate brazing metals and temperatures facilitate the welding or brazing of base metals with tungsten inert gas equipment. The highest quality bond is obtained when TIG welding is performed in an inert atmosphere.

  16. Slag-metal reactions during welding: Part II. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1991-02-01

    A kinetic model is developed to describe the transfer of alloying elements between the slag and the metal during flux-shielded welding. The model accounts for changes in alloy recovery based on the geometry of the resulting weld bead. It also distinguishes compositional differences between single-pass and multiple-pass weld beads. It is further shown that the final weld metal oxygen content is directly related to the weld solidification time as well as the type of flux used.

  17. A numerical model for cold welding of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1996-01-01

    at the weld interface. Accordingly, the general model for bond strength in cold welding earlier developed by Bay has been extended and modified. The new model presented in this paper simulates the whole cold welding process including the deformation of base metals and the establishment of welds bonding......Based on experimental investigations of cold welding of different metal combinations applying various surface preparation methods, the understanding of the mechanisms of bond formation in cold welding has been improved by introducing two parameters representing the properties of surface layers...

  18. Thermal insulation of wet shielded metal arc welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Patrick J.

    1993-06-01

    Computational and experimental studies were performed to determine the effect of static thermal insulation on the quality of wet shielded metal arc welds (SMAW). A commercially available heat flow and fluid dynamics spectral-element computer program was used to model a wet SMAW and to determine the potential effect on the weld cooling rate of placing thermal insulation adjacent to the weld line. Experimental manual welds were made on a low carbon equivalent (0.285) mild steel and on a higher carbon equivalent (0.410) high tensile strength steel, using woven fabrics of alumina-boria-silica fibers to insulate the surface of the plate being welded. The effect of the insulation on weld quality was evaluated through the use of post-weld Rockwell Scale hardness measurements on the surface of the weld heat affected zones (HAZ's) and by visual inspection of sectioned welds at 10 X magnification. The computational simulation demonstrated a 150% increase in surface HAZ peak temperature and a significant decrease in weld cooling rate with respect to uninsulated welds, for welds in which ideal insulation had been placed on the base plate surface adjacent to the weld line. Experimental mild steel welds showed a reduction in surface HAZ hardness attributable to insulation at a 77% significance level. A visual comparison of the cross-sections of two welds made in 0.410 carbon equivalent steel-with approximately equivalent heat input-revealed underbead cracking in the uninsulated weld but not in the insulated weld.

  19. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  20. Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials : welding procedure test : part 1 : arc and gas welding of steels and arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys : technical corrigendum 1

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials : welding procedure test : part 1 : arc and gas welding of steels and arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys : technical corrigendum 1

  1. Shielded Metal Arc Pipe Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…

  2. Ceramic backup ring prevents undesirable weld-metal buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, G. E.

    1971-01-01

    Removable ceramic backup material butted against weld zone back prevents weld metal buildup at that site. Method is successful with manual tungsten-inert gas /TIG/ welding of 316 corrosion resistant steel /CRES/ pieces with 0.76 cm throat diameter and 1.57 cm pipe internal diameter.

  3. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.-O.; Huhtala, T.; Jonsson, P.; Karlsson, L.; Wilson, A.

    1996-08-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 °C to 1110 °C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ2) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ2 in these.

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Between Metal Inert Gas Welding and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Guan, Yingchun; Wang, Qiang; Cong, Baoqiang; Qi, Bojin

    2015-09-01

    Surface contamination usually occurs during welding processing and it affects the welds quality largely. However, the formation of such contaminants has seldom been studied. Effort was made to study the contaminants caused by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes of aluminum alloy, respectively. SEM, FTIR and XPS analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure as well as surface chemistry. These contaminants were found to be mainly consisting of Al2O3, MgO, carbide and chromium complexes. The difference of contaminants between MIG and TIG welds was further examined. In addition, method to minimize these contaminants was proposed.

  5. Insights into intermetallic phases on pulse welded dissimilar metal joints

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, E.; Brenner, B; Göbel, G.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Kaspar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) process has been developed to an industrially used joining method which is considered to be a fast, noncontact, clean and "cold" solid state welding process. Unlike fusion welding, the absence of direct heat during the welding cycle makes it possible to join dissimilar metals, for instance aluminium to copper or copper to steel, without noticeable detrimental metallurgical defects. This is very desirable, as today s industry lacks technologies to join often no...

  6. Perspective on Double Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Leilei Wang; Jiaxiang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum alloy welding suffers from problems such as solidification cracking and hydrogen-induced porosity, which are sufficiently severe to limit its potential applications. Because mitigated porosity incidence and solidification cracking are observed in aluminum welds using double pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW), a comprehensive review of the mechanism is necessary, but absent from the literature. The oscillation of arc force and droplet pressure causes a weld pool stir effect. The e...

  7. Effect of Pulse Parameters on Weld Quality in Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kamal; Pal, Surjya K.

    2011-08-01

    The weld quality comprises bead geometry and its microstructure, which influence the mechanical properties of the weld. The coarse-grained weld microstructure, higher heat-affected zone, and lower penetration together with higher reinforcement reduce the weld service life in continuous mode gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Pulsed GMAW (P-GMAW) is an alternative method providing a better way for overcoming these afore mentioned problems. It uses a higher peak current to allow one molten droplet per pulse, and a lower background current to maintain the arc stability. Current pulsing refines the grains in weld fusion zone with increasing depth of penetration due to arc oscillations. Optimum weld joint characteristics can be achieved by controlling the pulse parameters. The process is versatile and easily automated. This brief review illustrates the effect of pulse parameters on weld quality.

  8. Effects of nitrogen in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel welding joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The effects of nitrogen addition in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) welds were studied. N2-supplemented shielding gas facilitated the primary austenite formation, suppressed the Cr2N precipitation in weld root, and increased the microhardnesses of weld metal. Furthermore, N2-supplemented shielding gas increased pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of austenite, but which decreased slightly PREN of ferrite. The modified double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation in 2 M H2SO4 + 1 M HCl was an effective method to study the localized corrosion of the different zones in the DSS welds. The adding 2% N2 to pure Ar shielding gas improved the localized corrosion resistance in the DSS welds, which was due to compensation for nitrogen loss and promoting nitrogen further solution in the austenite phases, suppression of the Cr2N precipitation in the weld root, and increase of primary austenite content with higher PREN than the ferrite and secondary austenite. Secondary austenite are prone to selective corrosion because of lower PREN compared with ferrite and primary austenite. Cr2N precipitation in the pure Ar shielding weld root and heat affected zone caused the pitting corrosion within the ferrite and the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary. In addition, sigma and M23C6 precipitation resulted in the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary.

  9. Production of Manual Metal Arc Welding Electrodes with Local Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manual arc welding using flux coated electrodes is carried out by producing an electric arc between the base metal and a flux covered metal electrode with electric current that depends on the type of electrode, material, welding position and the desired strength. The composition of flux coated electrodes is complex and a ...

  10. Numerical modeling of electron-beam welding of dissimilar metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krektuleva, R. A.; Cherepanov, O. I.; Cherepanov, R. O.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to numerical modeling of heat transfer processes and estimation of thermal stresses in weld seams created by electron beam welding of heterogeneous metals. The mathematical model is based on a system of equations that includes the Lagrange's variational equation of theory of plasticity and variational equation of M. Biot's principle to simulate the heat transfer processes. The two-dimensional problems (plane strain and plane stress) are considered for estimation of thermal stresses in welds considering differences of mechanical properties of welded materials. The model is developed for simulation of temperature fields and stresses during electron beam welding.

  11. The optimization of welding regime parameters at shielded metal arc welding (SMAW by mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The realized researches followed the determining of mathematical models that allow the optimization of the welding process in order to obtain welded joints with certain values of the mechanical characteristics. Thus, there were established mathematical models of dependence of mechanical characteristics of welded joints (Rm, Rp02, Z, A, KCV 20°C of each parameter of welding regime (Iw, Uw, and also, mathematical models that offer cumulative dependence of mechanical characteristics of both parameters of welding regime.The researches have been carried out using steel E 36-4 as base material and as filler material basic electrodes, type E7018 and the applied welding procedure was the process: shielded metal arc welding (SMAW.

  12. Assessment of the Biological Effects of Welding Fumes Emitted From Metal Active Gas and Manual Metal Arc Welding in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Eva; Gube, Monika; Baumann, Ralf; Bertram, Jens; Kossack, Veronika; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas; Brand, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Emissions from a particular welding process, metal inert gas brazing of zinc-coated steel, induce an increase in C-reactive protein. In this study, it was investigated whether inflammatory effects could also be observed for other welding procedures. Twelve male subjects were separately exposed to (1) manual metal arc welding fumes, (2) filtered air, and (3) metal active gas welding fumes for 6 hours. Inflammatory markers were measured in serum before, and directly, 1 and 7 days after exposure. Although C-reactive protein concentrations remained unchanged, neutrophil concentrations increased directly after exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes, and endothelin-1 concentrations increased directly and 24 hours after exposure. After exposure to metal active gas and filtered air, endothelin-1 concentrations decreased. The increase in the concentrations of neutrophils and endothelin-1 may characterize a subclinical inflammatory reaction, whereas the decrease of endothelin-1 may indicate stress reduction.

  13. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of aluminium 5083-H111 welded using gas metal arc welding method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available susceptible to hydrogen-induced porosity. The weld pool may dissolve large amount of hydrogen from the arc atmosphere. On solidification, the solubility of hydrogen decreases and the entrapped hydrogen forms gas porosity. Typical sources of hydrogen... Behaviour of Aluminium 5083-H111 Welded Using Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Kalenda Mutombo1 and Madeleine du Toit2 1CSIR/ 2University of Pretoria South Africa 1. Introduction Aluminium and its alloys are widely used as engineering materials...

  14. Energetic peculiarities of metal heating under laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, M.I.; Nikiforov, G.D.; Fedorov, S.A. (Moskovskij Aviatsionnyj Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-07-01

    A connection between the energy and thermal parameters of the welding process of laser welding is studied. It is established that the connection between energy and thermal parameters of laser welding regime is carried out through the coefficient of metal absorption. Experimental determination of absorption coefficients of various metals (aluminium alloys, copper, 12Kh18N10T steel, St 3 steel, 0T4 titanium alloy, VN2 niobium alloy) has permitted to develope the methodics of approximated thermal calculations and to built up a nomogram for determining parameters of lazer welding regime. Limits of the thickness of welded sheets of the above materials in dependence on the welding speed are determined according to the nomogram.

  15. Cold metal transfer welding of AA1050 aluminum thin sheets

    OpenAIRE

    İrizalp,Alaattin Ozan; Durmuş,Hülya; Yüksel, Nilay; Türkmen,İlyas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to investigate the welding parameters on mechanical behavior of 2 mm thick AA1050 sheet materials joined by cold metal transfer (CMT) method. Macro structural examination showed that decreasing heat input decreased the pore size in the weld metal. Tensile test was applied and failure occurred in heat affected zone of aluminum sheet metal. Maximum tensile strength was found in the sample with minimum heat input. Heat affected zone was observed explicitly in the sa...

  16. CW ND:YAG laser welding of dissimilar sheet metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 4kW CW Nd:YAG laser was used for lap welding of three different dissimilar sheet metal combinations, namely 316L S/S - Ti64, 316L S/S - Al 5251 and Al 1200 – Cu (99.85%). A welding matrix of laser power, travel speed and spot sizes...

  17. Liquid Metal Oscillation and Arc Behaviour during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudodibroto, B.Y.B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain insight into the oscillation behaviour of the liquid metal and the arc behaviour during GMA welding. Observations of the weld pool and the arc were undertaken by visual means using a high-speed video and by analysis of the voltage. To deal with the complex

  18. Perspective on Double Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy welding suffers from problems such as solidification cracking and hydrogen-induced porosity, which are sufficiently severe to limit its potential applications. Because mitigated porosity incidence and solidification cracking are observed in aluminum welds using double pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW, a comprehensive review of the mechanism is necessary, but absent from the literature. The oscillation of arc force and droplet pressure causes a weld pool stir effect. The expansion and shrinkage of the weld pool cause unusual remelting and resolidification of the previously solidified metal. DP-GMAW has an increased solidification growth rate and cooling rate, compared with conventional pulsed welding at same heat input. Both numerical and experimental results reveal the remarkable concept that refined microstructure in the fusion zone is obtained by using DP-GMAW. The mechanism of microstructural refinement is revealed as a weld pool stir effect and increased cooling rate. Hydrogen bubbles easily float out and then release from the weld pool originated from the weld pool stir effect. Reduced solidification cracking is achieved due to the refined solidification structure that originated from the increased cooling rate. The advantages, evolution process, and future trend of DP-GMAW are discussed.

  19. Mechanical properties of 5083 aluminium welds after manual and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding using E5356 filler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-automatic and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of aluminium alloy 5083 with ER5356 filler wire causes considerable softening in the weld. The tensile strength of dressed automatic welds approaches that of the base metal...

  20. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and...... >30 years (n = 5). No statistically significant difference was observed for SCC. The risk of CMM at the neck was also significantly elevated after 30 years of welding, but this is based upon only one exposed case. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that long-term exposure to metal arc welding may...... be related to increased risk of BCC and AK located exclusively at the neck. The study provides no support for the hypothesis that welding exposure increases the risk for skin cancer at other locations....

  1. Discontinuity Detection in the Shield Metal Arc Welding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocota, José Alberto Naves; Garcia, Gabriel Carvalho; da Costa, Adilson Rodrigues; de Lima, Milton Sérgio Fernandes; Rocha, Filipe Augusto Santos; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2017-05-10

    This work proposes a new methodology for the detection of discontinuities in the weld bead applied in Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) processes. The detection system is based on two sensors-a microphone and piezoelectric-that acquire acoustic emissions generated during the welding. The feature vectors extracted from the sensor dataset are used to construct classifier models. The approaches based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are able to identify with a high accuracy the three proposed weld bead classes: desirable weld bead, shrinkage cavity and burn through discontinuities. Experimental results illustrate the system's high accuracy, greater than 90% for each class. A novel Hierarchical Support Vector Machine (HSVM) structure is proposed to make feasible the use of this system in industrial environments. This approach presented 96.6% overall accuracy. Given the simplicity of the equipment involved, this system can be applied in the metal transformation industries.

  2. Cleaning Effect of Interlayer Metal on the Joining Surface during Braze Pressure Welding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INAGAKI, Yohei; SUZUMURA, Akio; IKESHOJI, Toshi-Taka; YAMAZAKI, Takahisa

    2005-01-01

    Braze Pressure Welding (BPW) with high frequency induction heating is a newly developed pressure welding technique using interlayer metals for welding the general steel pipes for pipe arrangement in buildings...

  3. Application of welding science to welding engineering: A lumped parameter gas metal arc welding dynamic process model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, P.E.; Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We develop a model of the depth of penetration of the weld pool in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) which demonstrates interaction between the arc, filler wire and weld pool. This model is motivated by the observations of Essers and Walter which suggest a relationship between droplet momentum and penetration depth. A model of gas metal arc welding was augmented to include an improved model of mass transfer and a simple model of accelerating droplets in a plasma jet to obtain the mass and momentum of impinging droplets. The force of the droplets and depth of penetration is correlated by a dimensionless linear relation used to predict weld pool depth for a range of values of arc power and contact tip to workpiece distance. Model accuracy is examined by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the pool depth obtained from bead on plate welds of carbon steel in an argon rich shielding gas. Moreover, theoretical predictions of pool depth are compared to the results obtained from the heat conduction model due to Christensen et al. which suggest that in some cases the momentum of impinging droplets is a better indicator of the depth of the weld pool and the presence of a deep, narrow penetration.

  4. Decomposition of ferrite in commercial superduplex stainless steel weld metals; microstructural transformations above 700 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, A.; Nilsson, J.-O.

    2002-04-01

    The microstructural stability at temperatures above 700 °C of weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N and weld metal of type 25Cr-10Ni-4Mo-0.28N has been compared. Multipass welding was employed using the gas tungsten arc welding technique with a shielding gas of Ar+2 pct N2. The quantitative assessment of the intermetallic phase was performed using automatic image analysis in the light optical microscope (LOM). Detailed microanalysis was also performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A computer program developed by the authors was used to calculate a continuous cooling-temperature (CCT) diagram on the basis of the experimentally determined time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. Thermodynamic calculations for estimating phase stabilities and for interpreting experimental observations were performed. It was found that weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N was microstructurally more stable than weld metal of type 25Cr-10Ni-4Mo-0.28N. A lower molybdenum concentration and a higher nitrogen concentration in the former alloy could explain the higher stability with respect to the intermetallic phase. The higher nitrogen concentration also provides a rationale for the higher stability against the formation of secondary austenite in weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N. This effect, which is associated with a lower thermodynamic driving force for precipitation of secondary austenite during multipass welding, can be explained by nitrogen-enhanced primary austenite formation.

  5. The risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagor, Rebekka Michaelsen; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There are indications that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases the risk of cataract, but there is only circumstantial evidence that metal welding, an important occupational source of UVR exposure, is a risk factor. The objective of this study is to unravel if metal welding......, information on welding was collected from questionnaires and, for both cohorts, information about cataract diagnosis and operation was gathered from Danish national registers. Using Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for cataract diagnosis and/or operation was calculated in the follow-up period.......95–1.21] and the adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI 0.95–1.22). Age and diabetes were as expected strong risk factors. Conclusion: We found no increased risk of developing cataract among Danish metal welders who worked with arc welding from 1950–1985. This may be attributed to the effectiveness of personal safety equipment....

  6. Microstructure Formation in Dissimilar Metal Welds: Electron Beam Welding of Ti/Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhradeep; Abinandanan, T. A.; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2016-02-01

    We present results for electron beam welding of a binary Ti/Ni dissimilar metal couple. The difference in physical properties of the base metals and metallurgical features (thermodynamics and kinetics) of the system influence both macroscopic transport and microstructure development in the weld. Microstructures near the fusion interfaces are markedly different from those inside the weld region. At the Ti side, Ti2Ni dendrites are observed to grow toward the fusion interface, while in the Ni side, layered growth of γ-Ni, Ni3Ti, and Ni3Ti + NiTi eutectic is observed. Different morphologies of the latter eutectic constitute the predominant microstructure inside the weld metal region. These results are compared and contrasted with those from laser welding of the same binary couple, and a scheme of solidification is proposed to explain the observations. This highlights notable departures from welding of similar and other dissimilar metals such as a significant asymmetry in heat transport that governs progress of solidification from each side of the couple, and a lack of unique liquidus isotherm characterizing the liquid-solid front.

  7. GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) process development for girth welding of high strength pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, Vaidyanath; Daniel, Joe; Quintana, Marie [The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chen, Yaoshan [Center for Reliable Energy Systems (CRES), Dublin, OH (United States); Souza, Antonio [Lincoln Electric do Brasil, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and findings from the first phase of a consolidated program co-funded by US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) and Pipeline Research Council Inc (PRCI) to develop pipe weld assessment and qualification methods and optimize X 100 pipe welding technologies. One objective of the program is to establish the range of viable welding options for X 100 line pipe, and define the essential variables to provide welding process control for reliable and consistent mechanical performance of the weldments. In this first phase, a series of narrow gap girth welds were made with pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW), instrumented with thermocouples in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal to obtain the associated thermal profiles, and instrumented to measure true energy input as opposed to conventional heat input. Results reveal that true heat input is 16%-22% higher than conventional heat input. The thermal profile measurements correlate very well with thermal model predictions using true energy input data, which indicates the viability of treating the latter as an essential variable. Ongoing microstructural and mechanical testing work will enable validation of an integrated thermal-microstructural model being developed for these applications. Outputs from this model will be used to correlate essential welding process variables with weld microstructure and hardness. This will ultimately enable development of a list of essential variables and the ranges needed to ensure mechanical properties are achieved in practice, recommendations for controlling and monitoring these essential variables and test methods suitable for classification of welding consumables. (author)

  8. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent. PMID:28895900

  9. Submerged Friction-Stir Welding (SFSW) Underwater and Under Liquid Nitrogen: An Improved Method to Join Al Alloys to Mg Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Mohammad Ammar; Abdollah-Zadeh, Amir; Ghaini, Farshid Malek; Gür, Cemil Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Submerged friction-stir welding (SFSW) underwater and under liquid nitrogen is demonstrated as an alternative and improved method for creating fine-grained welds in dissimilar metals. Plates of AZ31 (Mg alloy) and AA5083 H34 were joined by friction-stir welding in three different environments, i.e., in air, water, and liquid nitrogen at 400 rpm and 50 mm/min. The temperature profile, microstructure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness, and tensile testing results were evaluated. In the stir zone of an air-welded specimen, formation of brittle intermetallic compounds of Al3Mg2, Al12Mg17, and Al2Mg3 contributed to cracking in the weld nugget. These phases were formed because of constitutional liquation. Friction-stir welding underwater and under liquid nitrogen significantly suppresses the formation of intermetallic compounds because of the lower peak temperature. Furthermore, the temperature profiles plotted during this investigation indicate that the largest amount of ∆ T is generated by the weld under liquid nitrogen, which is performed at the lowest temperature. It is shown that in low-temperature FSW, the flow stress is higher, plastic contribution increases, and so adiabatic heating, a result of high strain and high strain-rate deformation, drives the recrystallization process beside frictional heat.

  10. Microstructure characterization in the weld metals of HQ130 + QJ63 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-11-27

    Nov 27, 2002 ... Abstract. Microstructural characterization of the weld metals of HQ130 + QJ63 high strength steels, welded under 80% Ar + 20% CO2 gas shielded metal arc welding and different weld heat inputs, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy ...

  11. Microstructure characterization in the weld metals of HQ130+ QJ63 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructural characterization of the weld metals of HQ130 + QJ63 high strength steels, welded under 80% Ar + 20% CO2 gas shielded metal arc welding and different weld heat inputs, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relative contents of ...

  12. Distribution of Argon Arc Contaminated with Nitrogen as Function of Frequency in Pulsed TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-09-01

    TIG arc welding is the high-quality and much applicable material joining technology. However, the current has to be small because the cathode melting should be prevented. In this case, the heat input to the welding pool becomes low, then, the welding defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed TIG arc welding is used to improve this disadvantage This welding can be controlled by some current parameters such as frequency However, few report has reported the distribution of argon arc contaminated with nitrogen It is important to prevent the contamination of nitrogen because the melting depth increases in order to prevent the welding defects. In this paper, the distribution of argon arc contaminated as function of frequency with nitrogen in pulsed TIG welding is elucidated. The nitrogen concentration, the radial flow velocity, the arc temperature were calculated using the EMTF simulation when the time reached at the base current. As a result, the nitrogen concentration into the arc became low with increasing the frequency The diffusion coefficient decreased because of the decrement of temperature over 4000 K. In this case, the nitrogen concentration became low near the anode. Therefore, the nitrogen concentration became low because the frequency is high.

  13. Effects of Metal Types on Residual Stress in Electron-Beam Welding Joints with Sheet Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagai, Takuya; Kasai, Ryu; Ueno, Kunika; Mochizuki, Masahito; Suga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of metal types on the residual stresses has been researched through X-ray stress measurement for the electron-beam welding joints made of sheet metals with a thickness of approximately 10 mm...

  14. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of solidification cracking in weld metal

    OpenAIRE

    F.M.L. Arantes; Trevisan, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this work is to compare the compatibility and reliability of the theoretical andexperimental methodologies in the evaluation of the solidification cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainlesssteel weld metal, using three different electrodes.Design/methodology/approach: The cracking susceptibility of welds is described here through an experimentalprocedure using the transvarestraint test, and a theoretical procedure developed as a function of the chemicalcomp...

  15. Effects of flux composition on the element transfer and mechanical properties of weld metal in submerged arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Park, Chan; Jung, Hong-chul; Lee, Jong-bong

    2009-06-01

    Submerged arc welding was performed using metal-cored wires and fluxes with different compositions. The effects of wire/flux combination on the chemical composition, tensile strength, and impact toughness of the weld metal were investigated and interpreted in terms of element transfer between the slag and the weld metal, i.e., Δ quantity. Both carbon and manganese show negative Δ quantity in most combinations, indicating the transfer of the elements from the weld metal to the slag during welding. The amount of transfer, however, is different depending on the flux composition. More basic fluxes yield less negative Δ C and Δ Mn through the reduction of oxygen content in the weld metal and presumably higher Mn activity in the slag, respectively. The transfer of silicon, however, is influenced by Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 contents in the flux. Δ Si becomes less negative and reaches a positive value of 0.044 as the oxides contents increase. This is because Al, Ti, and Zr could replace Si in the SiO2 network, leaving more Si free to transfer from the slag to the weld metal. Accordingly, the Pcm index of weld metals calculated from chemical compositions varies from 0.153 to 0.196 depending on the wire/flux combination, and it almost has a linear relationship with the tensile strength of the weld metal.

  16. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Khurana, M. K.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the application of Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis to optimize the process parameters of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of AISI 1020 carbon steels for multiple quality characteristics (bead width, bead height, weld penetration and heat affected zone). An orthogonal array of L9 has been implemented to fabrication of joints. The experiments have been conducted according to the combination of voltage (V), current (A) and welding speed (Ws). The results revealed that the welding speed is most significant process parameter. By analyzing the grey relational grades, optimal parameters are obtained and significant factors are known using ANOVA analysis. The welding parameters such as speed, welding current and voltage have been optimized for material AISI 1020 using GMAW process. To fortify the robustness of experimental design, a confirmation test was performed at selected optimal process parameter setting. Observations from this method may be useful for automotive sub-assemblies, shipbuilding and vessel fabricators and operators to obtain optimal welding conditions.

  17. Slag-metal equilibrium during submerged arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C. S.; Eagar, T. W.

    1981-09-01

    A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding is presented. As formulated, the model applies only to fused neutral fluxes containing less than 20 pct CaF2, however some results indicate that the model may be useful in more general cases as well. The model is shown to be capable of predicting the gain or loss of both Mn and Si over a wide range of baseplate, electrode and flux compositions. At large deviations from the predicted equilibrium, the experimental results indicate considerable variability in the amount of Mn or Si transferred between the slag and metal phases, while closer to the calculated equilibrium, the extent of metal transfer becomes more predictable. The variability in metal transfer rate at large deviations from equilibrium may be explained by variations between the bulk and the surface concentrations of Mn and Si in both metal and slag phases.

  18. Gas metal arc welding in refurbishment of cobalt base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, M. S.; Miladi Gorji, Y.; Kolagar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Refurbishments of superalloys which are used in manufacturing gas turbine hot components usually consists of removing cracks and other defects by blending and then repair welding in order to reconstruct damaged area. In this study, the effects of welding parameters on repair of FSX-414 superalloy, as the most applicable cobalt base superalloy in order to manufacture gas turbine nozzles, by use of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) technic were investigated. Results then were compared by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Metallographic and SEM studies of the microstructure of the weld and HAZ showed that there are no noticeable defects in the microstructure by use of GMAW. Also, chemical analysis and morphologies of carbide in both methods are similar. Hardness profile of the GM AW structure then also compared with GTAW and no noticeable difference was observed between the profiles. Also, proper tensile properties, compared with GTAW, can be achieved by use of optimum parameters that can be obtained by examining the current and welding speed. Tensile properties of optimized condition of the GMAW then were compared with GTAW. It was seen that the room and high temperature tensile properties of the GMAW structure is very similar and results confirmed that changing the technic did not have any significant influence on the properties.

  19. Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of Metals During Welding Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature distribution in the workpiece can be determined from the heat equation which expresses the energy balance. This is a parabolic differential equation and for resolution we applied the finite difference method using the implicit scheme. Keywords: Laser Welding, Metal, Finite differences, temperature profile.

  20. Prediction of weld-metal composition during flux-shielded welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, C.S.; Eagar, T.W.

    1983-12-01

    It is well known that the slag and metal do not reach equilibrium during flux-shielded welding, due to the short reaction times and large thermal gradients inherent in the process. Nonetheless, many investigators have attempted to define the effective equilibrium by empirical analysis of experimental data. The results of these analyses have generally been contradictory and, in most cases, have lacked a firm scientific basis. In the present study, it was assumed that a thermodynamic equilibrium does exist, but that the approach to this equilibrium is controlled by kinetic processes. The equilibrium is further assumed to be related to the concentration of an element in the slag with respect to the concentration of the element in the weld metal. It is thus possible to modify data from steelmaking slag-metal reactions for use in welding. In the present paper, the specific assumptions and the procedure for calculating the equilibrium composition of the slag and the metal are described. This procedure allows a priori prediction of the equilibrium from the initial composition of the electrode, the base plate, and the flux. The results are specific to particular flux systems (manganese silicate or alumino-silicate) and depend on basicity formula. The primary reactions of interest include oxygen, silicon, and manganese. Studies involving chromium are in progress. Slag-metal reactions involving nickel or molybdenum are thought to be less important.

  1. Weld microstructure in cast AlSi9/SiC(p metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wysocki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Welded joint in cast AlSi9/SiC/20(p metal matrix composite by manual TIG arc welding using AlMg5 filler metal has been described inhis paper. Cooling curves have been stated, and the influence in distribution of reinforced particles on crystallization and weldmicrostructure. Welded joint mechanical properties have been determined: hardness and tensile.

  2. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas metal arc welding of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema in the workplace. The degree of hazard from UVR exposure depends on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the UVR levels present under various conditions. Methods: We experimentally evaluated the UVR levels emitted in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel. We used both a pulsed welding current and a non-pulsed welding current. The shie...

  3. Investigating chemical and microstructural evolution at dissimilar metal welds

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, John William Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) are widely used in steam vessels in thermal power stations to join low-temperature alloys, such as steels, to high temperature alloys, such as nickel-based alloys. This provides a cost-effective manufacturing solution. However, there is a history of DMWs failing due to creep in service environments. Many investigations have been performed on weld systems and failures in the traditional 2.25Cr-1Mo (P22) steels, but fewer have been performed on newer 9Cr-1Mo steels...

  4. Slag Metal Reactions during Submerged Arc Welding of Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    The transfer of Cr, Si, Mn, P, S, C, Ni, and Mo between the slag and the weld pool has been studied for submerged arc welds made with calcium silicate and manganese silicate fluxes. The results show a strong interaction between Cr and Si transfer but no interaction with Mn. The manganese silicate flux produces lower residual sulfur while the calcium silicate fluxes are more effective for removal of phosphorus. The effective oxygen reaction temperature lies between 1700 and 2000 °C for all elements studied. Evidence of Cr and Mn loss by metal vaporization is also presented.

  5. Multiple exposure to metals in eight types of welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Porru, S; Brunelli, E; Alessio, L

    1997-01-01

    This article evaluates multiple exposures to metals in different types of metal welding such as manual metal arc for mild and stainless steel, continuous wire, submerged arc, laser and brazing. Environmental monitoring was carried out in eight different occupational situations and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique was adopted in order to characterize exposure to several elements simultaneously and with high accuracy. The results showed that up to 23 elements could be measured. The highest concentrations were found for Al, Mn, Fr, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn. For some elements such as In, Nd, I, Rb the concentrations were very low. A qualitative and quantitative variation in fume composition was observed at a certain distance from the welding point, which should be to taken into account when evaluating indirect exposures. It would also be possible, with this technique, to identify specific elements in the mixture which could also be measured in biological fluids.

  6. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çavdar, Uǧur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined.Soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia de polvos de metal compactados. Se ha realizado un estudio de la aplicación de polvos de metal (PM de base hierro compactados por soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia (UHFIW. Estos polvos de metal compactados se utilizan para producir engranajes. Este estudio investiga los métodos de uni.n de los materiales de PM con UHFIW en su aplicación en la industria. La máxima tensión y la máxima deformación de los polvos de metal compactados soldados fueron determinadas por flexión en tres puntos y prueba de resistencia. Se determinó la microdureza y la microestructura de los polvos compactados por soldadura por inducción.

  7. Effect of Electrode Types on the Solidification Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    OpenAIRE

    J. U. Anaele; O. O. ONYEMAOBI; C. S. Nwobodo; C. C. Ugwuegbu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of electrode types on the solidification cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel weld metal was studied. Manual metal arc welding method was used to produce the joints with the tungsten inert gas welding serving as the control. Metallographic and chemical analyses of the fusion zones of the joints were conducted. Results indicate that weldments produced from E 308-16 (rutile coated), E 308-16(lime-titania coated) electrodes, and TIG welded joints fall within the range...

  8. Sustainability assessment of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahla, Ibrahim; Pervaiz, Salman

    2017-09-01

    Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process is one of the most commonly employed material joining processes utilized in the various industrial sectors such as marine, ship-building, automotive, aerospace, construction and petrochemicals etc. The increasing pressure on manufacturing sector wants the welding process to be sustainable in nature. The SMAW process incorporates several types of inputs and output streams. The sustainability concerns associated with SMAW process are linked with the various input and output streams such as electrical energy requirement, input material consumptions, slag formation, fumes emission and hazardous working conditions associated with the human health and occupational safety. To enhance the environmental performance of the SMAW welding process, there is a need to characterize the sustainability for the SMAW process under the broad framework of sustainability. Most of the available literature focuses on the technical and economic aspects of the welding process, however the environmental and social aspects are rarely addressed. The study reviews SMAW process with respect to the triple bottom line (economic, environmental and social) sustainability approach. Finally, the study concluded recommendations towards achieving economical and sustainable SMAW welding process.

  9. Literature Survey on Weld-Metal Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-08-01

    Granj6n, H., "Hardenability and Metallurgical Weldability of Steels" Soudure Techniques Connexes, Vol 1, November-December, 1947, pp 230-242. WADC TR 52...September, 1939, pp 312s-317s. H142. Jaeger, H. E., "Shrinkage and Shrinkage Phenomena Resulting From Arc Welding" (In French), Rev. soudure ...Ductility" (In French), Soudure techniques connexes, Vol 3, May-June 1949, pp 115-124; Discussionpp 124-126. H152. Klinke, H. 0., "Impact Strength of Arc

  10. Plastic deformation and wave formation on the interface of metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz’min, E. V.; Kuz’min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Lata, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the influence of the effect of ultrasound on the wave formation and plastic deformation in the metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding. It has been established that the influence of high-frequency acoustic waves on the metal leads to a reduction of the dynamic yield stress, which in turn leads to changes in the properties of the surface layers of metal and in the conditions of bonding between the collided plates upon explosive welding. It has been shown that the changes in the length and amplitude of waves that arise in the weld joint upon the explosive welding with the simultaneous action of ultrasonic vibrations is connected with a decrease in the magnitude of the deforming pulse and time of action of the compressive stresses that exceed the dynamic yield stress behind the point of contact.

  11. Characterising Residual Stresses in a Dissimilar Metal Electron Beam Welded Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata, K. Abburi; Truman, C.E; Smith, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal welded components are becoming increasingly common in industrial applications especially in the nuclear sector. Dissimilar metal welding refers to the joining of two materials from different alloy groups. One of the basic requirements of the dissimilar metal welded joint is that the joint strength should be greater than or equal to that of the weakest member and a careful characterisation of the joint is crucial before considering the applicability of the dissimilar metal wel...

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Optical Radiation Emission as a Function of Welding Power during Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Janßen, Marco; Schmitz, Martin; Ott, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements. The investigated welding currents range from 70 to 350 A, reflecting values usually applied in industry. Based upon these new irradiance data, three mathematical models were derived in order to describe optical radiation emission as a function of welding power. The linear, exponential, and sigmoidal emission models depend on the process variant (standard or pulsed) as well as on the welding material (mild and stainless steel, aluminum). In conjunction with the corresponding exposure limit values for incoherent optical radiation maximum permissible exposure durations were calculated as a function of welding power. Typical times are shorter than 1 s for the ultraviolet spectral region and range from 1 to 10 s for visible radiation. For the infrared regime, exposure durations are of the order of minutes to hours. Finally, a validation of the metal active gas emission models was carried out with manual arc welding.

  13. The Concept of Electrically Assisted Friction Stir Welding (EAFSW) and Application to the Processing of Various Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrando, William A

    2008-01-01

    This report introduces a novel variant of conventional friction stir welding (FSW). Since 1991, friction stir welding provides an alternative to arc welding as a metal joining method in numerous applications...

  14. Effects of nitrogen and strain age embrittlement on toughness of MMA welds. A final report on the joint reserach project - GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany, and Oerlikon Welding Ltd., Zurich, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung; Achar, D.R.G.; Evans, G.M. [OERLIKON Welding Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    A detailed literature review has been carried out on the topic to identify the areas requiring further investigations. Based on this investigations have been carried out to evaluate the influence of dissolved nitrogen in weld metals on their toughness and strain aging behaviour through fracture mechanics as well as conventional impact testing approaches. MMA C-Mn steel weld metals bearing nitrogen between 80 to 210 ppm were investigated under four different post-weld conditions, namely: 1. as welded, 2. stress relieved, 3. artificially strain aged and 4. artificially strain aged and stress relieved. Quantitative metallography and low load microhardness studies of microphases were integral part of these investigations. The results demonstrate the highly detrimental effect of nitrogen on the toughness behaviour of C-Mn steel weld metal particularly under strain aging conditions. This is substantiated through decrease of acicular ferrite with the accompanying increase in primary ferrite and ferrite with second phases in the microstructures. Also, there is a distinctive increase in acicular ferrite microhardness. Post-weld stress relieving heat treatment under these conditions effects only marginal improvement in toughness and shifts the fracture behaviour from brittle to ductile or quasi-ductile only in the case of low nitrogen weld metals. Comparing the results of the CTOD and Charpy tests, it is observed that both methods measure the influence of nitrogen on toughness behaviour in the same trend but the magnitudes of the effect measured are different whereby the fracture mechanics method appears very conservative. (orig.) [Deutsch] Untersucht werden der Einfluss von Stickstoff im Bereich von 80-120 ppm auf die Zaehigkeit und Reckalterungsversproedungs-Verhaeltnisse des C-Mn-Strahlschweissgutes. Die Pruefungen erfolgen mit technologischen Kerbschlagbiege- und CTOD-Versuchen an Schweissguetern, die durch mehrlagiges Lichtbogenschweissen hergestellt wurden, unter vier

  15. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  16. Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welding High Nitrogen Martensitic Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Geng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully produced. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of an FSW joint were investigated. The results suggest that the grain size of the stir zone (SZ is larger than the base metal (BM and is much larger the case in SZ-top. Some carbides and nitrides rich in chromium were found in BM while not observed in SZ. The martensitic phase in SZ could transform to austenite phase during the FSW process and the higher peak temperature, the greater degree of transformation. The hardness of SZ is significantly lower than that of the BM. An abrupt change of hardness defined as hard zone (HZ was found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ on the advancing side (AS, and the HZ is attributed to a combination result of temperature, deformation, and material flow behavior. The corrosion resistance of SZ is superior to that of BM, which can be attributed to less precipitation and lower angle boundaries (LABs. The corrosion resistance of SZ-bottom is slight higher than that of SZ-top because of the finer grained structure.

  17. The temporal nature of forces acting on metal drops in gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.A.; Eagar, T.W.; Lang, J.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    At moderate and high welding currents, the most important forces in gas metal arc welding acting on the molten electrode are magnetic forces arising from the interaction between the welding current and its own magnetic field. These forces drive the dynamic evolution of the drop and also depend on the instantaneous shape of the drop. IN this paper, experimentally observed manifestations of magnetic forces are shown, and a technique for approximating the temporal evolution of these forces from experimentally measured drops shapes is reported. The technique provides quantitative data illustrating the large increase in the magnetic forces as a drop detaches from the electrode.

  18. The temporal nature of forces acting on metal drops in gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.A.; Eagar, T.W.; Lang, J.H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    At moderate and high welding currents, the most important forces in gas metal arc welding acting on the molten electrode are magnetic forces arising from the interaction between the welding current and its own magnetic field. These forces drive the dynamic evolution of the drop and also depend on the instantaneous shape of the drop. In this paper, experimentally observed manifestations of magnetic forces are shown, and a technique for approximating the temporal evolution of these forces from experimentally measured drop shapes is reported. The technique provides quantitative data illustrating the large increase in the magnetic forces as a drop detaches from the electrode.

  19. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  20. The origin of microstructure and hardness gradients within as-deposited steel weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluken, A.O. (SINTEF Metallurgy, Trondehim (Norway)); Anderson, I.; Grong, O.

    1993-11-01

    In the present investigation, attempts have been made to clarify the origin of microstructure and hardness gradients within as-deposited steel weld metals (i.e., single weld passes). Included are both carbon-manganese and low-alloy weld metals, with broad range in chemical compositions. In addition to hardness measurements, optical metallography was employed to quantify the microstructure and prior austenite grain size of selected welds. It is confirmed that competitive grain growth occurring during solidification gives rise to a general coarsening of the austenite grain structure from the fusion line toward the center of the welds. At low alloy contents, this results in a significant increase in the weld metal hardness due to a shift in the microstructure from predominantly grain boundary ferrite at the fusion line to a mixture of acicular ferrite and ferrite side plates close to the weld centerline. For welds exhibiting a higher alloy content (P[sub cm]: [approximately]0.21 to 0.25) relatively constant hardness values are observed across the weld bead, with a corresponding homogeneous microstructure of acicular ferrite. Because of low hardenability, gradients in microstructure and hardness appear to be an intrinsic feature of C-Mn steel weld metals. The objective of the present investigation is to clarify the origin of the observed differences in hardness distribution among the welds. This is achieved by careful sectioning and metallographic examination of selected welds within Series 1 and Series 2, respectively.

  1. Monitoring and Control of the Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal-Arc Welding Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.; Nichol, C. I.; Clark, D.; Todorov, E.; Couch, R. D.; Yu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  2. A dynamic model of drops detaching from a gas metal arc welding electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Eagar, T. W.; Lang, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic model of drop detachment in gas metal arc welding is presented for low and moderate welding currents in an argon-rich plasma. Simulations performed with this model are compared with extensive experimental measurements of constant-current welding images and with limited experimental measurements of pulsed-current welding images. The comparisons indicate that the experimental axial magnetic forces are much less potent than the calculated axial magnetic forces when welding-current transients are not present. To explain this finding the hypothesis that internal flows are able to develop under the relatively quiescent conditions that exist during drop development in constant-current welding is advanced.

  3. Ultrasonic metal welding with a vibration source using longitudinal and torsional vibration transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Takuya; Tamada, Yosuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2017-07-01

    Conventional ultrasonic metal welding for joining dissimilar metals uses a linear vibration locus, although this method suffers from problems such as low overall weld strength. Our previous studies have shown that ultrasonic welding with a planar vibration locus improves the weld strength. However, the vibration source in our previous studies had problems in longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability and small welding tip. Therefore, the study of the optimal shape of the vibration locus was difficult. Furthermore, improvement of weld strength cannot be expected. We have developed a new ultrasonic vibration source that can control the longitudinal-torsional vibration and can connect to a large welding tip. In this study, we clarified the longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability of the developed ultrasonic vibration source. Moreover, we clarified that using the planar locus of the developed vibration source produced a higher weld strength than our previous studies, and clarified the optimal shape of the vibration locus.

  4. Dissimilar steel welding and overlay covering with nickel based alloys using SWAM (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) and GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) processes in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Chilque, Angel Rafael [Centro Tecnico de Engenharia e Inovacao Empresarial Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bracarense, Alexander Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Marconi, Guilherme [Federal Center of Technological Education (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the welding of dissimilar ferritic steel type A508 class 3 and austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316 L using Inconel{sup R} 600 (A182 and A82) and overlay covering with Inconel{sup R} 690 (A52) as filler metal. Dissimilar welds with these materials without defects and weldability problems such as hot, cold, reheat cracking and Ductility Dip Crack were obtained. Comparables mechanical properties to those of the base metal were found and signalized the efficiency of the welding procedure and thermal treatment selected and used. This study evidences the importance of meeting compromised properties between heat affected zone of the ferritic steel and the others regions presents in the dissimilar joint, to elaborate the dissimilar metal welding procedure specification and weld overlay. Metallographic studies with optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness were carried out to justified and support the results, showing the efficiency of the technique of elaboration of dissimilar metal welding procedure and overlay. The results are comparables and coherent with the results found by others. Some alternatives of welding procedures are proposed to attain the efficacy. Further studies are proposed like as metallographic studies of the fine microstructure, making use, for example, of scanning electron microscope (SEM adapted with an EDS) to explain looking to increase the resistance to primary water stress corrosion (PWSCC) in nuclear equipment. (author)

  5. Characterization of dynamic behavior of short circuit in pulsed gas metal arc welding of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen, P.; Kang, M.J.; K.D.V. P. Yarlagadda

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper studies dynamic characteristics of short circuit in the pulsed current gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P).Design/methodology/approach: Welding experiments with different values of pulsing parameter and simultaneous recording of high speed camera pictures and welding signals (such as current and voltage) were used to identify different short circuit conditions in GMAW-P. The investigation is based on the synchronization of welding signals and high speed camera to characterize d...

  6. Factors affecting the strength of multipass low-alloy steel weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical properties of multipass high-strength steel weld metals depend upon several factors, among the most important being: (1) The interaction between the alloy composition and weld metal cooling rate which determines the as-deposited microstructure; and (2) the thermal effects of subsequent passes on each underlying pass which alter the original microstructure. The bulk properties of a multipass weld are therefore governed by both the initial microstructure of each weld pass and its subsequent thermal history. Data obtained for a high strength low alloy steel weld metal confirmed that a simple correlation exists between mechanical properties and welding conditions if the latter are in turn correlated as weld cooling rate.

  7. A comparative evaluation of low-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316LN base metal, 316 weld metal, and 316LN/316 weld joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, M.; Sundararaman, D.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Mannan, S. L.

    1995-05-01

    A comparative evaluation of the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of type 316LN base metal, 316 weld metal, and 316LN/316 weld joints was carried out at 773 and 873 K. Total strain-controlled LCF tests were conducted at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1 with strain amplitudes in the range ±0.20 to ±1.0 pct. Weld pads with single V and double V configuration were prepared by the shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) process using 316 electrodes for weld-metal and weld-joint specimens. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the untested and tested samples were carried out to elucidate the deformation and the fracture behavior. The cyclic stress response of the base metal shows a very rapid hardening to a maximum stress followed by a saturated stress response. Weld metal undergoes a relatively short initial hardening followed by a gradual softening regime. Weld joints exhibit an initial hardening and a subsequent softening regime at all strain amplitudes, except at low strain amplitudes where a saturation regime is noticed. The initial hardening observed in base metal has been attributed to interaction between dislocations and solute atoms/complexes and cyclic saturation to saturation in the number density of slip bands. From TEM, the cyclic softening in weld metal was ascribed to the annihilation of dislocations during LCF. Type 316LN base metal exhibits better fatigue resistance than weld metal at 773 K, whereas the reverse holds true at 873 K. The weld joint shows the lowest life at both temperatures. The better fatigue resistance of weld metal is related to the brittle transformed delta ferrite structure and the high density of dislocations at the interface, which inhibits the growth rate of cracks by deflecting the crack path. The lower fatigue endurance of the weld joint was ascribed to the shortening of the crack initiation phase caused by surface intergranular crack initiation and to the poor

  8. The influence of manual metal arc multiple repair welding of long operated waterwall on the structure and hardness of the heat affected zone of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikuła J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Welded installations failures of power plants, which are often result from a high degree of wear, requires suitable repairs. In the case of cracks formed in the weld bead of waterwall, weld bead is removed and new welded joint is prepared. However, it is associated with consecutive thermal cycles, which affect properties of heat affected zone of welded joint. This study presents the influence of multiple manual metal arc welding associated with repair activities of long operated waterwall of boiler steel on properties of repair welded joints. The work contains the results of macro and microscopic metallographic examination as well as the results of hardness measurements.

  9. Metal flow of a tailor-welded blank in deep drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Guo, Ruiquan

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks were used in the automotive industry to consolidate parts, reduce weight, and increase safety. In recent years, this technology was developing rapidly in China. In Chinese car models, tailor welded blanks had been applied in a lot of automobile parts such as rail, door inner, bumper, floor panel, etc. Concerns on the properties of tailor welded blanks had become more and more important for automobile industry. A lot of research had shown that the strength of the welded seam was higher than that of the base metal, such that the weld failure in the aspect of strength was not a critical issue. However, formability of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process was complex. Among them, the metal flow of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process must be investigated thoroughly in order to reduce the scrap rate during the stamping process in automobile factories. In this paper, the behavior of metal flow for tailor welded blanks made by the laser welding process with two types of different thickness combinations were studied in the deep drawing process. Simulations and experiment verification of the movement of weld line for tailor welded blanks were discussed in detail. Results showed that the control on the movement of welded seam during stamping process by taking some measures in the aspect of blank holder was effective.

  10. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9132

  11. Welding bulk metallic glass using nanostructured reactive multilayer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkle, Jonathan C.

    We have used Al/Ni reactive foils to weld Zr57Ti 5Cu20Ni8Al10 metallic glasses. The welds are a composite morphology comprised of glass ligaments and intermetallic AlNi (the product of the reactive foil). The presence of the presumably brittle intermetallic (in lieu of the glass) is expected to limit the mechanical properties of the welds. Based on fracture toughness measurements and the crack propagation paths, we conclude that virtually all of the toughness can be ascribed to the presence of the metallic glass ligaments. Increasing the pressure applied during welding increases the fraction of the joint made of these ligaments and so increases the fracture toughness as well. To eliminate the intermetallic from the weld altogether, we attempted to fabricate reactive mulitlayer foils that form an amorphous product by melting and cooling rapidly during a self-propagating reaction. We began with reactive foils with overall composition Zr2Ni but quickly determined that the foils did not fully melt. We then attempted to lower the melting temperature and increase the glass forming ability and the heat of mixing by adding Al and Cu. These foils again did not fully melt. Finally we systematically determined that foils of overall compositions Hf37Ni63, Ni 80P20, and Ni60P40, which are all known binary metallic glasses, will potentially melt during a self-propagating reaction. Knowledge of the phase transformations during a self-propagating reaction is necessary to engineer reactive foils for future applications. Furthermore, reactive foils provide an opportunity to study phase transformations under high heating rates not easily achievable. Characterizing the processes in the reaction zone however is challenging, requiring both temporal resolution better than ˜ 100 mus (the time required for the reaction front to pass a fixed location) and spatial resolution of phase transformations in situ in Al/Ni multilayers. Unlike previous annealing and quenching studies in these

  12. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Ultrasonic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using ultrasonic welding. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: ultrasonically welding at least one ribbon to a surface; where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface has a thickness of less than approximately 150.mu.m; and where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface includes a metallic glass-based material.

  13. Study on Intelligent Control of Metal Filling System by Welding Robots in the Open Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available robot model of three-arm and five-degree freedom plus large scope of traversing welding was established, and decoupling of models of “large scope of traversing”, “triangle movement of two arms” and “spherical movement of one arm” was realized. The model of “triangle movement of two arms ”is able to use geometrical calculation to solve the kinematics inverse problem , avoid the multiplicity, improve the calculation speed, eliminate the blind spots of the motions of welding gun of welding robot, and simplify the kinematic pair of kinematic mechanism for the arc filling strategy during welding travelling of robot. Binocular stereo vision camera was used to detect the edges of welds, and laser array sensor was used to detect the amount of metal filling of welds. In completely open conditions, feedback was fused based on sensor data to realize the welding tracking control by welding robot.

  14. 77 FR 60478 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff... guide describes a method that the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) considers... COMMISSION Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Fusion Zones as a Function of Weld Metal Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, B.; Prabhu, Ranganath; Albert, S. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Sundaresan, S.

    2009-11-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, designated as P91, is widely used in the construction of power plants and other sectors involving temperatures higher than 500 °C. Although the creep strength is the prime consideration for elevated temperature applications, notch toughness is also important, especially for welded components, as it is essential to meet the pressure test and other requirements at room temperature. P91 steel weld fusion zone toughness depends on factors such as welding process, chemical composition, and flux composition. Niobium and vanadium are the main alloying elements that significantly influence the toughness as well as creep strength. In the current work, weld metals were produced with varying amounts of niobium and vanadium by dissimilar joints involving P9 and P91 base metals as well as filler materials. Microstructural studies and Charpy V-notch impact testing were carried out on welds to understand the factors influencing toughness. Based on the results, it can be concluded that by reducing vanadium and niobium weld metal toughness can be improved.

  16. Improving resistance welding of aluminum sheets by addition of metal powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Naimi, Ihsan K.; Al-Saadi, Moneer H.; Daws, Kasim M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure good quality joints between aluminum sheets by resistance spot welding, a new approach involving the addition of metal powder to the faying surfaces before resistance heating is proposed. Three different metal powders (pure aluminum and two powders corresponding to the alloys AA......2024 and AA7075) are investigated for the resistance spot welding of AA1050 aluminum sheets of three different thicknesses. Microstructural and mechanical analysis demonstrates that significant improvement in weld bead morphology and strength are obtained with the addition of metal powder....... The improvement obtained is shown to be due to the development of a secondary bond in the joint beside the weld nugget increasing the total weld area. The application of powder additive is especially feasible, when using welding machines with insufficient current capacity for producing the required nugget size...

  17. THE EXAMINING OF STRESS CONCENTRATION IN THE WELDING OF DISSIMILAR METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan ÇELİK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In the necessity of dissimilar materials having different characteristic used on the same construction brings up some problems. With the developing of welding technology, dissimilar metals can be welded under certain conditions. In this study, the joining of cast iron with steel material has been examined. Nicel electrods are usually used in this materials joining. In this situation, the site of welding structure is not homogenious, because welding metal and parent metals are at different concentration. Because of the material discord, this different structure under load causes more concentration of stress at the welding site. Therefore, the concentration of stress has been determined by studying finite element method for V and X welding-edged joining.

  18. Assessing mechanical properties of the dissimilar metal welding between P92 steels and alloy 617 at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, T. M.; Bae, D. H. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, W. B. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, J. W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hoseo University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, a new welding technology of dissimilar materials, Cr-based P92 steels and Ni-based Alloy 617 is introduced and demonstrated to investigate its reliability. Firstly, multi-pass dissimilar metal welding between P92 steel and Alloy 617 was performed using DCEN TIG welding technology, buttering welding technique and a narrow gap groove. After welding, in order to understand characteristics of the dissimilar metal welds, metallurgical micro-structures analysis by optical observation and static tensile strength assessment of the dissimilar welded joints were conducted at 700°C.

  19. Survey of welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The current KYTC SPECIAL PROVISION NO. 4 WELDING STEEL BRIDGES prohibits the use of welding processes other than shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Nationally, bridge welding is codified under ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1....

  20. TIG AISI-316 welds using an inert gas welding chamber and different filler metals: Changes in mechanical properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, M.; Salas, F.; Carcel, F.J.; Perales, M.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-07-01

    This report analyses the influence of the use of an inert gas welding chamber with a totally inert atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel TIG welds, using AISI ER316L, AISI 308L and Inconel 625 as filler metals. When compared with the typical TIG process, the use of the inert gas chamber induced changes in the microstructure, mainly an increase in the presence of vermicular ferrite and ferrite stringers, what resulted in higher yield strengths and lower values of hardness. Its effect on other characteristics of the joins, such as tensile strength, depended on the filler metal. The best combination of mechanical characteristics was obtained when welding in the inert gas chamber using Inconel 625 as filler metal. (Author). 12 refs.

  1. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite.

  2. Effect of Boric Acid Concentration on Viscosity of Slag and Property of Weld Metal Obtained from Underwater Wet Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Guo, Wei; Xu, Changsheng; Du, Yongpeng; Feng, Jicai

    2015-06-01

    Underwater wet welding is a crucial repair and maintenance technology for nuclear plant. A boric acid environment raises a new challenge for the underwater welding maintenance of nuclear plant. This paper places emphasis on studying the influence of a boric acid environment in nuclear plant on the underwater welding process. Several groups of underwater wet welding experiments have been conducted in boric acid aqueous solution with different concentration (0-35000 ppm). The viscosity of the welding slag and the mechanical properties of welds, such as the hardness, strength, and elongation, have been studied. The results show that with increasing boric acid concentration, the viscosity of the slag decreases first and then increases at a lower temperature (less than 1441 °C). However, when the temperature is above 1480 °C, the differences between the viscosity measurements become less pronounced, and the viscosity tends to a constant value. The hardness and ductility of the joints can be enhanced significantly, and the maximum strength of the weld metal can be reached at 2300 ppm.

  3. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal and Heat-Affected Zone of Electron Beam-Welded Joints of HG785D Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Jianmin; Tan, Caiwang; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Junqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum electron beam welding (EBW) process was employed to butt weld 10-mm-thick HG785D high-strength steels. The penetration into the steel was adjusted by beam current. Microstructures at weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions were comparatively observed. Mechanical properties of the EBWed joints including Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were evaluated. The results indicated that microstructures at the weld metal consisted of coarse lath martensite and a small amount of acicular martensite, while that in the HAZ was tempered sorbite and martensite. The grain size in the weld metal was found to be larger than that in the HAZ, and its proportion in weld metal was higher. The hardness in the weld metal was higher than the HAZ and base metal. The tensile strength and impact toughness in the HAZ was higher than that in the weld metal. All the behaviors were related to microstructure evolution caused by higher cooling rates and state of base metal. The fracture surfaces of tensile and impact tests on the optimized joint were characterized by uniform and ductile dimples. The results differed significantly from that obtained using arc welding process.

  4. Influence of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure, Microhardness, and Toughness of a Weld Metal for Hot Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Lin Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a weld metal in K65 pipeline steel pipe has been processed through self-designed post-weld heat treatments including reheating and tempering associated with hot bending. The microstructures and the corresponding toughness and microhardness of the weld metal subjected to the post-weld heat treatments have been investigated. Results show that with the increase in reheating temperature, austenite grain size increases and the main microstructures transition from fine polygonal ferrite (PF to granular bainitic ferrite (GB. The density of the high angle boundary decreases at higher reheating temperature, leading to a loss of impact toughness. Lots of martensite/austenite (M/A constituents are observed after reheating, and to a large extent transform into cementite after further tempering. At high reheating temperatures, the increased hardenability promotes the formation of large quantities of M/A constituents. After tempering, the cementite particles become denser and coarser, which considerably deteriorates the impact toughness. Additionally, microhardness has a good linear relation with the mean equivalent diameter of ferrite grain with a low boundary tolerance angle (2°−8°, which shows that the hardness is controlled by low misorientation grain boundaries for the weld metal.

  5. Characterising electron beam welded dissimilar metal joints to study residual stress relaxation from specimen extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Abburi Venkata, Kiranmayi; Truman, Christopher E; Smith, David J.; Bhaduri, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require dissimilar metal weld joints to connect the primary steam generator made from ferritic steel to the intermediate heat exchanger made from austenitic steel. Such joints are complex because of the mismatch in the thermal and the mechanical properties of the materials used in the joint. Electron Beam (EB) welding is emerging as a promising technique to manufacture dissimilar joints providing a great many advantages over conventional welding techniques, in terms of lo...

  6. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Minjung Kang; Youngnam Ahn; Cheolhee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet tr...

  7. Life time assessment and repair of dissimilar metal welds. Part 1; Livslaengdsbedoemning och reparation av blandsvetsskarvar. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld

    2005-04-01

    Research on the performance of dissimilar metal welds in high temperature plant has been performed for many years. Nevertheless damages are frequent in such welds. In order to decrease the damage problems and make it possible to estimate residual lifetimes of dissimilar metal welds in our Nordic countries it is first essential to i) collect the knowledge in the literature and ii) map current dissimilar metal welds and their condition in Swedish and Danish plants. The present report describes this first part of the work. There is a comprehensive literature of she subject. Most work has been performed on ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds. In Swedish and Danish plants the dominating type is ferritic/martensitic dissimilar welds. The damage mechanisms are about the same in the two types, creep is the dominating mechanism, but plant experience indicates that the ferritic/austenitic combination is more prone to damage than the ferritic/martensitic one. An important difference between the two types is that Ni-base weld metal generally prolongs the lifetime for ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds whereas it shows an opposite effect in ferritic/martensitic ones. In the latter case use of a 5 % Cr weld metal seems to be the best choice but the experiences of such welds are limited. The mapping of dissimilar welds indicates that there are predominantly special kinds of welds which fail whereas ordinary butt welds and branch welds are relatively free from damage.

  8. Welding Characteristics of Nitrogen Added Stainless Steels for Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. D. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Characteristics of properties and manufacturing process was evaluated in development of high strength and corrosion resistant stainless steel. The continuous cast structure of STS 316L was similar to that of STS 304. The most of residual {delta}-ferrite of STS 316L was vermicular type. The residual {delta}-ferrite content increased from the surface towards the center of the slab and after reaching a maximum value at about 50mm distance from surface and steeply decreased towards the center itself. Hot ductility of STS 304L and STS 316L stainless steels containing below 1000 ppm N was appeared to be reasonably good in the range of hot rolling temperature. In case of the steels containing over 1000 ppm N, the hot ductility was decreased rapidly when sulfur content of the steel was above 20 ppm. Therefore, to achieve good hot ductility of the high nitrogen containing steel, reduction of sulfur contents is required as low as possible. The inter granular corrosion resistance and impact toughness of STS 316L were increased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Yield strength and tensile strength of 304 and 316 stainless steels are increased linearly with increasing the nitrogen contents but their elongations are decreased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these stainless steels could be controlled with variation of nitrogen. The effects of nitrogen on the resistance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be explained by improvement of the load bearing capacity with increasing tensile strength rather than inhibition of trans granular SCC crack generation and propagation. 101 refs., 17 tabs., 105 figs. (author)

  9. Hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of high strength steel gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Ian D.; Norfolk, Mark I. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid Laser/arc welding process (HLAW) can complete 5G welds, assure weld soundness, material properties, and an acceptable geometric profile. Combining new lasers and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) has led to important innovations in the HLAW process, increasing travel speed for successful root pass welding. High power Yb fiber lasers allow a 10 kW laser to be built the size of a refrigerator, allowing portability for use on the pipeline right-of-way. The objective was to develop and apply an innovative HLAW system for mechanized welding of high strength, high integrity, pipelines and develop 5G welding procedures for X80 and X100 pipe, including mechanical testing to API 1104. A cost-matched JIP developed a prototype HLAW head based on a commercially available bug and band system (CRC-Evans P450). Under the US Department of Transportation (DOT) project, the subject of this paper, the system was used to advance pipeline girth welding productivity. External hybrid root pass welding achieved full penetration welds with a 4-mm root at a travel speed of 2.3-m/min. Welds were made 'double down' using laser powers up to 10 kW and travel speeds up to 3-m/min. The final objective of the project was to demonstrate the hybrid LBW/GMAW system under simulated field conditions. (author)

  10. Determinants of occupational exposure to metals by gas metal arc welding and risk management measures: a biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Renaud; Arnoux, Damien; Monssu, Théodora; Culié, Olivier; Roche, Gaëlle; Duffaud, Béatrice; Chalaye, Denis; Maitre, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Welding fumes contain various toxic metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn). An assessment of the risk to health of local and systemic exposure to welding fumes requires the assessment of both external and internal doses. The aims of this study were to test the relevance in small and medium sized enterprises of a biomonitoring strategy based on urine spot-samples, to characterize the factors influencing the internal doses of metals in gas metal arc welders and to recommend effective risk management measures. 137 welders were recruited and urinary levels of metals were measured by ICP-MS on post-shift samples collected at the end of the working week. Cr, Ni and Mn mean concentrations (respectively 0.43, 1.69 and 0.27 μg/g creatinine) were well below occupational health guidance values, but still higher than background levels observed in the general population, confirming the absorption of metals generated in welding fumes. Both welding parameters (nature of base metal, welding technique) and working conditions (confinement, welding and grinding durations, mechanical ventilation and welding experience) were predictive of occupational exposure. Our results confirm the interest of biomonitoring for assessing health risks and recommending risk management measures for welders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Control of welding distortion during gas metal arc welding of AH36 plates by stress engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazooki, A.M.A.; Hermans, M.J.M.; Richardson, I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Welding residual stress and distortion are strongly linked together. One of the ways to control or reduce the welding distortions is the manipulation of the generated stresses during welding, and final residual stresses exist in the workpiece (stress engineering). In this paper, the control of gas

  12. Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meibian; Jian, Le; Bin, Pingfan; Xing, Mingluan; Lou, Jianlin; Cong, Liming; Zou, Hua

    2013-11-01

    Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process in an automobile manufacturing factory was investigated using a combination of multiple metrics and a comparison with background particles. The number concentration (NC), lung-deposited surface area concentration (SAC), estimated SAC and mass concentration (MC) of nanoparticles produced from the GMAW process were significantly higher than those of background particles before welding ( P engineering control measures, and background particles in working places had significant influences on concentrations of airborne nanoparticle. In addition, SAC showed a high correlation with NC and a relatively low correlation with MC. These findings indicate that the GMAW process is able to generate significant levels of nanoparticles. It is recommended that a combination of multiple metrics is measured as part of a well-designed sampling strategy for airborne nanoparticles. Key exposure factors, such as particle agglomeration/aggregation, background particles, working activities, temporal and spatial distributions of the particles, air velocity, engineering control measures, should be investigated when measuring workplace exposure to nanoparticles.

  13. Effect of Electrode Types on the Solidification Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. U. Anaele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of electrode types on the solidification cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel weld metal was studied. Manual metal arc welding method was used to produce the joints with the tungsten inert gas welding serving as the control. Metallographic and chemical analyses of the fusion zones of the joints were conducted. Results indicate that weldments produced from E 308-16 (rutile coated, E 308-16(lime-titania coated electrodes, and TIG welded joints fall within the range of 1.5≤Creq./Nieq.≤1.9 and solidified with a duplex mode and were found to be resistant to solidification cracking. The E 308-16 weld metal had the greatest resistance to solidification cracking. Joints produced from E 310-16 had Creq./Nieq. ratio 1.9 and solidified with ferrite mode. It had a low resistance to solidification cracking.

  14. Metal ion release from silver soldering and laser welding caused by different types of mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ayse Tuygun; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ulkur, Feyza; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2015-07-01

    To compare metal ion release from samples welded with silver soldering and laser welding when immersed into mouthwashes with different ingredients. A total of 72 samples were prepared: 36 laser welded and 36 silver soldered. Four samples were chosen from each subgroup to study the morphologic changes on their surfaces via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each group was further divided into four groups where the samples were submerged into mouthwash containing sodium fluoride (NaF), mouthwash containing sodium fluoride + alcohol (NaF + alcohol), mouthwash containing chlorhexidine (CHX), or artificial saliva (AS) for 24 hours and removed thereafter. Subsequently, the metal ion release from the samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The metal ion release among the solutions and the welding methods were compared. The Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for the group comparisons, and post hoc Dunn multiple comparison test was utilized for the two group comparisons. The level of metal ion release from samples of silver soldering was higher than from samples of laser welding. Furthermore, greater amounts of nickel, chrome, and iron were released from silver soldering. With regard to the mouthwash solutions, the lowest amounts of metal ions were released in CHX, and the highest amounts of metal ions were released in NaF + alcohol. SEM images were in accord with these findings. The laser welding should be preferred over silver soldering. CHX can be recommended for patients who have welded appliances for orthodontic reasons.

  15. 78 FR 63517 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... to remove an appendix that has been incorporated into relevant specifications. ADDRESSES: Please... procedure for the control of ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. This guide provides methods that..., Safety Guide 31, ``Control of Stainless Steel Welding,'' issued August 1972, provided guidance to test...

  16. Effect of Welding Consumables on Fatigue Performance of Shielded Metal Arc Welded High Strength, Q&T Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magudeeswaran, G.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2009-02-01

    Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen-induced cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ) after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel consumables to weld the above steel was the only remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. Recent studies proved that high nickel steel and low hydrogen ferritic steel consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of welding consumables on high cycle fatigue properties of high strength, Q&T steel joints. Three different consumables namely (i) austenitic stainless steel, (ii) low hydrogen ferritic steel, and (iii) high nickel steel have been used to fabricate the joints by shielded metal arc (SMAW) welding process. The joints fabricated using low hydrogen ferritic steel electrodes showed superior fatigue properties than other joints.

  17. Modeling of Fume Formation from Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapirakasam, S. P.; Mohan, Sreejith; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Surianarayanan, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a semi-empirical model of fume formation rate (FFR) from a shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process has been developed. The model was developed for a DC electrode positive (DCEP) operation and involves the calculations of droplet temperature, surface area of the droplet, and partial vapor pressures of the constituents of the droplet to predict the FFR. The model was further extended for predicting FFR from nano-coated electrodes. The model estimates the FFR for Fe and Mn assuming constant proportion of other elements in the electrode. Fe FFR was overestimated, while Mn FFR was underestimated. The contribution of spatters and other mechanism in the arc responsible for fume formation were neglected. A good positive correlation was obtained between the predicted and experimental FFR values which highlighted the usefulness of the model.

  18. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1999-01-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  19. effects of metal inert gas welding parameters on some mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    MIG) welding parameters on the mechanical properties (hardness, tensile and impact) of type 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) immersed in 0.5M hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature. The MIG welding was applied to 3mm thick ASS.

  20. EFFECTS OF METAL INERT GAS WELDING PARAMETERS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIG) welding parameters on the mechanical properties (hardness, tensile and impact) of type 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) immersed in 0.5M hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature. The MIG welding was applied to 3mm thick ASS.

  1. Influence of Heat Input on Martensite Formation and Impact Property of Ferritic-Austenitic Dissimilar Weld Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Mukherjee T.K. Pal

    2012-01-01

    .... The welded joints were evaluated by microstructure and charpy impact toughness. The dependence of weld metal microstructure on heat input and filler wires were determined by dilution calculation, Creq/Nieq ratio, stacking fault energy (SFE...

  2. High-cycle Fatigue Properties of Alloy718 Base Metal and Electron Beam Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Nagashima, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Hideshi; Ogata, Toshio; Nagao, Naoki

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Alloy 718 plate and its electron beam (EB) welded joint were investigated at 293 K and 77 K under uniaxial loading. At 293 K, the high-cycle fatigue strength of the EB welded joint with the post heat treatment exhibited somewhat lower values than that of the base metal. The fatigue strengths of both samples basically increased at 77 K. However, in longer life region, the EB welded joint fractured from a blow hole formed in the welded zone, resulting in almost the same fatigue strength at 107 cycles as that at 293 K.

  3. Microstructure and fatigue resistance of high strength dual phase steel welded with gas metal arc welding and plasma arc welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiale, Godwin Kwame; Oh, Yong-Jun; Choi, Won-Doo; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Jung, Jae-Gyu; Nam, Soo Woo

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the microstructure and high cycle fatigue performance of lap shear joints of dual phase steel (DP590) welded using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and plasma arc welding (PAW) processes. High cycle fatigue tests were conducted on single and double lap joints under a load ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 20 Hz. In order to establish a basis for comparison, both weldments were fabricated to have the same weld depth in the plate thickness. The PAW specimens exhibited a higher fatigue life, a gentle S-N slope, and a higher fatigue limit than the GMAW specimens. The improvement in the fatigue life of the PAW specimens was primarily attributed to the geometry effect that exhibited lower and wider beads resulting in a lower stress concentration at the weld toe where cracks initiate and propagate. Furthermore, the microstructural constituents in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the PAW specimens contributed to the improvement. The higher volume fraction of acicular ferrite in the HAZ beneath the weld toe enhanced the PAW specimen's resistance to fatigue crack growth. The double lap joints displayed a higher fatigue life than the single lap joints without changing the S-N slope.

  4. Process Stability of Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chenglei; Xie, Weifeng; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao; Fan, Yangyang

    2017-10-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, ultrasonic-wave-assisted arc welding successfully introduced power ultrasound into the arc and weld pool, during which the ultrasonic acts on the top of the arc in the coaxial alignment direction. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by using an additional ultrasonic field. Compared with the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the welding arc is compressed, the droplet size is decreased, and the droplet transfer frequency is increased significantly in ultrasonic-wave-assisted GMAW (U-GMAW). However, the stability of the metal transfer has deep influence on the welding quality equally, and the ultrasonic wave effect on the stability of the metal transfer is a phenomenon that is not completely understood. In this article, the stabilities of the short-circuiting transfer process and globular transfer process are studied systematically, and the effect of ultrasonic wave on the metal transfer is analyzed further. The transfer frequency and process stability of the U-GMAW process are much higher than those of the conventional GMAW. Analytical results show that the additional ultrasonic wave is helpful for improving welding stability.

  5. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The safety issue has been raised with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal could detach and come in contact with astronauts and burn through the fabric of the astronauts' Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding in space. Molten metal detachments from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut if the detachment was to burn through the fabric of the EMU. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The primary molten metal detachment concerns were those cases of molten metal separation from the metal surface due to metal cutting, weld pool splashing, entrainment and release of molten metal due to filler wire snap-out from the weld puddle, and molten metal accumulation and release from the end of the weld wire. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were developed for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. The surface tension represents the force opposing the liquid metal drop from detaching whereas the weight of the liquid metal droplet represents a force that is tending to detach the molten metal drop. Theoretical calculations have indicated that only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop; however, much of the energy of an impact is absorbed in the sample or weld plate before it reaches the metal drop on the cut edge or surface. The tendency for detachment is directly proportional to the weld pool radius and metal density and inversely proportional to the surface

  6. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  7. Properties and Structure of Nanocrystalline Layers Obtained by Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Górka; A. Czupryński; M. Adamiak

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is the result of the investigations of the properties and structure of nanocrystalline layers deposited from iron-based nanoalloy on steel S355N substrate by manual metal arc welding method (MMA...

  8. Ductility of stabilized ferritic stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. B.; Eagar, T. W.

    1980-02-01

    An investigation was made into the mechanism of ductility loss in low interstitial 18 Cr-2Mo ferritic stainless steel welds stabilized with Ti and Nb. It was found that stabilizing TiN or Nb(C,N) precipitates are dissolved during the welding process, resulting in a finer distribution of precipitates in the weld metal than in the base metal. Furthermore, the FATT was found to increase by more than 200°C, leading to decreased room temperature ductility. Such an increase in FATT may not be explained solely in terms of grain growth. Internal friction measurements indicate that no free nitrogen is present in the weld metal, yet wet chemical analysis reveals that the nitrogen is present in a soluble form. Kinetic arguments suggest that the stabilized nitrogen dissolved during welding tends to reprecipitate during solidification in the form of a chromium rich nitride phase.

  9. Collision Welding of Dissimilar Materials by Vaporizing Foil Actuator: A Breakthrough Technology for Dissimilar Metal Joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, Glenn S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Vivek, Anupam [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, Bert C. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-30

    This work demonstrated and further developed Vaporizing Foil Actuator Welding (VFAW) as a viable technique for dissimilar-metal joining for automotive lightweighting applications. VFAW is a novel impact welding technology, which uses the pressure developed from electrically-assisted rapid vaporization of a thin aluminum foil (the consumable) to launch and ultimately collide two of more pieces of metal to create a solid-state bond between them. 18 dissimilar combinations of automotive alloys from the steel, aluminum and magnesium alloy classes were screened for weldability and characterized by metallography of weld cross sections, corrosion testing, and mechanical testing. Most combinations, especially a good number of Al/Fe pairs, were welded successfully. VFAW was even able to weld combinations of very high strength materials such as 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys to boron and dual phase steels, which is difficult to impossible by other joining techniques such as resistance spot welding, friction stir welding, or riveting. When mechanically tested, the samples routinely failed in a base metal rather than along the weld interface, showing that the weld was stronger than either of the base metals. As for corrosion performance, a polymer-based protective coating was used to successfully combat galvanic corrosion of 5 Al/Fe pairs through a month-long exposure to warm salt fog. In addition to the technical capabilities, VFAW also consumes little energy compared to conventional welding techniques and requires relatively light, flexible tooling. Given the technical and economic advantages, VFAW can be a very competitive joining technology for automotive lightweighting. The success of this project and related activities has resulted in substantial interest not only within the research community but also various levels of automotive supply chain, which are collaborating to bring this technology to commercial use.

  10. Hydrogen Attack kinetics of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, T. A.; Lopez, H. F.; Shewmon, P. G.

    1985-06-01

    The kinetics of Hydrogen Attack (HA) of the base metals and the weld metals of two Q&T 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments made by different techniques (SMAW and SAW) were studied in the temperature range 460 to 590°C (860 to 1094 °F) and 10 to 23 MPa of hydrogen. A sensitive dilatometer used to measure the rate of HA showed that the weld metals suffered HA at significantly higher rates than the base metals. The SMAW weld metal was inferior to the SAW weld metal and swelled nearly an order of magnitude faster than the base metal. This behavior is due to a significantly higher bubble density, and a resulting higher contribution of power law creep of the matrix. The SAW behavior was intermediate between those of the base metals and the SMAW. For the same hydrogen pressure the operating limit of the SMAW weld would be roughly 100°C lower than that of the base metals, and that of the SAW roughly 50°C lower.

  11. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PRAKTIK PENGELASAN SHIELED METAL ARC WELDING(SMAW POSISI 1G JURUSAN TEKNIK PENGELASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Bin Ardin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mendeskripsikan model pembelajaran praktik yang berlangsung atau disebut model pembelajaran regular praktek pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G di SMK Negeri 2 Pengasih; (2 mengetahui efektifitas dan mendeskripsikan bahan yang digunakan dalam praktek pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G, misalnya: besi plat, mata gerinda, elektroda, dan waktu yang digunakan selama praktek pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan wawancara, dokumentasi, angket dan penilaian skill pengelasan. Asessment skill pengelasan mengacu pada Acean Skill Welding Competition. Hasil penelitian yaitu: (1 model pembelajaran praktek pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G terdiri dari 4 pertemuan teori dan 13 pertemuan praktik; (2 model pembelajaran praktik pengelasan di SMKN 2 Pengasih sudah efektif tetapi untuk rutinitas pengelasan belum efektif untuk membentuk skill pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G dengan sistem assesment Asean Skill Welding Competition. Fasilitas utama dalam praktek pengelasan SMAW posisi 1G adalah mesin las. Sementara itu SMKN 2 pengasih memiliki 6 buah mesin las dengan rasio 1 mesin las untuk 5 orang siswa. Bahan habis pakai untuk 30 orang siswa per semester yang menggunakan model pembelajaran praktek pengelasan adalah besi plat ± 100-150 kg, mata gerinda total ± 5-6 keping, elektroda ± 9-10 box dan total waktunya aktif 77 jam selama satu semester. Kata kunci: pembelajaran Praktik Pengelasan SMAW, Skill Siswa untuk Posisi 1G LEARNING MODEL OF SHIELD METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW PRACTICE OF 1G POSITION AT THE WELDING ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Abstract This research aimed to: (1 describe the learning model of shield metal arc welding (SMAW practice of 1G position at the Welding Engineering Department of State Vocational High School (SMKN 2 Pengasih; (2 find the effectiveness and describe materials needed in the learning model of shield metal arc welding (SMAW practice of 1G position, for examples

  12. A new technique for the strengthening of aluminum tungsten inert gas weld metals: using carbon nanotube/aluminum composite as a filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, M; Nabhani, N; Rashidkhani, E; Fattahi, Y; Akhavan, S; Arabian, N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the mechanical properties of aluminum multipass weld metal prepared by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was investigated. High energy ball milling was used to disperse MWCNT in the aluminum powder. Carbon nanotube/aluminum composite filler metal was fabricated for the first time by hot extrusion of ball-milled powders. After welding, the tensile strength, microhardness and MWCNT distribution in the weld metal were investigated. The test results showed that the tensile strength and microhardness of weld metal was greatly increased when using the filler metal containing 1.5 wt.% MWCNT. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the filler metal containing MWCNT can serve as a super filler metal to improve the mechanical properties of TIG welds of Al and its alloys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metals Welds by Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravarikova Helena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy welded material unevenly heated and thus supports the creation of tension. During the fusing process welding transient tensions generated in the welded material. Generation of the transient tensions depends on the thermal expansion and fixed permanently welded parts. Tensions are the result of the interaction of material particles. For welded parts and constructions it is necessary to know the size and direction of application of tensions. The emerging tensions can cause local change or a total deformation of welded materials. Deformations and residual stresses impair the performance of a welded construction, reduces the stability of the parts. To reduce or eliminate of action or a screening direction stresses and strains it is necessary to know the mechanism of their emergence. It is now possible to examine the emergence of tensions numerical experiments on any model using numerical simulation using FEM. Results of numerical experiment is the analysis of stress and deformation course. In the plane the tension it divided into normal σ and τ tangential folders. Decomposition stress on components simplifies the stress analysis. The results obtained from numerical analysis are correct to predict the stress distribution and size. The paper presents the results of numerical experiments stress analysis solutions fillet welds using FEM numerical simulation of welding of non-ferrous metals.

  14. Correlation Between Acoustic Emission and Induced Hydrogen of Shield Metal Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsawat, P.; Jirarungsatian, C.; Phung-On, I.

    This chapter presents a study on detecting acoustic emission (AE) of hydrogen diffusion after shield metal arc welding (SMAW) process. Technique to detect hydrogen which diffused from steel, gas, or other elements is performed. A correlation between occurred AE and induced hydrogen in weldment after welding is determined. In the experiment, a broadband AE sensor and welded specimens were mounted on a wave guide plate which has 250 mm of separate distance for monitoring and recording AE activity of hydrogen diffusion. The specimens are prepared according to the welding standard (JIS Z 3113). The specimen sizes were 25 mm width, 130 mm length, and 12 mm thickness. Four types of electrodes were used for welding to vary hydrogen amount. The welding current was lower than the manufacturer's specification of 15 amperes. The specimens were quenched in 5 s after welding process. The results showed that the AE technique can be used to detect hydrogen diffusion after weld. The emitted AE signals were analyzed to determine the relation with the amount of hydrogen. The method for measurement of hydrogen referred to the welding standard (JIS Z 3113). The correlation plot between AE and diffused hydrogen amount can be shown as 0.8 of R 2 linearity. The benefit of this study will be applied to monitor the weldment before cold crack occurs.

  15. Novel manufacturing process of nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas welding by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattahi, M., E-mail: fattahi.put@gmail.com [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noei Aghaei, V. [Aerospace Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabiri, A.R. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, S. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, S.; Fattahi, Y. [Materials Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-11

    In the present work, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used as an effective method for manufacturing nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. After welding, the distribution of ceramic nanoparticles and mechanical properties of welds were investigated. By applying ARB, ceramic nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the composite filler metals. Consequently, the welds produced by these filler metals had a uniform dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles in their compositions. The test results showed that the yield strength of welds was greatly increased when using the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals. The improvement in the yield strength was attributed to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and Orowan strengthening mechanisms. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals can serve as a novel filler metal for TIG welding of aluminum and its alloys.

  16. Influence of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DijuSamuel, G.; Raja Dhas, J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper focus on impact of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite. For fabrication of metal matrix composite AA6061 is used as matrix and activated carbon is used as reinforcement and it is casted using modified stir casting technique. After casting metal matrix composite has undergone various microstructure tests like SEM,EDAX and XRD. FSW is carried out in this metal matrix composite by choosing various tool pin profile like square,round,Threaded round, hexagon and taper. The quality of welded plates is measured in terms of ultimate tensile strength and hardness.

  17. Modelling of gas-metal arc welding taking into account metal vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnick, M; Fuessel, U; Hertel, M; Haessler, M [Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Spille-Kohoff, A [CFX Berlin Software GmbH, Karl-Marx-Allee 90, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Murphy, A B [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2010-11-03

    The most advanced numerical models of gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) neglect vaporization of metal, and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as is also common practice for models of gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW). These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to GTAW arcs. However, spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to measurements of GTAW arcs, they have shown the presence of a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. This paper presents a GMAW model that takes into account metal vapour and that is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and electric current density. The influence of different values for the net radiative emission coefficient of iron vapour, which vary by up to a factor of hundred, is examined. It is shown that these net emission coefficients cause differences in the magnitudes, but not in the overall trends, of the radial distribution of temperature and current density. Further, the influence of the metal vaporization rate is investigated. We present evidence that, for higher vaporization rates, the central flow velocity inside the arc is decreased and can even change direction so that it is directed from the workpiece towards the wire, although the outer plasma flow is still directed towards the workpiece. In support of this thesis, we have attempted to reproduce the measurements of Zielinska et al for spray-transfer mode GMAW numerically, and have obtained reasonable agreement.

  18. Inclusions and Microstructure of Ce-Added Weld Metal Coarse Grain Heat-Affected Zone in Twin-Wire Submerged-Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. F.; Yan, N.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In high heat-input multi-pass twin-wire submerged-arc welding, weld metal of previous pass will be affected by the heat input of subsequent one and form coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). This study focused on the effects of welding thermal cycle on the inclusions and microstructure of Ce-alloyed weld metal CGHAZ. According to the study of inclusions and microstructure of weld metal CGHAZ, it was found that the composition and type of the inclusions did not change under the effect of welding thermal cycle. Although the inclusions were coarsened slightly, the promoting ability to acicular ferrite (AF) was not deprived after thermal cycling. There are three types of AF in weld metal CGHAZ, which include oxy-sulfides of Ce inclusions-promoted AF, home-position-precipitated AF, and sympathetic AF. Results showed more than 80% of microstructure was AF, which greatly benefited the mechanical properties of weld metal CGHAZ, even though granular bainite and M-A constituents were generated.

  19. Pulse current gas metal arc welding characteristics, control and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Prakriti Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a first-of-its-kind compilation on high deposition pulse current GMAW process. The nine chapters of this monograph may serve as a comprehensive knowledge tool to use advanced welding engineering in prospective applications. The contents of this book will prove useful to the shop floor welding engineer in handling this otherwise critical welding process with confidence. It will also serve to inspire researchers to think critically on more versatile applications of the unique nature of pulse current in GMAW process to develop cutting edge welding technology.

  20. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet transfer were observed during welding. The tensile strength of welds was slightly increased by adding CaO to the filler metal, which resulted from the decreased grain size in the weld metal. When welding Mg alloys, fumes have been unavoidable so far because of the low boiling temperature of Mg. Fume reduction was successfully demonstrated with a wire composed of the novel ECO Mg filler. In addition, stable droplet transfer was observed and spatter suppression could be expected by using CaO-added Mg filler wire.

  1. Investigation of welding crack in micro laser welded NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy dissimilar metals joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhua, Chen; Yuqing, Mao; Weiwei, Lu; Peng, He

    2017-06-01

    Dissimilar metals of NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy with a same thickness of 0.2 mm were joined by micro laser welding. The effect of laser power on crack sensitivity of the weld was investigated. The results show that full penetrated welds are obtained when the laser power of 7.2 W is used, many cracks are observed in the weld. With increasing the laser power to 12 W, the number of all cracks and cracking width first increase and then decrease. By XRD analysis, three different kinds of Ti2Ni, NbNi3 and AlNbTi2 intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. According to the formation enthalpy and binary phase diagram, brittle Ti2Ni phase with more contents is existed in the weld due to final solidification, and which is the main reason of crack formation along with large stress concentration. Moreover, the welding cracks like the weld center longitudinal solidification cracks, weld metal toe transversal liquid cracks, heat-affected-zone hot cracks and crater cracks are classified in the laser welded joints. A brittle cleavage fracture with cleavage planes and river patterns in the joints is presented from the fracture surface.

  2. Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Impact Toughness of 410NiMo Weld Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divya, M.; Das, Chitta Ranjan; Chowdhury, Sandip Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundary character distributions in 410NiMo weld metal were studied in the as-welded, first-stage, and second-stage postweld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions, and these were correlated with the Charpy-V impact toughness values of the material. The high impact toughness values in the weld me...

  3. Transformation and Precipitation Reactions by Metal Active Gas Pulsed Welded Joints from X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utu, Ion-Dragos; Mitelea, Ion; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Crăciunescu, Corneliu Marius

    2016-01-01

    The high alloying degree of Duplex stainless steels makes them susceptible to the formation of intermetallic phases during their exposure to high temperatures. Precipitation of these phases can lead to a decreasing of the corrosion resistance and sometimes of the toughness. Starting from the advantages of the synergic Metal Active Gas (MAG) pulsed welding process, this paper analyses the structure formation particularities of homogeneous welded joints from Duplex stainless steel. The effect of linear welding energy on the structure morphology of the welded joints was revealed by macro- and micrographic examinations, X-ray energy dispersion analyses, measurements of ferrite proportion and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained showed that the transformation of ferrite into austenite is associated with the chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen distribution between these two phases and their redistribution degree is closely linked to the overall heat cycle of the welding process. The adequate control of the energy inserted in the welded components provides an optimal balance between the two microstructural constituents (Austenite and Ferrite) and avoids the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases. PMID:28773727

  4. Heat and metal transfer in gas metal arc welding using argon and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, P.G.; Eagar, T.W.; Szekely, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a theoretical investigation on the arc parameters and metal transfer in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel using argon and helium shielding gases. Major differences in the predicted arc parameters were determined to be due to large differences in thermophysical properties. Various findings from the study include that an arc cannot be struck in a pure helium atmosphere without the assistance of metal vapor, that a strong electromagnetic cathode force affects the fluid flow and heat transfer in the helium arc, providing a possible explanation for the experimentally observed globular transfer mode and that the tapering of t electrode in an argon arc is caused by electron condensation on the side of the electrode.

  5. Heat and metal transfer in gas metal arc welding using argon and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, P. G.; Eagar, T. W.; Szekely, J.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a theoretical investigation on the arc parameters and metal transfer in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel using argon and helium shielding gases. Major differences in the predicted arc parameters were determined to be due to large differences in thermophysical properties. Various findings from the study include that an arc cannot be struck in a pure helium atmosphere without the assistance of metal vapor, that a strong electromagnetic cathode force affects the fluid flow and heat transfer in the helium arc, providing a possible explanation for the experimentally observed globular transfer mode and that the tapering of the electrode in an argon arc is caused by electron condensation on the side of the electrode.

  6. Tensile Behaviour of Welded Wire Mesh and Hexagonal Metal Mesh for Ferrocement Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawade, A. G.; Modhera, C. D.

    2017-08-01

    Tension tests were conducted on welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. Welded Mesh is available in the market in different sizes. The two types are analysed viz. Ø 2.3 mm and Ø 2.7 mm welded mesh, having opening size 31.75 mm × 31.75 mm and 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm respectively. Tensile strength test was performed on samples of welded mesh in three different orientations namely 0°, 30° and 45° degrees with the loading axis and hexagonal Metal mesh of Ø 0.7 mm, having opening 19.05 × 19.05 mm. Experimental tests were conducted on samples of these meshes. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of the welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. The result shows that the tension load carrying capacity of welded mesh of Ø 2.7 mm of 0° orientation is good as compared to Ø2.3 mm mesh and ductility of hexagonal Metal mesh is good in behaviour.

  7. Toughness of 2,25Cr-1Mo steel and weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarer, Mustafa; Arici, Gökhan; Acar, Filiz Kumdali; Keskinkilic, Selcuk; Kabakci, Fikret

    2017-09-01

    2,25Cr-1Mo steel is extensively used at elevated temperature structural applications in fossil fire power plants for steam pipes, nozzle chambers and petrochemical industry for hydrocracking unit due to its excellent creep resistance and good redundant to oxidation. Also they should have acceptable weldability and toughness. The steels are supplied in quenched and tempered condition and their welded components are subjected to post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Tempering process is carried out at 690-710°C to improve toughness properties. However they are sensitive to reheat cracking and temper embrittlement. To measure temper embrittlement of the steels and their weld metal, temper embrittlement factor and formula (J factor - Watanabe and X formula- Bruscato) are used. Step cooling heat treatment is also applied to determine temper embrittlement. In this study, toughness properties of Cr Mo (W) steels were reviewed. Also transition temperature curves of 2,25Cr-1Mo steel and its weld metal were constructed before and after step cool heat treatment as experimental study. While 2,25Cr-1Mo steel as base metal was supplied, all weld metal samples were produced in Gedik Welding Company. Hardness measurements and microstructure evaluation were also carried out.

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 28: Welding Inspection. Module 28-3, Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Submerged Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John

    This third in a series of ten modules for a course titled Welding Inspection presents the apparatus, process techniques, procedures, applications, associated defects, and inspection for the tungsten inert gas, metal inert gas, and submerged arc welding processes. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  9. Rapid detection of transition metals in welding fumes using paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, David M; Nanthasurasak, Pavisara; Riwkulkajorn, Pornpak; L'Orange, Christian; Henry, Charles S; Volckens, John

    2014-05-01

    Metals in particulate matter (PM) are considered a driving factor for many pathologies. Despite the hazards associated with particulate metals, personal exposures for at-risk workers are rarely assessed due to the cost and effort associated with monitoring. As a result, routine exposure assessments are performed for only a small fraction of the exposed workforce. The objective of this research was to evaluate a relatively new technology, microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), for measuring the metals content in welding fumes. Fumes from three common welding techniques (shielded metal arc, metal inert gas, and tungsten inert gas welding) were sampled in two welding shops. Concentrations of acid-extractable Fe, Cu, Ni, and Cr were measured and independently verified using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results from the µPAD sensors agreed well with ICP-OES analysis; the two methods gave statistically similar results in >80% of the samples analyzed. Analytical costs for the µPAD technique were ~50 times lower than market-rate costs with ICP-OES. Further, the µPAD method was capable of providing same-day results (as opposed several weeks for ICP laboratory analysis). Results of this work suggest that µPAD sensors are a viable, yet inexpensive alternative to traditional analytic methods for transition metals in welding fume PM. These sensors have potential to enable substantially higher levels of hazard surveillance for a given resource cost, especially in resource-limited environments.

  10. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  11. Weld-metal property optimization from flux ingredients through mixture experiments and mathematical programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola David Adeyeye

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for weld-metal properties optimization from welding flux ingredients. The methodology integrates statistical design of mixture experiment with mathematical programming optimization technique. The mixture experiment is responsible for the modeling of the weld-metal properties as a function of welding flux levels while mathematical programming optimizes the model. Data and confirmed models from the literature were used to perform optimization on the responses. The maximum values possible with the prevailing conditions for acicular ferrite, charpy impact toughness and silicon transfer are 51.2%, 29 J and 0.231% respectively while the minimum oxygen content possible is 249 ppm. The new methodology is able to eliminate the limitations associated with the traditional experimental optimization methodology for flux formulation.

  12. In-Situ Measurement of Metal Drop Temperature in GMA Short-Circuiting Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshinori; Onda, Masahiko; Nagaki, Hayato; Ohji, Takayoshi

    Temperatures of metal drop in GMA short-circuiting welding process were in-situ measured using newly developed instrument designed on the basis of two-color pyrometry, which consisted of optical lenses, interference filters for two colors and two sets of high sensitive CCD cameras with fast shutter. In order to avoid radiation from arc plasma, temperature measurement was carried out immediately after molten drop at electrode wire tip was contacted with weld pool and arc was extinguished. Welding current in arcing period was adjusted from 50 A to 250 A using experimental power source in Ar + 20%CO2 mixture gas shielded GMA welding with mild steel wire of 1.2 mm in diameter. It is shown through in-situ measurement that average temperature of metal drop ranges from 2200 K to 2700 K, depending on level and period of arc current governing electrode wire melting.

  13. Magnetic forces acting on molten drops in gas metal arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Eagar, T. W.; Lang, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    In gas metal arc welding, magnetic forces arising from the interaction of the welding current with its own magnetic field play an important role in the detachment of drops from the molten welding electrode. These forces drive the dynamic evolution of the drop and also depend on the instantaneous shape of the drop. In this paper, experimentally observed manifestations of magnetic forces are shown and a technique for approximating the temporal evolution of the axial magnetic force from experimentally measured drop shapes is reported. The technique provides quantitative data illustrating the large increase in the magnetic forces when a drop detaches from the electrode.

  14. Slag-metal reactions during welding: Part III. Verification of the Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1991-02-01

    A previously developed kinetic model of alloy transfer (Part II)[1] is tested experimentally for transfer of Mn, Si, Cr, P, S, Ni, Cu, and Mo. The results show very good agreement between theory and experiment. The transfer of carbon and oxygen is also discussed. It is shown that the transfer of oxygen into the weld metal occurs in the zone of droplet reactions, whereas oxygen is lost by formation and separation of inclusions in the solidifying weld pool. Methods of applying this analysis to multipass welds and active fluxes containing ferroalloy additions are also described.

  15. Gas emission during welding with metal cored and self-shielded wire

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Olivera; Prokić-Cvetković, Radica; Lukić, Uroš; Jovičić, Radomir; Burzić, Meri; Beljić, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The use of flux cored and self-shielded wires as filler materials for gas metal arc welding is growing constantly due to increased productivity and efficiency, better weld quality and easer operation. On the other hand, one of the major drawbacks of these wires is the increased amount of fumes and gases and insufficient data of their harmful effects, especially in the case of self shielded wire. Therefore, in now days, one of the most important requirements is environmentally and health reque...

  16. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  17. Predicting welding residual stresses in a dissimilar metal girth welded pipe using 3D finite element model with a simplified heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Dean, E-mail: deandeng@cqu.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Shazheng Street 174, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Kiyoshima, Shoichi [Research Center of Computational Mechanics, Inc., Togoshi NI-Bldg., 1-7-1 Togoshi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-0041 (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuo [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg, 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Yanagida, Nobuyoshi [Hitachi Ltd. 1-1, Saiwa-cho 3-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 317-8511 (Japan); Saito, Koichi [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. 2-2, Omika-cho, 5-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Welding residual stresses have asymmetrical distributions in the dissimilar metal pipe. Variable length heat source model can largely save computing time. Besides welding, other thermal processes also affect residual stresses. - Abstract: Dissimilar metal welds are commonly used in nuclear power plants to connect low alloy steel components and austenitic stainless steel piping systems. The integrity assessment and life estimation for such welded structures require consideration of residual stresses induced by manufacturing processes. Because the fabrication process of dissimilar metal weld joints is considerably complex, it is very difficult to accurately predict residual stresses. In this study, both numerical simulation technology and experimental method were used to investigate welding residual stress distribution in a dissimilar metal pipe joint with a medium diameter, which were performed by a multi-pass welding process. Firstly, an experimental mock-up was fabricated to measure the residual stress distributions on the inside and the outside surfaces. Then, a time-effective 3-D finite element model was developed to simulate welding residual stresses through using a simplified moving heat source. The simplified heat source method could complete the thermo-mechanical analysis in an acceptable time, and the simulation results generally matched the measured data near the weld zone. Through comparing the simulation results and the experimental measurements, we can infer that besides the multi-pass welding process other key manufacturing processes such as cladding, buttering and heat treatment should also be taken into account to accurately predict residual stresses in the whole range of the dissimilar metal pipe.

  18. Room-Temperature Chemical Welding and Sintering of Metallic Nanostructures by Capillary Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2016-06-08

    Room-temperature welding and sintering of metal nanostructures, nanoparticles and nanowires, by capillary condensation of chemical vapors have successfully been demonstrated. Nanoscale gaps or capillaries that are abundant in layers of metal nanostructures have been found to be the preferred sites for the condensation of chemically oxidizing vapor, H2O2 in this work. The partial dissolution and resolidification at such nanogaps completes the welding/sintering of metal nanostructures within ∼10 min at room-temperature, while other parts of nanostructures remain almost intact due to negligible amount of condensation on there. The welded networks of Ag nanowires have shown much improved performances, such as high electrical conductivity, mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and chemical stability. Chemically sintered layers of metal nanoparticles, such as Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Co, have also shown orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity and improved environmental stability, compared to nontreated ones. Pertinent mechanisms involved in the chemical welding/sintering process have been discussed. Room-temperature welding and sintering of metal nanostructures demonstrated here may find widespread application in diverse fields, such as displays, deformable electronics, wearable heaters, and so forth.

  19. Computed Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is carried with the macro-flow of the weld metal. By using CT images, a 3-dimensional (3D) image of the lead flow pattern can be reconstructed. CT imaging was found to be a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  20. Experimental analysis of dissimilar metal weld joint: Ferritic to austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Prasad, Rajesh [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 ferritic steel and SS304LN using Inconel 82/182 consumables was required in the nuclear power plants. The joint integrity assessment of these welds requires mechanical and metallurgical properties evaluation in weldment regions. The joint was subjected to 100% radiography test and bend test and transverse tensile test. Welding and testing were carried out as per the requirements of ASME Sec-IX and acceptance criteria as per ASME Sec-III. The transverse tensile test results indicated the failure from the weld metal although it satisfies the minimum strength requirement of the ASME requirements; therefore, the DMW joint was analyzed in detail. Straight bead deposition technique, fine slag inclusion, less reliable radiograph technique, plastic instability stress, yield strength ratio and metallurgical deteriorations have been contributed to failure of the DMW joint from the weld region. In the present work, the factors contributing to the fracture from weld metal have been discussed and analyzed.

  1. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in the Space Shuttle Bay at LEO for the International Space Welding Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997, the United States [NASA] and the Paton Electric Welding Institute are scheduled to cooperate in a flight demonstration on the U.S. Space Shuttle to demonstrate the feasibility of welding in space for a possible repair option for the International Space Station Alpha. This endeavor, known as the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), will involve astronauts performing various welding exercises such as brazing, cutting, welding, and coating using an electron beam space welding system that was developed by the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI), Kiev Ukraine. This electron beam welding system known as the "Universal Weld System" consists of hand tools capable of brazing, cutting, autogeneous welding, and coating using an 8 kV (8000 volts) electron beam. The electron beam hand tools have also been developed by the Paton Welding Institute with greater capabilities than the original hand tool, including filler wire feeding, to be used with the Universal Weld System on the U.S. Space Shuttle Bay as part of ISWE. The hand tool(s) known as the Ukrainian Universal Hand [Electron Beam Welding] Tool (UHT) will be utilized for the ISWE Space Shuttle flight welding exercises to perform welding on various metal alloy samples. A total of 61 metal alloy samples, which include 304 stainless steel, Ti-6AI-4V, 2219 aluminum, and 5456 aluminum alloys, have been provided by NASA for the ISWE electron beam welding exercises using the UHT. These samples were chosen to replicate both the U.S. and Russian module materials. The ISWE requires extravehicular activity (EVA) of two astronauts to perform the space shuttle electron beam welding operations of the 61 alloy samples. This study was undertaken to determine if a hazard could exist with ISWE during the electron beam welding exercises in the Space Shuttle Bay using the Ukrainian Universal Weld System with the UHT. The safety issue has been raised with regard to molten metal detachments as a result of several

  2. The Impact of Weld Metal Creep Strength on the Overall Creep Strength of 9% Cr Steel Weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Peter; Mitsche, Stefan; Cerjak, Horst; Allen, Samuel Miller

    2010-01-01

    In this work, three joints of a X11CrMoWVNb9-1-1 (P911) pipe were welded with three filler metals by conventional arc welding. The filler metals varied in creep strength level, so that one overmatched, one undermatched, and one matched the creep strength of the P911 grade pipe base material. The long-term objective of this work was to study the influence of weld metal creep strength on the overall creep behavior of the welded joints and their failure mechanism. Uniaxial creep tests at 600°C a...

  3. Application of Hard Metal Weld Deposit in the Area of Mixing Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Any machine part is subject to degradation processes. Intensive wear occurs either when two bearing surfaces come into contact or when loose particles rub the function surface of a machine part. Soil processing machines are a good example. A similar process of abrasive wear occurs also in mixing machines or lines for material transport, such as worm-conveyors. The experiment part of this paper analyses hard metal weld deposit dedicated for renovation of abrasive stressed surfaces. In order to prolong the service life of a blade disc in a mixing machine Kreis-Biogas-Dissolver, the technology of hard surfacing by an electric arc was used. Tested hard metal electrodes were applied on a steel tape class 11 373. To eliminate mixing with the base material, weld beads were applied in two layers. Firstly, the weld bead was visually analyzed on a binocular microscope. Further, weld bead as well as the base material was analyzed from the metallographic point of view, whose aim was to identify the structure of weld metal and the origin of microcracks in weld bead. Moreover, there was also measured microhardness of weld metal. Abrasive resistance was tested according to the norm ČSN 01 5084, which is an abrasive cloth test. As in the mixing process also erosion wear occurs, there was also processed a test on a Bond device simulating stress of test samples by loose abrasive particles. The abrading agents were formed by broken stones of 8–16 mm in size. Based on the results of the individual tests, the recommendation of usage hard metal electrodes for prolonging service life of machine parts will be made.

  4. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  5. The Effects of Titanium on the Mechanical Properties of Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) of C-MN Steels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Since acicular ferrite is nucleated by the non-metallic inclusions present in the weld metal. Its presence is determined by the size, number, distribution and chemical composition of these inclusions...

  6. Computer Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding, a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld such as aluminum alloys. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and thus tracks the aluminum deformation flow paths in a unique 3-dimensional manner. CT scanning is a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  7. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is associated with heavy metal exposure in welding workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Su, Chien-Ling; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lin, Wen-Yi; Ma, Chih-Ming; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-12-17

    Metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure; however, few epidemiological studies have examined impacts of exposure to metal fumes on renal injury in welding workers. In total, 66 welding workers and 12 office workers were recruited from a shipyard located in southern Taiwan. Urine samples from each subject were collected at the beginning (baseline) and end of the work week (1-week exposure). Personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured. The 8-h mean PM2.5 was 50.3 μg/m(3) for welding workers and 27.4 μg/m(3) for office workers. iTRAQs coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to discover the pathways in response to welding PM2.5 in the urine, suggesting that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions are a critical mechanism. ECM-receptor interaction-related biomarkers for renal injury, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were significantly elevated in welding workers post-exposure, as well as were urinary Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni levels. NGAL was more significantly associated with Al (r = 0.737, p welding PM2.5 exposure. Nephrotoxicity (e.g., renal tubular injury) may be an emerging concern in occupational health.

  8. Weldability characteristics of shielded metal arc welded high strength quenched and tempered plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Mukerjee, D.; Jha, S.; Narasimhan, K.; Veeraraghavan, R.

    2002-02-01

    High strength, quench and tempered (Q&T) plates having yield strength of a minimum of 670 MPa and conforming to SA 517 Gr. F specification were successfully developed at Rourkela Steel Plant in plates up to 40 mm thickness. The plates are used extensively for the fabrication of impellers, penstocks, excavators, dumpers, and raw material handling devices, where welding is an important processing step. SA 517 Gr. F plates, characterized by a relatively high carbon equivalent (CE: ˜0.6) and alloyed with Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, and V, are susceptible to a crack-sensitive microstructure and cold cracking during welding. In view of the above, the present study investigated the weldability properties of 20 mm thick plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. Implant and elastic restraint cracking (ERC) tests were carried out to assess the cold cracking resistance of the weld joint under different welding conditions. Preheat of 100 °C, partial or full rebake, and a heat input of 14.9 to 15.4 KJ/cm resulted in static fatigue limit (SFL) values well in excess of the minimum specified yield strength (MSYS) of 670 MPa and a critical restraint intensity (K cr) value of 34,650 MPa, indicating adequate cold cracking resistance. Lamellar tear tests conducted using full thickness plates at heat input levels ranging from 9.7 to 14.4 KJ/cm and weld restraint loads (WRL) of 510 to 685 MPa showed no incidence of lamellar tear upon visual, ultrasonic, and four-section macroexamination. The weld joint, based on optimized welding parameters, exhibited adequate tensile strength (812.4 MPa) and low temperature impact toughness 88.3 and 63.4 J (9.2 and 6.6 kg-m) at -40 °C for weld metal (WM), and heat-affected zone (HAZ) properties, respectively. The crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) values of WM and HAZ (0.40 and 0.36 mm, respectively) were superior to that of the parent metal (0.29 mm), indicating adequate resistance of weld joint to brittle fracture. It was concluded that

  9. A comparative study of the microstructure and properties of 800 MPa microalloyed C-Mn steel welded joints by laser and gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qian [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Di, Hong-Shuang, E-mail: hongshuangdi_ral@126.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jun-Chen [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wu, Bao-Qiang [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Material and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    The differences in microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam welded (LBW) and gas metal arc welded (GMAW) joints of 800 MPa grade Nb-Ti-Mo microalloyed C-Mn steel of 5 mm thickness were studied. The study suggested that the microstructure in welded seam (WS) of GMAW was acicular ferrite and fine grained ferrite, whereas lath martensite (LM) was obtained in WS of LBW, where inclusions were finer and did not act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite. The microstructure of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) obtained using the two welding methods was LM and granular bainite (GB), respectively. The original austenite grain size in CGHAZ of LBW was 1/3 of GMAW. The microstructure of fine-grained HAZ and mixed-grained HAZ using the two welding methods was ferrite and M-A constituents, while that of LBW was significantly fine. The hardness of LBW welded joints was higher than the base metal (BM), which was the initiation site for tensile fracture. The tensile fracture location of GMAW welded joints was in WS. The impact toughness of LBW welded joints was excellent and the impact absorption energy was similar to BM.

  10. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man [Korea Maritime University, Dong Sam-Dong,Yong Do-ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Tae-Sil [Pohang College, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode.

  11. Stability evaluation of short-circuiting gas metal arc welding based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Kehong; Zhou, Zhilan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jimi

    2017-03-01

    The arc of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) contains abundant information about its stability and droplet transition, which can be effectively characterized by extracting the arc electrical signals. In this study, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to evaluate the stability of electrical current signals. The welding electrical signals were first decomposed by EEMD, and then transformed to a Hilbert-Huang spectrum and a marginal spectrum. The marginal spectrum is an approximate distribution of amplitude with frequency of signals, and can be described by a marginal index. Analysis of various welding process parameters showed that the marginal index of current signals increased when the welding process was more stable, and vice versa. Thus EEMD combined with the marginal index can effectively uncover the stability and droplet transition of GMAW.

  12. PRODUCTION OF METAL CHEMICAL WELDING ADDITIVE WITH NANODISPERSED PARTICLES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLDYREV Alexander Mikhaylovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When welding bridge structures automatic welding under a gumboil layer with metal chemical additive (MCA is widely applied in the modern bridge building. MCA consists of a chopped welding wire (granulated material, which is powdered by modifying chemical additive of titanium dioxide (TiO₂ in the cylindrical mixer «drunk cask». Chemical composition of all welding materials including welding wire, gumboil, electrodes, are strictly normalized and controlled. However, the existing technology of producing MCA doesn’t allow precise controlling of its structure under working conditions and that causes an impact on the stability of welded connections properties. Therefore the aim of this work is to develop a technology to produce stable MCA structure. The paper compares the existing and proposed manufacturing techniques of the metal chemical additive (MCA which is applied in automatic welding of butt connections for bridge structures. It is shown that production of MCA in a high-energy planetary mill provides more stable structure of the additive introduced into a welded joint. The granulometric analysis of the powder TiO₂ showed that when processing MCA in a planetary mill TiO₂ particles are crashed to nanodimensional order. This process is accompanied by crushing of granulated material too. The proposed method for production of MCA in a planetary mill provides stronger cohesion of dioxide with the granulate surface and, as a consequence, more stable MCA chemical structure. Application of MCA which has been mechanical intensified in a planetary mill, increases stability of mechanical properties, if compare with applied technology, in single-order by breaking point and almost twice by impact viscosity.

  13. The Impact of Teaching Oxy-Fuel Welding on Gas Metal Arc Welding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Sergio D.; Field, Dennis W.; Freeman, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial technology programs around the country must be sensitive to the demands of manufacturing and industry as they continue to replace "vocational" curriculum with high-tech alternatives. This article examines whether or not teaching oxyacetylene welding in the industrial technology classroom is required to learn arc welding…

  14. Elucidation of Metallic Plume and Spatter Characteristics Based on SVM During High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; Liu, Guiqian

    2015-01-01

    During deep penetration laser welding, there exist plume (weak plasma) and spatters, which are the results of weld material ejection due to strong laser heating. The characteristics of plume and spatters are related to welding stability and quality. Characteristics of metallic plume and spatters were investigated during high-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates at a continuous wave laser power of 10 kW. An ultraviolet and visible sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the metallic plume and spatter images. Plume area, laser beam path through the plume, swing angle, distance between laser beam focus and plume image centroid, abscissa of plume centroid and spatter numbers are defined as eigenvalues, and the weld bead width was used as a characteristic parameter that reflected welding stability. Welding status was distinguished by SVM (support vector machine) after data normalization and characteristic analysis. Also, PCA (principal components analysis) feature extraction was used to reduce the dimensions of feature space, and PSO (particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize the parameters of SVM. Finally a classification model based on SVM was established to estimate the weld bead width and welding stability. Experimental results show that the established algorithm based on SVM could effectively distinguish the variation of weld bead width, thus providing an experimental example of monitoring high-power disk laser welding quality.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.54 - Welding, cutting and heating of hollow metal containers and structures not covered by § 1915.12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating of hollow metal containers and... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.54 Welding, cutting and heating of... which have contained flammable substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is undertaken on...

  16. TIG AISI-316 welds using an inert gas welding chamber and different filler metals: Changes in mechanical properties and microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This report analyses the influence of the use of an inert gas welding chamber with a totally inert atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel TIG welds, using AISI ER316L, AISI 308L and Inconel 625 as filler metals. When compared with the typical TIG process, the use of the inert gas chamber induced changes in the microstructure, mainly an increase in the presence of vermicular ferrite and ferrite stringers, what resulted in higher yield strengths and lower values of hardness. Its effect on other characteristics of the joins, such as tensile strength, depended on the filler metal. The best combination of mechanical characteristics was obtained when welding in the inert gas chamber using Inconel 625 as filler metal.

    En este estudio se analiza la influencia que el uso de una cámara de soldadura de gas inerte tiene sobre la microestructura y las propiedades mecánicas de las soldaduras TIG en el acero inoxidable austenítico AISI-316L cuando se emplean AISI ER316L, AISI 308L e Inconel 625 como materiales de aporte. Cuando se compara con el típico proceso de TIG, el uso de una cámara de gas inerte induce cambios en la microestructura, incrementando la presencia de ferrita vermicular y de laminillas de ferrita, resultando en un aumento del límite elástico y una pérdida de dureza. Su influencia sobre otras características de las soldaduras como la carga de rotura depende de la composición del material de aporte. La mejor combinación de propiedades mecánicas se obtuvo usando el Inconel 625 como material de aporte y soldando en la cámara de gas inerte.

  17. Effect of Microstructure on Hydrogen Diffusion in Weld and API X52 Pipeline Steel Base Metals under Cathodic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of microstructure on hydrogen permeation of weld and API X52 base metal under cathodic protection. The microstructures analyzed were of the API X52, as received, quenched, and annealed, and the welded zone. The test was performed in base metal (BM, quenched base metal (QBM, annealed base metal (ABM, and weld metal (WM. Hydrogen permeation flows were evaluated using electrochemical tests in a Devanathan cell. The potentiodynamic polarization curves were carried out to evaluate the corrosion resistance of each microstructure. All tests were carried out in synthetic soil solutions NS4 and NS4 + sodium thiosulfate at 25°C. The sodium thiosulfate was used to simulate sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB. Through polarization, assays established that the microstructure does not influence the corrosion resistance. The permeation tests showed that weld metal had lower hydrogen flow than base metal as received, quenched, and annealed.

  18. IR-Laser Welding and Ablation of Biotissue Stained with Metal Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lalayan, A A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the possibility of laser welding and ablation of biological tissue by the using of spherical metal nanoparticles (NPs) and infrared laser irradiation which spectrally located far from plasmon resonances. YAG:Nd laser with 1064 nm wavelength, 8 ns pulse duration, and operating in transverse electromagnetic modes TEM$_{00}$ was used for the synthesis of metal NPs. The Au,Ti Ni and Cu as well as Au-Ag and Au-Cu hybrid metal NPs were formed in the liquid medium. Effectiveness of laser ablation in the case of the biotissue sample that stained with the metal NPs was approximately on 4-5 times larger than for the native sample. Also the scheme of a laser point welding for the deep-located biotissue layer selectively stained by the metal NPs has been demonstrated.

  19. Cleaning Effect of Interlayer Metal on the Joining Surface during Braze Pressure Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yohei; Suzumura, Akio; Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Yamazaki, Takahisa

    Braze Pressure Welding (BPW) with high frequency induction heating is a newly developed pressure welding technique using interlayer metals for welding the general steel pipes for pipe arrangement in buildings. BPW enables to make joints by solid-state welding in air with relatively small deformation. In this method, the interlayer metal is expected to play the primary role in making high performance joints. It removes contaminations from the joining surface of the base metal and forms fillets at the gaps around the joint. It had been revealed by some experiments and/or numerical analyses in previous research that the BPW joint had higher tensile strength than the brazed joint, and that the fillet can improve the joint strength. In this study, in order to investigate the cleaning effect of interlayer metal more closely, a low carbon steel plate specimen was brazed mainly by Ni-based brazing filler using a tungsten spacer. The microscopy and EPMA analysis on the joints made by various brazing temperatures and durations confirmed that the oxide films on the joining surfaces were removed and discharged from the joining region by the interlayer metal.

  20. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  1. Experimental Investigation and Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya BOZKURT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a relatively contemporary solid state welding process and has been employed in aerospace, railway, automotive and marine industries for joining of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, titanium, copper alloys, dissimilar metals and thermoplastics. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed and tilt angle play an important role in deciding the joining quality. The present study defines the effect of FSW process on the tensile properties of the AA2124/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC plates. Obtained results showed that the joint efficiency decreases by increasing the tool traverse speed while tool rotation speed was kept constant. Second contribution of this study is the application of decision tree technique to predict the tensile properties of friction stir welded MMC plates. It is seen that methodology can be applied with great accuracy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3092

  2. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  3. Slag-metal reactions during welding: Part I. Evaluation and reassessment of existing theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1991-02-01

    A critical review of current thermodynamic theories of slag-metal reactions is presented. A series of preliminary experiments indicates that the previously proposed droplet theory is incorrect and the primary reactions controlling Mn, Si, and Cr content occur in the weld pool. In addition, these experiments show that the net transfer of oxygen is independent of the transfer of Mn and Si.

  4. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R; Kashon, Michael L; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dt(max) at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dt(min) in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction.

  5. The Evolution of Microstructures and the Properties of Bulk Metallic Glass with Consubstantial Composition Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingjun Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 plate-like bulk metallic glass (BMG was prepared using copper mold suction casting. Additionally, alloy powders with the same nominal composition were synthesized. The alloy powders were welded or melted to the cleaned surface of the BMG with a laser beam acceleration voltage of 60 kV, a beam current range from 60 to 100 mA, a welding speed of 60 mm/s, as well as an impulse width of 3.0 ms. The effect of consubstantial composition welding on the microstructures and properties was investigated. The molten and subsequently solidified metallic mixtures remain an amorphous structure, but the enthalpy of the welded or melted position varies due to the combination of the micro-structural relaxation and nano-crystals precipitated during the energy inputs. The surface layers of the BMG can be significantly intensified after welding processes; however, the heat-affected zones (HAZs exhibit a slight degradation in mechanical properties with respect to the BMG matrix. This study has important reference value for specialists working on the promotion of applications of BMGs.

  6. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    2002-01-01

    The improvement in weld quality by the friction stir welding (FSW) process invented by TWI of Cambridge, England, patented in 1991, has prompted investigation of this process for advanced structural materials including Al metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) materials. Such materials can have high specific stiffness and other potential beneficial properties for the extreme environments in space. Developments of discontinuous reinforced Al-MMCs have found potential space applications and the future for such applications is quite promising. The space industry has recognized advantages of the FSW process over conventional welding processes such as the absence of a melt zone, reduced distortion, elimination of the need for shielding gases, and ease of automation. The process has been well proven for aluminum alloys, and work is being carried out for ferrous materials, magnesium alloys and copper alloys. Development work in the FSW welding process for joining of Al-MMCs is relatively recent and some of this and related work can be found in referenced research publications. NASA engineers have undertaken to spear head this research development work for FSW process investigation of Al-MMCs. Some of the reported related work has pointed out the difficulty in fusion welding of particulate reinforced MMCs where liquid Al will react with SiC to precipitate aluminum carbide (Al4C3). Advantages of no such reaction and no need for joint preparation for the FSW process is anticipated in the welding of Al-MMCs. The FSW process has been best described as a combination of extrusion and forging of metals. This is carried out as the pin tool rotates and is slowly plunged into the bond line of the joint as the pin tool's shoulder is in intimate contact with the work piece. The material is friction-stirred into a quality weld. Al-MMCs, 4 in. x 12 in. plates of 0.25 in. (6.35mm) thickness, procured from MMCC, Inc. were butt welded using FSW process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using

  7. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub project 1 - Ex-serviced parent metal and virgin weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Weilin Zang

    2006-10-15

    Many existing power generating and process plants, where low alloy heat resistant CrMo(V) steels are extensively used for critical components, have exceeded their design lifetime of usually 100,000 hours. Assessment of residual lifetime and extension of economic life by weld repair have become increasingly important and attractive. This project aims at i) performing weld repair and determining the degree of mismatching, ii) evaluating the creep properties of weld repairs, iii) analysing creep behaviour of weld repair and providing necessary data for further reliable simulations of weld repair creep behaviour in long term service, and iv), simulating and assessing lifetime and creep damage evolution of weld repair. Weld repair using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables has been carried out in a service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe. Creep specimens have been extracted from the service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM), from the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal (WM), from the virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM as well as from the virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. Iso-thermal uniaxial creep tests have been performed at 540 deg C in air. Pre- and post-metallography are carried out on the selected samples. FEM simulations using obtained creep data are executed. Pre-test metallography shows normal and acceptable weld repairs at given welding conditions. Creep tests demonstrate that the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 WMs have apparently longer creep lifetime than the service-exposed CrMo 9 10 PM at higher stresses than 110 MPa. Among the weld metals, the longest creep lifetime is found in 10 CrMo 9 10. Higher creep strength and lower creep strain rate in the weld metals indicate an overmatch weld. At 95 MPa, however, lifetime of 13 CrMo 4 4 WM is surprisingly short (factors which may shorten lifetime are discussed and one more test will start to verify creep strength at low stress) and tests are still running for other two weld metals. More results regarding low stress

  8. Oxidation behavior of base metal, weld metal and HAZ regions of SMAW weldment in ASTM SA210 GrA1 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ravindra [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: ravirs_2002@rediffmail.com; Tewari, V.K.; Prakash, Satya [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-24

    Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) was used to weld together ASTM SA210 GrA1 steel. The oxidation studies were conducted on different regions of shielded metal arc weldment i.e., base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) specimens after exposure to air at 900 deg. C under cyclic conditions. The thermo-gravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) techniques were used to analyze the oxidation products. Base metal showed more weight gain than that of weld metal and HAZ. The HAZ specimen showed the least weight gain due to the formation of densely inner oxide scale.

  9. Application of a second-gradient model of ductile fracture on a Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A “micromorphic”, second-gradient model applicable to ductile porous materials has been proposed, as an improvement from the fundamental work of Gurson that take into account the physical mechanisms responsible for ductile damage. The model has been applied to the study of fracture of the decarburized layer of a Dissimilar Metal Weld. The model successfully reproduces the crack path experimentally observed in a notched tensile sample extracted from this weld, different from the one predicted by the first gradient model.

  10. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards for Electron Beam Welding in the Space Environment: Analysis and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C.; Bhat, B.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment are analyzed. A weld pool detachment parameter specifying conditions for pool detachment by impact is derived and corroborated by experimental evidence. Impact detachment for the pool is unlikely. Impact detachment for a drop of metal on the end of the weld wire may be possible under extreme conditions. Other potential causes of molten metal detachment considered, vaporization pressure forces and wire flickout from the pool, did not appear to present significant detachment threats.

  11. Friction-Stir Welding - Heavy Inclusions in Bi-metallic welds of Al 2219/2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Ward W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Inclusions (HI) were detected for the first time by radiographic examination in aluminum alloy 2219forging/2195plate (advancing/retreating side) Friction Sir Welds (FSW) for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Program. Radiographic HI indications appear as either small (approx.0.005"-0.025") individual particles or clusters of small particles. Initial work was performed to verify that the HI was not foreign material or caused by FSW pin tool debris. That and subsequent elemental analysis determined that the HI were large agglomerations of Al2Cu (theta phase), which is the strengthening precipitate in Al2219. A literature search on that subject determined that the agglomeration of phase has also been found in Al2219 bead on plate FSW [Ref. 1]. Since this was detected in ET space flight hardware, an investigative study of the effect of agglomerated theta phase particles in FSW Al2219f/2195p was performed. Numerous panels of various lengths were welded per ET weld procedures and radiographically inspected to determine if any HI was detected. Areas that had HI were sampled for room temperature and cyclic cryogenic (-423F) tensile testing and determined no significant adverse affect on mechanical properties when compared to test specimens without HI and historical data. Fracture surface examination using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) revealed smaller phase agglomerations undetectable by radiographic inspection dispersed throughout the Al2219f/2195p FSW. This indicates that phase agglomeration is inherent to the Al2219f/2195p FSW process and only rarely creates agglomerations large enough to be detected by radiography. HI has not been observed in FSW of plate to plate material for either Al2219 or AL2195.

  12. Research of state of metal welded joint by deformation and corrosion surface projection parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Maria Vyacheslavovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At industrial enterprises in building structures and equipment one can see corrosion damage, as well as damage accumulated during operation period. The areas of stress concentration are welded joints as their structure is heterogeneous. From the point of view of the scale hierarchy, the welded joint represents the welded and base metal zones at the meso-macrolevel, the weld zone, the thermal zone, the base metal at the micro-mesolevel, the grain constituents at the nano-microlevel. Borders are the stress concentrators at different scale levels, thus they becomes the most dangerous places of metal structure. Modeling by the molecular dynamics method at the atomic level has shown nanocracks initiation in triple junctions of grain boundaries and on the ledges of the grain boundaries. Due to active development of nanotechnology, it became possible to evaluate the state of the weld metal at the nanoscale, where irreversible changes take place from the very beginning. Existing methods of nondestructive testing can detect damage only at the meso- and macrolevel. Modern equipment makes it possible to use other methods of control and approaches. For example, according to GOST R55046-2012 and R57223-2016, the analysis of the parameters of the surface projection deformation performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy should be taken into account when the evaluation of state of metal pipelines is carried out. However, there is a problem to monitore it due to various factors affecting the surface during operation. The paper proposes an additional method to estimate the state of weld metal at any stage of deformation that uses 3D analysis of the parameters of the «artificial» corrosion relief of surface. During the operation period changes in the stress-strain state and structure of the metal take place, as the result the character and depth of etching of the grains of the structural components and their boundaries change too. Evaluation of the

  13. The Effect of Filler Wire and Flux Compositions on the Microstructure and Properties of Microalloyed Steel Weld Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    bainite, or even 0 T-2942 19 I if- N..4 oil ’ 100 Fiur 5. Eapl fwedmtl ccla erie (F fon in -iraloe HSL stes (%, th 1500x 1 ,I. KT-2942 20 0 h.. V U -CL...deoxidation and/or desulphurisation practice on the weld metal toughness of high dilution welds, Given in Proc. Intl. Conf. on The effects of

  14. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (ΔT) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. ΔT increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of ΔT was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in ΔT and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  15. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  16. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  17. Total Fume and Metal Concentrations during Welding in Selected Factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid Goknil

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder’s health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers’ welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m3 (Factory 1, 5.3 mg/m3 (Factory 2, 11.3 mg/m3 (Factory 3, 6.8 mg/m3 (Factory 4, 4.7 mg/m3 (Factory 5, and 3.0 mg/m3 (Factory 6. Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m3–0.477 mg/m3, 0.001 mg/m3–0.080 mg/m3 and 0.001 mg/m3–0.058 mg/m3 respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1, 1.56 (Factory 2, 5.14 (Factory 3, 2.21 (Factory 4, 2.89 (Factory 5, and 1.20 (Factory 6. The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems.

  18. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems.

  19. Modeling of Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Manufacturing Processes Applications in Metal Forming and Resistance Welding

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, C V; Alves, L M; Bay, N; Martins, P A F

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Manufacturing Processes with Applications in Metal Forming and Resistance Welding provides readers with a basic understanding of the fundamental ingredients in plasticity, heat transfer and electricity that are necessary to develop and proper utilize computer programs based on the finite element flow formulation.   Computer implementation of a wide range of theoretical and numerical subjects related to mesh generation, contact algorithms, elasticity, anisotropic constitutive equations, solution procedures and parallelization of equation solvers is comprehensively described.   Illustrated and enriched with selected examples obtained from industrial applications, Modeling of Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Manufacturing Processes with Applications in Metal Forming and Resistance Welding works to diminish the gap between the developers of finite element computer programs and the professional engineers with expertise in industrial joining technologies by metal forming and resista...

  20. Friction Stir Welding of SiC/Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    1999-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a new solid state process for joining metals by plasticizing and consolidating materials around the bond line using thermal energy producing from frictional forces. A feasibility study for FSW of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) was investigated using aluminum 6092 alloy reinforced with 17% SiC particulates. FSW process consists of a special rotating pin tool that is positioned to plunge into the MMC surface at the bond line. As the tool rotates and move forward along the bond line, the material at the bond line is heated up and forced to flow around the rotating tip to consolidate on the tip's backside to form a solid state joint. FSW has the potential for producing sound welds with MMC because the processing temperature occurs well below the melting point of the metal matrix; thereby eliminating the reinforcement-to-matrix solidification defects, reducing the undesirable chemical reactions and porosity problems.

  1. Influence of Mode of Metal Transfer on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Metal Arc-Welded Modified Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Manidipto; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-06-01

    This article describes in detail the effect of the modes of metal transfer on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas metal arc-welded modified ferritic stainless steel (SSP 409M) sheets (as received) of 4 mm thickness. The welded joints were prepared under three modes of metal transfer, i.e., short-circuit (SC), spray (S), transfer, and mix (M) mode transfer using two different austenitic filler wires (308L and 316L) and shielding gas composition of Ar + 5 pct CO2. The welded joints were evaluated by means of microstructural, hardness, notched tensile strength, Charpy impact toughness, and high cycle fatigue. The dependence of weld metal microstructure on modes of metal transfer and filler wires has been determined by dilution calculation, WRC-1992 diagram, Creq/Nieq ratio, stacking fault energy (SFE), optical microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the microstructure as well as the tensile, Charpy impact, and high cycle fatigue of weld metal is significantly affected by the mode of metal transfer and filler wire used. However, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is affected only by the modes of metal transfer. The results have been correlated with the microstructures of weld and HAZ developed under different modes of metal transfer.

  2. Corrosion behavior of dissimilar weld joint of 316L and alloy 182 filler metal with different post-weld heat treatments in saline environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Joao H.N.; Santos, Neice F.; Esteves, Luiza; Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: joao.garcia@cdtn.br, E-mail: nfs@cdtn.br, E-mail: luiza.esteves@cdtn.br, E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEIES/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Integridade Estrutural

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steel and nickel alloys are widely used in nuclear reactors components and other plants of energy generation, chemical and petrochemical industries, due to their high corrosion resistance. These metals require post weld heat treatment (PWHT) to relieve stresses from the welding processes, although it can lead to a degradation of the weld microstructure. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of different PWHT on corrosion behavior of a dissimilar weld joint of two AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel plates with nickel alloy as filler material in saline environments. The material was submitted to heat treatments for three hours at 600, 700 and 800 °C. The weld joint was examined by optical microscopy to determine the effects of PWHT in the microstructure. The corrosion behavior of the samples before and after heat treatment was evaluated using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) in sodium chloride solutions (19% v/v) and pH 4.0 at room temperature. Metallographic analyses showed that delta ferrite dissolute with PWHT temperature increase. CPP curves demonstrated an increase of pitting corrosion resistance as the PWHT temperature increases, although the pit size has been increased. The heat treated weld joint at 600 °C showed corrosion resistance close to the as welded material. (author)

  3. Characterization of the Multi-Pass Weld Metal and the Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Its Microstructure and Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Shang, Chengjia; Wang, Xuemin

    In multi-pass welding process, various thermal cycle of both weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) will be subjected several times. This will make the initial microstructure occur an irreversible transformation. As the transformed microstructure become extremely complex, the mechanical properties, especially the low temperature toughness are very much fluctuant. In this research, the microstructure and low temperature toughness of WM obtained from a real multi-pass weld joint (up to 55 mm) by submerged arc welding have been elaborated. The results indicated that the necklace-type coarse martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent formed in interlayer heat affected zone (IHAZ) of WM and the impact energy of WM at -40 °C was only 39 J. Furthermore, by conventional tempering with holding time of 30 min, the toughness of WM can't be effectively improved. However, by a new developed heat treatment process, the toughness of WM could be significantly improved, and it is believed to be caused by the composition of weld metal and the post-welding heat treatment process. It also shows that the decomposition of M-A constituent and formation of the retained austenite are the mechanism of the improvement of low temperature toughness.

  4. Soluble transition metals cause the pro-inflammatory effects of welding fumes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Jane D; Heal, Mathew R; Beverland, Iain J; Howe, Alan; Gibson, Mark D; Hibbs, Leon R; MacNee, William; Donaldson, Ken

    2004-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a higher incidence of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, metal fume fever (MFF), and chronic pneumonitis among welders exposed to high concentrations of metal-enriched welding fumes. Here, we studied the molecular toxicology of three different metal-rich welding fumes: NIMROD 182, NIMROD c276, and COBSTEL 6. Fume toxicity in vitro was determined by exposing human type II alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) to whole welding fume, a soluble extract of fume or the "washed" particulate. All whole fumes were significantly toxic to A549 cells at doses >63 microg ml(-1) (TD 50; 42, 25, and 12 microg ml(-1), respectively). NIMROD c276 and COBSTEL 6 fumes increased levels of IL-8 mRNA and protein at 6 h and protein at 24 h, as did the soluble fraction alone, whereas metal chelation of the soluble fraction using chelex beads attenuated the effect. The soluble fraction of all three fumes caused a rapid depletion in intracellular glutathione following 2-h exposure with a rebound increase by 24 h. In addition, both nickel based fumes, NIMROD 182 and NIMROD c276, induced significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in A549 cells after 2 h as determined by DCFH fluorescence. ICP analysis confirmed that transition metal concentrations were similar in the whole and soluble fractions of each fume (dominated by Cr), but significantly less in both the washed particles and chelated fractions. These results support the hypothesis that the enhanced pro-inflammatory responses of welding fume particulates are mediated by soluble transition metal components via an oxidative stress mechanism.

  5. Estimation of residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals at nuclear power plants using cascaded support vetor regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Young Do; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Residual stress is a critical element in determining the integrity of parts and the lifetime of welded structures. It is necessary to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone because residual stress is a major reason for the generation of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plants. That is, it is necessary to estimate the distribution of the residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals under manifold welding conditions. In this study, a cascaded support vector regression (CSVR) model was presented to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone. The CSVR model was serially and consecutively structured in terms of SVR modules. Using numerical data obtained from finite element analysis by a subtractive clustering method, learning data that explained the characteristic behavior of the residual stress of a welding zone were selected to optimize the proposed model. The results suggest that the CSVR model yielded a better estimation performance when compared with a classic SVR model.

  6. Estimation of residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals at nuclear power plants using cascaded support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Do Koo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress is a critical element in determining the integrity of parts and the lifetime of welded structures. It is necessary to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone because residual stress is a major reason for the generation of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plants. That is, it is necessary to estimate the distribution of the residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals under manifold welding conditions. In this study, a cascaded support vector regression (CSVR model was presented to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone. The CSVR model was serially and consecutively structured in terms of SVR modules. Using numerical data obtained from finite element analysis by a subtractive clustering method, learning data that explained the characteristic behavior of the residual stress of a welding zone were selected to optimize the proposed model. The results suggest that the CSVR model yielded a better estimation performance when compared with a classic SVR model.

  7. Micro-jet Cooling by Compressed Air after MAG Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.; Tarasiuk W.; Stanik Z.; Gabrylewski M.

    2016-01-01

    The material selected for this investigation was low alloy steel weld metal deposit (WMD) after MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. The present investigation was aimed as the following tasks: analyze impact toughness of WMD in terms of micro-jet cooling parameters. Weld metal deposit (WMD) was first time carried out for MAG welding with micro-jet cooling of compressed air and gas mixture of argon and air. Until that moment only argon, helium and nitrogen and its gas mixture were tested for mi...

  8. Micro-jet Cooling by Compressed Air after MAG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The material selected for this investigation was low alloy steel weld metal deposit (WMD after MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. The present investigation was aimed as the following tasks: analyze impact toughness of WMD in terms of micro-jet cooling parameters. Weld metal deposit (WMD was first time carried out for MAG welding with micro-jet cooling of compressed air and gas mixture of argon and air. Until that moment only argon, helium and nitrogen and its gas mixture were tested for micro-jet cooling.

  9. An investigation of the weld region of the SAE 1020 joined with metal active gas and determination of the mismatch factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, C.; Tokdemir, M.

    1999-10-01

    In this study, the joining process of SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been completed using the metal active gas (MAG) weld method. The goal of this study was to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the joining process, mechanical properties of the samples of the base metal (BM), the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal (WM) were investigated, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) test was performed.

  10. Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Todd; Conroy, Lorraine; Lacey, Steven; Plavka, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) were sampled for thirty-eight workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on 37 mm open face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO(2) and O(3) exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher 474 μg/m(3) for welders than non-welders 60 μg/m(3) (p=0.001). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations of NO(2) and O(3) than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.

  11. Experimental Investigation on Acoustic Control Droplet Transfer in Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weifeng, Xie; Chenglei, Fan; Chunli, Yang; Sanbao, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic-wave-assisted gas metal arc welding (U-GMAW) is a new, advanced arc welding method that uses an ultrasonic wave emitted from an ultrasonic radiator above the arc. However, it remains unclear how the ultrasonic wave affects the metal droplet, hindering further application of U-GMAW. In this paper, an improved U-GMAW system was used and its superiority was experimentally demonstrated. Then a series of experiments were designed and performed to study how the ultrasonic wave affects droplet transfer, including droplet size, velocity, and motion trajectory. The behavior of droplet transfer was observed in high-speed images. The droplet transfer is closely related to the distribution of the acoustic field, determined by the ultrasonic current. Moreover, by analyzing the variably accelerated motion of the droplet, the acoustic control of the droplet transfer was intuitively demonstrated. Finally, U-GMAW was successfully used in vertical-up and overhead welding experiments, showing that U-GMAW is promising for use in welding in all positions.

  12. Nitrogen Rings and Cages Stabilized by Metallic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    1 UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO DEPARTAMENTO DE QUIMICA DIVISION DE CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS Dr. Gabriel Merino NORIA ALTA s/n...CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS Principal Investigator: Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química Universidad de Guanajuato Noria Alta...Final Report 1 Sep 06-31 Aug 09 NITROGEN RINGS AND CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS FA9550-06-1-0555 Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química

  13. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of a New Type of 10% Cr Martensitic Steel Welded Joints with Ni-Based Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunbing; Zhang, Jianxun

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a new type of 10% Cr martensitic steel welded joints with Ni-based weld metal was comparatively studied for different regions including base metal (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). FCG results indicated that the tempered lath martensite BM has a higher fatigue crack growth resistance than the tempered granular martensite HAZ that without a typical lath structure. In comparison, the austenitic WM has the highest fatigue crack growth threshold. Meanwhile, due to the microstructural and chemical compositional differences between BM and WM, a clear interface existed in the welded joints. At the region of the interface, the microstructures were physically connected and an element transition layer was formed. Although the starter notch was positioned at the region of interface, the fatigue crack gradually deviated from the interface and ultimately propagated along the inter-critically heat-affected zone. The difference in microstructure is considered as the primary factor that resulted in the different fatigue crack growth behaviors of the welded joints. In addition, the continuous microstructure connection and composition transition at the interface contributed to the good fatigue resistance at this region.

  14. effect of post-weld heat treatment on the microstructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    among others are shielded metal arc welding, submerge arc welding, gas metal arc welding, plasma arc welding, gas ... welding (SMAW) technique is preferable to the other techniques ..... studies''International Journal of Innovative Research.

  15. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel-Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin; Lee, Bong Ho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  16. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Ho [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  17. Reheat cracking susceptibility of P23 (7CrWVMoNb9-6) steel welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, Pekka; Salonen, Jorma; Auerkari, Pertti; Rantala, Juhani; Holmstroem, Stefan [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Reheat cracking sensitivity of 7CrWVMoNb9-6 (P23) thick-section multipass welds has been investigated by Gleeble simulation, mechanical testing, fractography and metallography. The results demonstrate that the experimental weld metal made using a high-Nb-W-Ti-B type filler metal was sensitive to reheat cracking, with a reduction of area no more than 2-3% in the BWI reheat cracking (RC) test. Welds made using a high-W -low-Ti type filler metal with Nb content similar to the parent steel, as well as welds make using a Ni-Nb-Ti-free-(W-free) type filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material, were more ductile and crack-resistant, though with reduced cross-weld creep strength. Fractography of RC test specimens showed evidence of pronounced localisation of damage at the prior austenite grain boundaries of the thermally reheated, experimental P23 weld metal. The reheat cracking susceptibility of the less ductile weld metal was apparently related both to the chemical composition (higher B, Nb and Ti content) and sub-structural features of the coarse-grained reheated weld metal microstructure. Appropriate single- and multi-cycle thermal Gleeble simulations to produce representative HAY and reheated weld metal microstructures (as function of peak temperature), in conjunction with the BWI RC test were successfully applied to characterise the reheat cracking sensitivity of the candidate weld metals and parent steel HAZ. (orig.)

  18. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 56.15007 Section 56.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. ...

  20. Power characteristics of the metal compounds formation process during the friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzaev Radmir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of the power characteristics on the formation process of the uniform metals compound during the welding with friction stirringis being examined in this article.A dependency between the machine-tool engine power input and the instrument tilt during the FSW for the aluminum alloy AD31, copper alloy M1, titanium alloy OT4-1 and steel St-3 low-alloyed has been explored. A question of the stabilization of power consumption process while the establishment of superplastic condition of welded metal during the FSW has also been reviewed. A dependency revealed between the power characteristics, the geometry of the formation, the rotation speeds, the longitudinal displacement of the tool and its dimensions for fixed values of the parameters during the FSW.

  1. Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique for Accurate Flaw Sizing in Dissimilar Metal Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D Buttram

    2005-03-11

    Described is a manual,portable non-destructive technique to determine the through wall height of cracks present in dissimilar metal welds used in the primary coolling systems of pressure water and boiler light water reactors. Current manual methods found in industry have proven not to exhibit the sizing accuracy required by ASME inspection requirement. The technique described demonstrated an accuracy approximately three times that required to ASME Section XI, Appendix 8 qualification.

  2. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only......, the cancellation of nonlinear terms might give rise to problems with respect to robustness. Robustness of the closed loop system is therefore nvestigated by simulation....

  3. Anti-Thixotropic Analysis of Pipeline Metal Losses in Welded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was verified by measuring the metal losses using the Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Gauge. The Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement ... This investigation showed that the sand trap built in situ to sieve the sand and stones from the oil reservoir had failed. Keywords: erosion wear rate, metal losses, ...

  4. Changes in Precipitate Distributions and the Microstructural Evolution of P24/P91 Dissimilar Metal Welds During PWHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Karl E.; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Chi, Kuangnan; Barnard, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The effect of post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) on the evolution of precipitate phases in dissimilar metal welds made between 9 pct Cr P91 alloy and 2.25 pct Cr T/P24-type weld metal has been investigated. Sections of multi-pass fusion welds were analyzed in their as welded condition and after PWHTs of 2 and 8 hour duration at 1003 K (730 °C). Thin foil specimens and carbon extraction replicas have been examined in transmission electron microscopes in order to identify precipitate phases and substantiate their distributions in close proximity to the fusion line. The findings of these studies confirm that a carbon-depleted region develops in the lower alloyed weld material, adjacent to the weld interface, during thermal processing. A corresponding carbon enriched region is formed, simultaneously, in the coarse grain heat affected zone of the P91 parent alloy. It has been demonstrated that carbon depletion from the weld alloy results in the dissolution of M7C3 and M23C6 chromium carbides. However, micro-alloying additions of vanadium and niobium which are made to both the P24 and P91 alloys facilitate the precipitation of stable, nano-scale, MX carbonitride particles. This work demonstrates that these particles, which are of key importance to the strength of ferritic creep resistant alloys, are retained in carbon-depleted regions. The microstructural stability which is conferred by their retention means that the pernicious effects of recrystallization are largely avoided.

  5. The use of new PHACOMP in understanding the solidification microstructure of nickel base alloy weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, M. J.; Knorovsky, G. A.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.

    1986-12-01

    The weld metal microstructures of five commercial nickel base alloys (HASTELLOYS* C-4, C-22, and C-276, and INCONELS* 625 and 718) have been examined by electron probe microanalysis and analytical electron microscopy. It has been found that solidification terminates in many of these alloys with the formation of a constituent containing a topologically-close-packed (TCP) intermetallic phase (i.e., σ, P, Laves). Electron microprobe examination of gas-tungsten-arc welds revealed a solidification segregation pattern of Ni depletion and solute enrichment in interdendritic volumes. New PHACOMP calculations performed on these segregation profiles revealed a pattern of increasing M d (metal- d levels) in traversing from a dendrite core to an adjacent interdendritic volume. In alloys forming a terminal solidification TCP constituent, the calculated M d values in interdendritic regions were greater than the critical M d values for formation of σ as stated by Morinaga et al. Implications of the correlation between TCP phase formation and M d in the prediction of weld metal solidification microstructure, prediction of potential hot-cracking behavior, and applications in future alloy design endeavors are discussed.

  6. Analysis of Deformation and Failure Behaviors of TIG Welded Dissimilar Metal Joints Using Miniature Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji-Hwan; Jahanzeb, Nabeel; Kim, Min-Seong; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Shi-Hoon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The deformation and failure behaviors of dissimilar metal joints between SS400 steel and STS316L steel were investigated. The dissimilar metal joints were fabricated using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with STS309 steel as a filler metal. The microstructures of the dissimilar metal joints were investigated using an optical microscope and EBSD technique. The mechanical properties of the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) were measured using a micro-hardness and micro-tension tester combined with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The HAZ of the STS316L steel exhibited the highest micro-hardness value, and yield/tensile strengths, while the BM of the SS440 steel exhibited the lowest micro-hardness value and yield /tensile strengths. The grain size refinement in the HAZ of SS400 steel induced an enhancement of micro-hardness value and yield/tensile strengths compared to the BM of the SS400 steel. The WM, which consists of primary δ-ferrite and a matrix of austenite phase, exhibited relatively a high micro-hardness value, yield /tensile strengths and elongation compared to the BM and HAZ of the SS400 steel.

  7. Evaluation and monitoring of UVR in Shield Metal ARC Welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-yu; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chang, Cheng-ping; Shieh, Jeng-yueh; Lan, Cheng-hang

    2007-08-01

    This study established a comprehensive approach to monitoring UVR magnitude from Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) processing and quantified the effective exposure based on measured data. The irradiances from welding UVR were calculated with biological effective parameter (Slambda) for human exposure assessment. The spectral weighting function for UVR measurement and evaluation followed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guidelines. Arc welding processing scatters bright light with UVR emission over the full UV spectrum (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The worst case of effective irradiance from a 50 cm distance arc spot with a 200 A electric current and an electrode E6011 (4 mm) is 311.0 microW cm(-2) and has the maximum allowance time (Tmax) of 9.6 s. Distance is an important factor affecting the irradiance intensity. The worst case of the effective irradiance values from arc welding at 100, 200, and 300 cm distances are 76.2, 16.6, and 12.1 microW cm(-2) with Tmax of 39.4, 180.7, and 247.9 s, respectively. Protective materials (glove and mask) were demonstrated to protect workers from hazardous UVR exposure. From this study, the methodology of UVR monitoring in SMAW processing was developed and established. It is recommended that welders should be fitted with appropriate protective materials for protection from UVR emission hazards.

  8. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  9. Summary of Dissimilar Metal Joining Trials Conducted by Edison Welding Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Lambert

    2005-11-18

    Under the direction of the NASA-Glenn Research Center, the Edison Welding Institute (EWI) in Columbus, OH performed a series of non-fusion joining experiments to determine the feasibility of joining refractory metals or refractory metal alloys to Ni-based superalloys. Results, as reported by EWI, can be found in the project report for EWI Project 48819GTH (Attachment A, at the end of this document), dated October 10, 2005. The three joining methods used in this investigation were inertia welding, magnetic pulse welding, and electro-spark deposition joining. Five materials were used in these experiments: Mo-47Re, T-111, Hastelloy X, Mar M-247 (coarse-grained, 0.5 mm to several millimeter average grain size), and Mar M-247 (fine-grained, approximately 50 {micro}m average grain size). Several iterative trials of each material combination with each joining method were performed to determine the best practice joining method. Mo-47Re was found to be joined easily to Hastelloy X via inertia welding, but inertia welding of the Mo-alloy to both Mar M-247 alloys resulted in inconsistent joint strength and large reaction layers between the two metals. T-111 was found to join well to Hastelloy X and coarse-grained Mar M-247 via inertia welding, but joining to fine-grained Mar M-247 resulted in low joint strength. Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) was only successful in joining T-111 tubing to Hastelloy X bar stock. The joint integrity and reaction layer between the metals were found to be acceptable. This single joining trial, however, caused damage to the electromagnetic concentrators used in this process. Subsequent design efforts to eliminate the problem resulted in a loss of power imparted to the accelerating work piece, and results could not be reproduced. Welding trials of Mar M-247 to T-111 resulted in catastrophic failure of the bar stock, even at lower power. Electro-spark deposition joining of Mo-47Re, in which the deposited material was Hastelloy X, did not have a

  10. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    Ambitions in exploration of oil and gas fields at deeper water depth require continuous investigation and maintenance. The transportation pipelines laid in deep waters are both subjected to corrosion and buckling due to environmental phenomena. They may also often undergo branching (namely hot tapping) to redirect (or add to) the transportation paths. Mechanical joints and welding are both considered as available alternatives when sectioning and replacement of the pipes at shallow waters is necessary, yet, welding is more promising for deep waters where remote operation is central. Fusion welding on the other hand comprises several technological detractions for sound operations under high ambient pressures disregarding its low cost and flexibility. The foremost detracting phenomenon in the arc welding is called 'arc root constriction', which is defined as arc geometry shrinkage under the increased pressure. Consequently, the power delivery to the weld pool at different pressure levels is a major worry. Effects of ionization and dissociation energies of different gases and mixtures, partial pressure of environmental gases including hydrogen and oxygen, gasification and degasification of the weld metal, inclusions that affect the phase transformation, absorption and desorption kinetics, oxidation and deoxidation reactions and many more are the phenomena that can possibly be altered by the gas type and ambient pressure level. Spattering and fume generation is a problematic issue since the arc is rather unstable under high pressure. Thus, seeking the effect of different chamber gas mixtures on welding parameters, final microstructure and mechanical properties is the main objective of this work.Statistical analysis of the collected voltage and current waveforms is carried out to identify the source of arc misbehavior and instability (discussed in Paper I). The stochastic parameters is related to the electrical stability and resolved into a number of varying

  11. Effect of weld metal toughness on fracture behavior under ultra-low cycle fatigue loading (earthquake)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermajani, M. [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaini, F. Malek, E-mail: Fmalek@modares.ac.ir [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miresmaeili, R. [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakouchak, A.A. [School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadmand, M. [Department of Research and Development, MAPNA Electric and Control (MECO) Company, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    Results from 12 ultra-low cycle fatigue tests performed on the weld metals of both toughness and non-toughness rated grades are presented. Fracture resistance under these loadings seemed to be dependent on materials' toughness, displacement amplitude, and stress state triaxiality, while the toughness effect was more highlighted at high stress levels and concentrations. To study the effect of microstructures on these failures, supporting ancillary tests including all-weld tension coupons, Charpy V-notched impact tests, and optical and scanning electron microscope analyses were performed. The favored microstructures appeared to be those which absorbed energy by plastic deformation and, hence, hindered void formation and/or could avoid crack propagation by deflection. Considering the response of the tested materials to cyclic loadings and the requirements of the materials specified in AISC341 Provisions could question the adequacy of these requirements for weld metals. However, the role of microstructural features like inclusions would be the same in both the Charpy impact tests and ultra-low cycle loadings.

  12. Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael K; Ewing, William M; Longo, William; DePasquale, Christopher; Mount, Michael D; Hatfield, Richard; Stapleton, Randall

    2005-08-01

    The work reported here evaluates the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fume when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. With 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) (56.63 m3/min) dilution ventilation, personal breathing zone concentrations for the welder using 1/8 inches (3.18 mm) E6010 and E7018 mild steel electrodes were within 75% of the existing threshold limit value (TLV of 0.2 mg/m3 for total manganese and were five times greater than the 2001-2003 proposed respirable manganese TLV of 0.03 mg/m3. Manganese concentrations using high manganese content electrodes were five times greater than those for E6010 and E7018 electrodes. Area samples upstream and downstream of the welder using E6010 and E7018 electrodes exceeded 0.2 mg/m3 manganese. Concentrations inside and outside the welding helmet do not indicate diversion of welding fume by the welding helmet from the welder's breathing zone. There was close agreement between respirable manganese and total manganese fume concentrations. Total fume concentrations measured by gravimetric analysis of matched-weight, mixed cellulose ester filters were comparable to those measured via preweighed PVC filter media. This study indicates that 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation per 29 CFR 1910.252 (c)(2) may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation for SMAW with E6010, E7018, and high manganese content electrodes rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.

  13. Inspection of dissimilar metal welds in reactor pressure vessels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadea, J.R.; Regidor, J.J.; Pelaez, J.A.; Serrano, P. [Tecnatom, S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    MRP-139 recommendations for inspection of dissimilar metal (DM) welds in PWR vessels were launched in the last years in the USA. Basically, it increases the frequency of the examinations in these type of welds, with major emphasis in the hot loops, adding one intermediate inspection at the ten years interval in outlet nozzles. The spanish nuclear power plants (NPP's) have begun the implementation of this type of inspections on the vessel nozzles DM welds. As this type of inspections could have an impact in the critical path duration of the outage, it is necessary the use of a mechanical equipment able to examine the nozzles DM welds in a short vessel occupation time (VOT) with high quality, qualified techniques and minimum requirements of the refuelling platform. Tecnatom undertook the design and development of a new more advanced equipment, named TENIS-DM, for implementing the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) nozzles examination. This equipment was designed in order to accomplish the stringent requirements and the updated examination techniques; it was used for the inspection of the DM welds of Asco 1 NPP inlet and outlet nozzles in March 2011. Examination techniques and procedures were qualified through the GRUVAL validation program, based on ENIC methodology. Mechanical scanner was equipped with a large number of examination probes, and TV cameras -for visual inspection and also for monitoring the ultrasonic inspections. A remote operated submarine was also used to give support to the operational personnel during the manipulation of the equipment and its movements from one nozzle to the others. During two months before the inspection, tests of the complete inspection system were made on a nozzle mock-up installed in a 4 meters deep well at Tecnatom's facilities; this scenario was also used during the training sessions of the inspection crew. The defined technical and practical objectives were achieved: use of qualified techniques and minimal impact on the

  14. Anti-Thixotropic Analysis of Pipeline Metal Losses in Welded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the causes of metal loss induced by cutting wear within the internal walls of pipelines which could lead to unpredicted and unexpected pipeline failure and the attendant oil spillage in Nigeria. To determine the rate of wear, the flow properties were determined. Flow was found to be turbulent containing ...

  15. Effects of heat input on mechanical properties of metal inert gas welded 1.6 mm thick galvanized steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiqul, M. I.; Ishak, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    It is usually a lot easier and less expensive to galvanize steel before it is welded into useful products. Galvanizing afterwards is almost impossible. In this research work, Galvanized Steel was welded by using the ER 308L stainless steel filler material. This work was done to find out an alternative way of welding and investigate the effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt welded joints of Galvanized Steel. A 13.7 kW maximum capacity MIG welding machine was used to join 1.6 mm thick sheet of galvanized steel with V groove and no gap between mm. Heat inputs was gradually increased from 21.06 to 25.07 joules/mm in this study. The result shows almost macro defects free welding and with increasing heat input the ultimate tensile strength and welding efficiency decrease. The Vickers hardness also decreases at HAZ with increasing heat input and for each individual specimen; hardness was lowest in heat affected zone (HAZ), intermediate in base metal and maximum in welded zone. The fracture for all specimens was in the heat affected zone while testing in the universal testing machine.

  16. Assessment of the biological effects of welding fumes emitted from metal inert gas welding processes of aluminium and zinc-plated materials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L; Bauer, M; Bertram, J; Gube, M; Lenz, K; Reisgen, U; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Brand, P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate biological effects and potential health risks due to two different metal-inert-gas (MIG) welding fumes (MIG welding of aluminium and MIG soldering of zinc coated steel) in healthy humans. In a threefold cross-over design study 12 male subjects were exposed to three different exposure scenarios. Exposures were performed under controlled conditions in the Aachener Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL). On three different days the subjects were either exposed to filtered ambient air, to welding fumes from MIG welding of aluminium, or to fumes from MIG soldering of zinc coated materials. Exposure was performed for 6 h and the average fume concentration was 2.5 mg m(-3). Before, directly after, 1 day after, and 7 days after exposure spirometric and impulse oscillometric measurements were performed, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected and blood samples were taken and analyzed for inflammatory markers. During MIG welding of aluminium high ozone concentrations (up to 250 μg m(-3)) were observed, whereas ozone was negligible for MIG soldering. For MIG soldering, concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and factor VIII were significantly increased but remained mostly within the normal range. The concentration of neutrophils increased in tendency. For MIG welding of aluminium, the lung function showed significant decreases in Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Mean Expiratory Flow at 75% vital capacity (MEF 75) 7 days after exposure. The concentration of ristocetin cofactor was increased. The observed increase of hsCRP during MIG-soldering can be understood as an indicator for asymptomatic systemic inflammation probably due to zinc (zinc concentration 1.5 mg m(-3)). The change in lung function observed after MIG welding of aluminium may be attributed to ozone inhalation, although the late response (7 days after exposure) is surprising. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Normalizing effect on fatigue crack propagation at the heat-affected zone of AISI 4140 steel shielded metal arc weldings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Vargas-Arista; J. Teran-Guillen; Solis, J.; García-Cerecero,G.; Martínez-Madrid,M.

    2013-01-01

    The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughne...

  18. Images of a steel electrode in Ar-2%O{sub 2} shielding during constant current gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.A.; Eagar, T.W.; Lang, J.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A collection of well-specified, clear images is presented that illustrates the condition of a steel gas metal arc welding electrode in Ar-2%O{sub 2} shielding gas over a wide range of constant welding currents. The images show that the transition from globular to spray transfer mode occurs over a narrow current range. The transition from spray mode to streaming mode is not evident.

  19. PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT ANNEALING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS MATERIAL BAJA EMS-45 DENGAN METODE PENGELASAN SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusiyanto Rusiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan Untuk mengetahui nilai kekerasan Vickers material Baja EMS-45 sebelum proses pengelasan dan setelah dilakukan proses pengelasan tanpa post weld heat treatment annealing, Untuk mengetahui berapakah suhu optimal post weld heat treatment annealing untuk material baja EMS-45 dengan variasi suhu yang digunakan 350 o C, 550 o C, dan 750 C. Untuk mengetahui struktur mikro dari material baja EMS-45 akibat variasi suhu post weld heat treatment annealing pada proses pengelasan dengan menggunakan metode pengelasan shielded metal arc welding. Bahan atau material dasar yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Baja EMS-45 dengan ketebalan pelat 10 mm, lebar pelat 20 mm dan panjang 100 mm. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian nilai kekerasan tertinggi setelah proses pengelasan terletak pada daerah Logam Las. Pengelasan non PWHT memiliki nilai kekerasan paling tinggi setelah proses pengelasan yaitu sebesar 183,2 VHN. Suhu optimal Post Weld Heat Treatment Annealing untuk material baja EMS-45 adalah pada suhu 750 C. Karena pada PWHT pada suhu tersebut mengalami penurunan kekerasan yang besar yaitu sebesar 127,2 VHN, sehingga material baja EMS-45 dapat memperbaiki sifat mampu mesinnya. Struktur mikro dari material baja EMS-45 sebelum proses pengelasan berupa grafit serpih, perlit dan ferit, setelah dilakukan proses pengelasan mempunyai struktur mikro berupa matrik ferit dan grafit pada daerah logam las, matrik perlit kasar dan grafit serpih pada daerah HAZ dan struktur perlit, grafit serpih dan ferit pada daerah logam induk o o

  20. Friction welding of a nickel free high nitrogen steel: influence of forge force on microstructure, mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel specimens were joined by continuous drive friction welding process by varying the amount of forge (upsetting force and keeping other friction welding parameters such as friction force, burn-off, upset time and speed of rotation as constant at appropriate levels. The joint characterization studies include microstructural examination and evaluation of mechanical (micro-hardness, impact toughness and tensile and pitting corrosion behaviour. The integrity of the joint, as determined by the optical microscopy was very high and no crack and area of incomplete bonding were observed. Welds exhibited poor Charpy impact toughness than the parent material. Toughness for friction weld specimens decreased with increase in forge force. The tensile properties of all the welds were almost the same (irrespective of the value of the applied forge force and inferior to those of the parent material. The joints failed in the weld region for all the weld specimens. Weldments exhibited lower pitting corrosion resistance than the parent material and the corrosion resistance of the weld specimens was found to decrease with increase in forge force.

  1. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. 57.15007 Section 57.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  2. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  3. Evaluation of welding performance of 20 kHz and 40 kHz ultrasonic metal welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. H.; Kang, E. J.; Park, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, ultrasonic horns are designed by using vibration equations, vibration modal analysis and harmonic response analysis in order to compare welding performance when ultrasonic welding is performed at resonance frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz. For the weldability evaluation of the manufactured horn for 20 kHz and 40 kHz, welding strength between Ni specimens with a thickness of 0.1 mm using tensile test are compared and analyzed. The lengths of horns with resonance frequencies of 20kHz and 40kHz were calculated as 130mm and 68mm respectively. As a result of vibration modal analysis, the optimum longitudinal vibration modes of 19,584Hz and 39,794Hz are obtained in 10th mode, and the frequency response of the two horns are 19,600 Hz and 39,800 Hz respectively. As the welding conditions are changed to welding pressure 2 bar, 3 bar and 4 bar, vibration amplitude of horn 60%, 80% and 100%, tensile strengths of welded specimens are observed. The welding strength was smaller at 40 kHz than at 20 kHz even at the same amplitude. This is because diffusion action of Ni in the weld interface is facilitated at 20 kHz than at 40 kHz.

  4. Gas Metal Arc Welding and Flux-Cored Arc Welding. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This packet, containing a teacher's edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, introduces students to high deposition welding and processes for "shielding" a weld. In addition to general information, the teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages, as well as unit information that corresponds to the…

  5. Weldability and toughness evaluation of pressure vessel quality steel using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Mukerjee, D.; Mishra, S.

    1998-12-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the weldability properties of ASTM A 537 Cl. 1 pressure-vessel quality steel using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. Implant and elastic restraint cracking (ERC) tests were conducted under different welding conditions to determine the cold cracking susceptibility of the steel. The static fatigue limit values determined for the implant test indicate adequate resistance to cold cracking even with unbaked electrodes. The ERC test, however, established the necessity to rebake the electrodes before use. Lamellar tearing tests carried out using full-thickness plates under three welding conditions showed no incidence of lamellar tearing upon visual examination, ultrasonic inspection, and four-section macroexamination. Lamellar tearing tests were repeated using machined plates, such that the central segregated band located at the midthickness of the plate corresponded to the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld. Only in one (no rebake, heat input: 14.2 kj cm-1, weld restraint load: 42 kg mm-2) of the eight samples tested was lamellar tearing observed. This was probably accentuated due to the combined effects of the presence of localized pockets of a hard phase (bainite) and a high hydrogen level (unbaked electrodes) in the weld joint. Optimal welding conditions were formulated based on the above tests. The weld joint was subjected to extensive tests and found to exhibit excellent strength (tensile strength: 56.8 kg mm-2, or 557 MPa), and low temperature impact toughness (7.4 and 4.5 kg-m at-20 °C for weld metal, WM, and HAZ) properties. Crack tip opening displacement tests carried out for the WM and HAZ resulted in δm values 0.36 and 0.27 mm, respectively, which indicates adequate resistance to brittle fracture.

  6. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  7. Evaluation of Hydrogen Cracking in Weld Metal Deposited using Cellulosic-Coated Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    Cellulosic-coated electrodes (primarily AWS EXX10-type) are traditionally used for "stovepipe" welding of pipelines because they are well suited for deposition of pipeline girth welds and are capable of high deposition rates when welding downhill. De...

  8. Methods of acicular ferrite forming in the weld bead metal (Brief analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович Лебедєв

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief analysis of the methods of acicular ferrite formation as the most preferable structural component in the weld metal has been presented. The term «acicular ferrite» is meant as a structure that forms during pearlite and martensite transformation and austenite decomposition. Acicular ferrite is a packet structure consisting of battens of bainitic ferrite, there being no cementite particles inside these battens at all. The chemical elements most effectively influencing on the formation of acicular ferrite have been considered and their combined effect as well. It has been shown in particular, that the most effective chemical element in terms of impact toughness and cost relation is manganese. Besides, the results of multipass surfacing with impulse and constant feed of low-alloy steel wire electrode have been considered. According to these results acicular ferrite forms in both cases. However, at impulse feed of the electrode wire high mechanical properties of surfacing layer were got in the first passes, the form of the acicular ferrite crystallite has been improved and volume shares of polygonal and lamellar ferrite have been reduced. An assumption has been made, according to which acicular ferrite in the surfacing layer may be obtained through superposition of mechanical low-frequency oscillation on the welding torch or on the welding pool instead of periodic thermal effect due to electrode wire periodic feed

  9. Remote Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Metal Ware and Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, Boris I.; Sutorikhin, Vladimir A.

    2017-10-01

    An unusual phenomenon was revealed in the metal-ultrasound interaction. Microwave sensor generates surface electric conductivity oscillations from exposure to elastic ultrasonic vibrations on regions of defects embracing micro-defects termed as “crack mouth.” They are known as the region of “acoustic activity,” method of Acoustic Emission (AE) method. It was established that the high phase-modulation coefficient of reflected field generates intentional Doppler radar signal with the following parameters: amplitude-1–5 nm, 6–30 dB adjusted to 70- 180 mm. This phenomenon is termed as “Gorbunov effect,” which is applied as a remote non-destructive testing method replacing ultrasonic flaw detection and acoustic emission methods.

  10. Potential for EMU Fabric Damage by Electron Beam and Molten Metal During Space Welding for the International Space Welding Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of preparations concerning the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), studies were performed to better understand the effect of molten metal contact and electron beam impingement with various fabrics for space suit applications. The question arose as to what would occur if the electron beam from the Ukrainian Universal Hand Tool (UHT) designed for welding in space were to impinge upon a piece of Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. The expectation was that the electron beam would lay down a static charge pattern with no damage to the ceramic fabric. The electron beam is capable of spraying the fabric with enough negative charge to repel further electrons from the fabric before significant heating occurs. The static charge pattern would deflect any further charge accumulation except for a small initial amount of leakage to the grounded surface of the welder. However, when studies were made of the effect of the electron beam on the insulating ceramic fabric it was surprisingly found that the electron beam did indeed burn through the ceramic fabric. It was also found that the shorter electron beam standoff distances had longer burnthrough times than did some greater electron beam standoff distances. A possible explanation for the longer burnthrough times for the small electron beam standoff distance would be outgassing of the fabric which caused the electron beam hand-tool to cycle on and off to provide some protection for the cathodes. The electron beam hand tool was observed to cycle off at the short standoff distance of two inches likely due to vapors being outgassed. During the electron beam welding process there is an electron leakage, or current leakage, flow from the fabric. A static charge pattern is initially laid down by the electron beam current flow. The static charge makes up the current leakage flow which initially slightly heats up the fabric. The initially laid down surface charge leaks a

  11. A New Model for Simulating Gas Metal Arc Welding based on Phase Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongyue; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-11-01

    Lots of physical process, such as metal melting, multiphase fluids flow, heat and mass transfer and thermocapillary effect (Marangoni) and so on, will occur in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) which should be considered as a mixture system. In this paper, based on the previous work, we propose a new model to simulate GMAW including Navier-Stokes equation, the phase field model and energy equation. Unlike most previous work, we take the thermocapillary effect into the phase field model considering mixture energy which is different of volume of fluid method (VOF) widely used in GMAW before. We also consider gravity, electromagnetic force, surface tension, buoyancy effect and arc pressure in momentum equation. The spray transfer especially the projected transfer in GMAW is computed as numerical examples with a continuous finite element method and a modified midpoint scheme. Pulse current is set as welding current as the numerical example to show the numerical simulation of metal transfer which fits the theory of GMAW well. From the result compared with the data of high-speed photography and VOF model, the accuracy and stability of the model and scheme are easily validated and also the new model has the higher precieion.

  12. Design for low-cost gas metal arc weld-based aluminum 3-D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Amberlee S.

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3-D printing, has the potential to change the state of manufacturing across the globe. Parts are made, or printed, layer by layer using only the materials required to form the part, resulting in much less waste than traditional manufacturing methods. Additive manufacturing has been implemented in a wide variety of industries including aerospace, medical, consumer products, and fashion, using metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and even organic tissues. However, traditional 3-D printing technologies, particularly those used to print metals, can be prohibitively expensive for small enterprises and the average consumer. A low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer has been developed based upon gas metal arc weld (GMAW) technology. Using this technology, substrate release mechanisms have been developed, allowing the user to remove a printed metal part from a metal substrate by hand. The mechanical and microstructural properties of commercially available weld alloys were characterized and used to guide alloy development in 4000 series aluminum-silicon alloys. Wedge casting experiments were performed to screen magnesium, strontium, and titanium boride alloying additions in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys for their properties and the ease with which they could be printed. Finally, the top performing alloys, which were approximately 11.6% Si modified with strontium and titanium boride were cast, extruded, and drawn into wire. These wires were printed and the mechanical and microstructural properties were compared with those of commercially available alloys. This work resulted in an easier-to-print aluminum-silicon-strontium alloy that exhibited lower porosity, equivalent yield and tensile strengths, yet nearly twice the ductility compared to commercial alloys.

  13. Effect of long-term thermal aging on the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steel base and weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.F.

    1995-09-27

    Compact tension specimens taken from FFTF primary piping materials (Type 316 stainless steel (SS) and 16-8-2 SS weld metal) and from reactor vessel materials (304 SS and 308 SS weld metal) were heated in laboratory furnaces from 100,000 hours. Fracture toughness testing was performed on these specimens, which are 7.62- and 25.4-mm thick, respectively at the aging temperature (482 and 427 degrees). Results were analyzed with the multiple-specimen method. Thermal aging continues to reduce the fracture toughness of FFTF component materials. Results show that thermal aging has a strong effect on the toughness degradation of weld metals, particularly for 16-8-2 SS weld whose aged/unaged Jc ratio is only 0.31 after 100,000-hour aging. The fracture toughness of the 308 and 16-8-2 SS weld metals fluctuated during 20,000 to 50,000-hour aging but deteriorated as the aging time increased to 100,000 hours; the toughness degradation is significant. Fracture control based on a fracture mechanics approach should be considered

  14. Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  15. Introduction to Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    This curriculum guide provides six units of instruction on basic welding. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment opportunities for welders, welding safety and first aid, welding tools and equipment, basic metals and metallurgy, basic math and measuring, and procedures for applying for a welding job.…

  16. Joining of metals and ceramics by friction welding. Verbinden von Metallen und Keramik mit Hilfe der Reibschweisstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenauer, H.; Simanowski, R. (KUKA Schweissanlagen und Roboter GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)); Horn, H. (Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde)

    1992-03-01

    Friction welding as a process to join ceramics and metals will be a good alternative to existing joining processes in many applications, all the more because good bonds can be achieved without any coating of the ceramic materials. Fricton welding, however, requires high-quality ceramic materials. Defects in the ceramic materials can lead to their destruction during the friction welding process. This can also be seen as a concurrent quality assurance of the mechanical and technological properties of the ceramic materials. Studies so far conducted show good results in the case of cements with aluminium oxide and /or zinc oxide. Thank to very positive, first results wich have been obtainded by friction welding of silicon carbide and silicon nitride with aluminium, it may be as successful as oxidic ceramics. (orig.).

  17. Influence of tool speeds on dissimilar friction stir spot welding characteristics of bulk metallic glass/Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Jung, Yoon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2012-08-01

    A small-scale joining technique of dissimilar friction stir spot welding (FSSW) between bulk metallic glass and Mg alloy sheet has been tried using an apparatus which was devised with a CNC milling machine to give a precise control of tool speeds. The influence of tool speeds on the joining characteristics during FSSW was investigated. As a result, it was found that the rotation speed and plunge speed of a tool during FSSW significantly influenced the welding performance of dissimilar FSSW between bulk metallic glasses and Mg alloy.

  18. The geochemical record of the ancient nitrogen cycle, nitrogen isotopes, and metal cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda V; Glass, Jennifer B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle is the only global biogeochemical cycle that is driven by biological functions involving the interaction of many microorganisms. The N cycle has evolved over geological time and its interaction with the oxygen cycle has had profound effects on the evolution and timing of Earth's atmosphere oxygenation (Falkowski and Godfrey, 2008). Almost every enzyme that microorganisms use to manipulate N contains redox-sensitive metals. Bioavailability of these metals has changed through time as a function of varying redox conditions, and likely influenced the biological underpinnings of the N cycle. It is possible to construct a record through geological time using N isotopes and metal concentrations in sediments to determine when the different stages of the N cycle evolved and the role metal availability played in the development of key enzymes. The same techniques are applicable to understanding the operation and changes in the N cycle through geological time. However, N and many of the redox-sensitive metals in some of their oxidation states are mobile and the isotopic composition or distribution can be altered by subsequent processes leading to erroneous conclusions. This chapter reviews the enzymology and metal cofactors of the N cycle and describes proper utilization of methods used to reconstruct evolution of the N cycle through time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ANALISIS KEKUATAN SAMBUNGAN LAS SMAW ( SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING PADA MARINE PLATE ST 42 AKIBAT FAKTOR CACAT POROSITAS DAN INCOMPLETE PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available At this moment, weld engineering is applied widely in tacking on joints at construction of steel building, especially at ship building. All important in weld engineering is when process tacking on weld metal with steel metal to be one unities. It mean, the strength of metal result by welded must equal to the original metal. Generally, that thing is inaccessible cause by weld defect formed. Result of survey in JMI indicates that often happened problem at weld joint part of construction of hull causing existence of fraction or crack at the division. Because, hull is main part which received many forces, in water compressive force ( hydrostatic and ship attractive force on top of wave ( sagging and or in trough of wave ( hogging . Even, at the moment of ship in full cargo condition or when at dock, ship must can maintain the selfish strength. In the research, will be checked weld defect influence incomplete penetration and porosity formed at SMAW method, evaluated from tensile and compressive strength as the application of force received by ship.from the result, indicates that tensile strength is optimum happened at the normal joint plate without heat treatment about 464, 50 Mpa, while tensile strength is lowest at joint plate condition of heat treatment 6000 C about 351,23 Mpa. for optimal of compressive strength happened at normal joint of plate without heat treatment about 872, 17 N/mm2, while compressive strength is lowest at joint plate condition of heat treatment 3000 C about 684 N/mm2. In this experiment, weld defect of incomplete penetration and porosity is not too effect a weld joint strength caused all to fracture happen in base metal is not it in weld joint or weld metal, however for all weld defect must be minimizes

  20. Review of Dissimilar Metal Welding for the NGNP Helical-Coil Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. DuPont

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding research and development of a new high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that is capable of providing high temperature process heat for industry. The steam generator of the HTGR will consist of an evaporator economizer section in the lower portion and a finishing superheater section in the upper portion. Alloy 800H is expected to be used for the superheater section, and 2.25Cr 1Mo steel is expected to be used for the evaporator economizer section. Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) will be needed to join these two materials. It is well known that failure of DMWs can occur well below the expected creep life of either base metal and well below the design life of the plant. The failure time depends on a wide range of factors related to service conditions, welding parameters, and alloys involved in the DMW. The overall objective of this report is to review factors associated with premature failure of DMWs operating at elevated temperatures and identify methods for extending the life of the 2.25Cr 1Mo steel to alloy 800H welds required in the new HTGR. Information is provided on a variety of topics pertinent to DMW failures, including microstructural evolution, failure mechanisms, creep rupture properties, aging behavior, remaining life estimation techniques, effect of environment on creep rupture properties, best practices, and research in progress to improve DMW performance. The microstructure of DMWs in the as welded condition consists of a sharp chemical concentration gradient across the fusion line that separates the ferritic and austenitic alloys. Upon cooling from the weld thermal cycle, a band of martensite forms within this concentration gradient due to high hardenability and the relatively rapid cooling rates associated with welding. Upon aging, during post weld heat treatment (PWHT), and/or during high temperature service, C diffuses down the chemical potential gradient from the ferritic 2.25Cr 1Mo steel

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  2. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  3. On the Visualization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Plasma and the Relationship Between Arc Length and Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel B. F. Dos Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the camera settings for high-speed imaging of the arc, metal transfer, and weld pool in gas metal arc welding (GMAW are investigated. The results show that by only changing camera exposure times and the selection of narrow bandpass filters, images that reveal features of the arc such as the iron vapor-dominated region, metal transfer and weld pool behavior can be produced without the need for external light sources. Using the images acquired, the arc length was measured and the relationship between arc length and arc voltage is discussed. The results show that for low values of current, the measured welding voltage increases with increasing arc length; however, for high current values, the arc voltage increases even though the measured arc length becomes shorter. It is suggested that the increase in arc voltage for high values of welding current is due to the increased evaporation of the wire electrode which decreases the plasma temperature and consequently the arc plasma electrical conductivity.

  4. Influences of Cr/Ni equivalent ratios of filler wires on pitting corrosion and ductility-dip cracking of AISI 316L weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. G.; Sung, J. H.; Kim, I. S.; Ko, D. E.; Kang, N. H.; Hong, H. U.; Park, J. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2011-02-01

    To study the pitting corrosion of AISI 316L weld metals according to the chromium/nickel equivalent ratio (Creq/Nieq ratio), three filler wires were newly designed for the flux-cored arc welding process. The weld metal with delta-ferrite at less than 3 vol.%, was observed for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) in the reheated region after multi-pass welding. The tensile strength and yield strength increased with increasing Creq/Nieq ratio. The result of anodic polarization tests in a 0.1 M NaCl solution at the room temperature (25) for 45 min, revealed that the base metal and weld metals have a similar corrosion potential of -0.34 VSCE. The weld metal with the highest content of Cr had the highest pitting potential (0.39 VSCE) and the passivation range (0.64 VSCE) was higher than the base metal (0.21 VSCE and 0.46 VSCE, respectively). Adding 0.001 M Na2S to the 0.1M NaCl solution, the corrosion occurred more severely by H2S. The corrosion potentials of the base metal and three weld metals decreased to -1.0 VSCE. DDC caused the decrease of the pitting potential by inducing a locally intense corrosion attack around the crack openings.

  5. Influência do molibdênio em propriedades do metal de solda na soldagem molhada com eletrodos óxi-rutílicos Influence of molybdenum in metal weld properties in welding wet with oxy-rutillic electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de soldagem subaquática molhada com eletrodos revestidos apresenta um crescente potencial de aplicação para reparos submarinos em elementos estruturais de unidades flutuantes de produção de petróleo (profundidade até 20 m. Porém, ela apresenta problemas tais como o maior risco de fissuração a frio e de formação acentuada de porosidade. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo melhorar a resistência mecânica do metal de solda de um eletrodo experimental do tipo oxi-rutílico. Foram estudadas as influências de adições de Mo (até 0,4% no metal de solda na microestrutura e em propriedades mecânicas. As soldas foram realizadas em simulador de soldagem subaquática em profundidade equivalente de 10m utilizando um sistema de soldagem por gravidade. As análises das micrografias mostrou que o aumento do teor de Mo no metal de solda diminui significantemente o tamanho médio de grão da região reaquecida de grãos finos. O aumento do teor de Mo no metal de solda resultou, ainda, em aumento do limite de resistência à tração sem perdas de tenacidade e ductilidade até aproximadamente 0,25%Mo.the underwater wet welding with coated electrodes technique is undergoing an important use growth in underwater repairs of oil production floating unit's structural elements (up to 20 m depth. However, it presents problems such as increased risk of cold cracking and sharp porosity formation. This work aims to improve the weld metal's mechanical strength through the addition of molybdenum to experimental oxy-rutilic type electrodes. Both the microstructure and the mechanical properties of weld metals were studied while electrodes would receive additional Mo (up to 0.4%. The welds were done using a gravity welding system placed in an underwater welding simulator with an equivalent depth of 10 m. Analyses of micrographics shown that the increased level of Mo in weld metal (a decreases significantly the average grain size of fine

  6. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the range of available welding technologies. This title includes chapters on individual techniques that cover principles, equipment, consumables and key quality issues. It includes material on such topics as the basics of electricity in welding, arc physics, and distortion, and the weldability of particular metals.$bThe first edition of Welding processes handbook established itself as a standard introduction and guide to the main welding technologies and their applications. This new edition has been substantially revised and extended to reflect the latest developments. After an initial introduction, the book first reviews gas welding before discussing the fundamentals of arc welding, including arc physics and power sources. It then discusses the range of arc welding techniques including TIG, plasma, MIG/MAG, MMA and submerged arc welding. Further chapters cover a range of other important welding technologies such as resistance and laser welding, as well as the use of welding techniqu...

  7. Control of exposure to hexavalent chromium concentration in shielded metal arc welding fumes by nano-coating of electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapirakasam, S P; Mohan, Sreejith; Santhosh Kumar, M C; Thomas Paul, Ashley; Surianarayanan, M

    2018-02-20

    Background Cr(VI) is a suspected human carcinogen formed as a by-product of stainless steel welding. Nano-alumina and nano-titania coating of electrodes reduced the welding fume levels. Objective To investigate the effect of nano-coating of welding electrodes on Cr(VI) formation rate (Cr(VI) FR) from a shielded metal arc welding process. Methods The core welding wires were coated with nano-alumina and nano-titania using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Bead-on plate welds were deposited on SS 316 LN plates kept inside a fume test chamber. Cr(VI) analysis was done using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Results A reduction of 40% and 76%, respectively, in the Cr(VI) FR was observed from nano-alumina and nano-titania coated electrodes. Increase in the fume level decreased the Cr(VI) FR. Discussion Increase in fume levels blocked the UV radiation responsible for the formation of ozone thereby preventing the formation of Cr(VI).

  8. Comparison of creep crack growth rates on the base and welded metals of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Yun, Song Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Kim, Sung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Young; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is to compare Creep Crack Growth Rates (CCGR) on the Base Metal (BM) and Welded Metal (WM) of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for Gen-IV reactors. Welded specimens were prepared by Shielded Metal Arc Weld (SMAW) method. To obtain material properties for the BM and welded metal, a series of creep and tensile tests was conducted at 600 .deg. C, and CCG tests was also performed using 1/2'' compact tension specimens under different applied loads at 600 .deg. C. Their CCGR behaviors were analyzed by using the empirical equation of the da/dt vs. C{sup *} parameter and compared, respectively. It appeared that, for a given value of C{sup *}, the rate of creep propagation was about 2.0 times faster than in the WM than the BM. This reason is that a creep rate in the WM was largely attributed when compared with that in the BM. From this result, it can be utilized for assessing the rate of creep propagation on the BM and WM of the G91 steel.

  9. Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Carbon Arc Cutting--Air. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This document contains the teacher and student texts and student workbook for a secondary-level course in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and carbon arc cutting that consists of units on the following topics: SMAW safety; SMAW equipment, applications, and techniques; hardfacing; and carbon arc cutting--air. The teacher edition includes the…

  10. Transverse-Weld Tensile Properties of a New Al-4Cu-2Si Alloy as Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2009-12-01

    AA2195, an Al-Cu-Li alloy in the T8P4 age-hardened condition, is a candidate aluminum armor for future combat vehicles, as this material offers higher static strength and ballistic protection than current aluminum armor alloys. However, certification of AA2195 alloy for armor applications requires initial qualification based on the ballistic performance of welded panels in the as-welded condition. Currently, combat vehicle manufacturers primarily use gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process to meet their fabrication needs. Unfortunately, a matching GMAW consumable electrode is currently not commercially available to allow effective joining of AA2195 alloy. This initial effort focused on an innovative, low-cost, low-risk approach to identify an alloy composition suitable for effective joining of AA2195 alloy, and evaluated transverse-weld tensile properties of groove butt joints produced using the identified alloy. Selected commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aluminum alloy filler wires were twisted to form candidate twisted filler rods. Representative test weldments were produced using AA2195 alloy, candidate twisted filler rods and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Selected GTA weldments produced using Al-4wt.%Cu-2wt.%Si alloy as filler metal consistently provided transverse-weld tensile properties in excess of 275 MPa (40 ksi) UTS and 8% El (over 25 mm gage length), thereby showing potential for acceptable ballistic performance of as-welded panels. Further developmental work is required to evaluate in detail GMAW consumable wire electrodes based on the Al-Cu-Si system containing 4.2-5.0 wt.% Cu and 1.6-2.0 wt.% Si.

  11. Pipeline welding with Flux Cored and Metal Cored Wire; Soldagem de dutos com processos Arame Tubular e de Alma Metalica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ubirajara Pereira da [ITW Soldagem Brasil Miller-Hobart, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Different welding process like SMAW, Semi-Automatic FCAW Gas-shielded and Self-shielded and Mechanized GMAW-MAG with Solid Wire are suggested to weld Transmission Pipelines. Presently, the largest extensions of Transmission Pipelines under construction, are in China like Lines West-East, Zong-Wu, Shan-Jing Fuxian and some others, totalizing about 8.000 km, and all using Semi-Automatic Self Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welding Process. Also, several papers and magazines that covers Transmission Pipelines Welding, not frequently mention Operational aspects of the process and some other variables like environment and site geography. This presentation intends to cover some of the Operational aspects of the Flux Cored Arc Welding and GMAW-Metal Cored in order to give sufficient information for Construction, Engineering, Projects e Contractors so they can evaluate these Process against the SMAW or even Mechanized Systems, considering the Operation Factor, Efficiency and Deposition Rate. We will not cover operational details of the GMAW Mechanized Systems but only suggest that be evaluated the possibility to replace the GMAW-Solid Wire by the GMAW-Metal Cored Wire. (author)

  12. FE analysis of cruciform welded joints considering different mechanical properties for base material, heat affected zone and weld metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Corigliano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific work was to investigate the behaviour of cruciform welded joints under static loading using a full-field technique: Digital Image Correlation. The material curves, relative to different zones (base material, heat affected zone, weld, were obtained by hardness measurements, which were done by means of a fully automated hardness scanner with high resolution. This innovative technique, based on the UCI method, allowed to identify the different zones and to assess their different mechanical properties, which were considered in the finite element model. Finally the finite element model was validated experimentally, comparing the results with the measurements obtained using the Digital Image Correlation technique.

  13. The effect of metal transfer modes and shielding gas composition on the emission of ultrafine particles in MAG steel welding

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, J. F.; Miranda, R. M.; Carvalho, P.A.; Quintino, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize ultrafine particles emitted during gas metal arc welding of mild steel and stainless steel, using different shielding gas mixtures, and to evaluate the effect of metal transfer modes, controlled by both processing parameters and shielding gas composition, on the quantity and morphology of the ultrafine particles. It was found that the amount of emitted ultrafine particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly depen...

  14. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: crazyfim@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: luirdzib@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Ochoa, E.M., E-mail: emgarcia@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic interaction in welding improved localised corrosion resistance. • Electromagnetic interaction in welding enhanced γ/δ phase balance of DuplexSS. • Welding under Electromagnetic interaction repress formation and growth of detrimental phases. • Welds made with gas protection (2% O{sub 2} + 98% Ar) have better microstructural evolution during welding. - Abstract: The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O{sub 2} (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N{sub 2} (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  15. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE HEAT INPUT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF C-Mn STEEL WELD METALS OBTAINED BY SUBMERGED ARC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick de Sousa Marouço

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is part of a research program that aims to evaluate the technical feasibility of increasing productivity in the manufacturing of tubular components for offshore oil industry, which are fully welded by automatic submerged arc welding process, with high heat input, but with no impairment on the impact toughness of the weld metal. Multipass welds were produced by the submerged arc welding process, with a combination of F7A4-EM12K (wire/flux, by using a 3.2 mm-diameter wire, preheating at 80°C, with direct current, in flat position, with heat input varying from 3.5 kJ/mm to 12 kJ/mm. After welding, tensile tests and Charpy-V impact tests at –60°C, –40°C, –20°C, 0°C and 20°C were carried out, as well as metallographic examination by both optical (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, of specimens obtained entirely from the weld metal, allowing the discussion over the toughness X microstructure relationship. The weld metals have shown higher toughness levels in relation to the minimum required for use with low-alloy C-Mn steels welding with requirements of impact toughness of 27 J at 0°C for heat input up to 12 kJ/mm allowing an increase in productivity of 58% on the effective manufacturing time.

  16. Simulation Based Investigation of Focusing Phased Array Ultrasound in Dissimilar Metal Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flaws at dissimilar metal welds (DMWs, such as reactor coolant systems components, Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM, Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI etc., in nuclear power plants have been found. Notably, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC in the DMWs could cause significant reliability problems at nuclear power plants. Therefore, phased array ultrasound is widely used for inspecting surface break cracks and stress corrosion cracks in DMWs. However, inspection of DMWs using phased array ultrasound has a relatively low probability of detection of cracks, because the crystalline structure of welds causes distortion and splitting of the ultrasonic beams which propagates anisotropic medium. Therefore, advanced evaluation techniques of phased array ultrasound are needed for improvement in the probability of detection of flaws in DMWs. Thus, in this study, an investigation of focusing and steering phased array ultrasound in DMWs was carried out using a time reversal technique, and an adaptive focusing technique based on finite element method (FEM simulation. Also, evaluation of focusing performance of three different focusing techniques was performed by comparing amplitude of phased array ultrasonic signals scattered from the targeted flaw with three different time delays.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Three Alloy 690 Mockup Components: Base Metal and Welding Induced Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard R. Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC resistance of cold deformed thermally treated (TT Alloy 690 has been questioned in recent years. As a step towards understanding its relevancy for weld deformed Alloy 690 in operating plants, Alloy 690 base metal and heat affected zone (HAZ microstructures of three mockup components have been studied. All mockups were manufactured using commercial heats and welding procedures in order to attain results relevant to the materials in the field. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to add confidence in phase identification as well as understanding of the evolution of the microstructure with temperature. Ti(C,N banding was found in all materials. Bands with few large Ti(C,N precipitates had negligible effect on the microstructure, whereas bands consisting of numerous small precipitates were associated with locally finer grains and coarser M23C6 grain boundary carbides. The Ti(C,N remained unaffected in the HAZ while the M23C6 carbides were fully dissolved close to the fusion line. Cold deformed solution annealed Alloy 690 is believed to be a better representation of this region than cold deformed TT Alloy 690.

  18. Nanometer-scale modification and welding of silicon and metallic nanowires with a high-intensity electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengyong; Tian, Mingliang; Wang, Jinguo; Xu, Jian; Redwing, Joan M; Chan, Moses H W

    2005-12-01

    We demonstrate that a high-intensity electron beam can be applied to create holes, gaps, and other patterns of atomic and nanometer dimensions on a single nanowire, to weld individual nanowires to form metal-metal or metal-semiconductor junctions, and to remove the oxide shell from a crystalline nanowire. In single-crystalline Si nanowires, the beam induces instant local vaporization and local amorphization. In metallic Au, Ag, Cu, and Sn nanowires, the beam induces rapid local surface melting and enhanced surface diffusion, in addition to local vaporization. These studies open up a novel approach for patterning and connecting nanomaterials in devices and circuits at the nanometer scale.

  19. Effect of chemical composition and welding parameters on microstructure and hardness of API 5I X60 steel weld metals; Efeito da composicao quimica e dos parametros de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e dureza de metais de solda de acos API 5I X60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kleber Eduardo Siqueira; Maciel, Theophilo Moura; Albuquerque, Maria Clea Soares de; Almeida, Daisy Martins de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2004-12-15

    In this work the influence of the variation of the welding parameters and chemical composition of weld metal obtained with different filler metals and b different welding process on the microhardness values and on the acicular ferrite (AF) and primary ferrite (PF) percentiles from the columnar grain region were evaluated. Thee welding processes used were Shielded Manual Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and semiautomatic processes, such as Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), with protection of CO{sub 2} and inner shield, process MGAW with protection of CO{sub 2} and of CO{sub 2} + Argon and process MGAW with protection of argon. The obtained results indicated that the percentile of AF and PF vary from 48 to 61 per cent and from 28 to 44 per cent respectively. The weld metals that obtained the higher values of A F were those welded by process FCAW inner shield and MGAW with higher values of Equivalent Carbon and with lower heat input. (author)

  20. Parental Occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals and Welding Fumes and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togawa, Kayo; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the association between prenatal/preconception environmental exposure and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) in offspring. We examined parental occupational exposures to heavy metals and welding fumes in relation to TGCT in offspring in a registry-based case-control ......BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the association between prenatal/preconception environmental exposure and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) in offspring. We examined parental occupational exposures to heavy metals and welding fumes in relation to TGCT in offspring in a registry-based case...... registries. Information on parental occupations was retrieved from censuses. From this, we estimated prenatal/preconception exposures of chromium, iron, nickel, lead, and welding fumes (all three countries), and cadmium (Finland only) for each parent using job-exposure matrices specifying prevalence (P...... with presence of heavy metals/welding fumes (P × L > 0) and no dose-response relationship (Ptrend ≥ 0.32). A statistically significant elevated TGCT risk was found in paternal exposure category where both P and L of chromium were high (vs. no chromium; OR = 1.37, 95% confidence interval; 1.05-1.79). CONCLUSIONS...

  1. The application of neutron diffraction to a study of phases in type 316 stainless steel weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, G. F.; Windsor, C. G.

    1983-10-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques have been utilised to study the phases in type 316 austenitic stainless steel weld metal, both in the as-welded condition and after stress-relieving and ageing heat-treatments. The amounts of the principal crystallographic phases present in bulk specimens have been measured. Two compositions of weld metal were selected to provide a "low" (6%) and "high" (16%) initial ferrite level and the subsequent volume fractions of transformation products were measured after heat-treatment. Some retained ferrite was observed in all the heat-treated specimens, ranging from 4% for specimens of both initial ferrite levels treated at 625°C for 1000 h, to around 1% for the specimens treated at 850°C for 6 h. The high initial ferrite specimen produced 0.9% of sigma phase after the 850°C treatment and 0.2% sigma after the 625°C treatment. The low initial ferrite specimen produced 1.5% M 23C 6 carbide after both heat-treatments. The results compare well with previous findings on similar samples of weld metal using optical and electron microscopy.

  2. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 63-gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  3. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  4. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)

  5. Forming Limits of Weld Metal in Aluminum Alloys and Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Smith, Mark T.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.

    2010-10-25

    This work characterizes the mechanical properties of DP600 laser welded TWBs (1 mm-1.5 mm) near and in the weld, as well as their limits of formability. The approach uses simple uniaxial experiments to measure the variability in the forming limits of the weld region, and uses a theoretical forming limit diagram calculation to establish a probabilistic distribution of weld region imperfection using an M-K method approach

  6. Gas Metal Arc Weld (GMAW) Qualification of 7020-T651 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    to the 24–25 ksi YS of friction stir welds of 5059, which are not proportionally efficient to 5059 YS. High levels of YS are important to maintain...Technology Organisation, Materials Research Laboratories; 1983 June. Report No.: MRL-R-888. 8. Hori H. Tensile properties of friction stir welded ...joints – studies on characteristics of friction stir welded joints in structural aluminum alloys (Report 3). Welding International. 2007;21(9):626

  7. Pengaruh Proses Quenching Pada Sambungan Las Shielded Metal Arc Welding (Smaw) Terhadap Kekerasan Impak Struktur Mikro Dan Kekerasan Baja St37

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Jumain

    2015-01-01

    Toughness of a material is influenced by the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. However, the joining by using the welding process cause a change in the properties. Has been conducted research by using welding shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in the process of joining St37 steel to determine the physical and mechanical properties with variation of electrode diameter (2.6 mm, 3,2mm and 4,0 mm) and different cooling processes. After the welding treatment, the specimen is sub...

  8. Control of Cr6+ emissions from gas metal arc welding using a silica precursor as a shielding gas additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Huang, Joyce; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Oh, Sewon; Cho, Kuk; Paulson, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) emitted from welding poses serious health risks to workers exposed to welding fumes. In this study, tetramethylsilane (TMS) was added to shielding gas to control hazardous air pollutants produced during stainless steel welding. The silica precursor acted as an oxidation inhibitor when it decomposed in the high-temperature welding arc, limiting Cr(6+) formation. Additionally, a film of amorphous SiO(2) was deposited on fume particles to insulate them from oxidation. Experiments were conducted following the American Welding Society (AWS) method for fume generation and sampling in an AWS fume hood. The results showed that total shielding gas flow rate impacted the effectiveness of the TMS process. Increasing shielding gas flow rate led to increased reductions in Cr(6+) concentration when TMS was used. When 4.2% of a 30-lpm shielding gas flow was used as TMS carrier gas, Cr(6+) concentration in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes was reduced to below the 2006 Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (5 μg m(-3)) and the efficiency was >90%. The process also increased fume particle size from a mode size of 20 nm under baseline conditions to 180-300 nm when TMS was added in all shielding gas flow rates tested. SiO(2) particles formed in the process scavenged nanosized fume particles through intercoagulation. Transmission electron microscopy imagery provided visual evidence of an amorphous film of SiO(2) on some fume particles along with the presence of amorphous SiO(2) agglomerates. These results demonstrate the ability of vapor phase silica precursors to increase welding fume particle size and minimize chromium oxidation, thereby preventing the formation of hexavalent chromium.

  9. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  10. Welding stainless steels for structures operating at liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherell, C.E.

    1980-04-18

    Superconducting magnets for fusion energy reactors require massive monolithic stainless steel weldments which must operate at extremely low temperatures under stresses approaching 100 ksi (700 MPa). A three-year study was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing heavy-section welds having usable levels of strength and toughness at 4.2/sup 0/K for fabrication of these structures in Type 304LN plate. Seven welding processes were evaluated. Test weldments in full-thickness plate were made under severe restraint to simulate that of actual structures. Type 316L filler metal was used for most welds. Welds deposited under some conditions and which solidify as primary austenite have exhibited intergranular embrittlement at 4.2/sup 0/K. This is believed to be associated with grain boundary metal carbides or carbonitrides precipitated during reheating of already deposited beads by subsequent passes. Weld deposits which solidify as primary delta ferrite appear immune. Through use of fully austenitic filler metals of low nitrogen content under controlled shielded metal arc welding conditions, and through use of filler metals solidifying as primary delta ferrite where only minimum residuals remain to room temperature, welds of Type 316L composition have been made with 4.2K yield strength matching that of Type 304LN plate and acceptable levels of soundness, ductility and toughness.

  11. Low Alloy Steel Structures After Welding with Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on low alloy steel after innovate welding method with micro-jet cooling. Weld metal deposit (WMD was carried out for welding and for MIG and MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. This method is very promising mainly due to the high amount of AF (acicular ferrite and low amount of MAC (self-tempered martensite, retained austenite, carbide phases in WMD. That structure corresponds with very good mechanical properties, ie. high impact toughness of welds at low temperature. Micro-jet cooling after welding can find serious application in automotive industry very soon. Until that moment only argon, helium and nitrogen were tested as micro-jet gases. In that paper first time various gas mixtures (gas mixtures Ar-CO2 were tested for micro-jet cooling after welding.

  12. Development of Simplified Ultrasonic CT System for Imaging of Weld Metal and It's Comparison with TOFD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Cho; Fukuhara, Hiroaki; Yamawaki, Hisashi

    In this paper, as a new measurement method to estimate the structure change of weld metal, the simplified ultrasonic CT system, which uses the information of three directions, that is, 90°, +45° and -45° about inspection plane is developed. Use of simplified ultrasonic CT system has two merits: Firstly, the measurement time is very short comparing with general CT. Secondly, it can detect sensitively very infinitesimal defect in vertical or slant direction about inspection plane because the obtained image is not C scan image but CT image calculated from three directions. From these merits, this method can be considered as a very effective method for the evaluation of material condition. In order to compare the performance of simplified ultrasonic CT, the CT image obtained from several specimens with several simple defects was compared with the D scan image obtained by TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method. We can see simple defects more clearly by new proposed method. Experimental results on several kinds of specimen, having welded joint by electron beam welding, welded joint by electron beam welding and fatigue crack showed that the obtained C scan or CT image has better resolution than the D scan image by TOFD method and shows similar image to actual shape.

  13. Effect of Heat Treatment on Low Temperature Toughness of Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Weld Metal of Type 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H.; Fujii, H.; Tamura, M.

    2006-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the candidate materials for liquid hydrogen vessels and the related equipments, and those welding parts that require high toughness at cryogenic temperature. The authors have found that the weld metal of Type 316L stainless steel processed by reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding has high toughness at cryogenic temperature, which is considered to be due to the single-pass welding process without reheating effect accompanied by multi-pass welding process. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on low temperature toughness of the RPEB weld metal of Type 316L was investigated by Charpy impact test at 77K. The absorbed energy decreased with higher temperature and longer holding time of heat treatment. The remarkable drop in the absorbed energy was found with heat treatment at 1073K for 2 hours, which is as low as that of conventional multi-pass weld metal such as tungsten inert gas welding. The observations of fracture surface and microstructure revealed that the decrease in the absorbed energy with heat treatment resulted from the precipitation of intermetallic compounds near delta-ferrite phase.

  14. Experimental exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process--part II: biomonitoring of chromium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Monika; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Bertram, Jens; Gerards, Kerstin; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the external exposure dose of chromium and nickel caused by a metal active gas welding process with a solid high-alloyed steel welding wire and inner exposure of subjects. In order to perform welding fume exposure under controlled and standardized conditions, the investigations were conducted in the "Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory". To perform biological monitoring of chromium and nickel, blood and urine samples of 12 healthy male non-smokers who never worked as welders were collected before and after a 6-h exposure to ambient air (0 mg/m(3)) and to welding fumes of a metal active gas welding process once with a concentration of the welding fume of 1 mg/m(3) and once with a concentration of 2.5 mg/m(3). Although the internal exposure to chromium and nickel in this study was comparatively low, the subjects showed significantly increased concentrations of these metals in urine after exposure to welding fume compared to the values at baseline. Moreover, the observed increase was significantly dose dependent for both of the substances. For the biological monitoring of chromium and nickel in urine of subjects exposed to welding fumes, a dependency on exposure dose was seen under standardized conditions after a single exposure over a period of 6 h. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between ambient and biological exposures from welding fumes and provides a good basis for evaluating future biological threshold values for these metals in welding occupation.

  15. Effects of aging temperature on microstructural evolution at dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Taeho [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (PNU), Busandaehak-ro 63, Beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    From the earlier study which characterized the region of a fusion boundary between a low-alloy steel (LAS) and a Ni-based weld metal of as-welded and aged samples at 450 °C for a 30-y-equivalent time, it was observed in the microstructure that the aging treatment induced the formation and growth of Cr precipitates in the fusion boundary region because of the thermodynamic driving force. Now, this research extends the text matrix and continues the previous study by compiling all the test data, with an additional aging heat treatment conducted at 400 °C for 15- and 30-y-equivalent times (6450 and 12,911 h, respectively). The results for the extended test matrix primarily represent the common features of and disparities in the effects of thermal aging on the aged samples at two different heat-treatment temperatures (400 and 450 °C). Although no difference was expected between the samples, because the heat treatment conditions simulate thermal aging effects during the same service time of 30 y, the sample aged at 450 °C exhibited slightly more severe effects of thermal aging than the sample aged at 400 °C. Nevertheless, the trends for these effects are similar and the simulation of thermal aging effects for a light-water reactor appears to be reliable. However, according to a simulation of the same degree of thermal aging effects, it appears that the activation energy for Cr diffusion should be larger than the numerical value used in this study.

  16. Effects of aging temperature on microstructural evolution at dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Taeho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-07-01

    From the earlier study which characterized the region of a fusion boundary between a low-alloy steel (LAS) and a Ni-based weld metal of as-welded and aged samples at 450 °C for a 30-y-equivalent time, it was observed in the microstructure that the aging treatment induced the formation and growth of Cr precipitates in the fusion boundary region because of the thermodynamic driving force. Now, this research extends the text matrix and continues the previous study by compiling all the test data, with an additional aging heat treatment conducted at 400 °C for 15- and 30-y-equivalent times (6450 and 12,911 h, respectively). The results for the extended test matrix primarily represent the common features of and disparities in the effects of thermal aging on the aged samples at two different heat-treatment temperatures (400 and 450 °C). Although no difference was expected between the samples, because the heat treatment conditions simulate thermal aging effects during the same service time of 30 y, the sample aged at 450 °C exhibited slightly more severe effects of thermal aging than the sample aged at 400 °C. Nevertheless, the trends for these effects are similar and the simulation of thermal aging effects for a light-water reactor appears to be reliable. However, according to a simulation of the same degree of thermal aging effects, it appears that the activation energy for Cr diffusion should be larger than the numerical value used in this study.

  17. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yin-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  18. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub-project 2 - Ex-serviced 2.25Cr1M0 weld metal and cross weld repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Feilitzen, Carl von

    2007-12-15

    Weld repair has been carried out in an ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe by using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables. Application of current welding procedure and consumables results in an over matched weld repair. This is verified by both creep tests and the creep simulations at even lower stresses than tested. Creep specimens have been extracted from ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM) and weld metal (WM), from virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 WM, from virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM, and from virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. In addition, cross weld specimens including weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal have been taken from the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld joint, and from three weld repairs. In total, there are nine test series. The sequence of creep lifetime at 540 deg C at given stresses is; virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal > virgin 15 Mo 3 weld metal approx virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 weld metal approx ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal >> ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal > ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld approx 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld repair approx 13 CrMo 4 4 cross weld repair approx and 15 Mo 3 cross weld repair. All the series show good creep ductility. The ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal shows a creep lifetime about one order of magnitude shorter than that for both the virgin parent metal and the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal, independent of stresses. Differences in creep lifetime among the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld and other cross weld repairs are negligible, simply because rupture always occurred in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal, approximately 10 mm from HAZ, for all the cross welds. Necking is frequently observed in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal at the opposite side of the fracture. Creep damage to a large and a small extend is found adjacent to the fracture and at the necking area, respectively. Other parts of the weld joint like weld metal and HAZ are damage-free, independent of stress, weld metal and

  19. Gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys with impurity control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbeck, M. L.; King, J. F.; Nagasaka, T.; David, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding in vanadium alloys is controlled by interstitial impurities. Techniques have been developed to weld V-4Cr-4Ti in a high-purity argon atmosphere resulting in a DBTT of -20 °C. The atmosphere was controlled by a Zr-Al getter which is activated at high temperature to obtain a clean surface then cooled and allowed to absorb hydrogen and oxygen impurities. Through the use of low-oxygen base metal and high-purity weld filler wire, a DBTT of -145 °C was obtained. Experiments using electron beam welding have shown that grain size also has an important effect on weld ductility. Introduction of nitrogen and yttrium has been used to study their effect on grain size. Using a combination of atmosphere control, alloy purity control, and grain size control, it is anticipated that V-Cr-Ti alloys will be weldable in field conditions.

  20. Test and Analysis Correlation of a Large-Scale, Orthogrid-Stiffened Metallic Cylinder without Weld Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michelle T.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Lindell, Michael C.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF) was established in 2007 by the NESC with the primary objective to develop analysis-based buckling design factors and guidelines for metallic and composite launch-vehicle structures.1 A secondary objective of the project is to advance technologies that have the potential to increase the structural efficiency of launch-vehicles. The SBKF Project has determined that weld-land stiffness discontinuities can significantly reduce the buckling load of a cylinder. In addition, the welding process can introduce localized geometric imperfections that can further exacerbate the inherent buckling imperfection sensitivity of the cylinder. Therefore, single-piece barrel fabrication technologies can improve structural efficiency by eliminating these weld-land issues. As part of this effort, SBKF partnered with the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch (AMPB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Mechanical and Fabrication Branch at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and ATI Forged Products to design and fabricate an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened seamless metallic cylinder. The cylinder was subjected to seven subcritical load sequences (load levels that are not intended to induce test article buckling or material failure) and one load sequence to failure. The purpose of this test effort was to demonstrate the potential benefits of building cylindrical structures with no weld lands using the flow-formed manufacturing process. This seamless barrel is the ninth 8-ft-diameter metallic barrel and the first single-piece metallic structure to be tested under this program.

  1. EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND METAL ADDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXATION ACTIVITY IN BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K.; Lui, D.; Anbar, A. D.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Hartnett, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are diverse consortia of microorganisms that live in intimate association with soils in arid environments. Also called cryptogamic or microbiotic crusts, these communities can include cyanobacteria, algae, heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, lichens, and mosses. Together, these organisms provide many services to their surrounding ecosystems, including reduction of water runoff, promotion of water infiltration, and prevention of soil erosion. The cyanobacteria and algae also provide fixed carbon (C) to the soil through photosynthesis, and because atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in arid environments is low, the major input of biologically available N comes from cyanobacteria capable of converting nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonium (NH4+). Biological soil crusts are easily destroyed by livestock grazing, motor vehicle travel, and many forms of recreational and agricultural land use. Loss of BSC cover can leave the soil vulnerable to intense erosion that can remove the nutrients necessary to sustain plant and animal life, thus accelerating the process of desertification. In order to preserve existing crusts and encourage the development of new crusts, it is crucial to understand the nutrient requirements of metabolism and growth in these microbial communities. This study investigated the affect of nitrogen and metal additions on N2-fixation activity in cyanobacterially-dominated crusts from the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah. Although N2-fixation has been studied in this system before, the affect of nutrient additions on N2-fixation activity has not been documented. The goal of this work was to understand how N and metal supplementation affects crust N metabolism. Three experiments were conducted to observe how N2-fixation activity changed with the addition of N, molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V). Molybdenum and vanadium were chosen because they are most commonly found at the active site of the enzyme nitrogenase, the molecule responsible

  2. On-line quality monitoring in short-circuit gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolfsson, S. [Univ. of Karlskrono/Ronneby (Sweden). Dept. of Signal Processing]|[Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Production and Materials Engineering; Bahrami, A. [Technology Center of Kronoberg, Vaexjoe (Sweden)]|[Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bolmsjoe, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Claesson, I. [Univ. of Karlskrono/Ronneby (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    This paper addresses the problems involved in the automatic monitoring of the weld quality produced by robotized short-arc welding. A simple statistical change detection algorithm for the weld quality, the repeated Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT), was used. The algorithm may similarly be viewed as a cumulative sum (CUSUM) type test, and is well-suited to detecting sudden minor changes in the monitored test statistic. The test statistic is based on the variance of the weld voltage, wherein it will be shown that the variance decreases when the welding process is not operating under optimal conditions. The performance of the algorithm is assessed through the use of experimental data. The results obtained from the algorithm show that it is possible to detect changes in weld quality automatically and on-line.

  3. A Study on Flaw Sizing and Location Estimation in Tapered Dissimilar Metal Welds on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongjin; Kim, Yongsik [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The dissimilar metal welds (DMW) were used to join the carbon steel reactor pressure vessel to the stainless steel main recirculation piping or reactor coolant piping. The safe end was used as the same or similar metal at an attachment area. The DMW requires a periodic inspection because it is highly susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, the inspection of DMW for NPPs in Korea is difficult owing to the physical constraint as well as the diffraction scattering and/or reflection on the weld interface when using the conventional ultrasonic technique. Also, manual procedure only deals with the flaw detection and length sizing. The purpose of this study is the development of procedures for accurate defect assessment in DMW. This research aimed to increase the reliability and sensitivity of flaw sizing in dissimilar metal welds. The current manual ultrasonic technique for tapered DMW (KPD-UT-10) is mainly being applied to the length sizing and detection of flaws. In order to estimate the growth of the defect, depth sizing of flaws is required.

  4. The structure and properties of filler metal-free laser beam welded joints in steel S700MC subjected to TMCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Jacek; Stano, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    The research-related tests aimed to determine the effect of filer-metal free laser beam welding on the structure and properties of 10 mm thick steel S700MC subjected to the Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP). The nondestructive tests revealed that the welded joints represented quality level B according to the requirements of standard 13919-1. The destructive tests revealed that the joints were characterised by tensile strength being by approximately 5% lower than that of the base material. The tests of thin foils performed using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope revealed that filler metal-free welding led to the increased amount of alloying microagents (Ti and Nb) in the weld (particularly near fusion line) in comparison with welding performed using a filler metal. The significant content of hardening phases in the welds during cooling resulted in considerable precipitation hardening through finedispersive (Ti,Nb)(C,N) type precipitates (several nm in size) leading to the deterioration of plastic properties. The destructive tests revealed that the joints were characterised by tensile strength being by approximately 5% lower than that of the base material. The increase in the concentration of microagents responsible for steel hardening (Ti and Nb) also contributed to the decrease in weld toughness being below the allowed value of 25 J/cm2.

  5. Property Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Metals : AA6101-T6 and AA1350 Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran ASHOK KUMAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Next to copper, aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical industries, because of their high electrical conductivity. AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical bus bars. As these alloys are joined by mechanical fasteners in electrical bus bars, the conductive area has been reduced. To avoid this problem, they should be joined without removal of metal as well as their properties. Friction stir welding technique is mainly invented for joining similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. In this investigation, friction stir welding of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys was done by varying tool traversing speed, rotational speed and tilt angle with hexagonal pin profiled tool. The analysis of variance was employed to study the effect of above parameters on mechanical properties of welded joints. From the experimental results, it is observed that welded joint with the combination of 1070 rpm rotating speed, 78 mm/min traversing speed and 2° tilt angle provides better mechanical properties. Analysis of variance shows that most significant impact on tensile strength is made by variation in tool rotating speed while tool tilt angle makes the most significant impact on elongation and bending strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14132

  6. Evaluation of the molecular mechanisms associated with cytotoxicity and inflammation after pulmonary exposure to different metal-rich welding particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Kodali, Vamsi; Farris, Breanne; Bishop, Lindsey M; Meighan, Terence; Salmen, Rebecca; Eye, Tracy; Roberts, Jenny R; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2017-08-01

    Welding generates a complex aerosol of incidental nanoparticles and cytotoxic metals, such as chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe). The goal was to use both in vivo and in vitro methodologies to determine the mechanisms by which different welding fumes may damage the lungs. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation (ITI) with 2.0 mg of gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) fumes or saline (vehicle control). At 1, 3, and 10 days, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to measure lung toxicity. To assess molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to both welding fumes for 24 h (0-100 μg/ml). Fume composition was different: MMA-SS (41% Fe, 29% Cr, 17% Mn, 3% Ni) versus GMA-MS (85% Fe, 14% Mn). BAL indicators of lung injury and inflammation were increased by MMA-SS at all time points and by GMA-MS at 3 and 10 days after exposure. RAW264.7 cells exposed to MMA-SS had elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein-HNE (P-HNE) adduct formation, activation of ERK1/2, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) compared to GMA-MS and control. Increased generation of ROS due to MMA-SS exposure was confirmed by increased expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Results of in vitro studies provide evidence that stainless steel welding fume mediate inflammatory responses via activation of ROS/P-HNE/ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling pathways. These findings were corroborated by elevated expression of COX-2, Nrf2, and HO-1 in homogenized lung tissue collected 1 day after in vivo exposure.

  7. Reduction in welding fume and metal exposure of stainless steel welders: an example from the WELDOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Weiss, Tobias; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Zilch-Schöneweis, Sandra; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a plant where flux-cored arc welding was applied to stainless steel, we investigated changes in airborne and internal metal exposure following improvements of exhaust ventilation and respiratory protection. Twelve welders were examined at a time in 2008 and in 2011 after improving health protection. Seven welders were enrolled in both surveys. Exposure measurement was performed by personal sampling of respirable welding fume inside the welding helmets during one work shift. Urine and blood samples were taken after the shift. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) were determined in air and biological samples. The geometric mean of respirable particles could be reduced from 4.1 mg/m(3) in 2008-0.5 mg/m(3) in 2011. Exposure to airborne metal compounds was also strongly reduced (Mn: 399 vs. 6.8 μg/m(3); Cr: 187 vs. 6.3 μg/m(3); Ni: 76 vs. 2.8 μg/m(3)), with the most striking reduction inside helmets with purified air supply. Area sampling revealed several concentrations above established or proposed exposure limits. Urinary metal concentrations were also reduced, but to a lesser extent (Cr: 14.8 vs. 4.5 μg/L; Ni: 7.9 vs. 3.1 μg/L). Although biologically regulated, the mean Mn concentration in blood declined from 12.8 to 8.9 μg/L. This intervention study demonstrated a distinct reduction in the exposure of welders using improved exhaust ventilation and welding helmets with purified air supply in the daily routine. Data from area sampling and biomonitoring indicated that the area background level may add considerably to the internal exposure.

  8. Relationship between welding fume concentration and systemic inflammation after controlled exposure of human subjects with welding fumes from metal inert gas brazing of zinc-coated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Bauer, Marcus; Gube, Monika; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Spiegel-Ciobanu, Vilia Elena; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure of subjects to emissions from a metal inert gas (MIG) brazing process of zinc-coated material led to an increase of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the blood. In this study, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for such emissions was assessed. Twelve healthy subjects were exposed for 6 hours to different concentrations of MIG brazing fumes under controlled conditions. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in the blood. For welding fumes containing 1.20 and 1.50 mg m zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was increased the day after exposure. For 0.90 mg m zinc, no increase was detected. These data indicate that the no-observed-effect level for emissions from a MIG brazing process of zinc-coated material in respect to systemic inflammation is found for welding fumes with zinc concentrations between 0.90 and 1.20 mg m.

  9. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  10. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  11. Precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding at the heart of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    From the writing of specifications and the production of high-tech components, to technology transfer and call-out work on-site, the MF group in EST Division offers CERN users a wide variety of services. Its full range of activities is presented in a new brochure. In addition to its many physicists and engineers, CERN also has teams of mechanics, welders and sheet-metalworkers whose expertise is a precious asset for the Organization. Within the MF Group (Manufacturing Facilities, EST Division) these teams perform precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding. As an example, the Group has been responsible for producing radiofrequency accelerating cells to a precision of the order of 1/100th mm and with a surface roughness of only 0.1 micron. The Group's workshops also manufactured the stainless steel vacuum chamber for the brand new n-TOF experiment (Bulletin n°47/2000), a 200-m long cylindrical chamber with a diameter of just 800 millimetres! The MF Group is assisted in its task of providing me...

  12. Micro-structure of Joints made of Dissimilar Metals using Explosion Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Castillo-Matos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to establish the behaviour of the micro-structure of dissimilar joints made of titanium with AISI 1020, 1066 and 1008 steels through explosion welding. A detonation velocity of 2 800 m/s, a charge radius of 0,345 kg and a collision velocity of 1196, 16 m/s with an explosive volume of 600 cm3 and a density of 1,15 g/cm3 were considered. The microstructures obtained were composed of equiaxed ferrite grains, very fine grains of troostitic type and coarse grains with ferrite grid. Fine and aligned grains of ferrite type are observed in the casted area of both base materials. The metal hardness experienced an increase in samples from 120 HV AISI 1008 steel up to 250 HV for AISI 1066 steel. The AISI 1020 steel joint with titanium has an line shaped interface unlike the AISI 1008 steels with 4063 forms waves with uniform width, which provides a higher mechanical resistance associated with the ductility of the AISI 1008 steel.

  13. Detection and assessment of flaws in friction stir welded metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mohammad Ali; Mustapha, Samir; Tarraf, Jaafar; Ayoub, Georges; Hamade, Ramsey

    2017-04-01

    Investigated is the ability of ultrasonic guided waves to detect flaws and assess the quality of friction stir welds (FSW). AZ31B magnesium plates were friction stir welded. While process parameters of spindle speed and tool feed were fixed, shoulder penetration depth was varied resulting in welds of varying quality. Ultrasonic waves were excited at different frequencies using piezoelectric wafers and the fundamental symmetric (S0) mode was selected to detect the flaws resulting from the welding process. The front of the first transmitted wave signal was used to capture the S0 mode. A damage index (DI) measure was defined based on the amplitude attenuation after wave interaction with the welded zone. Computed Tomography (CT) scanning was employed as a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique to assess the actual weld quality. Derived DI values were plotted against CT-derived flaw volume resulting in a perfectly linear fit. The proposed approach showed high sensitivity of the S0 mode to internal flaws within the weld. As such, this methodology bears great potential as a future predictive method for the evaluation of FSW weld quality.

  14. Residual Stresses in Thick Bi-metallic Fusion Welds : A Neutron Diffraction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohms, C.

    2013-01-01

    Welding is applied in many industrial sectors to join components, and has become an important manufacturing process because it enables the fabrication of structures that could not otherwise be constructed. Weld regions have inhomogeneous microstructures and are more susceptible to crack initiation

  15. Experimental Development of Dual Phase Steel Laser-arc Hybrid Welding and its Comparison to Laser and Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Duarte Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Dual phase DP600 steels have been used in many automobile structures and laser welding has been the standard method for the joining of different sections. This work proposed a comparison between laser welding with arc welding (GMAW and with hybrid laser-arc welding in order to access the microstructures and the mechanical behavior. The laser and hybrid welds are competitive in terms of microstructure and mechanical behavior, presenting both acceptable and tough welds. The maximum ductility of the laser and hybrid welds are very similar, around 14%, and near to the values observed in the base material. The GMAW presents low ductility due to the softening caused by tampering of the martensite, and thus is unacceptable as the welding procedure.

  16. Influence of Metal Transfer Stability and Shielding Gas Composition on CO and CO2 Emissions during Short-circuiting MIG/MAG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Alves de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the influence of parameters and shielding gas on metal transfer stability or on the generation of fumes in MIG/MAG welding, but little or nothing has been discussed regarding the emission of toxic and asphyxiating gases, particularly as it pertains to parameterization of the process. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the effect of manufacturing aspects of welding processes (short-circuit metal transfer stability and shielding gas composition on the gas emission levels during MIG/MAG welding (occupational health and environmental aspects. Using mixtures of Argon with CO2 and O2 and maintaining the same average current and the same weld bead volume, short-circuit welding was performed with carbon steel welding wire in open (welder’s breathing zone and confined environments. The welding voltage was adjusted to gradually vary the transfer stability. It was found that the richer the composition of the shielding gas is in CO2, the more CO and CO2 are generated by the arc. However, unlike fume emission, voltage and transfer stability had no effect on the generation of these gases. It was also found that despite the large quantity of CO and CO2 emitted by the arc, especially when using pure CO2 shielding gas, there was no high level residual concentration of CO and CO2 in or near the worker’s breathing zone, even in confined work cells.

  17. Normalizing effect on fatigue crack propagation at the heat-affected zone of AISI 4140 steel shielded metal arc weldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vargas-Arista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughness and critical crack length, and a transgranular brittle final fracture with an area fraction of dimple zones connecting cleavage facets. A fractographic analysis proved that as the normalizing time increased the crack length decreased. The increase in the river patterns on the fatigue crack propagation in zone II was also evidenced and final brittle fracture because of transgranular quasicleavage was observed. Larger grains induced a deterioration of the fatigue resistance of the HAZ.

  18. Genetic algorithm based optimization of the process parameters for gas metal arc welding of AISI 904 L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiya, P. [National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli (India); Ajith, P. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Kottayam (India); Soundararajan, R. [Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-08-15

    The present study is focused on welding of super austenitic stainless steel sheet using gas metal arc welding process with AISI 904 L super austenitic stainless steel with solid wire of 1.2 mm diameter. Based on the Box - Behnken design technique, the experiments are carried out. The input parameters (gas flow rate, voltage, travel speed and wire feed rate) ranges are selected based on the filler wire thickness and base material thickness and the corresponding output variables such as bead width (BW), bead height (BH) and depth of penetration (DP) are measured using optical microscopy. Based on the experimental data, the mathematical models are developed as per regression analysis using Design Expert 7.1 software. An attempt is made to minimize the bead width and bead height and maximize the depth of penetration using genetic algorithm.

  19. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  20. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  1. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  2. Tensile properties of shielded metal arc welded dissimilar joints of nuclear grade ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, K.; Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Krishnan, S. A.; Sasikala, G.; Albert, Shaju K.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear power plants, modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel (Grade 91 or P91) is used for constructing steam generators (SG's) whereas austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316LN) is a major structural member for intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Therefore, a dissimilar joint between these materials is unavoidable. In this investigation, dissimilar joints were fabricated by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process with Inconel 82/182 filler metals. Transverse tensile properties and Charpy V-notch impact toughness for different regions of dissimilar joints of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel and AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel were evaluated as per the standards. Microhardness distribution across the dissimilar joint was recorded. Microstructural features of different regions were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The transverse tensile properties of the joint is found to be inferior to base metals. Impact toughness values of different regions of dissimilar metal weld joint (DMWJ) is slightly higher than the prescribed value. Formation of a soft zone at the outer edge of the HAZ will reduce the tensile properties of DMWJ. The complex microstructure developed at the interfaces of DMWJ will reduce the impact toughness values.

  3. Reprocessing weld and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, M.L.; Lewis, H.E.

    1993-08-03

    A process is described for improving the fatigue resistance of a small primary structural weld at a joint between structural members of a weldment, the weld having been made with the welding energy input of E[sub 1], the process comprising: applying a reprocessing weld on at least a portion of either one or both toes of the primary structural weld, thereby covering said toe portion, the reprocessing weld containing a filler metal and having a cross-sectional area which is less than the corresponding cross-sectional area of the primary structural weld, the reprocessing weld extending onto the face of the primary structural weld at one side of the toe portion covered and onto the structural member at the other side of the toe portion covered, and the total welding energy input, E[sub 2], used in said reprocessing the primary structural weld being less than the welding energy input E[sub 1] of the primary structural weld.

  4. The key role of metal dopants in nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Deng, Chengwei; Yao, Lan; Zhong, Hexiang; Zhang, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Highly active non-precious metal catalysts based on nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel (NCX) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is prepared with resorcinol(R)-formaldehyde (F) resin as carbon precursor and NH3 as nitrogen source. NCX samples doped with various transition metal species are investigated to elucidate the effect of transition metals on the structure and ORR activity of the products. As-prepared NCX catalysts with different metals are characterized using nitrogen-adsorption analysis, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The structural properties and ORR activities of the catalysts are altered by addition of different metals, and NCX doped with iron exhibits the best ORR activity. Metal doping evidently promotes the formation of more micropores and mesopores. Raman and XPS studies reveal that iron, cobalt, and nickel can increase pyridinic-N contents and that iron can catalyse the formation of graphene structures and enhance quaternary-N contents. Whereas the total N-content does not determine ORR activity, Metal-N4/C-like species generated from the interaction of the metals with nitrogen and carbon atoms play important roles in achieving high ORR activity.

  5. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  6. Residual Stresses in Thick Bi-metallic Fusion Welds: A Neutron Diffraction Study

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ohms

    2013-01-01

    Welding is applied in many industrial sectors to join components, and has become an important manufacturing process because it enables the fabrication of structures that could not otherwise be constructed. Weld regions have inhomogeneous microstructures and are more susceptible to crack initiation and crack propagation than the surrounding base material regions. Residual stresses are also formed, which superimpose with applied loads, resulting in a reduction of the maximum applied load a comp...

  7. The Effect of Shielding N{sub 2} gas on The Pitting Corrosion of Seal-welded Super Austenitic Stainless Steel by Autogenous Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many research efforts on the effect of nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels have been reported, but little research has been conducted on the effect of nitrogen for the weldment of stainless steels by the seal-weld method. Therefore, this work focused on the determining the corrosion resistance of tube/tube sheet mock-up specimen for sea water condensers, and elucidating the effect of shielding nitrogen gas on its resistance. The pitting corrosion of autogenously welded specimen propagated preferentially along the dendritic structure. Regardless of the percent of shielding nitrogen gas, the analyzed nitrogen contents were very much lower than that of the bulk specimen. This can be arisen because the nitrogen in shielding gas may partly dissolve into the weldment, but simultaneously during the welding process, nitrogen in the alloy may escape into the atmosphere. However, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of the interdendrite area was higher than that of the dendrite arm, regardless of the shielding gas percent; and the PREN of the interdendrite area was higher than that of the base metal; the PREN of the dendrite arm was lower than that of the base metal because of the formation of (Cr, Mo) rich phases by welding.

  8. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for <$100 in components representing a significant potential value through lateral scaling and replication in the 3D printing community.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of 304L Substrate and 308L Weld Metal Exposed to a Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available 304 stainless steels (SS were considered as the materials for a dry storage canister. In this study, ER (Electrode Rod 308L was utilized as the filler metal for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD map was used to identify the inherent microstructures in distinct specimens. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the 304L substrates and welds in a salt spray containing 5 wt % NaCl at 80 °C to evaluate their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC. Generally, the weight loss of the ER 308L deposit was higher than that of the 304L substrate in a salt spray in the same sample-prepared condition. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ was responsible for a greater weight loss of the 308L deposit, especially for the cold-rolled and sensitized specimen. Cold rolling was detrimental and sensitization after cold rolling was very harmful to the SCC resistance of the 304L substrate and 308L deposit. Overall, the SCC susceptibility of each specimen was correlated with its weight loss in each group.

  10. Heavy metals found in the breathing zone, toenails and lung function of welders working in an air-conditioned welding workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Azian; Mohamad Noor, Noraishah; Paiman, Nuur Azreen; Ahmad Zaidi, Ahmad Mujahid; Zainal Bakri, Siti Farhana

    2017-09-22

    Welding operations are rarely conducted in an air-conditioned room. However, a company would set its welding operations in an air-conditioned room to maintain the humidity level needed to reduce hydrogen cracks in the specimen being welded. This study intended to assess the exposure to metal elements in the welders' breathing zone and toenail samples. Heavy metal concentration was analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The lung function test was also conducted and analysed using statistical approaches. Chromium and manganese concentrations in the breathing zone exceeded the permissible exposure limit stipulated by Malaysian regulations. A similar trend was obtained in the concentration of heavy metals in the breathing zone air sampling and in the welders' toenails. Although there was no statistically significant decrease in the lung function of welders, it is suggested that exposure control through engineering and administrative approaches should be considered for workplace safety and health improvement.

  11. Ferromagnetism and Half-Metallicity in Atomically Thin Holey Nitrogenated Graphene Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Indrani; Pathak, Biswarup

    2017-09-06

    Metal-free half-metallicity has been the subject of immense research focus in the field of spintronic devices. By using density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations, atomically thin holey nitrogenated graphene (C2 N) based systems are studied for possible spintronic applications. Ferromagnetism is observed in all the C-doped holey nitrogenated graphene. Interestingly, the holey nitrogenated graphene (C2 N) based system shows strong half-metallicity with a Curie temperature of approximately 297 K when a particular C-doping concentration is reached. It shows a strong half-metallicity compared with any metal-free systems studied to date. Thus, such carbon nitride based systems can be used for a 100 % spin polarized current. Furthermore, such C-doped systems show excellent dynamical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Thus, we predict a metal-free planar ferromagnetic half-metallic holey nitrogenated graphene based system for room-temperature spintronic devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effects of Heat Input and Bead Generation Methods on Finite Element Analysis of Cylindrical Multi-Pass Welding Process of Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hoon [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a finite element analysis of a cylindrical multi-pass weldment for dissimilar metals was performed. The effects of the heat input method and weld bead generation method were considered. We compared two heat input methods: the heat flux method and the temperature method. We also compared two weld bead generation methods: the element birth method and the quiet element method. Although the results of the thermal analysis show deviations between the two heat input methods, the welding residual stresses were similar. Because the areas exposed to high temperature were similar and the strength of the material was very low in high temperature (above the 1000 ℃), the effects of the weld bead temperature were insignificant. The distributions of the welding residual stress were similar to each other. However, gaps and overlaps occurred on the welding boundary surfaces when the element birth method was applied. The quiet element method is more suitable for a large deformation model in order to simulate a more accurate weld shape.

  13. Effects of the use of a flat wire electrode in gas metal arc welding and fuzzy logic model for the prediction of weldment shape profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuthapandi, Sripriyan; Thyla, P. R. [PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Ramu, Murugan [Amrita University, Ettimadai (India)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes the relationships between the macrostructural characteristics of weld beads and the welding parameters in Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a flat wire electrode. Bead-on-plate welds were produced with a flat wire electrode and different combinations of input parameters (i.e., welding current, welding speed, and flat wire electrode orientation). The macrostructural characteristics of the weld beads, namely, deposition, bead width, total bead width, reinforcement height, penetration depth, and depth of HAZ were investigated. A mapping technique was employed to measure these characteristics in various segments of the weldment zones. Results show that the use of a flat wire electrode improves the depth-to-width (D/W) ratio by 16.5 % on average compared with the D/W ratio when a regular electrode is used in GMAW. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic model was established to predict the effects of the use of a flat electrode on the weldment shape profile with varying input parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with the experimental results.

  14. Mixing of multiple metal vapours into an arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hunkwan; Trautmann, Marcus; Tanaka, Keigo; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-11-01

    A computational model of the mixing of multiple metal vapours, formed by vaporization of the surface of an alloy workpiece, into the thermal arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. The model incorporates the combined diffusion coefficient method extended to allow treatment of three gases, and is applied to treat the transport of both chromium and iron vapour in the helium arc plasma. In contrast to previous models of GTAW, which predict that metal vapours are swept away to the edge of the arc by the plasma flow, it is found that the metal vapours penetrate strongly into the arc plasma, reaching the cathode region. The predicted results are consistent with published measurements of the intensity of atomic line radiation from the metal vapours. The concentration of chromium vapour is predicted to be higher than that of iron vapour due to its larger vaporization rate. An accumulation of chromium vapour is predicted to occur on the cathode at about 1.5 mm from the cathode tip, in agreement with published measurements. The arc temperature is predicted to be strongly reduced due to the strong radiative emission from the metal vapours. The driving forces causing the diffusion of metal vapours into the helium arc are examined, and it is found that diffusion due to the applied electric field (cataphoresis) is dominant. This is explained in terms of large ionization energies and the small mass of helium compared to those of the metal vapours.

  15. Controlling Angular Distortion in Manual Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Back-step Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sameea Jasim Abdul Zehra Jilabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, austenitic stainless steels (A.S.S. have many industrial applications in the fields of chemical and petrochemical processing, marine, medicine, water treatment, petroleum refining, food and drinks processing, nuclear power generation etc. The secret behind this wide range of applications is the fact that A.S.S. have great corrosion resistance, high strength and scale resistance at elevated temperatures, good ductility at low temperatures approached to absolute zero in addition to notable weldability. On the other hand, manual metal arc (MMA is probably the most common process used for the welding of A.S.S. Unfortunately, MMA welding of A.S.S. could be associated with considerable distortion. Uncontrolled or excessive distortion usually increases the cost of the production process due to the high expense of rectification or replacing the weldment by a non-distorted one. MMA welding of A.S.S. was carried out using the back-step technique with various bead lengths, and without using this technique for comparison. Results have showed that the angular distortion was a function of the bead length in the back-step welding of A.S.S. The angular distortion decreased by (14.32% when the back-step technique was used with a (60 mm length for each bead, and by (41.08% when the bead length was (40 mm. On the other hand, it increased by (25% when the back-step technique was done with a (30 mm length for each bead.

  16. Characterization of Mg/Al butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc filling with Zn–29.5Al–0.5Ti filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Hongyang; Liu, Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    The multivariate alloying design of a welding joint is used in the Mg to Al welding process. A Zn–29.5Al–0.5Ti alloy is added as filler metal in gas tungsten arc welding of Mg and Al alloy joint based on the analysis of Al and Mg alloy characteristics. The tensile strength, microstructure, and phase constitution of the weld seam are analyzed. The formation of brittle and hard Mg–Al intermetallic compounds is avoided because of the effects of Zn, Al, and Ti. The average tensile strength of the joint is 148 MPa. Al{sub 3}Ti is first precipitated and functions as the nucleus of heterogeneous nucleation during solidification. Moreover, the precipitated Al–MgZn{sub 2} hypoeutectic phase exhibited a feather-like structure, which enhances the property of the Mg–Al dissimilar joint. - Highlights: • Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are butt welded by fusion welding. • The effect of Ti in filler metal is investigated. • The formation of Mg–Al intermetallic compounds is avoided.

  17. Advanced Control Methods for Optimization of Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. S.

    Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is a proces used for joining pieces of metal. Probably, the GMAW process is the most successful and widely used welding method in the industry today. A key issue in welding is the quality of the welds produced. The quality of a weld is influenced by several factors in...

  18. Evaluation of occupational exposure to toxic metals released in the process of aluminum welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, Wanda; Gromiec, Jan

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to welding fumes and its elements on aluminum welders in Polish industry. The study included 52 MIG/Al fume samples and 18 TIG/Al samples in 3 plants. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of welders (total and respirable dust). Dust concentration was determined gravimetrically, and the elements in the collected dust were determined by AAS. Mean time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the welding dusts/fumes and their components in the breathing zone obtained for different welding processes were, in mg/m3: MIG/Al fumes mean 6.0 (0.8-17.8), Al 2.1 (0.1-7.7), Mg 0.2 (TIG/Al fumes 0.7 (0.3-1.4), Al 0.17 (0.07-0.50). A correlation has been found between the concentration of the main components and the fume/dust concentrations in MIG/Al and TIG/Al fumes. Mean percentages of the individual components in MIG/Al fumes/dusts were Al: 30 (9-56) percent; Mg: 3 (1-5.6) percent; Mn: 0.2 (0.1-0.3) percent; Cu: 0.2 (welding methods, the nature of welding-related operations, and work environment conditions.

  19. Comparative study on transverse shrinkage, mechanical and metallurgical properties of AA2219 aluminium weld joints prepared by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arunkumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloy AA2219 is a high strength alloy belonging to 2000 series. It has been widely used for aerospace applications, especially for construction of cryogenic fuel tank. However, arc welding of AA2219 material is very critical. The major problems that arise in arc welding of AA2219 are the adverse development of residual stresses and the re-distribution as well as dissolution of copper rich phase in the weld joint. These effects increase with increase in heat input. Thus, special attention was taken to especially thick section welding of AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy. Hence, the present work describes the 25 mm-thick AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy plate butt welded by GTAW and GMAW processes using multi-pass welding procedure in double V groove design. The transverse shrinkage, conventional mechanical and metallurgical properties of both the locations on weld joints were studied. It is observed that the fair copper rich cellular (CRC network is on Side-A of both the weldments. Further, it is noticed that, the severity of weld thermal cycle near to the fusion line of HAZ is reduced due to low heat input in GTAW process which results in non dissolution of copper rich phase. Based on the mechanical and metallurgical properties it is inferred that GTAW process is used to improve the aforementioned characteristics of weld joints in comparison to GMAW process.

  20. Physics of arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, T. W.

    1982-05-01

    A discussion of the factors controlling the size and shape of the weld fusion zone is presented along with a description of current theories of heat and fluid flow phenomena in the plasma and the molten metal weld pool. Although experimental results confirm that surface tension, plasma jets, and weld pool convection all strongly influence the fusion zone shape; no comprehensive model is available from which to predict welding behavior. It is proposed that the lack of such an understanding is a major impediment to development of automated welding processes. In addition, sensors for weld torch positioning are reviewed in terms of the mechnical and electromagnetic energy spectra which have been used. New developments in this area are also needed in order to advance the technology of automated welding.

  1. Metal ion binding to peptides: Oxygen or nitrogen sites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Polfer, N. C.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy was used to probe the conformations of gas-phase metal-ion complexes between a series of five metal ions and six small peptide ligands. This report is presented in recognition and tribute for the Armentrout group's long and hugely

  2. Metal ion binding to peptides: oxygen or nitrogen sites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R.C.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy was used to probe the conformations of gas-phase metal-ion complexes between a series of five metal ions and six small peptide ligands. This report is presented in recognition and tribute for the Armentrout group's long and hugely productive

  3. Theoretical Investigation on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Nitrogen, Pyridine-Like Nitrogen Defects, and Transition Metal Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mananghaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the inherent difficulty in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with uniform chirality and well-defined electronic properties through the introduction of dopants, topological defects, and intercalation of metals. Depending on the desired application, one can modify the electronic and magnetic properties of SWCNTs through an appropriate introduction of imperfections. This scheme broadens the application areas of SWCNTs. Under this motivation, we present our ongoing investigations of the following models: (i (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT doped with nitrogen (CNxNT, (ii (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT with pyridine-like defects (3NV-CNxNT, (iii (10, 0 SWCNT with porphyrine-like defects (4ND-CNxNT. Models (ii and (iii were chemically functionalized with 14 transition metals (TMs: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Ag, Pt and Au. Using the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT, stable configurations, deformations, formation and binding energies, the effects of the doping concentration of nitrogen, pyridine-like and porphyrine-like defects on the electronic properties were all examined. Results reveal that the electronic properties of SWCNTs show strong dependence on the concentration and configuration of nitrogen impurities, its defects, and the TMs adsorbed.

  4. Main alloy elements in covered electrodes in terms of the amount of oxygen in weld metal deposits (WMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Węgrzyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated properties of WMD, especially metallographic structure, toughness and fatigue strength of welds with various oxygen amount. The connection between the properties of welds with the content of oxygen in WMD were carried out. The research results indicate that it should be limited oxygen content in steel welds. Subsequent researchers could find more precisely the most beneficial oxygen amount in the welds in terms of the amount of acicular ferrite in welds.

  5. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding of Al Metal Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    2003-01-01

    The innovative process of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has generated tremendous interest since its inception about a decade or so ago since the first patent in 1991 by TWI of Cambridge, England. This interest has been seen in many recent international conferences and publications on the subject and relevant published literature. Still the process needs both intensive basic study of deformation mechanisms during this FSW process and analysis and feasibility study to evaluate production methods that will yield high quality strong welds from the stirring action of the appropriate pin tool into the weld plate materials. Development of production processes is a complex task that involves effects of material thickness, materials weldability, pin tool design, pin height, and pin shoulder diameter and related control conditions. The frictional heating with rotational speeds of the pin tool as it plunges into the material and the ensuing plastic flow arising during the traverse of the welding faying surfaces provide the known special advantages of the FSW process in the area of this new advanced joining technology.

  6. Fracture toughness of weld metal samples removed from a decommissioned Magnox reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, C.J.; Bischler, P.J.E.; Wootton, M.R.; Moskovic, R.; Morri, J.R.; Pegg, H.C.; Haines, A.B.; Smith, R.F.; Woodman, R

    2002-08-01

    Submerged-arc welds in Magnox RPVs are expected to show substantial shifts in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), due to their high copper content, and also because of a contribution from intergranular fracture. For structural integrity arguments, the fracture toughness of irradiated welds is predicted by applying an irradiation shift in DBTT to a start-of-life toughness curve. The shift is obtained from a trend curve derived from Charpy impact data. An uncertainty allowance is obtained by combining uncertainty contributions in start-of-life fracture toughness and shifts, including a contribution from uncertainties in neutron dose. Through-thickness samples were removed from four submerged-arc welds in a decommissioned Magnox RPV at Trawsfynydd. Fracture toughness tests were made on pre-cracked Charpy geometry specimens made from the samples, in order to compare the measured toughnesses with those predicted for irradiated material. Specimens were tested from several positions along the welds and also at four different through-thickness locations with dpa doses varying by a factor of more than 2. The paper presents the results of nearly 400 toughness measurements and demonstrates that the prediction methodology is sound.

  7. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  8. Fine welding with lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, D

    2008-01-01

    The need for micro joining metallic alloys for surgical instruments, implants and advanced medical devices is driving a rapid increase in the implementation of laser welding technology in research, development and volume production. This article discusses the advantages of this welding method and the types of lasers used in the process.

  9. Nitrogen removal and heavy metals in leachate treatment using SBR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morling, S., E-mail: stig.morling@sweco.se [SWECO Environment AB, P.O. Box 34044, S-100 26, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isaetra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isaetra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.

  10. Nitrogen-Doped Activated Carbon as Metal-Free Catalysts Having Various Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Fujita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have been gaining increasing interest as metal-free catalysts. In this article, the authors have briefly introduced their recent studies on the utilization of nitrogen-doped activated carbon (N-AC for several organic synthesis reactions, which include base catalyzed reactions of Knoevenagel condensation and transesterification, aerobic oxidation of xanthene and alcohols, and transfer hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, 3-nitrostyrene, styrene, and phenylacetylene with hydrazine. Doped-nitrogen species existed on the AC surface in different structures. For example, pyridine-type nitrogen species appear to be involved in the active sites for Knoevenagel condensation and for the oxidation of xanthene, while graphite-type nitrogen species appear to be involved for the oxidation of alcohols. Being different from these reactions, both surface nitrogen and oxygen species are involved in the active sites for the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. N-AC was practically inactive for the transfer hydrogenation of vinyl and ethynyl groups, but it can catalyze those hydrogenation reactions assisted by co-existing nitrobenzene. Comparison of N-AC with conventional catalysts shows that N-AC can alternate with conventional solid base catalysts and supported metal catalysts for the Knoevenagel condensation and oxidation reactions.

  11. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nastiti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm-3; average 1,545.436 µgm-3 were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm-3; average : 375.783 µgm-3. Welders’ breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders’ breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. – 775.19 µgm-3; average: 0.1674 µgm-3, Co (range : n.d. – 0.51 µgm-3; average: 0.000082 µgm-3, Mn (range : 0.39 – 148.37 µgm-3; average: 0.0374 µgm-3, Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm-3; average: 0.0973 µgm-3 and K (range : n.d. – 301.15 µgm-3; average: 0.0535 µgm-3 were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions

  12. Magnetic Deflection Of Welding Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron-beam welds inside small metal parts produced with aid of magnetic deflector. Beam redirected so it strikes workpiece at effective angle. Weld joint positioned to where heavy microfissure concentration removed when subsequent machining required, increasing likelihood of removing any weld defects located in face side of electron-beam weld.

  13. The Application of Stress-Relaxation Test to Life Assessment of T911/T22 Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tieshan; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Congqian; Li, Huifang

    2016-03-01

    A dissimilar weld metal was obtained through submerged arc welding of a T911 steel to a T22 steel, and its creep property was explored by stress-relaxation test assisted by some conventional creep tests. The creep rate information of the stress-relaxation test was compared to the minimum and the average creep rates of the conventional creep test. Log-log graph showed that the creep rate of the stress-relaxation test was in a linear relationship with the minimum creep rate of the conventional creep test. Thus, the creep rate of stress-relaxation test could be used in the Monkman-Grant relation to calculate the rupture life. The creep rate of the stress-relaxation test was similar to the average creep rate, and thereby the rupture life could be evaluated by a method of "time to rupture strain." The results also showed that rupture life which was assessed by the Monkman-Grant relation was more accurate than that obtained through the method of "time to rupture strain."

  14. Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) (Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 98-09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Carter, R. W.; Ding, J.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes an investigation of using friction stir welding (FSW) process for joining a variety of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's) reinforced with discontinuous silicon-carbide (SiC) particulate and functional gradient materials. Preliminary results show that FSW is feasible to weld aluminum MMC to MMC or to aluminum-lithium 2195 if the SiC reinforcement is <25 percent by volume fraction. However, a softening in the heat-affected zone was observed and is known to be one of the major limiting factors for joint strength. The pin tool's material is made from a low-cost steel tool H-13 material, and the pin tool's wear was excessive such that the pin tool length has to be manually adjusted for every 5 ft of weldment. Initially, boron-carbide coating was developed for pin tools, but it did not show a significant improvement in wear resistance. Basically, FSW is applicable mainly for butt joining of flat plates. Therefore, FSW of cylindrical articles such as a flange to a duct with practical diameters ranging from 2-5 in. must be fully demonstrated and compared with other proven MMC joining techniques for cylindrical articles.

  15. Welding technology for rails. Rail no setsugo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Uchino, K.; Sugino, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Inst. of Yawata Works); Ueyama, K. (JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The rail joining technology is indispensable for making long welded rails. Flush butt welding, gas welding, enclosed arc welding, and thermit welding are used properly as the welding methods. A method for improving the joint reliability by controlling the residual stress distribution of welded joint is investigated to prepare high carbon component weld metal similar to the rail. Problems with each of the welding methods and the newly developed technology to solve the problems are outlined. Composition of the coating is improved also, and a high C system welding rod is developed which has satisfactory weldability. High performance and high efficient new enclosed arc welding technology not available by now is developed which utilizes high carbon welding metal as a new EA welding work technology, and put to practical use. As a result of this study, useful guides are obtained for the establishment of satisfactory thermit welding technology. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effects of biochar on nitrogen transformation and heavy metals in sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huo, Rong; Xu, Junxiang; Liang, Shuxuan; Li, Jijin; Zhao, Tongke; Wang, Shutao

    2017-07-01

    Composting is regarded as an effective treatment to suppress pathogenic organisms and stabilize the organic material in sewage sludge. This study investigated the use of biochar as an amendment to improve the composting effectiveness and reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals and loss of nitrogen during composting. Biochar of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% were added into a mixture of sludge and straw, respectively. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, altered the composting process and the properties of the end products. Biochar addition resulted in a higher pile temperature (66°C) and could reduce nitrogen loss by transforming ammonium into nitrite. In the 5% biochar group, the final product from sludge composting, ammonia nitrogen, decreased by 22.4% compared to the control, and nitrate nitrogen increased by 310.6%. Considering temperature and N transformation, the treatment with 5% biochar is suggested for sludge composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures during Heavy Equipment Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin W; Andrews, Ronnee; Bertke, Steven; Ashley, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume at three factories where heavy equipment was manufactured. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. One hundred nine worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during gas metal arc welding. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particle size Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged 0.38-26 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; 3.2-170 for Mn0,2+ in acetic acid; 3.1-290 for Mn3+,4+ in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and non-detectable (ND)-130 µg m-3 for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all the total particulate Mn TWA fractions yielded results that ranged from 6.9 to 610 µg m-3. The range of respirable size Mn TWA concentrations were 0.33-21 for soluble Mn; 15-140 for Mn0,2+; 14-170 for Mn3+,4+; 5.3-230 for insoluble Mn; and 36-530 µg m-3 for Mn (sum of fractions). Total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn (sum) were 53 (GSD = 2.5), 150 (GSD = 1.7), and 120 (GSD = 1.8) µg m-3 for the three separate factories. Although all of the workers' exposures were measured below the OSHA regulatory permissible exposure limit and NIOSH recommended exposure limit for Mn, 70 welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values® for total Mn (100 µg m-3) and 29 exceeded the recently adopted respirable Mn TLV (20 µg m-3). This study shows that a welding fume exposure control and management program is warranted for Mn, which includes improved exhaust ventilation and may necessitate the use of respiratory protection, especially for welding parts that impede air circulation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  18. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  19. Welding arc plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  20. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as a metal catalyst support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available al. (2008) Pt 1.5?8.4 30 PEM fuel cells Chen et al. (2009) Ru 0.1?1.9 0.8 Ammonia decomposition Chen et al. (2010a, b, c) Ru 4 2 Ammonia decomposition Garc??a-Garc??a et al. (2010) Pt?Ru Unknown 40 Methanol oxidation Jiang et al. (2010) Pt?Ru 4 9... dispersion of nanoparticles (Gao et al. 2006).The support can also influence the performance of the catalyst through electronic interactions and migration effects (Mhlanga 2009). A catalyst support is a material on which an active metal nanoparticle...

  1. Efecto del procedimiento de soldadura sobre las propiedades de uniones soldadas de aceros microaleados para cañería Welding procedure effect on the properties of microalloyed steel welded joints for metal fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Zalazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue, en esta primera etapa, comparar las propiedades mecánicas y la microestructura del acero HIC, aleado al Nb-Ti-Cu-Ni, resistente a la corrosión, con las del acero normal NOR, microaleado con Nb-V-Ti, ambos caracterizados mediante análisis químico, mediciones de dureza, estudios metalográficos y ensayos de tracción e impacto. Con el fin de establecer la temperatura de precalentamiento óptima se realizaron ensayos de soldabilidad Tekken a distintas temperaturas y de acuerdo con la Norma JIS Z 3158. Luego se llevaron a cabo soldaduras circunferenciales de cañerías fabricadas con ambos aceros diseñándose procedimientos para la utilización, por un lado, de electrodos revestidos (SMAW: shielded metal arc welding, electrodos de distintos proveedores para todas las pasadas y por el otro, la primera pasada usando soldadura automática con alambre macizo bajo CO2 (GMAW: gas metal arc welding y el resto de las mismas con alambre tubular autoprotegido (FCAW-S: flux cored arc welding-selfshielded. Las soldaduras fueron calificadas de acuerdo con el Código API 1104. Los resultados de los análisis metalográficos y los ensayos mecánicos de tracción, dureza e impacto de las juntas soldadas revelaron la influencia de los consumibles de soldadura y del metal base en las propiedades de las uniones. Se observaron diferencias en las propiedades de las uniones soldadas con consumibles de igual especificación y distintos proveedores. De las diferentes combinaciones ensayadas se definieron valores óptimos para la soldadura de estos aceros.The objective of this work was, in this first step, to compare mechanical property and microstructure of the steel HIC, alloyed with Nb-Ti-Cu-Ni, corrosion resistant, to those of a normal steel NOR, microlloyed with Nb-V-Ti, characterized through chemical analysis, hardness measurements, metallographic studies and tensile and Charpy-V properties. The preheating temperature was established

  2. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Reactor Coolant System (Carbon Steel-to-CASS) Dissimilar Metal Weld Mockup Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, S. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cinson, A. D. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States); Diaz, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, M. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In the summer of 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff traveled to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, to conduct phased-array ultrasonic testing on a large bore, reactor coolant pump nozzle-to-safe-end mockup. This mockup was fabricated by FlawTech, Inc. and the configuration originated from the Port St. Lucie nuclear power plant. These plants are Combustion Engineering-designed reactors. This mockup consists of a carbon steel elbow with stainless steel cladding joined to a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) safe-end with a dissimilar metal weld and is owned by Florida Power & Light. The objective of this study, and the data acquisition exercise held at the EPRI NDE Center, were focused on evaluating the capabilities of advanced, low-frequency phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) examination techniques for detection and characterization of implanted circumferential flaws and machined reflectors in a thick-section CASS dissimilar metal weld component. This work was limited to PA-UT assessments using 500 kHz and 800 kHz probes on circumferential flaws only, and evaluated detection and characterization of these flaws and machined reflectors from the CASS safe-end side only. All data were obtained using spatially encoded, manual scanning techniques. The effects of such factors as line-scan versus raster-scan examination approaches were evaluated, and PA-UT detection and characterization performance as a function of inspection frequency/wavelength, were also assessed. A comparative assessment of the data is provided, using length-sizing root-mean-square-error and position/localization results (flaw start/stop information) as the key criteria for flaw characterization performance. In addition, flaw signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the key criterion for detection performance.

  3. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF WELDING PROCESS ON DISTORTION WITH 304L STAINLESS STEEL WELD JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay Kumar*, Dharamvir mangal

    2017-01-01

    The effect of welding process on the distortion with 304L stainless steel 12thk weld joints made by TIG (tungsten inert gas) and SMAW (Shielded metal arc welding) welding process involving different type joint configuration have been studied. The joint configurations employed were double V-groove edge preparation for double side SMAW welding and square – butt preparation for double side TIG welding. All weld joints passed by radiographic. Distortion measurements were carried out using height ...

  4. Fixation of molecular nitrogen by rare-earth metal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, M.N.; Trifonov, A.A.; Razuvaev, G.A.; Ilatovskaya, M.A.; Shur, V.B.

    1987-02-20

    They have shown that cyclopentadientyl complexes of Yb(II), Sm(III), Ce(III), and Eu(III), as well as CeCl/sub 3/ in the presence of excess naphthalenesodium in THF react with N/sub 2/ at approx. 20/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure. Ammonia is released upon the hydrolysis of the products formed. The best results are obtained with the Cp/sub 2/Yb-C/sub 10/H/sub 8/-Ba/sup +/ which gives a yield of 0.15-0.25 mole ammonia per mole complex. Upon the replacement of Cp/sub 2/Yb by Cp/sub 3/Sm and CeCl/sub 3/, the efficiency of the reduction of N/sub 2/ decreases (the NH/sub 3/ yield is approx. 0.14 and 0.05 mole, respectively). The systems with Cp/sub 3/Ce and Cp/sub 3/Eu x THF are even less active (the NH/sub 3/ yield is approx. 0.014 and 0.015 mole, respectively). If the reaction between the lanthanide compound and naphthalenesodium is carried out in an argon atmosphere instead of nitrogen, then ammonia is not found in the hydrolysis products.

  5. Human biomonitoring of aluminium after a single, controlled manual metal arc inert gas welding process of an aluminium-containing worksheet in nonwelders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Hartmann, Laura; Schettgen, Thomas; Kossack, Veronika; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Several existing field studies evaluate aluminium welding works but no thoroughly controlled exposure scenario for welding fume has been described yet. This study provides information about the uptake and elimination of aluminium from welding fumes under controlled conditions. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory, we are able to generate welding fumes of a defined particle mass concentration. We exposed 12, until then occupationally unexposed participants with aluminium-containing welding fumes of a metal inert gas (MIG) welding process of a total dust mass concentration of 2.5 mg/m(3) for 6 h. Room air filter samples were collected, and the aluminium concentration in air derived. Urine and plasma samples were collected directly before and after the 6-h lasting exposure, as well as after 1 and 7 days. Human biomonitoring methods were used to determine the aluminium content of the samples with high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary aluminium concentrations showed significant changes after exposure compared to preexposure levels (mean t(1) (0 h) 13.5 µg/L; mean t(2) (6 h) 23.5 µg/L). Plasma results showed the same pattern but pre-post comparison did not reach significance. We were able to detect a significant increase of the internal aluminium burden of a single MIG aluminium welding process in urine, while plasma failed significance. Biphasic elimination kinetic can be observed. The German BAT of 60 µg/g creatinine was not exceeded, and urinary aluminium returned nearly to baseline concentrations after 7 days.

  6. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  7. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  8. Effects Of Heat Sinks On VPPA Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C.; Steranka, Paul O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental study of absorption of heat by metal blocks in contact with metal plate while plate subjected to variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding. Purpose of study to contribute to development of comprehensive mathematical model of temperature in weld region. Also relevant to welding of thin sheets of metal to thick blocks of metal, heat treatment of metals, and hotspots in engines.

  9. Dynamics of space welding impact and corresponding safety welding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M; Nunes, Arthur C

    2004-03-01

    This study was undertaken in order to be sure that no hazard would exist from impingement of hot molten metal particle detachments upon an astronauts space suit during any future electron beam welding exercises or experiments. The conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment were analyzed. The safety issue is important during welding with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at low earth orbit. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were determined for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. A weld pool detachment parameter for specifying the conditions for metal weld pool detachment by impact was derived and correlated to the experimental results. The experimental results were for the most part consistent with the theoretical analysis and predictions. c2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of space welding impact and corresponding safety welding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2004-03-01

    This study was undertaken in order to be sure that no hazard would exist from impingement of hot molten metal particle detachments upon an astronauts space suit during any future electron beam welding exercises or experiments. The conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment were analyzed. The safety issue is important during welding with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at low earth orbit. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were determined for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. A weld pool detachment parameter for specifying the conditions for metal weld pool detachment by impact was derived and correlated to the experimental results. The experimental results were for the most part consistent with the theoretical analysis and predictions.

  11. The Acoustic Emission for Monitoring the Hardness of the Cold Metal Transfer Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šustr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the quality monitoring of the weld joint Aluzinc surface at the overlap point. The corrosion resistance layer research in the anaerobic fermenter (bioreactor used to be the article’s subject. Moreover, the main purpose is focused on the qualitative modification of the degraded samples properties in the specified bio-environment in the experimental measurements. We used the material hardness decrease in two predetermined areas through the use of acoustic emission method as a key factor.

  12. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  13. Avaliação da microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda obtidos por processos de soldagem manual e automatizado utilizado na soldagem de aço API 5L X80 Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of weld metals obtained by manual and automated welding process used in the welding of API 5L X80 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siderley Fernandes Albuquerque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características da zona termicamente afetada (ZTA e a microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda de juntas soldadas do aço API 5L X80, obtidos para quatro diferentes procedimentos de soldagem utilizando processos manuais e automatizados. Para isto, chapas do referido aço foram soldadas por processo manual ao Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo Revestido (SMAW, utilizando 473 e 673 K como temperaturas de interpasses e o eletrodo celulósico AWS E8010-G como consumível; por processo ao Arco Elétrico com Arame Tubular (FCAW robotizado, utilizando o arame AWS E71T- 1C como metal de adição e argônio com 25%CO2 como gás de proteção; por processo a Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo de Tungstênio (GTAW mecanizado na raiz da solda, usando o arame ER70S-3 e argônio como gás de proteção. As análises microestruturais foram relacionadas com os resultados de ensaios de impacto Charpy nos metais de solda e com os perfis de microdureza Vickers ao longo da junta soldada. Os resultados indicaram maiores percentuais de Ferrita Acicular e maiores valores de resistência ao impacto nos metais de solda e uma menor extensão e granulometria da ZTA, associado ao procedimento de soldagem utilizando processo automatizado com maior velocidade de soldagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the heat affected zone characteristics and weld metals microstructure and mechanical properties of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, obtained for four different welding procedures using manual and automated processes. For this, plates of this steel were welded by manual Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW process with interpasses temperatures of 473 e 673 K, and using AWS E8010-G electrode as filler metals; robotized Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW process, using AWS E71T-1C wire and Ar25%CO2 as consumable and mechanized Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process, for the root pass using AWS ER70S-3 and Ar as consumable .The

  14. Welding Using Chilled-Inert-Gas Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of fusion welding using chilled inert gas. Marked improvement shown in welding of aluminum using chilled helium gas. Chilling inert gas produces two additional benefits: 1) creation of ultradense inert atmosphere around welds; 2) chilled gas cools metal more quickly down to temperature at which metals not reactive.

  15. Effect of post-weld heat treatment and neutron irradiation on a dissimilar-metal joint between F82H steel and 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Haiying, E-mail: haigirl1983@gmail.com [SOKENDAI - The Graduated University for Advanced Studies, Toki (Japan); Nagasaka, Takuya [SOKENDAI - The Graduated University for Advanced Studies, Toki (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Kometani, Nobuyuki [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [SOKENDAI - The Graduated University for Advanced Studies, Toki (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Guan, Wenhai; Nogami, Shuhei; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Iwata, Takuya; Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamazaki, Masanori [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Kano, Sho; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Significant hardening after neutron irradiation at 300 °C for 0.1 dpa was found in the fine-grain HAZ of F82H for the dissimilar-metal joint between F82H and 316L. • The possible hardening mechanism was explained from the viewpoint of carbon behavior. • However, the significant hardening did not degrade the impact property significantly. - Abstract: A dissimilar-metal joint between F82H steel and 316L stainless steel was fabricated by using electron beam welding (EBW). By microstructural analysis and hardness test, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of F82H was classified into interlayer area, fine-grain area, and coarse-carbide area. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was applied to control the hardness of HAZ. After PWHT at 680 °C for 1 h, neutron irradiation at 300 °C with a dose of 0.1 dpa was carried out for the joint in Belgian Reactor II (BR-II). Compared to the base metals (BMs) and weld metal (WM), significant irradiation hardening up to 450HV was found in the fine-grain HAZ of F82H. However, the impact property of F82H-HAZ specimens, which was machined with the root of the V-notch at HAZ of F82H, was not deteriorated obviously in spite of the significant irradiation hardening.

  16. Tuning the functional properties of metal complexes containing polytopic heteroaromatic nitrogen ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinari, Claudio; Masciocchi, Norberto; Pandolfo, Luciano; Pucci, Daniela

    2010-01-25

    The preparation, characterization, and optimization of the functional properties of mono- and polynuclear coordination complexes containing heteroaromatic nitrogen ligands are discussed here, taking the advantage of numerous studies performed in our laboratories on exploring a variety of different metal ions and polytopic ligands. We highlight how very minor changes in connectivity, composition, and polarity of the molecular entities employed in the self-assembly steps may significantly affect the structural, thermal, sorptive, magnetic, and mesomorphic behavior of the resulting materials. Examples from three different classes are included: 1) pyrazolate-based polynuclear coordination compounds, 2) homoleptic and heteroleptic coordination polymers, and 3) 2,2'-bipyridine metal-based liquid crystals.

  17. Gas Shielding Technology for Welding and Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur J.; Gradl, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Welding is a common method that allows two metallic materials to be joined together with high structural integrity. When joints need to be leak-tight, light-weight, or free of contaminant-trapping seams or surface asperities, welding tends to be specified. There are many welding techniques, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of these techniques include Forge Welding, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, Friction Stir Welding, and Laser Beam Welding to name a few. Whichever technique is used, the objective is a structural joint that meets the requirements of a particular component or assembly. A key practice in producing quality welds is the use of shielding gas. This article discusses various weld techniques, quality of the welds, and importance of shielding gas in each of those techniques. Metallic bonds, or joints, are produced when metals are put into intimate contact. In the solid-state "blacksmith welding" process, now called Forge Welding (FOW), the site to be joined is pounded into intimate contact. The surfaces to be joined usually need to be heated to make it easier to deform the metal. The surfaces are sprinkled with a flux to melt surface oxides and given a concave shape so that surface contamination can be squeezed out of the joint as the surfaces are pounded together; otherwise the surface contamination would be trapped in the joint and would weaken the weld. In solid-state welding processes surface oxides or other contamination are typically squeezed out of the joint in "flash."

  18. Cytogenetic studies of stainless steel welders using the tungsten inert gas and metal inert gas methods for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelmert, O; Hansteen, I L; Langård, S

    1995-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was studied in lymphocytes from 23 welders using the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), and 21 welders using the Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and/or Metal Active Gas (MAG) methods on stainless steel (SS). A matched reference group I, and a larger reference group II of 94 subjects studied during the same time period, was established for comparison. Whole blood conventional cultures (CC), cultures in which DNA synthesis and repair were inhibited (IC), and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay were applied in the study. For the CC a statistically significant decrease in chromosome breaks and cells with aberrations was found for both TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welders when compared with reference group II. A non-significant decrease was found for the corresponding parameters for the two groups of welders when compared with their matched referents. A statistically significant negative association was found between measurements of total chromium (Cr) in inhaled air and SCE, and a weaker negative correlation with hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) in air. In conclusion, no cytogenetic damage was found in welders exposed to the TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welding fumes with low content of Cr and Ni. On the contrary, a decline in the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations was indicated in the TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welders, possibly related to the suggested enhancement of DNA repair capacity at slightly elevated exposures.

  19. The influence of Sc addition on the welding microstructure of Zr-based bulk metallic glass: The stability of the amorphous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Kuo, Pei Hung; Tsang, Hsiao Tsung; Jeng, Rong Ruey; Lin, Yu Lon

    2007-10-01

    Pulsed direct current autogeneous tungsten inert gas arc welding was conducted on rods of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 under two different cooling conditions. The crystalline precipitates in the fusion zone of BMG Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 were confirmed by microfocused x-ray diffraction pattern analysis as Zr2Ni and Zr2(Cu,Al) intermetallic compounds. In contrast, BMG with Sc addition (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 shows an excellent stable glass forming ability. The fusion zone of BMG (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 remains in the same amorphous state as that of the amorphous base metal when the weld is cooled with accelerated cooling.

  20. A Field Study on the Respiratory Deposition of the Nano-Sized Fraction of Mild and Stainless Steel Welding Fume Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, L G; Chisholm, W P; Keane, M J; Chen, B T

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to estimate the amount of Cr, Mn, and Ni deposited in the respiratory system of 44 welders in two facilities. Each worker wore a nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild and stainless steel and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) of mild steel. Several welders also wore side-by-side NRD samplers and closed-face filter cassettes for total particulate samples. The NRD sampler estimates the aerosol's nano-fraction deposited in the respiratory system. Mn concentrations for both welding processes ranged 2.8-199 μg/m3; Ni concentrations ranged 10-51 μg/m3; and Cr concentrations ranged 40-105 μg/m3. Cr(VI) concentrations ranged between 0.5-1.3 μg/m3. For the FCAW process the largest concentrations were reported for welders working in pairs. As a consequence this often resulted in workers being exposed to their own welding fumes and to those generated from the welding partner. Overall no correlation was found between air velocity and exposure (R2 = 0.002). The estimated percentage of the nano-fraction of Mn deposited in a mild-steel-welder's respiratory system ranged between 10 and 56%. For stainless steel welding, the NRD samplers collected 59% of the total Mn, 90% of the total Cr, and 64% of the total Ni. These results indicate that most of the Cr and more than half of the Ni and Mn in the fumes were in the fraction smaller than 300 nm.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hadryś D.

    2016-01-01

    New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF) in weld metal deposit...

  2. Ultrasonic sensing of GMAW: Laser/EMAT defect detection system. [Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Larsen, E.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Van Clark, A. Jr.; Schaps, S.R.; Fortunko, C.M. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In-process ultrasonic sensing of welding allows detection of weld defects in real time. A noncontacting ultrasonic system is being developed to operate in a production environment. The principal components are a pulsed laser for ultrasound generation and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for ultrasound reception. A PC-based data acquisition system determines the quality of the weld on a pass-by-pass basis. The laser/EMAT system interrogates the area in the weld volume where defects are most likely to occur. This area of interest is identified by computer calculations on a pass-by-pass basis using weld planning information provided by the off-line programmer. The absence of a signal above the threshold level in the computer-calculated time interval indicates a disruption of the sound path by a defect. The ultrasonic sensor system then provides an input signal to the weld controller about the defect condition. 8 refs.

  3. Microstructure, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN safe-end dissimilar metal weld joint by GTAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhu, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhiming [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Jianqiu, E-mail: wangjianqiu@imr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Han, En.-Hou.; Ke, Wei [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Su, Mingxing [Shanghai Research Center for Weld and Detection Engineering Technique of Nuclear Equipment, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-07-04

    The microstructure, local mechanical properties and local stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint used for AP1000 nuclear power plant prepared by automatic gas tungsten arc welding was studied in this work by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with electron back scattering diffraction and an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system), micro-hardness testing, local mechanical tensile testing and local slow strain rate tests. The micro-hardness, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility across this dissimilar metal weld joint vary because of the complex microstructure across the fusion area and the dramatic chemical composition change across the fusion lines. Briefly, Type I boundaries and Type II boundaries exist in 52Mb near the SA508-52Mb interface, a microstructure transition was found in SA508 heat affected zone, the residual strain and grain boundary character distribution changes as a function of the distance from the fusion boundary in 316LN heat affected zone, micro-hardness distribution and local mechanical properties along the DMWJ are heterogeneous, and 52Mw-316LN interface has the highest SCC susceptibility in this DMWJ while 316LN base metal has the lowest one.

  4. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of laser-welded joint of γ-TiAl alloy with pure Ti filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei; Guo, Hongling; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    γ-TiAl alloy was successfully welded using pure Ti filler metal by laser. The microstructures, element distribution and phase composition of the joint were investigated by SEM, EDS and XRD, and the mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by nanoindentation and tensile strength tests. Crack-free joints were obtained by using Ti filler metal. The weld zone mainly contained of α2-Ti3Al phase and a small amount of Ti2Al phases. The hardness values in the weld zone were higher than that of base metal (BM) due to the formation of α2-Ti3Al phase, but for the modulus values were just the reverse. The tensile strength and elongation of the joints were 288 MPa and 2.19%, respectively, accounting for 74.8% and 94.0% of the BM, respectively. The joint fracture surface exhibited typical brittle fracture morphology, and Ti2Al and TiAl2 particle phases can be seen on the fracture surface.

  5. Influence of shielding gas on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of DP-GMA-welded 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, Amin Reza; Goodarzi, Massoud; Paidar, Moslem

    2016-12-01

    In the present research, 6-mm-thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy was joined by the double-pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW) process. The objective was to investigate the influence of the shielding gas composition on the microstructure and properties of GMA welds. A macrostructural study indicated that the addition of nitrogen and oxygen to the argon shielding gas resulted in better weld penetration. Furthermore, the tensile strength and bending strength of the welds were improved when oxygen and nitrogen (at concentrations as high as approximately 0.1vol%) were added to the shielding gas; however, these properties were adversely affected when the oxygen and nitrogen contents were increased further. This behavior was attributed to the formation of excessive brown and black oxide films on the bead surface, the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, and the formation of thicker oxide layers on the bead surface with increasing nitrogen and oxygen contents in the argon-based shielding gas. Analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that most of these compounds are nitrides or oxides.

  6. Materials participation in welded joints manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2016-08-01

    Management of materials dilution to form a joint with higher features asked by complex metallic structures is a problem that took attention and efforts of welding processes researchers and this communication will give a little contribution presenting some scientific and experimental results of dilution processes studied by Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department. Liquid state welding processes have a strong dependence related to dilution of base and filler materials, the most important are for automatic joining using welding. The paper presents a review of some scientific works already published and their contributions, results of dilution coefficient evaluation using weighing, graphics and software applied for shielded metal arc welding process. Paper results could be used for welders’ qualification, welding procedure specification and other welding processes researchers’ activities. The results of Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department, show dilution coefficient values between 20-30 % of base material and 70-80 % of filler material for studied welding process.

  7. The risk of male subfecundity attributable to welding of metals. Studies of semen quality, infertility, fertility, adverse pregnancy outcome and childhood malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P

    1993-08-01

    These studies were initiated by the results of two Danish investigations of infertility clients, which indicated the reduced fecundity of male metal welders. The objective was to refute or corroborate the effects of welding on male reproductive capability and--if there was any effect--to identify the causal exposures. The initial hypothesis postulated reduced spermatogenesis, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformation and childhood malignancy following exposure to hexavalent chromium among stainless steel welders. Subsequently, a hypothesis concerned with the significance of exposure to radiant heat on reduced semen quality was put forward. These studies comprised a case-referent study of infertility, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of semen quality and historical cohort studies of fertility, pregnancy outcome and cancer in offspring. Exposure to welding was reported with a higher frequency during periods of infertility than prior to conception in the case-referent study (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.0). This finding is consistent with the main cross-sectional study showing reduced semen quality in welders [average reduction ranging from 8% (sperm penetration rate in eggwhite) to 28% (total sperm count)] and with the cohort study revealing reduced fertility in relation to welding (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.97). However, reduced semen quality and fertility were not attributable to the welding of stainless steel but to the welding of mild steel; and no relationship was found between biological measures of exposure to chromium and parameters of semen quality. If the unexpected association between mild steel welding and reduced fecundity is causal, the biological mechanisms involved are obscure. A separate longitudinal study leaves little doubt that moderate radiant heat exposure may cause reversible deterioration of semen quality, but it is not justified to generalize this observation to the entire population of welders. Male-mediated effects on occurrence of

  8. Plasma-induced nanoporous metal oxides with nitrogen doping for high-performance electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min

    2017-06-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a critical reaction in energy storage and conversion systems such as metal-air batteries and water splitting. The current commercial OER catalysts are the noble metal based materials, which have a high cost and a limited supply. Xu et al have prepared the nanoporous N-Co3O4 materials as cost-effective and high efficient electrocatalysts for OER by N2 plasma (Xu et al 2017 Nanotechnology 28 165402). This work has successfully demonstrated the simple N2 plasma treatment to be a powerful technique to introduce the nitrogen doping and nanoporous structure in the bulk materials, enhancing the performance of electrochemical catalysis. Based on this study, more future work on developing highly porous non-precious metal-based materials with good conductivity would be promising for energy storage and conversion.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Sequencing Practicums for Welding in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Malcolm; Pate, Michael L.; Lawver, Rebecca G.; Warnick, Brian K.; Dai, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of sequencing practicums for welding on students' ability to perform a 1F (flat position-fillet lap joint) weld on low-carbon steel. Participants were randomly assigned a specific practice sequence of welding for using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). A total of 71 participants…

  10. SDSS IV MaNGA - metallicity and nitrogen abundance gradients in local galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Lin, Lihwai; Drory, Niv; Boquien, Médéric; Thomas, Daniel; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We study the gas phase metallicity (O/H) and nitrogen abundance gradients traced by star-forming regions in a representative sample of 550 nearby galaxies in the stellar mass range 109-1011.5 M⊙ with resolved spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory survey. Using strong-line ratio diagnostics (R23 and O3N2 for metallicity and N2O2 for N/O) and referencing to the effective (half-light) radius (Re), we find that the metallicity gradient steepens with stellar mass, lying roughly flat among galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.0 but exhibiting slopes as steep as -0.14 dex R_e^{-1} at log (M⋆/M⊙) = 10.5 (using R23, but equivalent results are obtained using O3N2). At higher masses, these slopes remain typical in the outer regions of our sample (R > 1.5Re), but a flattening is observed in the central regions (R 2.0Re), we detect a mild flattening of the metallicity gradient in stacked profiles, although with low significance. The N/O ratio gradient provides complementary constraints on the average chemical enrichment history. Unlike the oxygen abundance, the average N/O profiles do not flatten out in the central regions of massive galaxies. The metallicity and N/O profiles both depart significantly from an exponential form, suggesting a disconnect between chemical enrichment and stellar mass surface density on local scales. In the context of inside-out growth of discs, our findings suggest that central regions of massive galaxies today have evolved to an equilibrium metallicity, while the nitrogen abundance continues to increase as a consequence of delayed secondary nucleosynthetic production.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF in weld metal deposit (WMD is obtained in MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling in relation to ordinary MIG welding method. This article presents the influence of the cooling medium and the number of micro-jet streams on mechanical properties of the welded joint. Mechanical properties were described by force which is necessary to destroy weld joint.

  12. A Brief Introduction to the Theory of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and is already an important welding process for the aerospace industry, where welds of optimal quality are demanded. The structure of welds determines weld properties. The structure of friction stir welds is determined by the flow field in the weld metal in the vicinity of the weld tool. A simple kinematic model of the FSW flow field developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, which enables the basic features of FSW microstructure to be understood and related to weld process parameters and tool design, is explained.

  13. Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Multi-Physics Process Model and Its Application to MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Steel Butt-welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    decomposition reactions (and the corresponding volume fractions of the transformation products). Critical HAZ FZ Subcritical HAZ Unaffected Zone Fine Grain...corresponding strengthening mechanisms assembled and parameterized; 202 MMMS 10,2 D ow nl oa de d by C le m so n U ni ve rs ity A t 0 5: 24 1 3 O...validated using in-house welding and testing facilities. GMAW experimental facilities are currently being developed/ assembled in order to support our

  14. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Test Results for Al-Li 2195 Parent Metal, Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welds and Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Wagner, John A.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy 2195 plate and weldments was determined at 200-F, ambient temperature and -320-F. The effects of stress ratio (R), welding process, orientation and thickness were studied. Results are compared with plate data from the Space Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank (SLWT) allowables program. Data from the current series of tests, both plate and weldment, falls within the range of data generated during the SLWT allowables program.

  15. Investigation of Interface Bonding Mechanism of an Explosively Welded Tri-Metal Titanium/Aluminum/Magnesium Plate by Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. T.; Wang, W. X.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X. Q.; Yan, Z. F.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2017-08-01

    A tri-metal titanium/aluminum/magnesium (Ti/Al/Mg) cladding plate, with an aluminum alloy interlayer plate, was fabricated for the first time by explosive welding. Nanoindentation tests and associated microstructure analysis were conducted to investigate the interface bonding mechanisms of the Ti/Al/Mg cladding plate. A periodic wavy bonding interface (with an amplitude of approximately 30 μm and a wavelength of approximately 160 μm) without a molten zone was formed between the Ti and Al plates. The bonding interface between the Al and the Mg demonstrated a similar wavy shape, but the wave at this location was much larger with an amplitude of approximately 390 μm and a wavelength of approximately 1580 μm, and some localized melted zones also existed at this location. The formation of the wavy interface was found to result from a severe deformation at the interface, which was caused by the strong impact or collision. The nanoindentation tests showed that the material hardness decreased with increasing distance from the bonding interface. Material hardness at a location was found to be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation at that site. A larger plastic deformation was correlated with an increase in hardness.

  16. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  17. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing: Weld Optimization for Aluminum 6061, Development of Scarf Joints for Aluminum Sheet Metal, and Joining of High Strength Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Paul J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a low temperature, solid-state manufacturing process that enables the creation of layered, solid metal structures with designed anisotropies and embedded materials. As a low temperature process, UAM enables the creation of active composites containing smart materials, components with embedded sensors, thermal management devices, and many others. The focus of this work is on the improvement and characterization of UAM aluminum structures, advancing the capabilities of ultrasonic joining into sheet geometries, and examination of dissimilar material joints using the technology. Optimized process parameters for Al 6061 were identified via a design of experiments study indicating a weld amplitude of 32.8 synum and a weld speed of 200 in/min as optimal. Weld force and temperature were not significant within the levels studied. A methodology of creating large scale builds is proposed, including a prescribed random stacking sequence and overlap of 0.0035 in. (0.0889 mm) for foils to minimize voids and maximize mechanical strength. Utilization of heat treatments is shown to significantly increase mechanical properties of UAM builds, within 90% of bulk material. The applied loads during the UAM process were investigated to determine the stress fields and plastic deformation induced during the process. Modeling of the contact mechanics via Hertzian contact equations shows that significant stress is applied via sonotrode contact in the process. Contact modeling using finite element analysis (FEA), including plasticity, indicates that 5000 N normal loads result in plastic deformation in bulk aluminum foil, while at 3000 N no plastic deformation occurs. FEA studies on the applied loads during the process, specifically a 3000 N normal force and 2000 N shear force, show that high stresses and plastic deformation occur at the edges of a welded foil, and base of the UAM build. Microstructural investigations of heat treated foils confirms

  18. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  19. A Family of Nitrogen-Enriched Metal Organic Frameworks with CCS Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dooris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with enhanced carbon capture capacities are required to advance post-combustive amelioration methods; these are necessary to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions and the associated rate of global temperature increase. Current technologies tend to be very energy intensive processes with high levels of waste produced; this work presents three new metal organic framework materials with embedded Lewis base functionalities, imparted by the nitrogen-rich ligand, demonstrating an affinity for carbon dioxide. Thus, we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of metal organic framework materials using a range of metal centers (Co, Ni, and Zn with the 1,4-bis(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine organic linker, in the presence of ammonium hexafluorosilicate. Three distinct crystal structures are reported for Zn-pytz(hydro 1D chains, and Ni-pytz and Co-pytz isostructural 1D Ladders. Co-pytz shows an uptake of 47.53 mg CO2/g of sorbent, which equates to 15 wt % based on available nitrogen sites within the structure, demonstrating potential for carbon capture applications.

  20. Pulsed current and dual pulse gas metal arc welding of grade AISI: 310S austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mathivanan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transverse shrinkage, mechanical and metallurgical properties of AISI: 310S ASS weld joints prepared by P-GMAW and DP-GMAW processes were investigated. It was observed that the use of the DP-GMAW process improves the aforementioned characteristics in comparison to that of the P-GMAW process. The enhanced quality of weld joints obtained with DP-GMAW process is primarily due to the combined effect of pulsed current and thermal pulsation (low frequency pulse. During the thermal pulsation period, there is a fluctuation of wire feed rate, which results in the further increase in welding current and the decrease in arc voltage. Because of this synchronization between welding current and arc voltage during the period of low frequency pulse, the DP-GMAW deposit introduces comparatively more thermal shock compared to the P-GMAW deposit, thereby reducing the heat input and improves the properties of weld joints.

  1. Effect of ferrite transformation on the tensile and stress corrosion properties of type 316 L stainless steel weld metal thermally aged at 873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, H.; Khatak, H. S.; Seshadri, S. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.; Rodriguez, P.

    1995-07-01

    This article deals with the effect of the microstructural changes, due to transformation of delta ferrite, on the associated variations that take place in the tensile and stress corrosion properties of type 316 L stainless steel weld deposits when subjected to postweld heat treatment at 873 K for prolonged periods (up to 2000 hours). On aging for short durations (up to 20 hours), carbide/ carbonitride was the dominant transformation product, whereas sigma phase was dominant at longer aging times. The changes in the tensile and stress corrosion behavior of the aged weld metal have been attributed to the two competitive processes of matrix softening and hardening. Yield strength (YS) was found to depend predominantly on matrix softening only, while sig-nificant changes in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the work-hardening exponent, n, occurred due to matrix hardening. Ductility and stress corrosion properties were considerably affected by both factors. Fractographic observations on the weld metal tested for stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) indicated a combination of transgranular cracking of the austenite and interface cracking.

  2. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  3. SHADOW: a new welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Thorsten; Olowinsky, Alexander M.; Durand, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The new welding technique 'SHADOW ' is introduced. SHADOW means the use of a single pulse to generate a quasi continuous weld of several millimeters in length. HET processing time is defined by the pulse duration of the pulsed laser. At present, a state-of-the-art laser is capable of a maximum pulse duration of 20 ms. The variation of the laser power depend on time is a vital capability of the pulsed laser to adapt the energy deposition into the workpiece. Laser beam welds of several watch components were successfully performed. Similar metals like crowns and axes made out of stainless steel have been welded using pulsed laser radiation. Applying a series of about 130 single pulses for the crown-axis combination the total energy accumulates to 19.5 J. The use of the SHADOW welding technique reduces the energy to 2.5 J. While welding dissimilar metals like stainless steel and bras, the SHADOW welding reduces drastically the contamination as well as the distortion. Laser beam welding of copper has a low process reliability due to the high reflection and the high thermal conductivity. SHADOW welds of 3.6 mm length were performed on 250 micrometers thick copper plates with very high reproducibility. As a result, a pilot plant for laser beam welding of copper plates has been set up. The work to be presented has partly been funded by the European Commission in a project under the contract BRPR-CT-0634.

  4. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-04-03

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  5. Welding of Aluminum Alloys to Steels: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED 7 UNCLASSIFIED 2.1. Fusion welding methods 2.1.1. Gas metal arc (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) welding techniques...UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED Fig.3. (a) Schematic of the butt TIG welding for joining the aluminum to steel and (b) formation of the cracks at the...dissimilar metals TIG welding -brazing of aluminum alloy to stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering A 509 (2009) 31-40. [28] S.B. Lin, J.L. Song

  6. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of factors affecting fractures of rails welded by alumino-thermic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergejs MIKHAYLOVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On Latvian Railway the use of the alumino-thermic welding is widespread using the Elektro-Thermit Company technology. Today it is a basic method for rail joints on railway switches. The analysis of the metal structure in the thermic welding and in the thermic welded zone of rails showed that the weld metal had inclusions small pores and nonmetallics. Pores and nonmetallics are not reduce hardness but it is concentrators of stresses and sources of cracks development.

  8. An Evaluation of Welding Processes to Reduce Hexavalent Chromium Exposures and Reduce Costs by Using Better Welding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A group of stainless steel arc welding processes was compared for emission rates of fume and hexavalent chromium, and costs per meter length of weld. The objective was to identify those with minimal emissions and also compare relative labor and consumables costs. The selection included flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), and multiple gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, and fume generation rates and hexavalent chr...

  9. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  10. Effect of buffer-layered buttering on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weld joints for nuclear plant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S. [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present the metallurgical and mechanical investigation of four dissimilar welds between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 and SS304LN. The welding processes for buttering deposition and fill-pass welding were varied with ERNiCr-3/ENiCrFe-3 consumables. The Ni-Fe alloy buffer layer was introduced as intermediate layer in buttering and then the joints (with and without buffer layer in buttering) were fabricated. The effect of Ni-Fe buffer layered buttering and welding processes on the resulting weld joints properties has been addressed. Metallurgical and mechanical properties, fracture toughness were measured and various examinations were carried out for integrity assessment on all the weld joints. Addition of a Ni-Fe buttering layer leads to the development of more favourable properties than observed in welded joints made using the current practice without a buffer layer. Control of carbon migration and its subsequent effect on metallurgical, mechanical properties due to buffer layer has been justified in the study. Conventional procedure of DMW fabrication has been proven to be the least favourable against the new technique suggested. Modification in current integrity assessment procedure would be possible by considering the properties at interfacial regions, introduction of yield strength ratio mismatch and the plastic instability strength in the integrity assessment.

  11. Comparison of Plasma, Metal Inactive Gas (MIG) and Tungsten Inactive Gas (TIG) Processes for Laser Hybrid Welding (302)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    source, ignition and running torch stability, weld phase transformation and change in ductility and overall weld quality are described. The results show that all three processes can successfully be integrated with a CO2 laser beam for hybrid welding. Due to the pilot arc in plasma welding, this process......, the MIG process is more difficult to control than laser/plasma and laser/TIG processes. All three types of secondary heat sources enable an increased ductility of the weld as compared to pure laser welding when welding 1.8 mm GA 260 with a TIG torch and 2.13 mm CMn steel with a plasma arc or MIG......In this paper, TIG, plasma, and MIG processes have been individually combined with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the general benefits and drawbacks of each process have been individually assessed and compared. Aspects such as ease of integration with a CO2 laser...

  12. Welding multiple plies with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Method for electron-beam welding of multi-ply metal sheets eliminates ply separation and minimizes porosity. Method was developed for assembling bellows made of four plies of iron/nickel alloy sheets. Method consists of making successive stitch welds with electron beam until weld seam is completely filled in and all plies have been penetrated.

  13. Use of high-power diode lasers for hardening and thermal conduction welding of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Demmer, Axel; Zaboklicki, A.

    1997-08-01

    CO2 and Nd:YAG high power lasers have become established as machining tools in industrial manufacturing over the last few years. The most important advantages compared to conventional processing techniques lie in the absence of forces introduced by the laser into the workpiece and in the simple arid highly accurate control in terms ofpositioning and timing making the laser a universally applicable, wear-free and extremely flexible tool /1,2/. The laser can be utilised costeffectively in numerous manufacturing processes but there are also further applications for the laser which produce excellent results from a technical point of view, but are not justified in terms of cost. The extensive use of lasers, particularly in small companies and workshops, is hindered by two main reasons: the complexity and size ofthe laser source and plant and the high investment costs /3/. A new generation of lasers, the high power diode lasers (HDL), combines high performance with a compact design, making the laser a cheap and easy to use tool with many applications /3,4,5,6/. In the diode laser, the laser beam is generated by a microelectronic diode which transforms electrical energy directly into laser energy. Diode lasers with low power outputs have, for some time, been making their mark in our everyday lives: they are used in CD players, laser printers and scanners at cash tills. Modern telecommunications would be impossible without these lasers which enable information to be transmitted in the form oflight impulses through optical fibres. They can also be found in compact precision measurement instrumentation - range fmders, interferometers and pollutant analysis devices /3,6/. In the field of material processing, the first applications ofthe laser, such as for soldering, inscribing, surface hardening and plastic or heat conduction welding, will exceed the limits ofthe relatively low performance output currently available. The diode laser has a shorter wavelength than the CO2 and

  14. Lifetime occupational exposure to metals and welding fumes, and risk of glioma: a 7-country population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Turner, Michelle C; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richard, Hugues; Figuerola, Jordi; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Blettner, Maria; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, David; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-08-25

    Brain tumor etiology is poorly understood. Based on their ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier, it has been hypothesized that exposure to metals may increase the risk of brain cancer. Results from the few epidemiological studies on this issue are limited and inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between glioma risk and occupational exposure to five metals - lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and iron- as well as to welding fumes, using data from the seven-country INTEROCC study. A total of 1800 incident glioma cases and 5160 controls aged 30-69 years were included in the analysis. Lifetime occupational exposure to the agents was assessed using the INTEROCC JEM, a modified version of the Finnish job exposure matrix FINJEM. In general, cases had a slightly higher prevalence of exposure to the various metals and welding fumes than did controls, with the prevalence among ever exposed ranging between 1.7 and 2.2% for cadmium to 10.2 and 13.6% for iron among controls and cases, respectively. However, in multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no association between ever exposure to any of the agents and risk of glioma with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.8 (0.7-1.0) for lead to 1.1 (0.7-1.6) for cadmium. Results were consistent across models considering cumulative exposure or duration, as well as in all sensitivity analyses conducted. Findings from this large-scale international study provide no evidence for an association between occupational exposure to any of the metals under scrutiny or welding fumes, and risk of glioma.

  15. Advantages of new micro-jet welding technology on weld microstructure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIWNIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative apparatus to welding process with micro-jet cooling of the weld made it possible to carry out technological tests, which have proved theoretical considerations about this problem. This project gives real opportunities for professional development in the field of welding with controlling the parameters of weld structure. These tests have proved that the new micro-jet technology has the potential for growth. It may be great achievement of welding technology in order to increase weld metal strength. The new technology with micro-jet cooling may have many practical applications in many fields, for example such as in the transport industry or to repair damaged metal elements. The advantages of the new device over the traditional system are the ability to control the structure of the weld, the weld mechanical performance increases and improve the quality of welded joints.

  16. Effects of welding parameters on the mechanical properties of inert gas welded 6063 Aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Taner [MAKO Corporation (Turkey); Uguz, Agah [Uludag Univ. (Turkey). Mechnical Engineering Dept.; Ertan, Rukiye

    2012-07-01

    The influence of welding parameters, namely welding current and gas flow rate, on the mechanical properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) welded 6063 Aluminum alloy (AA 6063) has been investigated. In order to study the effect of the welding current and gas flow rate, microstructural examination, hardness measurements and room temperature tensile tests have been carried out. The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints have better mechanical properties than those of SMAW welded joints. Increasing the welding current appeared to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. However, either increasing or decreasing the gas flow rate resulted in a decrease of hardness and tensile strength. It was also found that, the highest strength was obtained in GTAW welded samples at 220 A and 15 l/min gas flow rate.

  17. The catalytic pathways of hydrohalogenation over metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Tian, Gui-Li; Jia, Jin-Chao; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Luo, Guo-Hua; Su, Dang Sheng; Wei, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) are found to be active as one novel heterogeneous catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination reaction, possessing good activity (TOF=2.3×10(-3)  s(-1) ) and high selectivity (>98 %). Compared to toxic and energy-consuming conventional catalysts, such as HgCl2 , N-CNTs are more favorable in terms of sustainability, because of their thermo-stability, metal-free make up, and the wide availability of bulk CNT. Coupling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory computations (DFT), the main active source and reaction pathway are shown. Good linearity between the quaternary nitrogen content and conversion is revealed. DFT study shows that the nitrogen doping enhanced the formation of the covalent bond between C2 H2 and NCNT compared with the undoped CNT, and therefore promoted the addition reaction of the C2 H2 and HCl into C2 H3 Cl. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  19. Effects of nitrogen sources and metal ions on ethanol fermentation with cadmium-containing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyun; Wu, Mengnan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated ethanol fermentation and its correlation with glutathione (GSH) synthesis under various cadmium-conditions with different metal ions and nitrogen sources. We found that corn steep liquor (CSL) and yeast extract have differential roles to play in GSH accumulation in cell even though both of them could alleviate the inhibition by cadmium. The different GSH accumulation in cell resulted from the different contents of metal ions in CSL and yeast extract. Intracellular GSH decreased with increasing calcium concentrations, and high calcium concentrations rendered the yeast more tolerant to cadmium stress than the nitrogen sources did. When the mole ratio of calcium to cadmium was 100:1, yeast tolerated 1000 µmol/L cadmium with no decrease in efficiency in ethanol production. As a result, the use of calcium allowed a significant saving of high-cost nutrient yeast extract with an efficient ethanol production, making the bioconversion of cadmium-containing biomass into ethanol possible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. EFFECT OF POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of post- weld heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of arc welded medium carbon steel was investigated. Medium carbon steel samples were butt- welded by using the shielded metal arc welding technique and, thereafter, heat treated by annealing, normalising and quench hardening in ...

  1. Investigation on various welding consumables on properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pritesh Prajapati

    2017-08-28

    Aug 28, 2017 ... Abstract. In this present work, the influence of different consumables on weld properties of carbon steel plate was studied by automatic gas metal arc welding under constant voltage mode. For all experiments, the process parameters such as welding current of 200 A, voltage of 28 V and welding speed of ...

  2. New Tendencies in Development of Carbonaceous Additives for Welding Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyreva, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. Thermodynamical calculations of dehydrogenization are presented for submerged arc welding. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  3. Microgalvanic corrosion of laser-welded HSLA steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, J.H.; Looi, Y.M.

    Laser welding of galvanized high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels leads to the evaporation of zinc at the weld and the formation of a heat-affected-zone (HAZ). High heat input due to welding generates macro galvanic coupling between the weld and the parent metal as well as micro galvanic corrosion

  4. Microgalvanic corrosion of laser-welded HSLA steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looi, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser welding of galvanized high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels leads to the evaporation of zinc at the weld and the formation of a heat-affected-zone (HAZ). High heat input due to welding generates macro galvanic coupling between the weld and the parent metal as well as micro galvanic corrosion

  5. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...

  6. Enhancement of oxygen reduction activity of nanoshell carbons by introducing nitrogen atoms from metal phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jozaki@cee.gunma-u.ac.j [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Tanifuji, Shin-ichi; Furuichi, Atsuya; Yabutsuka, Katsutoshi [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Nanoshell carbon is a type of catalytically grown nanocarbon with a hollow, round, shell-like structure, with a diameter in the range of approximately 20-50 nm. It has been shown to possess the electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and is also expected to be a non-Pt catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This paper reports the synergetic enhancement of the ORR activity of nanoshell carbons caused by the coexistence of nitrogen atoms. The nanoshell carbons were prepared by the carbonization of furan resin in the presence of acetylacetonates (AAs) and of phthalocyanines (Pcs), which contained Fe, Co, and Ni. The Pc-derived nanoshells (MP-T series; M = Co or Fe, T = carbonization temperature) showed higher ORR activities than the AA-derived nanoshells (MA-T series; M = Co or Fe, T = carbonization temperature) when the same metal elements were employed. An XPS study revealed that nitrogen species were introduced to the surface of the nanoshells when Pcs were used as the nanoshell-forming catalysts, and that no metal species remained on the nanoshells. Principally, the ORR activity of the carbons was governed by the presence of the nanoshells and further enhancement could be achieved by the introduction of nitrogen atoms. 0.78 V of OCV and 0.21 W cm{sup -2} of the maximum power density were observed for a fuel cell whose MEA consisted of 3CoP1000 cathode and a commercial Pt/C anode, when it was operated at 80 deg. C under a pressurized condition of 0.35 MPa.

  7. Solidification and transformation behavior of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals with ferritic single phase solidification mode. Report 4. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hendo kyodo. 4. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The solidification modes of {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at initial crystal {delta} are classified into FA mode where solidification at two phase of {delta}+{gamma} takes place after crystallization at {gamma} phase during solidification and F mode where solidification is completed at {delta} single phase, and solidification transformation behaviors of weld metal of FA mode are reported in the previous paper. Hereupon, in this report, solidification and transformation behaviors of stainless steel weld metal of F mode are studied. Cr-Ni stainless steel of F mode consists of two phase stainless steel with two phase base metal structure of {delta}+{gamma} besides {gamma} stainless steel. Further, two phase stainless steel with higher alloy compared to conventional one has been developed. In this report, not only the {gamma} stainless steel but also two phase stainless weld metals with varied amount of alloying metal are studied. The welding method and welding conditions are same as that of previous paper. Observation of structure was carried out by optical microscope, and crystal orientation and element distribution were measured by EBSP and CMA respectively. 11 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Estimation of stability constants for metal-ligand complexes containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms with applications to natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.; Carbonaro, Richard F.

    2013-12-01

    Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) were developed for estimating 1:1 metal-ligand stability constants (log KML) for small organic molecules containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms. A data set of 44 monodentate and 112 bidentate ligands for six metal ions: Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ was employed to parameterize the LFER equations. Monodentate and bidentate log KML values were adequately described using Irving-Rossotti LFERs previously developed for ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen functional groups. Modifications to the LFER equations were necessary to account for steric hindrances to metal complexation by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The resulting LFER equations can be used to estimate log KML values for monodentate and bidentate ligands with neutral nitrogen donor groups where such values do not currently exist in the literature. Comparison of these results to our previous work with negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms reveals that neutral nitrogen functional groups are weaker than their oxygen counterparts for metal ions classified as “hard” on the basis of Hard-Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) theory. For “soft” metals, the opposite is true. These LFERs can be used to incorporate nitrogen functional groups in models for metal ion binding to natural organic matter (NOM).

  9. Multiphysics Modeling and Simulations of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    microstructure evolu- tion and the local properties within the weld region (consisting of the solidified weld pool, also referred to as the Fusion Zone...microstructure evolution/reorgani- zation processes (Ref 8-10). In addition to the FZ, the HAZ also experiences a thermal cycle (characterized by rapid ...diffusional phase-transformations which produce microstructural constituents (e.g., pearlite) from austen- ite, as well as alloy -carbide precipitation

  10. Welding of gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor); Kelly, Thomas J. (Inventor); Snyder, John H. (Inventor); Sheranko, Ronald L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An article made of a gamma titanium aluminide alloy is welded, as for example in the weld repair of surface cracks, by removing foreign matter from the area to be welded, first stress relieving the article, cooling the entire article to a welding temperature of from about 1000.degree. F. to about 1400.degree. F., welding a preselected region in an inert atmosphere at the welding temperature, and second stress relieving the article. Welding is preferably accomplished by striking an arc in the preselected region so as to locally melt the alloy in the preselected region, providing a filler metal having the same composition as the gamma titanium aluminide alloy of the article, and feeding the filler metal into the arc so that the filler metal is melted and fused with the article to form a weldment upon solidification.

  11. The Effectiveness of Al-Si Coatings for Preventing Interfacial Reaction in Al-Mg Dissimilar Metal Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Al-Zubaidy, Basem; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2018-01-01

    The dissimilar welding of aluminum to magnesium is challenging because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the weld interface. An Al-Si coating interlayer was selected to address this problem, based on thermodynamic calculations which predicted that silicon would change the reaction path to avoid formation of the normally observed binary Al-Mg IMC phases ( β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17). Long-term static heat treatments confirmed that a Si-rich coating will preferentially produce the Mg2Si phase in competition with the less stable, β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17 binary IMC phases, and this reduced the overall reaction layer thickness. However, when an Al-Si clad sheet was tested in a real welding scenario, using the Refill™ friction stir spot welding (FSSW) technique, Mg2Si was only produced in very small amounts owing to the much shorter reaction time. Surprisingly, the coating still led to a significant reduction in the IMC reaction layer thickness and the welds exhibited enhanced mechanical performance, with improved strength and fracture energy. This beneficial behavior has been attributed to the softer coating material both reducing the welding temperature and giving rise to the incorporation of Si particles into the reaction layer, which toughened the brittle interfacial IMC phases during crack propagation.

  12. The Effectiveness of Al-Si Coatings for Preventing Interfacial Reaction in Al-Mg Dissimilar Metal Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Al-Zubaidy, Basem; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2017-10-01

    The dissimilar welding of aluminum to magnesium is challenging because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the weld interface. An Al-Si coating interlayer was selected to address this problem, based on thermodynamic calculations which predicted that silicon would change the reaction path to avoid formation of the normally observed binary Al-Mg IMC phases (β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17). Long-term static heat treatments confirmed that a Si-rich coating will preferentially produce the Mg2Si phase in competition with the less stable, β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17 binary IMC phases, and this reduced the overall reaction layer thickness. However, when an Al-Si clad sheet was tested in a real welding scenario, using the Refill™ friction stir spot welding (FSSW) technique, Mg2Si was only produced in very small amounts owing to the much shorter reaction time. Surprisingly, the coating still led to a significant reduction in the IMC reaction layer thickness and the welds exhibited enhanced mechanical performance, with improved strength and fracture energy. This beneficial behavior has been attributed to the softer coating material both reducing the welding temperature and giving rise to the incorporation of Si particles into the reaction layer, which toughened the brittle interfacial IMC phases during crack propagation.

  13. Characterization of the electrochemical behavior of coating by steel welding 308l and in presence of noble metals deposits; Caracterizacion del comportamiento electroquimico de recubrimiento por soldadura de acero 308L y en presencia de depositos de metales nobles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedras, P.; Arganis J, C. R., E-mail: pedro.piedras@hotmail.es [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the oxide deposits and noble metals deposit were characterized (Ag and Pt) on a coating of stainless steel 308l that were deposited by the shield metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extrapolation of Tafel technique was also used to obtain the corrosion potential (Ec) for the pre-rusty steel and for the samples with deposits of Pt and Ag under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), demonstrating that this parameter diminishes with the presence of this deposits. (Author)

  14. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  15. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  17. ISOTHECIUM MYOSUROIDES AND THUIDIUM TAMARISCINUM MOSSES AS BIOINDICATORS OF NITROGEN AND HEAVY METAL DEPOSITION IN ATLANTIC OAK WOODLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wilkins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Moss tissue chemistry is widely used as a bioindicator of atmospheric deposition. The objective of this study was to compare the tissue chemistry of two moss species in Irish Atlantic oak woodlands, Isothecium myosuroides [Im] and Thuidium tamariscinum [Tt], and to determine their relationship to indices of atmospheric deposition. Moss species were collected from twenty-two woodland sites during April 2013 and analysed for nitrogen, sulphur, and eleven heavy metals. Nitrogen content was significantly correlated between species (rs = 0.84, but their mean values (Im = 1.23%, Tt = 1.34% were significantly different. A simple linear regression suggested that nitrogen content was significantly related to atmospheric ammonia (R2 = 0.67 [Im], R2 = 0.65 [Tt] and total nitrogen deposition (R2 = 0.57 [Im], R2 = 0.54 [Tt]. Many heavy metals had significant interspecies correlations (Al, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sb, Pb; rs = 0.46−0.77. A few metals (As, Sb and Pb were positively correlated with easting and northing for both species, which may suggest transboundary or national industrial emissions sources. The results suggest that both species could be used as bioindicators of deposition for nitrogen and some heavy metals, although further study of the relationship between tissue concentrations and atmospheric deposition is warranted. Furthermore, interspecies calibration is required to use both species in conjunction.

  18. Metal-Free Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Foam Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.; Yu, S; Daio, T.; M. S. Ismail; Sasaki, K.; Lyth, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon foam is utilized as a model non-precious electrocatalyst system to investigate the role of nitrogen in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence of iron contamination. This graphene-like foam displays relatively high activity for the ORR in acid, despite being proven free from transition-metal impurities. The onset potential is 0.85 VRHE, the mass activity is 2.8 A/g at 0.6 VRHE, and the current density is −4.0 mA/cm2. The maximum electron transfer n...

  19. Welding Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2009-01-01

    About 95% of all manufactured goods in this country are welded or joined in some way. These welded products range in nature from bicycle handlebars and skyscrapers to bridges and race cars. The author discusses what students need to know about careers for welding technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career advancement…

  20. Efeito do tratamento térmico pós-soldagem nas propriedades mecânicas e microestruturais de metal de solda de aço de extra alta resistência para utilização em equipamentos de ancoragem Effect of post welding heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructural properties of extra high strength steel weld metals for mooring equipments application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carlos Ferreira Jorge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a avaliação de metal de solda com resistência a tração superior à 860MPa, para utilização na soldagem de aço grau R4 da norma IACS W22. Para tanto, foram soldadas juntas multipasse com preaquecimentos realizados à 200 e 250ºC pelo processo eletrodo revestido, utilizando um consumível com 4,0mm de diâmetro e cuja composição base é C-0,06%, Mn-1,89%, e Ni-2,95%. Após a soldagem foram realizados ensaios mecânicos e metalográficos em corpos-de-prova retirados integralmente do metal depositado nas condições de como soldado e após tratamento térmico pós-soldagem realizados à 600ºC por 2 horas. Os resultados mostraram que os metais de solda obtidos apresentaram propriedades mecânicas adequadas para todas as condições de análise, propiciando resultados superiores aos mínimos requeridos para a utilização na soldagem do aço grau R4 utilizados em equipamentos de ancoragem de plataformas de petróleo. A análise metalográfica permitiu clarificar a microestrutura presente e explicar o comportamento das propriedades mecânicas após o tratamento térmico.A weld metal with tensile strength higher than 860 MPa for the welding of a IACS W22 R4 Grade Steel was evaluated. Welded joints with preheat of 200 and 250ºC were produced by SMAW process using 4.0 mm diameter covered electrodes in multipass technique whose basic composition was: C-0,06%, Mn-1,89%, e Ni-2,95%. After welding, mechanical and metallographic tests were done in all-weld metal samples in both as-welded and post welded heat treatment conditions performed at600ºC for 2 hours. The results show that the obtained weld metals have mechanical properties higher than the minimum required for the welding of a IACS W22 R4 Grade steel in all condition analysis, which makes possible to attain an adequate strength/toughness relationship for high strength steel applied in mooring equipments. The metallographic analysis allowed the identification of microstructure

  1. EFFECTS OF ELECTRODE DEFORMATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING ON 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WELD GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance spot welding process is accomplished by forcing huge amounts of current flow from the upper electrode tip through the base metals to the lower electrode tip, or vice versa or in both directions. A weld joint is established between the metal sheets through fusion, resulting in a strong bond between the sheets without occupying additional space. The growth of the weld nugget (bond between sheets is therefore determined from the welding current density; sufficient time for current delivery; reasonable electrode pressing force; and the area provided for current delivery (electrode tip. The welding current and weld time control the root penetration, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tips successfully accomplish the connection during the welding process. Although the welding current and weld time cause the heat generation at the areas concerned (electrode tip area, the electrode tips’ diameter and electrode pressing forces also directly influence the welding process. In this research truncated-electrode deformation and mushrooming effects are observed, which result in the welded areas being inconsistent due to the expulsion. The copper to chromium ratio is varied from the tip to the end of the electrode whilst the welding process is repeated. The welding heat affects the electrode and the electrode itself influences the shape of the weld geometry.

  2. The influence of intermetallic phases on corrosion properties in duplex stainless weld metals. Influencia de las fases intermetalicas sobre las propiedades de corrosion de los metales de soldadura de aceros inoxidables duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, L.; Pak, S. (The Esab Group, Goe Teborg (El Salvador))

    1994-01-01

    The effect corrosion resistance and toughness of intermetallic phases, formed in the temperature range 675-1.000 degree centigree, was studied for 22% Cr-9% Ni 3% Mo-0,15% N duplex weld metals. Mo rich R.phase formed rapidly at 700 degree centigree and was the major phase precipitating at 800 degree centigree whereas only sigma- phase formed at 900 degree centigree. Some chi-phase formed at 800 degree centigree. A significant decrease of ferrite content of ferrite content or an increase in hardness indicates a lowered corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance and toughness are affected simultaneously above 800 degree centigree whereas deterioration of corrosion resistance precedes embrittlement below 800 degree centigree. However, loss of corrosion resistance will not occur if recommended welding procedures are followed. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  4. Demonstration of liquid nitrogen wicking using a multi-layer metallic wire cloth laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; deBock, Peter; Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Deng, Tao; Immer, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Cryogenic heat transport devices are the most basic and critical component for the thermal integration between the cryogenic component and its cooling source. In space environments, containment of heat transfer fluid inside a capillary structure is critical due to the absence of gravity. Cryogenic heat pipes using the capillary force for circulation may provide a solution for heat transfer in space applications due to its independence of gravity and transport distance. To achieve a high effective capillary performance, several options of wicking structures have been investigated. An efficient wicking flow of liquid nitrogen is demonstrated with a sintered, multi-layer, porous lamination of metal wire (pore size as low as 5 μm) in an open cryogenic chamber. The test data are presented in this paper. This technology has potential for use in development of improved cryogenic heat transfer devices and containment of cryogenic propellants under micro-gravity environment.

  5. Caracterização microestrutural de soldas dissimilares dos aços ASTM A-508 e AISI 316L Characterization of dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel ASTM A-508 and 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Iglésias Lourenço Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As soldas dissimilares (dissimilar metal welds - DMWs são utilizadas em diversos segmentos da indústria. No caso específico de usinas nucleares, tais soldas são necessárias para conectar tubulações de aço inoxidável com componentes fabricados em aços baixa liga. Os materiais de adição mais utilizados neste tipo de solda são as ligas de níquel 82 e 182. Este trabalho consistiu na soldagem de uma junta dissimilar de aço baixa liga ASTM A-508 G3 e aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L utilizando as ligas de níquel 82 e 182 como metais de adição. A soldagem foi realizada manualmente empregando os processos de soldagem ao arco SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding e GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Os corpos de prova foram caracterizados microestruturalmente utilizando-se microscópio óptico e microscópio eletrônico de varredura com microanálise por dispersão de energia de raios X (EDS e ensaios de microdureza Vickers. Observou-se uma microestrutura constituída de dendritas de austenita com a presença de precipitados com formas e dimensões definidas pelo aporte térmico e pela direção de soldagem. Não houve variação significativa da dureza ao longo da junta soldada, demonstrando a adequação dos parâmetros de soldagem utilizados.The dissimilar metal welds (DMWs are used in several areas of the industries. In the nuclear power plant, this weld using nickel alloy welding wires is used to connect stainless steel pipes to low alloy steel components on the reactor pressured vessels. The filler materials commonly used in this type of weld are nickel alloys 82 and 182.. In this study, dissimilar metal welds composed of low alloy steel ASTM A-508 G3, nickel alloys 82 e 182 as weld metals, and austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L were prepared by manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and gas tungsten arc welding techniques (GTAW. Samples were microstructural characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  6. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Ergun’s equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  7. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  8. Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It

  9. Microstructural characterization of an SA508–309L/308L–316L domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu, E-mail: wangjianqiu@imr.ac.cn; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2014-11-15

    The microstructure of an SA508–309L/308L–316L domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint was characterized in this work by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with electron back scattering diffraction) and micro-hardness testing. Epitaxial growth and competitive growth are evident in the 308L–316L fusion boundary regions. A martensite layer, carbon-depleted zones, and type-II and type-I boundaries are found in the SA508–309L fusion boundary regions, while only martensite and austenite mixed zones are observed in the SA508–308L fusion boundary regions. The microstructure near the fusion boundary and the microstructure transition in the SA508 heat affected zone are quite complex. Both for SA508–309L/308L and 308L–316L, the highest residual strain is located on the outside of the weldment. The residual strain and the grain boundary character distribution change with increasing distance from the fusion boundary in the heat affected zone of 316L. Micro-hardness measurements also reveal non-uniform mechanical properties across the weldment. - Highlights: • The microstructure of SA508 HAZ, especially near the FB, is very complex. • The outside of the dissimilar metal welded joint has the highest residual. • The micro-hardness distributions along the DMWJ are non-uniform.

  10. Modelling and mapping heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in moss in 2010 throughout Europe by applying Random Forests models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickel, S.; Schröder, W.; Wosniok, W.; Harmens, H.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Alber, R.; Aleksiayenak, J.; Barandovski, L.; Blum, O.; Danielsson, H.; Temmermann, L. de; Dunaev, A.M.; Fagerli, H.; Godzik, B.; Ilyin, I.; Jonkers, S.; Jeran, Z.; Pihl Karlsson, G.; Lazo, P.; Leblond, S.; Liiv, S.; Magnússon, S.H.; Mankovska, B.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Piispanen, J.; Poikolainen, J.; Popescu, I.V.; Qarri, F.; Radnovic, D.; Santamaria, J.M.; Schaap, M.; Skudnik, M.; Špirić, Z.; Stafilov, T.; Steinnes, E.; Stihi, C.; Suchara, I.; Thöni, L.; Uggerud, H.T.; Zechmeister, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study explores the statistical relations between the concentration of nine heavy metals (HM) (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn)), and nitrogen (N) in moss and potential explanatory variables

  11. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... stringent. (c) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor organics, expressed as total mass dioxin... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal waste...

  12. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... oxygen (dry basis), whichever is less stringent. (c) The limits for municipal waste combustor organics... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... that affected facility any gases that contain municipal waste combustor organics, expressed as total... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits for municipal waste...

  14. Caracterização do cordão na soldagem FCAW com um arame tubular "metal cored" Bead characterization on FCAW welding of a metal cored tubular wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Murta Diniz Starling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou o estudo do efeito de algumas condições operacionais nas características do cordão produzido por um arame tubular "metal cored" (ASME SFA-5.18: E70C-3M de fabricação nacional com 1,2 mm de diâmetro, destinado à soldagem de aços carbono comuns estruturais de baixo e médio teor de carbono. Realizaram-se testes de soldagem, na posição plana, sobre chapas grossas (espessura de 12 mm de aço de baixo carbono utilizando-se uma fonte operando no modo "tensão constante" e com monitoração dos sinais de corrente e tensão do arco e velocidade de alimentação (fusão do arame. Variaram-se a composição do gás de proteção (75%Ar-25%CO2 e 100%CO2, a polaridade do eletrodo (positiva e negativa e a velocidade de alimentação do arame (7 e 9 m/min. Os demais parâmetros de soldagem foram mantidos fixos, incluindo-se os comprimentos energizado do eletrodo (16 mm e do arco (3,5 mm. Avaliaram-se os efeitos das condições operacionais nas principais características do cordão incluindo a sua geometria (penetração, reforço, largura, área fundida, área depositada e diluição, presença de descontinuidades, microestrutura e dureza. Levantaram-se, para o arame "metal cored", as condições operacionais de maior produtividade (maior taxa de deposição associadas a um cordão com características adequadas à soldagem de chapas grossas de aços estruturais.This work evaluates the relationship between operational conditions and the characteristics of weld beads deposited with a 1.2 mm produced in Brazil metal cored tubular wire (ASME SFA-5.18: E70C-3M. Welding trials were performed in downhand position on 12mm thick low-carbon steel plates using a constant voltage power supply. Welding current and voltage, and wire feed rate were monitored in all trials. While the shielding gas composition (75%Ar-25%CO2 and 100%CO2, wire polarity, and wire feed rate (7 and 9 m/min were changed, other process variables, including

  15. Suitability of diecast aluminum for plasma and electron beam welding - gas content of diecast metal and consequences for welding. Eignung von Aluminiumdruckguss zum Plasma- und Elektronenstrahlschweissen - Gasgehalt von Druckguss und Folgen fuer das Schweissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruge, J.; Lutze, P. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Schweisstechnik)

    1989-05-01

    Due to the gas content caused by manufacture, diecast aluminum tends to a great deal of pore formation when welded. In previous investigations, the cases of gas absorption during diecasting were cleared up and many welding processes were checked for their usability for the jointing of diecastings. Pressure welding and among welding processes plasma and electron beam welding proved to be promising. The physical and chemical bases are dealt with. The various groups of processes are also compared based on the laws found. (orig.).

  16. Effects of laser offset and hybrid welding on microstructure and IMC in Fe–Al dissimilar welding

    OpenAIRE

    Casalino, Giuseppe; Leo, Paola; Mortello, Michelangelo; Perulli, Patrizia; Varone, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Welding between Fe and Al alloys is difficult because of a significant difference in thermal properties and poor mutual solid-state solubility. This affects the weld microstructure and causes the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The present study aims to explore the weld microstructure and those compounds over two different technologies: the laser offset welding and the hybrid laser-MIG (Metal inert gas) welding. The former consists of focusing the laser beam on the top su...

  17. Atmospheric deposition and critical loads for nitrogen and metals in Arctic Alaska: Review and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Greg L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Neitlich, Peter; Little, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To protect important resources under their bureau’s purview, the United States National Park Service’s (NPS) Arctic Network (ARCN) has developed a series of “vital signs” that are to be periodically monitored. One of these vital signs focuses on wet and dry deposition of atmospheric chemicals and further, the establishment of critical load (CL) values (thresholds for ecological effects based on cumulative depositional loadings) for nitrogen (N), sulfur, and metals. As part of the ARCN terrestrial monitoring programs, samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens are being col- lected and analyzed as a cost-effective means to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in this region. Ultimately, moss data combined with refined CL values might be used to help guide future regulation of atmospheric contaminant sources potentially impacting Arctic Alaska. But first, additional long-term studies are needed to determine patterns of contaminant deposition as measured by moss biomonitors and to quantify ecosystem responses at particular loadings/ ranges of contaminants within Arctic Alaska. Herein we briefly summarize 1) current regulatory guidance related to CL values 2) derivation of CL models for N and metals, 3) use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition and loadings, 4) preliminary analysis of vulnerabilities and risks associated with CL estimates for N, 5) preliminary analysis of existing data for characterization of CL values for N for interior Alaska and 6) implications for managers and future research needs.

  18. Effect of heavy metals on the carbon and nitrogen ratio in Avicennia marina from polluted and unpolluted regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yadav, A.; Ram, A.; Majithiya, D.; Salvi, S.; Sonavane, S.; Kamble, A.; Ghadigaonkar, S.; JiyalalRam, M.J.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    on nitrogen metabolism in nodules and roots of soybean plants. Funct. Plant Biol. 30, 57–64. Bertrand, M., Guary, J.C., 2002. How plants adopt their physiology to an excess of metals. In: Pessarakli, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology, 2nd ed... and Crop Stress, 2d ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 569–598. Mildvan, A.S., 1970. Metal in enzymes catalysis. In: Boyer, D.D. (Ed.)The Enzymes vol 11. Academic Press, London, pp. 445–536. Nagajyoti, P.C., Lee, K.D., Sreekanth, T.V.M., 2010. Heavy metals...

  19. 2500 KW Ship Service Turbine Generator Casing Welded Inconel Plug Failure and Repair Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    plugs into the 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo (Cr-Mo) turbine casing by weld-depositing an inlay of Inconel 600 alloy, followed by shielded metal arc welding ( SMAW ...turbine casing base metal before the plug is welded. The Inconel X-750 plug was then welded to the inlay by the SMAW process using a nickel base alloy

  20. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  1. Influence of Welding Current and Joint Design on the Tensile Properties of SMAW Welded Mild Steel Joints Prof. Rohit Jha1 , Dr. A.K. Jha

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Rohit Jha; Dr. A.K. Jha

    2014-01-01

    Present study includes welding characteristics of weldment with respect to different types of weld design and welding current. Mild steel plates of 6mm were welded using different joint designs. Single V, Double V and Flat surfaces were joined by Shielded Metal Arc Welding process. Welding current was varied in all the cases. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percentage elongation were evaluated. Results indicated that the single V join...

  2. Effect of Submerged Arc Welding Parameters on the Microstructure of SA516 and A709 Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanie, James

    The effects of submerged arc welding (SAW) current and speed on the microstructures of SA516 grade 70 and A709 grade 50 steel welds were studied in this research. Steel plates 17 mm-thick were submerged arc welded using different welding currents (from 700 to 850 A) and welding speeds (from 5.3 to 15.3 mm/s). The effect of heat input on the weld metal chemistry, morphologies and chemistry of inclusions and nucleation of acicular ferrite (AF), grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and Widmanstatten ferrite (WF) were evaluated. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the microstructures of the developed weld joints. PAX-it image analysis software program was utilized for quantitative analysis of the microstructures. The results showed that it is difficult to ascribe changes in the microstructure that occurred in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal regions to a single welding process parameter. Inclusion analysis revealed two types of inclusions formed in the weld metals for both steels. They are spherical and faceted inclusions. It was also observed that acicular ferrite nucleated only on the spherical inclusions. EDS analysis showed that the two inclusions have different chemical compositions. The results further showed that the total oxygen content of the weld metals of both steels generally increased with welding current, but decreased with increasing welding speed. The prior austenite grain width decreased with increasing welding speed, but increased with increasing welding current (increased heat input). For both SA516 and A709 steel welds, the proportion of acicular ferrite (AF) in the weld metals increased initially, while those of grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and Widmanstatten ferrite (WF) decreased with increasing welding current when welding current was increased from 700 A to 800 A. With further increase in the

  3. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  4. Technical Letter Report, An Evaluation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Reactor Piping System Components Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds, JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-11-30

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light-water reactor components. The scope of this research encom¬passes primary system pressure boundary materials including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, inlays and onlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in steel components that challenge standard and/or conventional inspection methodologies. This interim technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of small-bore DMW components that exist in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience and events such as the circumferential cracking in the reactor vessel nozzle-to-RCS hot leg pipe at V.C. Summer nuclear power station, identified in 2000, show that in PWRs where primary coolant water (or steam) are present under normal operation, Alloy 82/182 materials are susceptible to pressurized water stress corrosion cracking. The extent and number of occurrences of DMW cracking in nuclear power plants (domestically and internationally) indicate the necessity for reliable and effective inspection techniques. The work described herein was performed to provide insights for evaluating the utility of advanced NDE approaches for the inspection of DMW components such as a pressurizer surge nozzle DMW, a shutdown cooling pipe DMW, and a ferritic (low-alloy carbon steel)-to-CASS pipe DMW configuration.

  5. WELDING TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correy, T.B.

    1961-10-01

    A welding torch into which water and inert gas are piped separately for cooling and for providing a suitable gaseous atmosphere is described. A welding electrode is clamped in the torch by a removable collet sleeve and a removable collet head. Replacement of the sleeve and head with larger or smaller sleeve and head permits a larger or smaller welding electrode to be substituted on the torch. (AEC)

  6. Enhanced acid rain and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is known to be important mechanism reducing air pollution. In response to the growing concern on the potential effects of the deposited material entering terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as their subsequent health effects, since 2007 we have established a 10-site monitoring network in Northern China, where particularly susceptible to severe air pollution. Wet and dry deposition was collected using an automatic wet-dry sampler. The presentation will focus on the new results of atmospheric deposition flux for a number of chemical species, such as nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus), acidic matters (e.g. sulfur and proton), heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, etc. This is to our knowledge the first detailed element budget study in the atmosphere across Northern China. We find that: (1) Over the 3 year period, 26% of precipitation events in the target area were more acid than pH 5.60 and these acidic events occurred in summer and autumn. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH value of precipitation was lower than 5.60 at most sites, which indicated the acidification of precipitation was not optimistic. The primary ions in precipitation were NH4+, Ca2+, SO42- and NO3-, with 10-sites-average concentrations of 221, 216, 216 and 80 μeq L-1, respectively. The ratio of SO42- to NO3- was 2.7; suggesting SO42- was the dominant acid component. (2) The deposited particles were neutral in general and the pH value increased from rural area to industrial and coastal sites. It is not surprising to note that the annual VWM pH value of precipitation was higher than 5.60 at three urban sites (Beijing and Tianjin mega cities) and one coastal site near the Bohai Bay, considering the fact that high buffer capacity of alkaline component, gas NH3 and mineral aerosols, at these sites compared to other places. (3) The 10-sites annual total deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds were 60 and 65 kg N/S ha-1 yr-1

  7. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  8. Tailoring defect free fusion welds based on phenomenological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit

    In the last few decades, phenomenological models of fusion welding have provided important understanding and information about the welding processes and welded materials. For example, numerical calculations of heat transfer and fluid flow in welding have enabled accurate quantitative calculations of thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in fusion welding. In many simple systems such as gas tungsten arc (GTA) butt welding, the computed thermal cycles have been used to quantitatively understand weld metal phase compositions, grain sizes and inclusion structure. However, fabrication of defect free welds with prescribed attributes based on scientific principles still remains to be achieved. In addition, higher fabrication speeds are often limited by the occurrence of humping defects which are characterized by periodic bead-like appearance. Furthermore, phenomenological models have not been applied to tailor welds with given attributes. The goal of the present work is to apply the principles of heat transfer and fluid flow to attain defects free welds with prescribed attributes. Since there are a large number of process variables in welding, the desired weld attributes such as the weld geometry and structure are commonly produced by empirically adjusting the welding variables. However, this approach does not always produce optimum welds and inappropriate choice of variables can lead to poor welds. The existing transport phenomena based models of welding can only predict weld characteristics for a given set of input welding variables. What is needed, and not currently available, is a capability to systematically determine multiple paths to tailor weld geometry and assess robustness of each individual solution to achieve safe, defect free welds. Therefore, these heat transfer and fluid flow based models are restructured to predict the welding conditions to achieve the defect free welds with desired attributes. Systematic tailoring of weld attributes based on scientific

  9. Analysis of the correlation between plasma plume and keyhole behavior in laser metal welding for the modeling of the keyhole geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenner, F.; Brock, C.; Klämpfl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of laser metal welding is widely used in industry. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of complete process understanding and control. For analyzing the process we used two high-speed cameras. Therefore, we could image the plasma plume (which is directly accessible by a camera) and the keyhole (where most of the process instabilities occur) during laser welding isochronously. Applying different image processing steps we were able to find a correlation between those two process characteristics. Additionally we imaged the plasma plume from two directions and were able to calculate a volume with respect to the vaporized material the plasma plume carries. Due to these correlations we are able to conclude the keyhole stability from imaging the plasma plume and vice versa. We used the found correlation between the keyhole behavior and the plasma plume to explain the effect of changing laser power and feed rate on the keyhole geometry. Furthermore, we tried to outline the phenomena which have the biggest effect on the keyhole geometry during changes of feed rate and laser power.

  10. Plasma arc welding weld imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has a transparent shield cup disposed about the constricting nozzle, the cup including a small outwardly extending polished lip. A guide tube extends externally of the torch and has a free end adjacent to the lip. First and second optical fiber bundle assemblies are supported within the guide tube. Light from a strobe light is transmitted along one of the assemblies to the free end and through the lip onto the weld site. A lens is positioned in the guide tube adjacent to the second assembly and focuses images of the weld site onto the end of the fiber bundle of the second assembly and these images are transmitted along the second assembly to a video camera so that the weld site may be viewed continuously for monitoring the welding process.

  11. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless-Steel Pipes Welded by TIG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Albdiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel (type 204 pipes welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG welding process. Testing of hardness (HRC, tensile strength and bending strength was performed for the steel pipes welded at two different welding temperatures (700 °C and 900 °C with and without using the weld filler wire. The microstructure of the welding regions was examined by using an optical microscopy. The properties showed that the steel pipes welded by 900 °C with using the weld filler obtained the highest tensile strength and bending strength versus these welded by 700 °C without the use of the weld filler. This is attributed to the weld filler heated and melt at sufficient temperature (900 °C and compensate losing in the Ni metal occurred in the base steel metal during the welding process.

  12. Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials Part I: Description of the Welding Methods and Preliminary Calculus of the Electromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. One describes the MIG welding method in which the electromagnet is used as well as its preliminary calculus.

  13. Models for selecting GMA Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Properties of Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Ramachandran, Pragash; Jebaraj, S.

    2016-02-01

    During the process of Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) welding, the weld joints mechanical properties are influenced by the welding parameters such as welding current and arc voltage. These parameters directly will influence the quality of the weld in terms of mechanical properties. Even small variation in any of the cited parameters may have an important effect on depth of penetration and on joint strength. In this study, S45C Constructional Steel is taken as the base metal to be tested using the parameters wire feed rate, voltage and type of shielding gas. Physical properties considered in the present study are tensile strength and hardness. The testing of weld specimen is carried out as per ASTM Standards. Mathematical models to predict the tensile strength and depth of penetration of weld joint have been developed by regression analysis using the experimental results.

  14. Ab-Initio Calculation of the Magnetic Properties of Metal-Doped Boron-Nitrogen Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufinus, J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of spintronics has been continuously attracting researchers. Tremendous efforts have been made in the quest to find good candidates for future spintronic devices. One particular type of material called graphene is under extensive theoretical study as a feasible component for practical applications. However, pristine graphene is diamagnetic. Thus, a lot of research has been performed to modify the graphene-based structure to achieve meaningful magnetic properties. Recently, a new type of graphene-based one-dimensional material called Boron Nitrogen nanoribbon (BNNR) has been of interest, due to the theoretical predictions that this type of material shows half-metallic property. Here we present the results of the theoretical and computational study of M-doped (M = Cr, Mn) Zigzag BNNR (ZBNNR), the objective of which is to determine whether the presence of these dopants will give rise to ferromagnetism. We have found that the concentration and the atomic distance among the dopants affect the magnetic ordering of this type of material. These results provide a meaningful theoretical prediction of M-doped ZBNNR as a basic candidate of future spintronic devices.

  15. Effects of Surface Alloying and Laser Beam Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Behaviour of Surfaces Modified Using Submerged Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regita BENDIKIENE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of surface alloying of cheap plain carbon steel using submerged metal arc technique and subsequent laser beam treatment on the microstructure and wear behaviour of surfaced layers were studied. This method is the cheapest one to obtain high alloyed coatings, because there is no need to apply complex technologies of powder making (metal powder is spread on the surface of base metal or inserted into the flux, it is enough to grind, granulate and blend additional materials. On the other hand, strengthening of superficial layers of alloys by thermal laser radiation is one of the applications of laser. Surface is strengthened by concentrated laser beam focused into teeny area (from section of mm till some mm. Teeny area of metal heat up rapidly and when heat is drain to the inner metal layers giving strengthening effect. Steel surface during this treatment exceeds critical temperatures, if there is a need to strengthen deeper portions of the base metal it is possible even to fuse superficial layer. The results presented in this paper are based on micro-structural and micro-chemical analyses of the surfaced and laser beam treated surfaces and are supported by analyses of the hardness, the wear resistance and resultant microstructures. Due to the usage of waste raw materials a significant improvement (~ 30 % in wear resistance was achieved. The maximum achieved hardness of surfaced layer was 62 HRC, it can be compared with high alloyed conventional steel grade. Wear properties of overlays with additional laser beam treatment showed that weight loss of these layers was ~10 % lower compared with overlays after welding; consequently it is possible to replace high alloyed conventional steel grades forming new surfaces or restoring worn machine elements and tools.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7621

  16. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We compare ultrasonic welding (UW and thermal bonding (TB for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW, as well as pressure and temperature (for TB, were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education.

  18. In situ Raman spectroscopic analysis of surface oxide films on Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy has been applied to analyze the surface oxide films formed on dissimilar metal weld (DMW) interfaces of nickel-base alloy/low alloy steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water condition. For the analysis of the oxide films under high temperature/pressure aqueous conditions, an in situ Raman spectroscopy system was developed by constructing a hydrothermal cell where the entire optics including the excitation laser and the Raman light collection system were located at the nearest position to the specimen by means of immersion optics. In situ Raman spectra of the DMW interfaces were collected in hydrogenated water condition at different temperatures up to 300 °C. The measured in situ Raman spectra showed peaks of Cr2O3, NiCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at the DMW interface. It is considered that differences in the oxide chemistry originated from the chemical element distribution inside of the DMW interface region.

  19. Rearrangement of the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector using the Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alexsandro Turati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct physical layout is relevant to the operational efficiency of the company. This study proposes rearranging the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector, which is located in Araras/SP, aiming to improve the production workflow. The Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP was used, with the field research divided into steps: obtaining detailed information about the process and the product; meetings with stakeholders; determining inter-related activities; analyzing space requirements; developing a new layout. The new layout has space allocated for the purchasing of new machinery, the existing machinery has been redistributed by specialty, and the unloading of raw materials has been transferred to the shed, maximizing the use of overhead cranes and keeping the stock close to the warehouse. In addition, forklift traffic flow has decreased; new movement corridors were demarcated; and painting areas were isolated. In conclusion, the SLP method proved efficient in creating a layout.

  20. Full-Field Strain Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    titanium can be 9 achieved with Gas Tungsten-Arc welding , also known as TIG welding , and Gas Metal- Arc welding , also known as MIG welding , as long...Full-Field Strain Behavior of Friction Stir- Welded Titanium Alloy Trent A. Greenwell A thesis submitted in partial...Field Strain Behavior of Friction Stir- Welded Titanium Alloy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  1. Investigate The Effect Of Welding Parameters On Mechanical Properties During The Welding Of Al-6061 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction welding is a solid state welding technique which is being used in recent times to weld similar as well as dissimilar metals for getting defect free weld. Many combinations like low carbon to stainless steel austenitic to ferrite stainless steel aluminium to copper and titanium to aluminium or steel have been tried out by various solid state welding processes with quite good results. In the present work the 3 level full factorial design has been employed to investigate the effect of welding parameters on tensile strength toughness and heat generation during the welding of Al-6061 alloy. Mathematical relationships between friction welding parameters and mechanical properties like heat generation tensile strength and toughness have also been developed. An attempt has also been made to examine the fracture surfaces of test specimens using SEM. It has been found that welding speed is the most significant parameter thats affect the heat generation tensile strength and toughness. it has been found that tensile strength and toughness during welding increases with increased in welding speed while tensile strength and toughness initially increased as the welding time increases after that it decreased with increase in welding time. The difference in weight of alloying elements can be clearly seen by analyzing spectrum of elements.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Hierarchically Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanostructures as Novel Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhou, Yazhou; Yang, Guohai; Jeon, Ju Won; Lemmon, John P.; Du, Dan; Nune, Satish K.; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-10-01

    The hierarchically porous nitrogen-doped carbon materials, derived from nitrogen-containing isoreticular metal-organic framework-3 (IRMOF-3) through direct carbonization, exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in alkaline solution for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This high activity is attributed to the 10 presence of high percentage of quaternary and pyridinic nitrogen, the high surface area as well as good conductivity. When IRMOF-3 was carbonized at 950 °C (CIRMOF-3-950), it showed four-electron reduction pathway for ORR and exhibited better stability (about 78.5% current density was maintained) than platinum/carbon (Pt/C) in the current durability test. In addition, CIRMOF-3-950 presented high selectivity to cathode reactions compared to commercial Pt/C.

  3. The possibility of using laser and micro-jet technology in the welding of structural elements of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2015-01-01

    A paper presents the possibility of laser welding using micro-jet cooling. The effect of micro-jet cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal deposit was carried out. New welding process was analyzed for use in the automotive industry. Studies have confirmed the positive effect of cooling micro-jet cooling both for the MIG welding and laser welding.

  4. Particulate and gaseous emissions when welding aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Homer; Epstein, Seymour; Peace, Jon

    2007-09-01

    Fabrication and repair of aluminum components and structures commonly involves the use of electric arc welding. The interaction of the arc and the metal being welded generates ultraviolet radiation, metallic oxides, fumes, and gases. Aluminum is seldom used as the pure metal but is often alloyed with other metals to improve strength and other physical properties. Therefore, the exact composition of any emissions will depend on the welding process and the particular aluminum alloy being welded. To quantify such emissions, The Aluminum Association sponsored several studies to characterize arc welding emissions by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes for various combinations of base and filler alloys. In all cases, the tests were conducted under conditions that could be found in a production weld shop without forced ventilation. The concentrations of each analyte that a welder could be exposed to were greatly affected by the welding process, the composition of the base and filler alloys, the position of the welder, and the welding helmet. The results obtained can be used by employers to identify and control potential hazards associated with the welding of aluminum alloys and can provide the basis for hazard communication to employees involved in the welding of these alloys.

  5. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2012-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (≈400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (≈900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  6. WELDING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  7. [Spectra and thermal analysis of the arc in activating flux plasma arc welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guo-Ming; Zhu, Yi-Feng

    2010-04-01

    In activating flux plasma arc welding the welding arc was analyzed by spectra analysis technique, and the welding arc temperature field was measured by the infrared sensing and computer image technique. The distribution models of welding arc heat flow density of activating flux PAW welding were developed. The composition of welding arc affected by activated flux was studied, and the welding arc temperature field was studied. The results show that the spectral lines of argon atom and ionized argon atom of primary ionization are the main spectra lines of the conventional plasma welding arc. The spectra lines of weld metal are inappreciable in the spectra lines of the conventional plasma welding arc. The gas particle is the main in the conventional plasma welding arc. The conventional plasma welding arc is gas welding arc. The spectra lines of argon atom and ionized argon atom of primary ionization are intensified in the activating flux plasma welding arc, and the spectra lines of Ti, Cr and Fe elements are found in the activating flux plasma welding arc. The welding arc temperature distribution in activating flux plasma arc welding is compact, the outline of the welding arc temperature field is narrow, the range of the welding arc temperature distribution is concentrated, the welding arc radial temperature gradient is large, and the welding arc radial temperature gradient shows normal Gauss distribution.

  8. Effect of Welding Processes on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses of Plain 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, S.; Vasantharaja, P.; Brahadees, G.; Vasudevan, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2017-12-01

    9Cr-1Mo steel designated as P9 is widely used in the construction of power plants and high-temperature applications. It is chosen for fabricating hexcan fuel subassembly wrapper components of fast breeder reactors. Arc welding processes are generally used for fabricating 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. A-TIG welding process is increasingly being adopted by the industries. In the present study, shielded metal arc (SMA), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and A-TIG welding processes are used for fabricating the 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints of 10 mm thickness. Effect of the above welding processes on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and residual stresses of the weld joints has been studied in detail. All the three weld joints exhibited comparable strength and ductility values. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by SMAW process exhibited lower impact toughness values caused by coarser grain size and inclusions. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by TIG welding exhibited higher toughness due to finer grain size, while the weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process exhibited adequate toughness values. SMA steel weld joint exhibited compressive residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ, while TIG and A-TIG weld joint exhibited tensile residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ.

  9. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Study on microstructures of electron beam and gas tungsten arc Ti-6Al-4V weld metals; Gefuegeuntersuchungen nach Elektronenstrahlschweissen und Wolfram-Schutzgasschweissen von Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrisha, C. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Raghurami Reddy, J. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Prasad Rao, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    EB as-welded metals exhibited predominantly {alpha}` martensitic structure containing extensive dislocation network, while GTA as-welded metals showed diffusional {alpha} along with {alpha}`. Increase in EB weld heat input increased the {alpha}` platelet width. The two passes B-O-B EB weld metals showed wider {alpha}` platelets compared to their single pass counterparts. Water quenching from 930 C (1 h) resulted in predominantly {alpha}` structure and acicular {alpha}. Acicular {alpha} plates found in 930 C/1 h/AC GTA weld metals were found to be relatively coarser than their EB weld metal counterparts. Furnace cooling from 930 C further increased {alpha} plate width. Prolonged exposure at 930 C for 3 h followed by air or furnace cooling caused relatively thicker grain boundary {alpha}. The tendency was for the globularisation of {alpha}. The weld metals exposed to 930 C/1 h/FC resulted in the form of coarser {alpha} platelets. Dislocation density decreased and {beta} was found to precipitate between {alpha} platelets. Taking to 1020 C and quenching resulted in {alpha}` martensitic structure irrespective of prior microstructural and heat input differences. Basketweave type structure which was noticed for the base metal was noted for the weld metals aircooled from 1020 C. While water quenched samples from 930 C showed predominantly {alpha}` martensitic structure, their quenched and aged counterparts exhibited grain boundary and intergranular {alpha}. In-situ PWHT weld metals showed fine and extensive precipitation of {beta} at the walls of {alpha} platelets and the dislocations within the platelets. (orig.) [Deutsch] EB-Schweissverbindungen zeigten vorwiegend ein martensitisches {alpha}`-Gefuege mit einem ausgedehnten Versetzungsnetzwerk, waehrend GTA-Schweissverbindungen diffusives {alpha} zusammen mit {alpha}` enthielten. Eine Erhoehung der Waermeeinbringung bei EB-Schweissgut erhoehte die Breite der {alpha}`-Plaettchen. Zweilagig ueberlappende B

  11. Separation of metallic residues from the dissolution of a high-burnup BWR fuel using nitrogen trifluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mausolf, Edward J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-23

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) was used to fluorinate the metallic residue from the dissolution of a high burnup, boiling water reactor fuel (~70 MWd/kgU). The metallic residue included the noble metal phase (containing ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, technetium, and molybdenum), and smaller amounts of zirconium, selenium, tellurium, and silver. Exposing the noble metal phase to 10% NF3 in argon between 400 and 550°C, removed molybdenum and technetium near 400°C as their volatile fluorides, and ruthenium near 500C as its volatile fluoride. The events were thermally and temporally distinct and the conditions specified are a recipe to separate these transition metals from each other and from the noble metal phase nonvolatile residue. Depletion of the volatile fluorides resulted in substantial exothermicity. Thermal excursion behavior was recorded under non-adiabatic, isothermal conditions that typically minimize heat release. Physical characterization of the metallic noble phase and its thermal behavior are consistent with high kinetic velocity reactions encouraged by the nanoparticulate phase or perhaps catalytic influences of the mixed platinum metals with nearly pure phase structure. Post-fluorination, only two phases were present in the residual nonvolatile fraction. These were identified as a nano-crystalline, metallic palladium cubic phase and a hexagonal rhodium trifluoride (RhF3) phase. The two phases were distinct as the sub-µm crystallites of metallic palladium were in contrast to the RhF3 phase, which grew from the parent nano-crystalline noble-metal phase during fluorination, to acicular crystals exceeding 20-µm in length.

  12. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluation of DMAG Welding of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Mert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double channel torch, which allows concentric flow of two different shielding gases, was designed and manufactured in order to pursue double channel torch gas metal arc welding of unalloyed structural steel S235JR (EN 10025-2 with fourteen passes. Tensile and Charpy V-notch tests were realized and the results were compared with those of conventional gas metal arc welding. In order to evaluate mechanical testing results, microstructural analyses were conducted. It was found that the increase with double channel gas metal arc welding process in yield and tensile strengths as well as in toughness tests, especially in subzero temperatures, compared with conventional gas metal arc welding was due to longer columnar grains and finer tempered zone grain structure between passes and due to solidification and less dendritic structure formation in all-weld metal in double channel gas metal arc welding.

  13. Laser welding of selected aerospace alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadan, Gracie E.

    The study was aimed at developing an understanding of the microstructural effects of the laser welding process on the alloys, and assessing the structural integrity of the resultant welds. The effect of laser processing parameters such as laser power, laser beam traverse speed, lens focal length, and the manipulation of these parameters on the welding efficiency and weld area integrity was also investigated. Other tasks within the project included a study on the possibility of using an anodic film to enhance the laser weld ability of Al 6061. Finally, attempts were made to identify phases observed in the weld area of the composite materials. Nimonics C263 and PE11 exhibited laser welds free of cracks and porosity. The difference in composition between the two alloys did not result in any significant dissimilarities in their response to the laser welding process. The welds in both alloys exhibited a fine columnar dendritic microstructure, and while carbides were observed in the interdendritic regions of the welds, electron optical analysis did not reveal any gamma' precipitates in this region. It was concluded that for the welding of thin gage materials above a threshold laser power the resultant welding efficiency shows a greater dependence on laser beam mode, and laser spot size, than on laser power, and beam traverse speed. Aluminum 6061 was not easily welded with a laser in its as received form, and the welds showed some degree of porosity. Anodizing was found to improve the welding efficiency in this material. While the presence of an anodic film on the metal surface increased the welding efficiency of the alloy, no relationship was found between the thickness of the anodic film and welding efficiency in the range of film thicknesses investigated. Weld regions were observed to be cellular dendritic in structure, with narrow heat affected zones. No precipitates or low melting point phases could be identified in the weld region. Melt zones were successfully

  14. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  15. Evaluation of Joint Performance on High Nitrogen Stainless Steel Which is Expected to Have Higher Allergy Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kouichi

    Austenitic stainless steel, which includes nickel for stabilizing austenitic structure, is used for various purposes, for example, for structural material, corrosion-resistant material, biomaterial etc. Nickel is set as one of the rare metals and economizing on nickel as the natural resources is required. On the other hand, nickel is one of the metals that cause metallic allergy frequently. Therefore, high nitrogen stainless steel, where nitrogen stabilizes austenitic structure instead of nickel, has been developed in Japan and some of the foreign countries for the above reason. When high nitrogen stainless steel is fused and bonded, dissolved nitrogen is released to the atmospheric area, and some of the material properties will change. In this study, we bonded high nitrogen stainless steel by stud welding process, which is able to bond at short time, and we evaluate joint performance. We have got some interesting results from the other tests and examinations.

  16. Solar wind noble gases and nitrogen in metal from lunar soil 68501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Richard H.; Pepin, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Noble gases and N were analyzed in handpicked metal separates from lunar soil 68501 by a combination of step-wise combustions and pyrolyses. Helium and Ne were found to be unfractionated with respect to one another when normalized to solar abundances, for both the bulk sample and for all but the highest temperature steps. However, they are depleted relative to Ar, Kr and Xe by at least a factor of 5. The heavier gases exhibit mass-dependent fractionation relative to solar system abundance ratios but appear unfractionated, both in the bulk metal and in early temperature steps, when compared to relative abundances derived from lunar ilmenite 71501 by chemical etching, recently put forward as representing the abundance ratios in solar wind. Estimates of the contribution of solar energetic particles (SEP) to the originally implanted solar gases, derived from a basic interpretation of He and Ne isotopes, yield values of about 10%. Analysis of the Ar isotopes requires a minimum of 20% SEP, and Kr isotopes, using our preferred composition for solar wind Kr, yield a result that overlaps both these values. It is possible to reconcile the data from these gases if significant loss of solar wind Ar, Kr and presumably Xe has occurred relative to the SEP component, most likely by erosive processes that are mass independent, although mass-dependent losses (Ar greater than Kr greater than Xe) cannot be excluded. If such losses did occur, the SEP contribution to the solar implanted gases must have been no more than a few percent. Nitrogen is a mixture of indigenous meteoritic N, whose isotopic composition is inferred to be relatively light, and implanted solar N, which has probably undergone diffusive redistribution and fractionation. If the heavy noble gases have not undergone diffusive loss, then N/Ar in the solar wind can be inferred to be at least several times the accepted solar ratio. The solar wind N appears, even after correction for fractionation effects, to have a minimum

  17. Effect of pH and organic acids on nitrogen transformations and metal dissolution in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Minhong.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pH (4, 6, and 8) on nitrogen mineralization was evaluated in three Iowa surface soils treated with crop residues (corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)) and incubated in leaching columns under aerobic conditions at 30C for 20 weeks. In general, N mineralization was significantly depressed at soil pH 4, compared with pH 6 or 8. The types of crop residues added influenced the pattern and amount of N mineralization. A study on the effect of 19 trace elements on the nitrate red activity of four Iowa surface soils showed that most trace elements inhibited this enzyme in acid and neutral soils. The trace elements Ag(I), Cd(II), Se(IV), As(V), and W(VI) were the most effective inhibitors, with >75% inhibition. Mn(II) was the least effective inhibitor, with <10% inhibition. Other trace elements included Cu(I), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Al(III), As(III), Cr(III), Fe(III), V(IV), Mo(VI), and Se(VI). The application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that, when coupled to a refractive index detector, it is a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining organic acids in soils. Three organic acids, acetic (2-20 mM), propionic (0-3 mM), and n-butyric (0-1.4 mM), were identified with HPLC and confirmed by gas chromatography in crop-residue-treated soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 25C for 72 h. No organic acids were detected under aerobic conditions. Four mineral acids and 29 organic acids were studied for their effect on N mineralization and metal dissolution in soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 30C for 10 days.

  18. Laser welding of maraging steel rocket motor casing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This presentation looks at the experimental procedure and results of laser welding of maraging steel rocker motor casing. It concludes that a fracture occurred in weld metal of autogenous welding and that a fracture occurred in base material when...

  19. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  20. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...