Sample records for weitraeumige grenzueberschreitende luftverunreinigung

  1. Transfrontier environmental protection and German penal law. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen und deutsches Strafrecht

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    Forkel, H.W.


    The author investigates the problem of how far German penal law is valid in case of transfrontier environmental pollution. He distinguishes between cases in which the interests of Germany and the neighbour state are congruent, and cases in which they are not congruent. According to the author, German law should be applied in cases where the other country has no environmental penal legislation, and where the emissions exceed the limits set by German and foreign law. (orig./HSCH).

  2. Transboundary nuclear risks and legal entitlement to be protected under international law. Grenzueberschreitendes nukleares Risiko und voelkerrechtlicher Schutzanspruch

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    Handl, G.


    The study in hand examines the conditions supporting and governing the legal entitlement of a state affected by the potential hazards of a nuclear installation in a neighbouring state to be protected against such hazards, and to enforce such entitlement on a bilateral level, based on international law, in order to guarantee the integrity of the state's territory and its population. There are three basic items to be investigated: (1) the objective definition of the transboundary nuclear risk, which in the bilateral relationship between the risk-exposed state and the installation state creates a right to claim protection on the part of the exposed state; (2) the concrete definition of this bilateral entitlement to be protected from the nuclear risks, i.e. after an 'internationalization' of the decision-making processes underlying the erection and operation of nuclear installations and the subsequent waste management; (3) the international leagal obligations to be fulfilled to compensate for nuclear damage as a result of incidents or accidents in a nuclear installation. (orig./HP).

  3. Obligations under international law for reducing transfrontier air pollution in Europe. Voelkerrechtliche Pflichten zur Verminderung grenzueberschreitender Luftverschmutzung in Europa

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    Hach, R.


    The obligations under international law to reduce transfrontier air pollution is discussed in five chapters from various aspects. Consequences for the European Communities are gone into in five further chapters. (orig./HP)

  4. Metal accumulation in mosses: local and regional boundary conditions of biomonitoring air pollution; Metallakkumulation in Moosen: Standoertliche und regionale Randbedingungen des Biomonitoring von Luftverunreinigung. T. 4

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    Schroeder, W.; Englert, C.; Pesch, R. [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Zechmeister, H.G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Conservation Biology, Vegetation- and Landscape Ecology; Thoeni, L. [FUB - Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Suchara, I. [Silva Tarouca Research Inst. for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Mankovska, B. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Jeran, Z. [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Harmens, H. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Grodzinska, K. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). W. Szafer Inst. of Botany; Alber, R. [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, Laives (Italy)


    Several studies show that the concentration of metals in mosses depends not only on metal deposition but also on factors such as moss species, canopy drip, precipitation, altitude, distance to the sea and the analytical technique used. However, contrasting results have been reported and the interpretation of the spatial variability of the metal accumulation in mosses remains difficult. In the presented study existing monitoring data from the European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys together with surface data on precipitation, elevation and land use are statistically analysed to assess factors other than emissions that have an influence on the metal accumulation in the mosses. Main Features. Inference statistics and Spearman correlation analysis were applied to examine the association of the metal accumulation and the distance of the monitoring sites to the sea as well as the altitude. Whether or not significant differences of the metal loads in the mosses exist at national borders was examined with help of the U-test after Mann and Whitney. In order to identify and rank the factors that are assumed to have an influence on the metal uptake of the mosses Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were applied. Results. No clear tendency could be derived from the results of the inference statistical calculations and the correlation analyses with regard to the distance of the monitoring site to the sea and the altitude. According to the results of the CART-analyses mainly the moss species, potential emission sources around the monitoring sites, canopy drip and precipitation have an effect on the metal bioaccumulation. Assuming that each participating country followed strictly the manual for sampling and sample preparation the results of the inference statistical calculations furthermore suggest that in most cases different techniques for digestion and analysis bias the measurements significantly. Discussion. For the first time a national monitoring data base consisting of measurement data and metadata as well as surface information on precipitation, land use and elevation was applied to examine influence factors on the metal bioaccumulation in mosses. The respective results mirror existing knowledge from other national studies to a large extend, although further analyses are necessary to affirm the findings. These analyses should include data from other national monitoring programmes and should additionally be carried out with other decision tree algorithms than CART. (orig.)

  5. Transfrontier pollution in international civil procedure law. Exemplified by Germany - Austria. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen im Internationalen Zivilprozessrecht. Eine Darstellung am Beispiel Deutschland - Oesterreich

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    Musger, G.


    The dissertation first presents the foundations of international civil procedure law. The main part is concerned with the questions of international competence for actions for damages and injunction suits, and the recognition and enforcement of relevant court decisions. In each case, the current word of the law is taken as the basis in a first step; in a second step, the effects of the Lugano Convention are examined. After the entry into force of the Convention, the plaintiff has the choice in questions of competence between the place where the act causing the damage occurred and the place where the consequences of the act are felt. The recognition and enforcement of court decisions from the other state is assured both before and after the entry into force of the Lugano Convention. If a licence issued under the public law of the state where the installation is located is not observed in the state where the consequences are felt, and therefore an injunction is issued that could not have been issued with this content in the state where the installation is located, then the recognition can be refused. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Eco-wars''in Eastern Europe. Selected scenes of cross-border environmental damage. Oeko-Kriege'' in Osteuropa. Ausgewaehlte Tatorte grenzueberschreitender Umweltzerstoerung

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    Oschlies, W.


    This report deals with a special area of the Eastern European disaster, cross-border environmental damage. It can be seen at various sites and/or large projects: Rumanian-Bulgarian squabbles over Rumanian chlorine clouds that drift across the Danube to Bulgaria; Hungarian-Czechoslovakian disagreements about the power-station on the Danube, Gabcikovo-Nagymaros; Polish-Czechoslovakian arguments about coke-works and dangerous refuse dumps in the immediate vicinity of the border or competition in the efforts to offer themselves as terminal storage area for Western exporters of dangerous refuse. The most obvious quality that the projects described had in common was their choice of location. Taking into account wind direction, river currents, proximity to borders etc. they were all so located that their own country would necessarily receive the benefit from them but the neighbouring country would get all the environmental pollution. The future can only get better - not only because it could hardly get any worse. Now that there have been 'changes', 'gentle revolutions' etc. in all the affected countries and the actual originators of the depicted environmental offences have been deposed, there is some room for cautious optimism. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Detection, simulation, assessing environmental influences. Climate/shock/irradiation/vibrations/electromagnetism/air contamination/biological influences. Papers. Umwelteinfluesse erfassen, simulieren, bewerten. Klima/Schock/Strahlung/Vibrationen/Elektromagnetismus/Luftverunreinigung/Biologische Einfluesse. Vortraege

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    Investigations using environmental simulation are designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Issues of artificial ageing and timelapsing play an important role. The 29 contributions to the 21st Annual Conference deal in particular with the topics: strategies in environmental simulation, irradiation and exposure testing of polymers, atmospheric influences and air ingredients, and mechanical environmental influences. (orig./DG)

  8. Detection, simulation and evaluation of environmental impacts. Climate, shock, radiation, vibrations, electromagnetism, air pollution, biological influences. Proceeedings. Umwelteinfluesse, erfassen, simulieren, bewerten. Klima, Schock, Strahlung, Vibrationen, Elektromagnetismus, Luftverunreinigung, biologische Einfluesse. Vortraege

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    Environmental simulation is designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms involved in ageing and weathering processes. The 24 contributions to the 22nd annual conference deal with the topics: detection of environmental influences, simulation techniques, strategies in environmental simulation, and effects and measures. (DG)

  9. Punishability of transfrontier environmental offences. Also a contribution to the dogmatic aspects of hazards and on international law in the field of ecology. Strafbarkeit grenzueberschreitender Umweltbeeintraechtigungen. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Gefaehrdungsdogmatik und zum Umweltvoelkerrecht

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    Martin, J.


    National environmental Acts include a great number of areas and this applies even more if there is an international component. It is not only the German international criminal law but also questions of general criminal law dogmatic and the relationship between environmental criminal law and administrative law that must be taken into account. In order to prevent inadmissible interferences with another country's sovereign rights it is necessary to harmonize the international environmental law and the international environmental criminal law. Aspects of the international civil law and the administrative law have to be considered as well. The book concludes that even abstract offences that carry the potential of endangerment also qualify as statutorily proscribed harm. The German environmental criminal law is therefore applicable even if the offence cause only a domestic danger. An action which is permissible under another country's administrative law is not punishable under some few regulations. In all other cases it is punishable unless the foreign country's Sovereign Act is recognised. This applies if the Federal Republic of Germany has to tolerate harm under international environmental law. Claims under international law to refrain from transformer pollution can often be much more extensive than commonly assumed. (orig.).

  10. Effects of particulate air pollution on human health. Statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution; Partikulaere Luftverunreinigung und ihre Folgen fuer die menschliche Gesundheit. Stellungnahme der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie (DGP) zur aktuellen Feinstaub-Diskussion

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    Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)


    The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)

  11. The transboundary transfer of environmental risks as a challenge to international law. Der grenzueberschreitende Transfer von Umweltrisiken im Voelkerrecht; Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Zuweisung von Umweltverantwortung am Beispiel der grenzueberschreitenden Abfallentsorgung, der internationalen Vermarktung von Chemikalien und des Transfers umweltgefaehrdender Technologie

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    Rublack, S.


    With international transfer of environmental risks particularly moving from north to south, - waste trading being a topical example of what is going on - the recipient states are importing serious environmental problems. Four characteristic problem areas are chosen to show the factual basis offered by international law for attempts to resolve the problems, reviewing at the same time the results achieved so far by cooperation among the states. These areas are transboundary management and disposal of nuclear and non-nuclear wastes, international trading of chemicals, and worldwide transfer of hazardous technologies, including transnational investment activities bearing upon the environment. The book presents a comparative analysis of the available instruments of international law regarding assignment of responsibility and thus liability for environmental impacts to the various parties concerned, and discusses them in the context of the international law system. The analysis shows deficits and potentials for improvement of the existing international law regime, as well as the scope available on national and international level to establish appropriate rules and laws for controlling risk transfer, subject to the international law principles of jurisdiction and the GATT. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of the extent of a topical issue of environmental policy in its factual and international law frame. (orig./HP)

  12. Clinical indications for high-resolution MRI diagnostics of the peripheral nervous system; Klinische Indikationen hochaufloesender MRT-Diagnostik des peripheren Nervensystems

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    Godel, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Weiler, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Neurologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)


    , elektrophysiologische Funktionsdiagnostik und Nervensonographie stellen den bisherigen Goldstandard der Diagnostik peripherer Nervenlaesionen dar, haben aber methodisch bedingte Limitationen. Mit der 3 Tesla Magnetresonanzneurographie (MRN) steht seit einigen Jahren ein zusaetzliches bildgebendes Verfahren zur hochaufloesenden und langstreckigen Darstellung peripherer Nervenstrukturen zur Verfuegung. Sinnvolle klinische Indikationen fuer eine MRN werden exemplarisch vorgestellt. Die MRN kann fokale und nichtfokale Nervenlaesionen verschiedenster Genese bis auf Faszikelniveau genau direkt visualisieren und damit praezise lokalisieren. Mithilfe der MRN koennen in einem Untersuchungsgang weitraeumige Regionen des peripheren Nervensystems (PNS) erfasst, raeumliche Nervenlaesionsmuster erkannt und z. T. zugrunde liegende Ursachen aufgedeckt werden. Die MRN stellt eine wertvolle Ergaenzung der Diagnostik des PNS dar, insbesondere in den Faellen, die mit den diagnostischen Standardverfahren nicht eindeutig zu klaeren sind. Anhand des Verteilungsmusters der Laesionen sind Rueckschluesse auf die Genese der Erkrankung moeglich. Sinnvolle Indikationen fuer eine MRN sind die Beurteilung proximaler Nervenstrukturen, insbesondere der Arm- und Beinplexus sowie die Abklaerung bei inkonklusiven Vorbefunden, vor Operationen, nach Traumata oder unzufrieden stellenden Operationsergebnissen, zudem die Identifizierung faszikulaerer Nervenlaesionen und die Differenzialdiagnose einer vermeintlich ''somatoformen Stoerung''. (orig.)

  13. Persistent organic compounds in food chains in Bavaria and Czechia. Pt. 1. Terrestrial systems; Persistente organische Verbindungen in Nahrungsketten von Bayern und Tschechien. T. 1. Terrestrische Systeme

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    Kettrup, A.; Heinisch, E.


    , zusammengetragen und - soweit dies moeglich war - verglichen und gegenuebergestellt. Die Ergebnisse sind in Zusammenfassungen der Einzelkapitel aufgefuehrt. Es konnte in z.T. fundierten Ansaetzen gezeigt werden, dass die unterschiedlichen sozialoekonomischen Strukturen der Regionen bis 1989 erhebliche Einfluesse auf die Ausmasse der Kontamination ausuebten. Umfangreiche Gesetzeswerke zur Anwendung und Herstellung von Chemieprodukten und deren immer dichtere Ueberwachung in Bayern fuehrten ebenso wie zahlreiche Sanierungsmassnahmen dazu, dass die klassischen chlororganischen Verbindungen nur noch in Spuren vorkommen und auch unvermeidbare Verbindungen wie PCDD/F minimiert werden koennen. Diese Voraussetzungen wurden in den neuen Bundeslaendern - hier dargestellt am Beispiel Brandenburg - wo bis 1989 die Volkswirtschaft ausschliesslich auf Produktionsmaximierungen ausgerichtet war, geschaffen und beginnen sich in deutlichen Abnahmen der Kontaminationshoehen (fuer PCDD/F und PAK lagen keine Materialien vor) insbesondere fuer die klassischen CKW auszuwirken. In Tschechien werden immer noch erheblich hoehere Belastungen z.B. fuer HCB und vor allem PCB registriert, die ein Augenmerk auf moegliche grenzueberschreitende Wirkungen erforderlich machen. (orig.)