WorldWideScience

Sample records for weirs

  1. The Weir: Storytelling that Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Irene E.

    2008-01-01

    Through the acts of telling our stories, writing our stories, and reading others' stories, we become known both to others and to ourselves. Drawing on the theme of transformation in the recent play "The Weir," this article explores the place of story in adult and continuing education and considers how story told by students can break through the…

  2. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLOW OVER A WEIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water flow over a weir was simulated numerically in this paper. The numerical model involved the Reynolds equation for mean flow filed with the k-ε turbulent model. To track free surface movements the VOF method with geometric reconstruction approach was employed. Three flow patterns including surface jet, surface wave and plunging jet were simulated in this paper. The free surface profile, velocity field and the distribution of shear stress on the bottom at downstream of the weir were obtained. The results of present numerical model, inviscid model and the rigid-lid assumption were compared with experimental data. It is shown that the present numerical model has great advantage to simulate the flow over a weir. The validities of the inviscid model and the rigid-lid assumption were also discussed.

  3. Bed profile downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular weirs are commonly used to measure discharge in open channel flow. They represent an inexpensive, reliable methodology to monitor water allocation. A compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was used. The lower triangular part of the weir handles the normal range of discharges while the upper part measures the higher peak flows. This paper evaluates experimentally the local scour downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir. Forty-eight (48 experimental runs were conducted. Three models of weirs with different geometries (combination of notch angles, four upstream water levels, three water levels at the tailgate, and two bed materials were used. Multiple regression equations based on energy principal and dimensional analysis theory were deduced to estimate the local scour downstream of the weir models. The developed equations were compared with the experimental data. The comparison between the local scour downstream classical V-notch weir and a compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was found to be unnoticed. The study recommended using the compound V-notch weir to pass high discharges instead of the classical V-notch weir.

  4. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  5. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  6. River Dart Weir and fish pass survey 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin, M

    1992-01-01

    This is the River Dart, Weir and Fish Pass Survey 1992 report produced by the National Rivers Authority. It goes through the general condition of Weirs and fish passes to determine the extent of problems associated with the upstream and downstream migration of salmonids. It considers solutions where problems exist and investigates the exact use of the resource. It looks at the following Weirs: Totnes, Staverton, Hood, Kilbury, Buckfast, Holne, Mardle (River Mardle), Holybrook (Holybrook), ...

  7. Weirs in the Waterworks of the Tsarev Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel’ev Nikita I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The location and design of weirs as part of water supply system on the Tsarev settlement and its neighborhood are considered in the article. The descriptions of the 19th – early 20th cc. and archaeological data made it possible to establish the fact that the weirs had been constructed of earth with a backfill made of stones, bricks and slag. They served to regulate water discharge and to construct reservoirs. On the basis of 19th-century topographic maps and satellite images, it has been possible to figure out the locations and purpose of four major weirs, which had occupied key positions both outside and inside the town. Two reservoirs were constructed to the west and east of the town by means of large weirs (over 200 m long and 10 m tall. Two lesser weirs used to form internal water reservoirs.

  8. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  9. Evaluation of Seismic Fragility of Weir Structures in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce earthquake damage of multifunctional weir systems similar to a dam structure, this study focused on probabilistic seismic risk assessment of the weir structure using the fragility methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, with emphasis on the uncertainties of the seismic ground motions in terms of near field induced pulse-like motions and far field faults. The 2D simple linear elastic plain strain finite element (FE model including soil structure foundations using tie connection method in ABAQUS was developed to incorporate the uncertainty. In addition, five different limit states as safety criteria were defined for the seismic vulnerability of the weir system. As a consequence, the results obtained from multiple linear time history analyses revealed that the weir structure was more vulnerable to the tensile stress of the mass concrete in both near and far field ground motions specified earthquake hazard levels. In addition, the system subjected to near field motions was primarily more fragile than that under far field ground motions. On the other hand, the probability of failure due to the tensile stress at weir sill and stilling basin showed the similar trend in the overall peak ground acceleration levels.

  10. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FTOW OVER A SEMTCIRCULAR WEIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春嵘; 呼和敖德; 马文驹

    2002-01-01

    The water flow over a semicircular weir is investigated numericallyand experimentally in this paper. The numerical model solves the Reynolds equationfor a mean flow field with the κ-ε turbulent model. To trace the motion of the freesurface, the VOF method with geometric reconstruction is employed. The velocity ofthe flow is measured by means of LDV technique. Four types of flow patterns, theposition of the separation and reattachment point, the distribution of shear stresson the bed at downstream of the weir are presented and discussed. The numericalresults agree well with the experiment data.

  11. Physical and numerical modeling of labyrinth weirs with polyhedral bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. San Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to comply with the new safety regulations a significant number of Spanish dam spillways must be upgraded. In this scenario and with the aim of increasing the discharge capacity with a reduced investment innovative designs become interesting solutions. One of these innovative designs are the labyrinth weirs. Project POLILAB is carrying out with the objective of optimize the design of labyrinth weirs, physical and numerical tests exposed in this article were developed within this framework. The most relevant results are related with the discharge capacity, the flow pattern and the structural reinforcement achieved by the implementation of a polyhedral bottom.

  12. Evaluation of Seismic Performance of Weir Structures in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Seog Ju

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the seismic performance of weir structures using two different approaches: i design response spectrum with respect to KBC 2009 in Korea and ii acceleration of time history (PGA, 0.3011 g obtained from 1994 Northridge earthquake. This paper provided the simple linear elastic 2D plane strain FE model with the material nonlinearity including soil-foundationstructure based on Gangjeong-Goryeong hydraulic system, located in Daegu Metropolitan City in Southeastern part of Korea. In order to consider the sliding effect between the weir structures and soil structures, linear and nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, the maximum principal stress and maximum displacement of the weir body fairly reduced in linear time history analysis when comparing design spectrum method with linear time history analysis. The minimum principal stress significantly increased in linear time history analysis, rather than design spectrum analysis. In addition, based on the sliding effect results, the principal stresses and maximum displacement was notably increased due to the material nonlinearity. It was interesting to find that the weir system subjected to seismic ground motions was sensitive to friction element conditions.

  13. Modelonderzoek meetpunt Slenaken : "Flat - 5 triangular profile weir"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, J.; Pitlo, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    In de buurt van de Belgische grens werd in de Gulp te Slenaken (Zd. Limburg) door Rijkswaterstaat een meetstuw gebouwd van het type "Flat-V triangular profile weir". Een schaalmodel van de meetstuw is in Wageningen geijkt. De afvoergegevens zullen ook worden gebruikt door de "Studiegroep Gulp".

  14. Head Discharge Relationship of Thin Plated Rectangular Lab Fabricated Sharp Crested Weirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tekade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring open channel flows has been a major challenge at the field level. Because of the fact that the measuring devices are to be made from procedures and materials prescribed in standard codes. Weirs over a period of time had been used to measure discharges in open channel systems. But non-availability of standard material at village level proves to be a major bottleneck in implementing weirs as field measurement devices. The present experimental study is an attempt to prove the good hydraulic performance of weirs made of locally available metal sheets. That use of complicated material and machining is not necessary in the fabrication of rectangular weir. A discharge formula for the rectangular weir of different sizes is extensively studied. From the experimental study it is concluded that the Cd value for each weir is nearly same. Also material and slight variation in thickness has no effect on the Cd value in case of rectangular sharp crested weir.

  15. Implementation of Structures in the CMS: Part 2, Weir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    describes the mathematical formulation, numerical implementation, and input specifications of weir structures in the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...b) Rudee Inlet, VA. COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM : The CMS , developed by the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an integrated suite of...Coastal Modeling System , Report 2: CMS -Wave. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Technical Report ERDC/CHL-TR-11-10. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer

  16. Developing a Simple Unique Head-Discharge Equation for Pivot Weirs with Different Side Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    neda Sheikh Rezazadeh Nikou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pivot weirs (sharp crested inclined weirs, Fig. 1-a is frequently used for discharge measurement, controlling water surface and flow diversion. Some typical features of pivot weirs are: (a overshot design for better water level control, (b Their application as head gates, turnout or check structure which requiring low head loss and high accuracy, (c ease of removing sediment deposit behind the weir, and (d ability to manage and monitor on-site or operating remotely when connected to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA network. Kindsvater and Carter (8 derived a weir discharge equation based on energy and continuity equations. Hulsing (4 determined head-discharge relationship of inclined suppressed sharp crested weir with the slope of 3:3, 2:3 and 1:3 toward downstream and compared them with the equivalent normal sharp crested weir. In the USBR report on pivot weirs (regarding The Boulder Canyon Project,1948 the head discharge data of the suppressed pivot weir were presented in a channel with 5.5m length, 2.9m depth and 0.61m width. Some field experiments were also carried out in the IID (Imperial Irrigation District on a trapezoidal cross-section (0.61 m bottom width channel with pivot weir of 1.7m length, and two different widths of 1.63m. The flow rate (350-880 lit/s was held constant and different angles (15-50° calibrated instead of holding the angle constant and varying the flow rate. Some other laboratory tests were performed with Wahlin and Replogle (1994 on two pivot weirs with 1.2 m and 1.14 m width for the 0.61 m and 0.46 m length of blade and contraction factor of 0.925. RUBICON Company established an extensive operation on the application and automation of pivot weirs in irrigation channels in Australia (Www.rubicon.com. All previous studies concentrated on modifying the normal rectangular weir head-discharge equation so that it can be used for the pivot weirs. In this study, it is trying to derive a

  17. The impact of a small weir on flood risk modelling and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, Amelia; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Whitfield, R. Greg; Byrne, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Some ~26,000 obstructions govern British river systems with the majority of these being weirs. Most of the weirs in the UK were built in the 18th century for reasons such as flood control, fishing purposes and navigation. Despite hydroelectric power being at the forefront of new weir construction, many of the existing weirs are being considered for removal to adhere to the Water Framework Directive. However, there are concerns about weir removal regarding increased flood risk, erosion, deposition, pollution redistribution and gradient changes. Before weirs can be removed it is important to understand how a weir is altering a river in order to identify how it may respond to removal; a concept that is poorly understood. Weirs can significantly modify flow regime and sediment transport, ultimately greatly affecting habitats and ecosystems and make constrained rivers behave considerably different to unconstrained channels. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of a weir on morphology, hydraulics, flood risk and sediment transport to determine its current effect and help inform if removal is logical. Hydraulic and sediment transport modeling will be used to determine the effect of the weir on flood risk, flow and sediment transport and historical and present maps to determine morphological changes. Modelling will also be used to establish the effect of removal on flood risk.

  18. Use of laser-scan technology to analyse topography and flow in a weir pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Dresel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of laser-scan techniques provides opportunity for detailed terrain analysis in hydrologic studies. Ground based scans were used to model the ground surface elevation in the area of a stream gauge weir over an area of 240 m2 at a resolution of 0.05 m. The terrain model was used to assess the possibility of flow bypassing the weir and to calculate stream flow during filling of the weir pool, prior to flow through the weir notch. The mapped surface shows a subtle low-lying area at the south end of the structure where flow could bypass the weir. The flow calculations quantify low-flows that do not reach the weir notch during small rain events and flow at the beginning of larger events in the ephemeral stream.

  19. Experimental investigation on discharge coefficient for a combined broad crested weir-box culvert structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, A.; Hassan, M.; Sabir, Shahin

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the hydraulic characteristics of simultaneous flow over broad crested weir and through box (square) culverts experimentally. The variation of discharge coefficient (Cd) of the combined structure with various affective parameters such as upstream head, length of culvert, culvert inlet shape, culvert internal dimension, weir crest height, weir side slope angle, and weir width was analyzed. For this purpose 12 glass models of combined broad crested weirs and box culverts were manufactured and tested in a laboratory flume of 12 m. Discharge coefficient predicting equations were developed as a function of the dimensionless terms. The overall results showed that Cd increases as the ratio of the total head of water above the weir crest to the height of the weir crest H/P increases for all the models and for each flow state (weir and combined). Cd values increased as the head increased for all the models tested as culvert flow only, and also with decreasing of the angle between crest of the weir with the sides.

  20. Applicability of CFD Modelling in Determining Accurate Weir Discharge: Water Level Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, P.M.M.; Tralli, A.; Langeveld, J.G.; Verhaart, F.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to accurately determine weir discharges is of key importance in urban water management. The most common method is performing a level measurement and calculating the discharge using the standard weir equation. Since this equation is only valid in certain conditions, this can lead to large

  1. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinarayan Tiwari; Nayan Sharma

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents fundamental outcomes from an experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). Hydrodynamic performance was tested in a circulated open channel that comprised of PKW and sand bed (d50 = 0.25 mm). Instantaneous velocities were measured at 20 cross sections using Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) with constant discharge and depth. Average velocity and turbulence intensities in both directions were investigated. Average longitudinal velocities are found very much consistent at every point and maximum around the midway of inlet key. In transverse direction, flow is bifurcating in two directions which are also confirmed by average transverse velocity estimation. Variation of turbulence intensity presents average 10 times higher transverse turbulence than longitudinal turbulence near inlet key of PKW.

  2. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  3. Hydraulic Resistance of Submerged Vegetated Oblique Weir-Like Obstacles in a Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Ghani, Usman

    2014-05-01

    Reliable water level predictions for extreme river discharges (floods) are extremely important for designing flood safety measures. During floods, the water flows in the floodplain which always contains various obstacles that hamper the conveyance capacity of the river. Weir-like obstacles such as access roads, summer embankments, submerged groins etc. give rise to rapidly varying flow. Typical flow features related to these obstacles such as flow separation and hydraulic jump cause energy losses (form drag) and affect the flow levels during high water stages. It is therefore of great importance to properly understand the flow characteristics and hydraulic resistance caused by such obstacles and correctly implements these in modelling tools. In many circumstances the weir-like obstacles are oriented at an oblique angle with respect to the flow direction, sometimes even parallel to flow, as in the case of overtopping summer dykes. In this study weir-liked behaviour has been considered to determine the energy losses due to the above mentioned obstacles rather than considering the weir as a control structure. A limited amount of literature is available on flow investigations for the oblique weirs. These studies are mostly about the discharge coefficient of the oblique smooth weirs. There is hardly a study about the flow field around the oblique weir-like structures. An experimental study has been carried out in the Laboratory of Environmental Fluid Mechanics of Delft University of Technology. The prototype dike and groin were modeled as a weir with downstream and upstream slopes of 1:4 and vegetation has been represented by the cylindrical rods on the crest of weir with 25% blockage area inside the vegetated region. In this study, experiments have been performed to determine the energy head losses caused by the weir-like obstacles. Longitudinal and vertical velocity profiles were measured in the flume upstream and downstream of the schematized models of oblique weir

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is a vegetation map of Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. A map showing the locations of the vegetation associations within the park was...

  5. Field Plot Points for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site.

  6. Hydraulic Behavior Of Piano Key Weir Type B Under Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saleh Issa Khassaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the weir geometry of a Piano Key Weir PKW type B on the discharge coefficient under free flow conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 15m long 0.3m wide and 0.45m deep rectangular glass-walled flume. The experimental work includes testing of fourteen PKW models which results 290 tests to cover the effects of weir length and height up-and downstream key widths upstream apex overhangs length dam height and noses length on the weir flow discharge coefficient as well PKW with outlet stepped key were considered in the analysis. Considering the experimental data the dimensional analysis allowed the development of relations between discharge coefficient and the shape of the PKW and gave a good agreement. Experimental results showed that the most influential parameters for the tested PKW models are the Relative length LW Key widths Wiamp8260Wo PKW Height BP and Overhangs length Boamp8260B. The effectiveness of Piano Key Weir at low heads ratio HP0.25 is up to 400 relative to Creager weir at the same head.

  7. [Effects of riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir on restoration area's water quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Fei; Xu, Chi; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mao-Song

    2012-06-01

    Riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir is an engineering measure with piled wave-elimination weir some meters away from the shore. This measure can dissipate waves, promote sediment deposition, and create an artificial semi-closed bay to restore vegetation in a riparian area which has hard dam and destroyed vegetation. Three habitat gradient zones, i. e., emerged vegetation zone, submerged vegetation zone, and open water area, can be formed after this engineering. In June 2010-May 2011, a field investigation was conducted on the water quality in the three zones in an ecological restoration area of Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake. The water body inside the weir generally had lower concentrations of nitrite and nitrate but higher concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen than the water body outside the weir. The water phosphorus concentration inside the weir was lower than that outside the weir in autumn and winter, while an opposite trend was observed in spring and summer. The coefficients of variation of the water body' s nitrite and orthophosphate concentration inside the weir decreased, and the annual maximum values of the water nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate concentrations inside the weir were lower than those outside the weir. On the contrary, the coefficients of variation of the water body's ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir increased, and the annual maximum values of the water ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir were higher than those outside the weir. To some extent, the restoration engineering could exacerbate the deterioration of the water quality indices such as ammonium and total nitrogen in the restoration area by the end of growth season

  8. Silas Weir Mitchell and "The Strange Case of George Dedlow".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David G

    2016-07-01

    It has been said of Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914) that as a young man he was first among the physiologists of his day, in middle age first among physicians, and as an older man, one of the most noted novelists of his country. Mitchell's novels were written in his later life as a means to avoid boredom during lengthy summer vacations that were the norm for that time among the affluent members of Philadelphia society. These novels were criticized by some because of poor plots, which in some instances failed to move along, or for text that offered a stereotyped depiction of genteel society and the effects that war or personal disaster had on the characters' behavior The criticism came despite the fact that all critics agreed that Mitchell's portrayals of psychopathology in his fictional characters was unique and accurate. However, in his 30s, Mitchell had written and by chance had published a fictional short story that not only transcended such criticisms but became immensely popular. "The Strange Case of George Dedlow" portrays a union officer who was not a physician but who had some medical background and who sustained a series of war wounds leading to severe nerve pain, the author's first description of causalgia, multiple amputations, and the psychological as well as physical symptoms of phantom limb syndrome. The protagonist tells of his torments in the first person in a very engaging fashion. Thus, long before he began writing his, at that time, acclaimed novels in the 1880s, Mitchell wrote a piece of fiction that combines accurate and very important medical observations with fiction of great historical interest. The following rendering of this now classic short story includes selected quotes and some interpretation and is perhaps appropriate for this year, 2 years after the centenary year of his death in 1914.

  9. Prediction of the Discharge Coefficient for a Cipolletti Weir with Rectangular Bottom Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafa H. Al-Suhili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic characteristics of a Cipolletti weir with rectangular bottom opening were investigated in this study. The work was carried out using an existing experimental setup of a flume with storage and re-circulating tanks, a pump, a flow meter and a piping system with valves. Thirty nine physical models were made for the Cipolletti weir with rectangular bottom opening with different geometrical dimensions called hereafter as configurations. Experimental measurements were taken for each configuration for different flow values to find the actual discharge, the head over the weir and the head of the approaching flow. For each configuration the data set were analyzed in order to find the discharge coefficient using equation, derived for the combined flow over the weir and from the bottom rectangular opening. All the flow cases tested were for free flow over the weir and sub-critical flows. Dimensional analysis was made to relate the discharge coefficient with different geometrical and flow variables using artificial neural networks modeling. The correlation coefficient found for the predicted values of the discharge coefficient is (r=0.88.

  10. A hydrodynamic focusing microchannel based on micro-weir shear lift force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruey-Jen; Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Che-Hsin; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2012-09-01

    A novel microflow cytometer is proposed in which the particles are focused in the horizontal and vertical directions by means of the Saffman shear lift force generated within a micro-weir microchannel. The proposed device is fabricated on stress-relieved glass substrates and is characterized both numerically and experimentally using fluorescent particles with diameters of 5 μm and 10 μm, respectively. The numerical results show that the micro-weir structures confine the particle stream to the center of the microchannel without the need for a shear flow. Moreover, the experimental results show that the particles emerging from the micro-weir microchannel pass through the detection region in a one-by-one fashion. The focusing effect of the micro-weir microchannel is quantified by computing the normalized variance of the optical detection signal intensity. It is shown that the focusing performance of the micro-weir structure is equal to 99.76% and 99.57% for the 5-μm and 10-μm beads, respectively. Overall, the results presented in this study confirm that the proposed microcytometer enables the reliable sorting and counting of particles with different diameters.

  11. Floquet-Bloch vs. Nicolson-Ross-Weir Extraction for Magneto-Dielectric Bragg Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    We extract and compare the permittivity and permeability from a dielectric and a magnetodielectric Bragg stack with the Floquet-Bloch (FB) method for the infinite stack and the Nicolson-Ross- Weir (NRW) method for the finite stack. While the extracted propagation constants are identical, the wave...

  12. Hydraulic design of a tilting weir allowing for periodic fish migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Dommerholt, A.; Gerven, van L.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic design of a tilting weir is presented, which allows for periodic exchange of potadromous fish between freshwater ecosystems. The application domain includes inland waters that need to be isolated hydraulically, preserving the existing ecological connection with the surrounding areas as

  13. Experimental study to control the upstream migration of invasive alien fish species by submerged weir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Masami; Kunimatsu, Fumihiro; Tsuchiya, Taku; Kawamura, Makiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    Largemouth bass and Bluegill, major invasive alien fish species in Japan, have been extending their habitat ranges over not only Lake Biwa and the lagoons but also surrounding waters connected to them through small rivers and canals. Their increasing number is bringing about the reduction in the number of native fish species. To prevent the spread of these alien species through small rivers and canals during breeding season of the native fish (crucian carp), this study experimentally examined the effect of a submerged weir on controlling upstream migration of the alien species and the native fish. As a result of the experiment, the ratio of the alien species migrating upstream decreased as the weir height rose, whereas the ratio did not show the same trend in the case of the native fish. The ratio of the alien species also decreased as the overflow velocity over the weir rose. On the other hand, the ratio of the native fish increased as the overflow velocity rose up to 1.0m/s and decreased thereafter. These results suggest that the submerged weir may control upstream migration of the alien species to surrounding waters through small rivers and canals without interfering with the reproductive migration of the native fish.

  14. Flow resistance of vegetated oblique weir-like obstacles during high water stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    At high water stages obstacles in the floodplains of a river contribute to the flow resistance. In particular the elevated vegetated parts are expected to play an important role. The objective of this study is to estimate and parameterize the form drag due to vegetated oblique weir-like obstacles. A

  15. The form drag due to vegetated weir-like obstacles interpreted as expansion losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Objective of this study is to estimate the form drag due to vegetated weir- like obstacles. Head loss due to submerged vegetated dikes and groins has been modeled by expansion loss form drag model (Energy and momentum balance principles) and it has been compared with experimental data. An experi

  16. Fluid Flow in Tundish Due to Different Type Arrangement of Weir and Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tundish is an important metallurgical reactor in the continuous casting process. In order to control the fluid flow in tundish and thus take full advantage of the residence time available for the removal of inclusions from molten steel, the effect of weir and dam on the fluid flow has been studied in a water model based on the characteristic number Froude and Reynold number similarity criteria. The residence time distribution curves of the flow were measured by SG800. The optimum arrangement of dam and weir and the nonstationary flow in tundish were discussed. The results show that the combination of weir and dam is benefit for the flow pattern in tundish, weir can prevent the upper recirculating flow, dam can cut off the bottom flow and turn to upwards, it is advantageous to separate the nonmetallic inclusions. Furthermore, it is important to exceed the critical depth of bath during exchange ladles, not only for the inclusion floatation but also for avoiding tundish slag drainage earlier.

  17. Experimental Study of the Effect of W-weir on Reduction of Scour Depth at 90 Degree Sharp Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Atashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Flow patterns within the river bend is three dimensional. Occurrence of secondary flow due to centrifugal force and formation of helicoidally vortex in river bend usually causes the outer bank of river erodes whilst the sediment are deposited in inner bend which appears in the form of point bars. To reduce the river bank scour, many techniques have been developed which may be classified as covering technique and modified flow patterns methods. The W-weir is among such structures. In the present paper, by measuring three components of flow velocity with and without presence of W-weir, variation of flow patterns and shear stress distribution in a 90-degree sharp bend have been investigated. The main purpose of this study is to see the installation of different locations of W-weir in the bend on reduction of outer bank scour. In the present paper, by measuring three components of flow velocity with and without presence of W-weir, variation of flow patterns and shear stress distribution in a 90-degree sharp bend have been investigated. The analyses of data showed more uniform flow upstream of the weir and also revealed that the effect of transverse and centrifugal forces are modified in such a way that the secondary flow is diminished. The results showed that for 30, 60 and 90-degree bends maximum erosion depth in the vicinity of the outer bank with Froude number of 0.206 in comparison with 0.137 has increased up to 84, 90 and 118 % respectively. In both Froude numbers, installation of W-Weir in 30 degree has the most reduction in bed in comparison with 60 and 90 degree. Materials and Methods: To reach the goal of this study a physical model of 90 degree sharp bend was constructed in the hydraulic lab of Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz. The ratio of R(radius/b(flume width was less than 2 which shows a sharp bend. The W-weir was built with 1mm galvanized steel. Flume bed was covered with sediment of D50=1.5mm. The W-weir was

  18. Laboratory investigation of the effect of a new labyrinth with different length and width in the wing length of a triangular-shaped labyrinth weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Bahrebar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to minor changes in the static load on the crest in case of large fluctuations in flow rate, polyhedral weirs, compared with other types of weirs, are considered as economic structures to control water levels in the irrigation networks. Using labyrinth weirs is an effective and economical approach to improve the efficiency of the weir by increasing its effective crest length. In this case, for a constant hydraulic height and width, it passes a greater discharge in comparison with other types of weirs. In this study, the V-shaped plan-form weirs are studied [1, 2]. Tests are conducted on 30 models with 7 different discharges, and in a total of 210 tests. The models include 30 V-shaped weirs with various lengths. The models are investigated in a flume with 8 m length, 0.35 m width and height of 0.40 m. The results of this study indicate that for all triangular-shaped weirs the ratio of discharge coefficient to P/ ( : total hydraulic load, P: weir height is at first increased and after reaching a maximum, begins to be reduced. As the height of labyrinth on the weir wings increases, as a result of increases in effective length, the discharge coefficient is increased for a specific /P. The results also show that increasing the wing length reduces the discharge coefficient. Also, the discharge coefficient is greater for V-shaped weirs than linear ones.

  19. Do weirs affect the physical and geochemical mobility of toxic metals in mining-impacted floodplain sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, Amelia; Coleman, Alexandra; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Byrne, Patrick; Whitfield, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Weirs are common river structures designed to modify river channel hydraulics and hydrology for purposes of navigation, flood defence, irrigation and hydrometry. By design, weirs constrain natural flow processes and affect sediment flux and river channel forms leading to homogenous river habitats and reduced biodiversity. The recent movement towards catchment-wide river restoration, driven by the EU Water Framework Directive, has recognised weirs as a barrier to good ecological status. However, the removal of weirs to achieve more 'natural' river channels and flow processes is inevitably followed by a period of adjustment to the new flow regime and sediment flux. This period of adjustment can have knock-on effects that may increase flood risk, sedimentation and erosion until the river reaches a state of geomorphological equilibrium. Many catchments in the UK contain a legacy of toxic metals in floodplain sediments due to historic metal mining activities. The consequences of weir removal in these catchments may be to introduce 'stored' mine wastes into the river system with severe implications for water quality and biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of a weir on the physical and geochemical mobilisation of mine wastes in the formerly mined River Twymyn catchment, Wales. Our initial investigations have shown floodplain and riverbed sediments to be grossly contaminated (up to 15,500 mg/kg Pb) compared to soil from a pre-mining Holocene terrace (180 mg/kg Pb). Geomorphological investigations also suggest that weir removal will re-establish more dynamic river channel processes resulting in lateral migration of the channel and erosion of contaminated floodplain sediments. These data will be used as a baseline for more detailed investigations of the potential impact of weirs on the physical and geochemical mobilisation of contaminated sediments. We have two specific objectives. (1) Geomorphological assessments will use unmanned

  20. Analysis of a hydraulic a scaled asymmetric labyrinth weir with Ansys-Fluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora Carmona, Andrés Humberto; Santos Granados, Germán Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    This document presents the three dimensional computational modeling of a labyrinth weir, using the version 17.0 of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS - FLUENT. The computational characteristics of the model such as the geometry consideration, the mesh sensitivity, the numerical scheme, and the turbulence modeling parameters. The volume fraction of the water mixture - air, the velocity profile, the jet trajectory, the discharge coefficient and the velocity field are analyzed. With the purpose of evaluating the hydraulic behavior of the labyrinth weir of the Naveta's hydroelectric, in Apulo - Cundinamarca, was development a 1:21 scale model of the original structure, which was tested in the laboratory of the hydraulic studies in the Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito. The scale model of the structure was initially developed to determine the variability of the discharge coefficient with respect to the flow rate and their influence on the water level. It was elaborate because the original weir (labyrinth weir with not symmetrical rectangular section), did not have the capacity to work with the design flow of 31 m3/s, because over 15 m3/s, there were overflows in the adduction channel. This variation of efficiency was due to the thickening of the lateral walls by structural requirements. During the physical modeling doing by Rodríguez, H. and Matamoros H. (2015) in the test channel, it was found that, with the increase in the width of the side walls, the discharge coefficient is reduced an average by 34%, generating an increase of the water level by 0.26 m above the structure. This document aims to develop a splicing methodology between the physical models of a labyrinth weir and numerical modeling, using concepts of computational fluid dynamics and finite volume theories. For this, was carried out a detailed analysis of the variations in the different directions of the main hydraulic variables involved in the behavior, such as, the

  1. Experimental investigation of weir instability in main vessel cooling system of 1/4 FBR model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalai, M., E-mail: mtl@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Anandaraj, M.; Kumar, P. Anup [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Anandbabu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Department of Atomic Energy, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam, India. The main vessel of this pool type reactor acts as the primary containment in the reactor assembly. In order to keep the main vessel temperature below creep range and to reduce high temperature embrittlement and also to ensure its healthiness for 40 years of reactor life, a small fraction of core flow (0.5 m{sup 3}/s) is sent through an annular space formed between the main vessel and a cylindrical baffle (primary thermal baffle) to cool the vessel. The sodium after cooling the main vessel overflows the primary baffle (weir shell) and falls into another concentric pool of sodium separated from the cold pool by the secondary thermal baffle and then returned to cold pool. The weir shell, where the overflow of liquid sodium takes place, is a thin shell prone to flow induced vibrations due to instability caused by sloshing and fluid-structure interaction. A similar vibration phenomenon was first observed during the commissioning of Super-Phenix reactor. In order to understand the phenomenon and provide necessary experimental back up to validate the analytical models, weir instability experiments were conducted in a 1:4 scale stainless steel (SS) model installed in a water loop. The experiments were conducted with flow rate and fall height as the varying parameters. The experimental results showed that the instability of the weir shell was caused due to fluid structure interaction. This paper discusses the details of the model, the modeling laws, similitude criteria adopted, analytical prediction, the experimental results and conclusion.

  2. New Standard Weir Design for Dredged Material Management Area, Jacksonville District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    traditional 4-in. x 6-in. timber weir boards are heavy and cumbersome, making the work of adding or removing the boards dangerous. • Leakage of...insert and pull waterlogged timber boards. Other improvements associated with this new design include high- density polyethylene (HDPE) outfall pipes and...including ditching and dewatering operations. One of the primary reasons permanent outfalls are not utilized more often is due to marine wood borers

  3. Toess weir with small power station Pfungen; Toesswehr mit Kleinkraftwerk Pfungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerri, R.W. [Amt fuer Gewaesserschutz und Wasserbau, Abt. Gewaesserkorrektionen, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Near Pfungen on the River Toess the Canton of Zurich replaced a dilapidated weir and utilises the available falling gradient with a small power station. Besides the production of renewable energy the assistance of a fish ladder has been made available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Pfungen an der Toess ersetzte der Kanton Zuerich ein baufaelliges Wehr und nutzt das vorhandene Gefaelle mit einem Kleinkraftwerk. Neben der Erzeugung von erneuerbarer Energie kann nun mit Hilfe einer Treppe auch der Fischaufstieg gewaehrleistet werden. (orig.)

  4. Effect of a Weir-Type Obstruction with Different Geometric and Hydraulic Conditions on Flow Structure in an Open Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an experimental study which was conducted at Technical University Delft, Netherland. The research was made on obstructions resembling weirs in an open channel. This weir-type obstruction was a representative of groyne/dike in a natural channel. The experimentation was performed in the laboratory for different values of inflow (25 l/sec and 40 l/sec, weir with and without vegetation and with different leeward slopes of the weir (1:4 and 1:7. The results were obtained for Reynolds normal stresses, longitudinal and vertical velocities. A comparison was made between the results of 1:4 and 1:7 leeward slope ratios. The data was collected with a LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer. The vegetation was modeled with vertical circular rods placed over the crest of the weir. The blockage area due to this vegetation was 25% of the total area. The velocity data was gathered at around ten locations both at upstream and downstream the weir to get an insight into the flow structure. The results have been presented in the shape of vertical profiles both for velocities as well as Reynolds stresses at different locations of the channel.

  5. Account for the surface tension in hydraulic modeling of the weir with a sharp threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medzveliya Manana Levanovna

    Full Text Available In the process of calculating and simulating water discharge in free channels it is necessary to know the flow features in case of small values of Reynolds and Weber numbers. The article considers the influence of viscosity and surface tension on the coefficient of a weir flow with sharp threshold. In the article the technique of carrying out experiments is stated, the equation is presented, which considers the influence of all factors: pressure over a spillway threshold, threshold height over a course bottom, speed of liquid, liquid density, dynamic viscosity, superficial tension, gravity acceleration, unit discharge, the width of the course. The surface tension and liquid density for the applied liquids changed a little. In the rectangular tray (6000x100x200 spillway with a sharp threshold was established. It is shown that weir flow coefficient depends on Reynolds number (in case Re < ~ 2000 and Webers number. A generalized expression for determining weir flow coefficient considering the influence of the forces of viscosity and surface tension is received.

  6. Ice Jam at the Rio Blanco Diversion Weir on the White River in Colorado: A Case Study of In-Stream Structures and Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    results. This report presents a case study of a rock diversion weir that caused a freezeup ice jam, channel shifting, and upstream flooding. The...of a rock diversion weir that caused a freezeup ice jam, channel shifting, and upstream flooding. The event is described and its causes are analyzed...2005, a freezeup ice jam formed upstream of a newly height- ened diversion weir located on the White River, about 18 miles down- stream of the town of

  7. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal

  8. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Czarnecki, Joby M Prince

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial

  9. Predicting the side weir discharge coefficient using the optimized neural network by genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parsaie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Side weir is one of the structures which are widely used in water engineering projects So study on the flow characteristics especially discharge coefficient ( of this type of weir is important. Several Empirical formulas proposed to calculate the that they usually associated with significant errors. Thus, using mathematical methods based on artificial intelligence is inevitable. Artificial neural network (ANN is a very useful data-modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input and outputs relationships. In this study, accuracy the some famous empirical formula was assessed and Borghei and Parvaneh was most accuracy formula with ( . To increase the accuracy of production the multi-layer neural network (MLP has developed. This model, in the first, trained by a back propagation method such as levenberg_marquardt and its performance was determined. the error indexes in the train and testing process are equal to (  and . To increase the accuracy of MLP model, instead of increasing the size of the network (increase in the number of neurons and layers, Genetic Algorithm was used to train this model (GANNand obtained an optimized value for Bias and weights. The final results show that  using the GA to training the MLP model cased to increase in accuracy .The performance of the optimized neural network (GANN in training and testing is equal to (  and . Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  10. S. Weir Mitchell's prose and poetry on the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, D J

    2004-03-01

    The prose and poetry of S. Weir Mitchell (1829-1914)--related to the American Civil War--encompass a very significant portion of his non-medical writings. The Civil War, more than any other single event, shaped his future career as one of the founders of American neurology. Indeed, it should not be surprising how the war was also such a driving force in his non-medical writings. His novels, once widely read, now are scarcely noted. His accounts of the social, political and economic events of the Civil War are of historical interest to students of the period. Neuroscientists as a group, like others, are apt to be unfamiliar with these writings, with the possible exception of "The Case of George Dedlow." A major purpose of this essay is to introduce readers, especially neuroscientists, to Weir Mitchell's fictional works in which neurological cases so often appear. One appreciates more the medical aspects of his novels, written as they were by a first-hand observer. His non-medical writings, poetry and prose, are to a large extent timeless and can be appreciated by today's readers.

  11. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  12. Weir instability experiments in 1/4 reactor assembly model of PFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalai, M.; Gupta, P.K.; Anandaraj, M.; Prakash, V.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India)

    2005-07-01

    The construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe liquid sodium cooled reactor, has commenced at Kalpakkam in India. The main vessel of this pool type reactor acts as the primary containment in the reactor assembly. In order to keep the main vessel temperature below creep range and to reduce high temperature embrittlement, a small fraction of core flow (0.5 m3/s) is sent through an annular space formed between the main vessel and a cylindrical baffle (primary thermal baffle) to cool the vessel. The sodium after cooling the main vessel overflows the primary baffle (weir shell) and falls into another concentric pool of sodium separated from the cold pool by the secondary thermal baffle and then returns to the cold pool. These baffles, which are thin concentric shells, are prone to flow induced vibrations due to instability caused by sloshing and fluid-structure interaction. A similar vibration phenomenon was first observed during the commissioning of Super-Phenix reactor, which had got a similar main vessel cooling arrangement. In order to understand the phenomenon and also to provide necessary experimental back up to validate the analytical codes, weir instability experiments were conducted on a 1/4 scale stainless steel model installed in a water test loop. The experiments were conducted with flow rate and fall height as the varying parameters. The primary and secondary baffles in the model were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages in circumferential and longitudinal directions at different locations to measure the vibration. At each fall height, the strain gage and accelerometer output signals were acquired and analyzed using an multichannel FFT analyzer. The baffle system became unstable under certain combinations of flow rate and fall height. From the analysis of shell vibration time plots, probability density functions, and spectra, the results showed that the instability of the weir shell was caused due to fluid structure

  13. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  14. Turbulence study in the vicinity of piano key weir: relevance, instrumentation, parameters and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Harinarayan; Sharma, Nayan

    2017-05-01

    This research paper focuses on the need of turbulence, instruments reliable to capture turbulence, different turbulence parameters and some advance methodology which can decompose various turbulence structures at different levels near hydraulic structures. Small-scale turbulence research has valid prospects in open channel flow. The relevance of the study is amplified as we introduce any hydraulic structure in the channel which disturbs the natural flow and creates discontinuity. To recover this discontinuity, the piano key weir (PKW) might be used with sloped keys. Constraints of empirical results in the vicinity of PKW necessitate extensive laboratory experiments with fair and reliable instrumentation techniques. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was established to be best suited within range of some limitations using principal component analysis. Wavelet analysis is proposed to decompose the underlying turbulence structure in a better way.

  15. Turbulence study in the vicinity of piano key weir: relevance, instrumentation, parameters and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Harinarayan; Sharma, Nayan

    2015-03-01

    This research paper focuses on the need of turbulence, instruments reliable to capture turbulence, different turbulence parameters and some advance methodology which can decompose various turbulence structures at different levels near hydraulic structures. Small-scale turbulence research has valid prospects in open channel flow. The relevance of the study is amplified as we introduce any hydraulic structure in the channel which disturbs the natural flow and creates discontinuity. To recover this discontinuity, the piano key weir (PKW) might be used with sloped keys. Constraints of empirical results in the vicinity of PKW necessitate extensive laboratory experiments with fair and reliable instrumentation techniques. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was established to be best suited within range of some limitations using principal component analysis. Wavelet analysis is proposed to decompose the underlying turbulence structure in a better way.

  16. Experimental study of non-rectangular piano key weir discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh I. Khassaf, Mohamed B. Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the hydraulic behaviour of non-rectangular piano key weir where either the side wall angle or the side wall inclination angle is greater than zero. Five physical models were prepared: one standard type-A rectangular model, and four non-rectangular models designed in similar dimensions to the rectangular one. Tests were conducted in a 15m long, 0.3m wide and 0.45 m deep rectangular glass-walled experimental flume. Effects of side wall angle and side wall inclination angle on discharge coefficient were investigated, so that the head-discharge relationship for each model is achieved. It was concluded that changing those angle to about 10° has negative effect on discharge capacity, while changing them around 5° can increase the capacity when appropriate change in the inlet and outlet keys widths ratio.

  17. The Characterization of Biotic and Abiotic Media Upgradient and Downgradient of the Los Alamos Canyon Weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez

    2006-01-15

    As per the Mitigation Action Plan for the Special Environmental Analysis of the actions taken in response to the Cerro Grande Fire, sediments, vegetation, and small mammals were collected directly up- and downgradient of the Los Alamos Canyon weir, a low-head sediment control structure located on the northeastern boundary of Los Alamos National Laboratory, to determine contaminant impacts, if any. All radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U) and trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in these media were low and most were below regional upper level background concentrations (mean plus three sigma). The very few constituents that were above regional background concentrations were far below screening levels (set from State and Federal standards) for the protection of the human food chain and the terrestrial environment.

  18. Analysis of the hydraulic effects associated to the location of an inflatable rubber weir over a spillway profile through experimental and numerical (CFD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Díaz García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ease of rubber weirs to adapt themselves to different flow conditions makes them interesting for placement over spillway profiles, allowing to increase the stored volume in ordinary operation without compromising the dam’s response in case of flooding. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of locating an inflatable weir over a spillway profile in what regards its hydraulic response. With this purpose, an experimental and a numerical CFD model of a WES original spillway profile are developed, to then include an EPDM weir whose effect is analyzed for different inflation levels. Numerical and experimental results are close and highlight significant variations in the pressure distribution along the spillway, with aeration playing a significant role. This study concludes that the placement of this particular inflatable weir has an overall positive result if conveniently undertaken, but additional studies with different geometries are required to delve in the topic.

  19. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  20. Hydraulics and Mathematics Simulation on the Weir and Gas Curtain in Tundish of Ultrathick Slab Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengfu; Xie, Xin; Long, Mujun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Leilei; Liao, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The molten steel flow pattern in continuous casting tundish could be improved if the flow control devices were properly used. With reasonable application of weir and air curtain, the disturbance at injection zone of the tundish was reduced. The flow path of the molten steel was changed, and the short-circuit flow was eliminated. Therefore, the residence time was lengthened. An air curtain with bubbles floating could promote the surface flow and improve inclusions removal. The application of weir and air curtain in an ultrathick slab continuous casting tundish was investigated with hydraulics and mathematics simulation. The residence time and dead volume fraction were studied through orthogonal experiments with different positions of the flow control devices. The efficiency of three factors was analyzed, and the optimum positions of the weir and air curtain were obtained. Besides, the discrete phase model was suitable for simulation of the interaction between gas bubbles and molten steel, and the mathematics results shown the optimum one got larger inclusion flotation rate.

  1. Description and Application of A Model of Seepage under A Weir Including Mechanical Clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses seepage flow under a damming structure (a weir in view of mechanical clogging in a thin layer at the upstream site. It was assumed that in this layer flow may be treated as one-dimensional (perpendicular to the layer, while elsewhere flow was modelled as two-dimensional. The solution in both zones was obtained in the discrete form using the finite element method and the Euler method. The effect of the clogging layer on seepage flow was modelled using the third kind boundary condition. Seepage parameters in the clogging layer were estimated based on laboratory tests conducted by Skolasińska [2006]. Typical problem was taken to provide simulation and indicate how clogging affects the seepage rate and other parameters of the flow. Results showed that clogging at the upstream site has a significant effect on the distribution of seepage velocity and hydraulic gradients. The flow underneath the structure decreases with time, but these changes are relatively slow.

  2. Effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity at run-of-river hydropower plants in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Christine; Schobesberger, Johannes; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study conducted scaled physical model tests of a run-of-river hydropower plant (RoR). The physical model represented an idealized gravel bed river with a width of 20 m, a slope of 0.005, a mean annual flow of 15 m3 s- 1 and a 1-year flood flow of 80 m3 s- 1. Substrate and bed load had a characteristic grain size dm of 56 mm. The model scale was 1:20. The study was designed to test the effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity and flushing efficiency at low-head RoR plants. Three different weir heights and two reservoir widths were investigated to assess and quantify their influence. As long as equilibrium conditions had not been established in the reservoir the flushing efficiency was low and thus the sediment continuity was not met. The experiments revealed that both parameters had a significant effect regarding the time needed to reach equilibrium conditions. The equilibrium slope that established was independent of weir height. Weir height, however, determined the starting point from where the equilibrium slope was built up. Accordingly, an increase in weir height will increase the reservoir bed levels by the same amount. A large weir height leads to huge sedimentation volumes and thus to a lack of sediments and to river bed erosion downstream of the hydropower plant. It could also considerably increase the flood risk at the head of the reservoir. This calls for regular maintenance work to re-establish flood safety. The experimental results suggest new concepts of low weir heights and cross sectional reservoir widths in the design of low-head RoR plants to facilitate frequent and efficient flushings, to enhance sediment continuity, and to reduce maintenance and operational costs.

  3. Continuous 'Passive' flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; de Jonge, Hubert

    2016-03-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that can be attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flow-averaged concentrations. The MSW builds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, q total, and accumulated drainage flow, Q total (r (2) > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under controlled laboratory condition was needed before interpretation of the monitoring results was possible. The MSW does not require a shed, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of contaminant loads via tile drains, which can improve contaminant transport models and yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality. Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface waters being compromised.

  4. Mond-Weir type second order multiobjective mixed symmetric duality with square root term under generalized univex function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Tripathy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of second order (Φ,ρ-univex and second order (Φ,ρ-pseudo univex function are introduced with example. A pair Mond-Weir type second order mixed symmetric duality for multiobjective nondifferentiable programming is formulated and the duality results are established under the mild assumption of second order (∅,ρ univexity and second order pseudo univexity. Special cases are discussed to show that this study extends some of the known results in related domain.

  5. Effectiveness of a redesigned water diversion using rock vortex weirs to enhance longitudinal connectivity for small Salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals. We observed the new appearance of three species (juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni) upstream of the RVWs, indicating successful restoration of longitudinal connectivity. We used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and instream PIT tag interrogation systems during 2004–2007 to evaluate upstream passage of small salmonids (<240 mm fork length) through one series of RVWs. We documented 109 upstream passage events by small salmonids through the series of RVWs; most of the events (81%) involved passage of rainbow trout O. mykiss or juvenile steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout). Small rainbow trout or steelhead ranging from 86 to 238 mm (adjusted fork length) were able to pass upstream through the RVWs, although a delay in fish passage at discharges below 0.32 m3/s was detected in comparison with nearby control sections.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation into micro-flow cytometer with 3-D hydrodynamic focusing effect and micro-weir structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2009-07-01

    This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.

  7. Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Granados Oscar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling is applied in order to simulate water flow behavior over the new Niedów barrage in South Poland. The draining capacity of one of the flood alleviation structures (ogee weir for exploitation and catastrophic conditions was estimated. In addition, the output of the numerical models is compared with experimental data. The experiments demonstrated that the draining capacity of the barrage alleviation scheme is sufficiently designed for catastrophic scenarios if water is flowing under steady flow conditions. Nevertheless, the new cofferdam, which is part of the temporal reconstruction works, is affecting the draining capacity of the whole low-head barrage project.

  8. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2016-01-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour...... information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface...... intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that canbe attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flowaveraged...

  9. Identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine B2 in Weir vine (Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, R J; McKenzie, R A; O'Sullivan, B M; Elbein, A D

    1995-06-01

    The polyhydroxy alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine [1] and calystegine B2 [6] have been identified as constituents of the seeds of the Australian plant Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra] (Weir vine) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by their biological activity as inhibitors of specific glycosidases. This plant, which is known only from a small area of southern Queensland, has been reported to produce a neurological disorder when consumed by livestock. The extract of the seeds showed inhibition of alpha-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, consistent with the presence of 1 and alkaloids of the calystegine class. Histological examination of brain tissue from field cases of sheep and cattle poisoned by Weir vine showed lesions similar to those observed in animals poisoned by the swainsonine-containing poison peas (Swainsona spp.) of Australia and locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) of North America. These results indicate that Weir vine poisoning is an additional manifestation of the induced lysosomal storage disease, mannosidosis, possibly exacerbated by inhibition of the enzymes beta-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase by calystegine B2. This is the first reported example of a single plant species capable of producing structurally distinct glycosidase inhibitors, namely, alkaloids of the indolizidine and nortropane classes.

  10. The potential impact of green agendas on historic river landscapes: Numerical modelling of multiple weir removal in the Derwent Valley Mills world heritage site, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. J.; Coulthard, T. J.; Knight, D.

    2017-09-01

    The exploitation of river systems for power and navigation has commonly been achieved through the installation of a variety of in-channel obstacles of which weirs in Britain are amongst the most common. In the UK, the historic value of many of these features is recognised by planning designations and protection more commonly associated with historic buildings and other major monuments. Their construction, particularly in the north and west of Britain, has often been associated with industries such as textiles, chemicals, and mining, which have polluted waterways with heavy metals and other contaminants. The construction of weirs altered local channel gradients resulting in sedimentation upstream with the potential as well for elevated levels of contamination in sediments deposited there. For centuries these weirs have remained largely undisturbed, but as a result of the growth in hydropower and the drive to improve water quality under the European Union's Water Framework Directive, these structures are under increasing pressure to be modified or removed altogether. At present, weir modifications appear to be considered largely on an individual basis, with little focus on the wider impacts this might have on valley floor environments. Using a numerical modelling approach, this paper simulates the removal of major weirs along a 24-km stretch of the river Derwent, Derbyshire, UK, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The results suggest that although removal would not result in significant changes to the valley morphology, localised erosion would occur upstream of structures as the river readjusts its base level to new boundary conditions. Modelling indicates that sediment would also be evacuated away from the study area. In the context of the Derwent valley, this raises the potential for the remobilisation of contaminants (legacy sediments) within the wider floodplain system, which could have detrimental, long-term health and environmental implications for the

  11. Effects of riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir on restoration area' s water quality%离岸消浪堰式湖滨带生态修复工程对水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩; 张卉; 谢斐; 徐驰; 王磊; 刘茂松

    2012-01-01

    Riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir is an engineering measure with piled wave-elimination weir some meters away from the shore. This measure can dissipate waves, promote sediment deposition, and create an artificial semi-closed bay to restore vegetation in a riparian area which has hard dam and destroyed vegetation. Three habitat gradient zones, i. e. , emerged vegetation zone, submerged vegetation zone, and open water area, can be formed after this engineering. In June 2010-May 2011, a field investigation was conducted on the water quality in the three zones in an ecological restoration area of Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake. The water body inside the weir generally had lower concentrations of nitrite and nitrate but higher concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen than the water body outside the weir. The water phosphorus concentration inside the weir was lower than that outside the weir in autumn and winter, while an opposite trend was observed in spring and summer. The coefficients of variation of the water body' s nitrite and orthophosphate concentration inside the weir decreased, and the annual maximum values of the water nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate concentrations inside the weir were lower than those outside the weir. On the contrary, the coefficients of variation of the water body' s ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir increased, and the annual maximum values of the water ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir were higher than those outside the weir. To some extent, the restoration engineering could exacerbate the deterioration of the water quality indices such as ammonium and total nitrogen in the restoration area by the end of growth season.%离岸消浪堰式湖滨生态修复工程系采用离湖岸线一定距离的桩基消浪堰,在湖堤硬质化、湖滨植被带缺失的湖滨带实现控浪促淤,形成半封闭型的人工湖湾以恢复湖滨植

  12. Programación en Matlab del algoritmo Nicholson-Ross-Weir para la medida de propiedades dieléctricas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Villar, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto fin de carrera es la programación y validación del método de Nicholson-Ross-Weir a partir de simulaciones de los parámetros de dispersión de una guía de onda cargada con un dieléctrico con pérdidas. Las simulaciones se realizarán con el software comercial CST Microwave Studio, el cual nos proporcionará los parámetros de dispersión de la guía de onda cargada con el dieléctrico, mientras que la metodogía de medida se programará con el software Matlab....

  13. HEAD INJURY ASSESSMENT IN JUVENILE CHINOOK USING THE ALPHA II-SPECTRIN BIOMARKER: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE CHANGES AND PASSAGE THROUGH A REMOVABLE SPILLWAY WEIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonason, C.; Miracle, A.

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein alpha II-spectrin has specifi c neurodegenerative mechanisms that allow the necrotic (injury-induced) and apoptotic (non-injury-induced) pathways of proteolysis to be differentiated in an immunoblot. Consequently, αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) are potential biomarkers for diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the following investigation, consisting of two studies, was to evaluate the utility of the spectrin biomarker in diagnosing TBI in fi sh that travel through hydroelectric dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The fi rst study used hyperbaric pressure chambers to simulate the pressure changes that affect fi sh during passage through a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Kaplan turbine. The second study tested the effect of a removable spillway weir (RSW) on the passage of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). This study was conducted in tandem with a balloon-tag study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Brain samples from fi sh were collected and analyzed using an immunoblot for SBDPs, and imaging software was used to quantify the protein band density and determine the ratio of cleaved protein to total protein. The biomarker analyses found higher SBDP expression levels in fi sh that were exposed to lower pressure nadirs and fi sh that passed through the RSW at a deep orientation. In general, the incidence of injuries observed after treatment positively correlated with expression levels, suggesting that the biomarker method of analysis is comparable to traditional methods of injury assessment. It was also found that, for some treatments, the 110 kDa spectrin fragment (SBDP 110) correlated more strongly with necrotic head injury incidence and mortality rates than did the total cleaved protein or the 120 kDa fragment. These studies will be informative in future decisions regarding the design of turbines and fi sh passage structures in hydroelectric dams and will hopefully contribute to the

  14. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system multi-objective optimization using the genetic algorithm/singular value decomposition method for modelling the discharge coefficient in rectangular sharp-crested side weirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, Fatemeh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Hamed Ashraf Talesh, Seyed; Ebtehaj, Isa; Zaji, Amir Hossein; Azimi, Hamed

    2016-06-01

    In the present article, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model the discharge coefficient in rectangular sharp-crested side weirs. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used for the optimum selection of membership functions, while the singular value decomposition (SVD) method helps in computing the linear parameters of the ANFIS results section (GA/SVD-ANFIS). The effect of each dimensionless parameter on discharge coefficient prediction is examined in five different models to conduct sensitivity analysis by applying the above-mentioned dimensionless parameters. Two different sets of experimental data are utilized to examine the models and obtain the best model. The study results indicate that the model designed through GA/SVD-ANFIS predicts the discharge coefficient with a good level of accuracy (mean absolute percentage error = 3.362 and root mean square error = 0.027). Moreover, comparing this method with existing equations and the multi-layer perceptron-artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) indicates that the GA/SVD-ANFIS method has superior performance in simulating the discharge coefficient of side weirs.

  15. Discharge ratio of the broad-crested weir flowin the low head area КОЭФФИЦИЕНТ РАСХОДА ВОДОСЛИВА С ШИРОКИМ ПОРОГОМВ ОБЛАСТИ МАЛЫХ НАПОРОВ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medzveliya Manana Levanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the influence of the Reynolds number on the discharge ratio of the broad-crested weir. The authors provide an overview of their experiment in thearticle. They provide the equation that takes account of each factor of influence, including H — pressure over the broad-crested weir, P — weir height above the bottom, v — liquid velocity, ρ — liquid density, μ — dynamic viscosity, g — superficial tension, σ — gravity acceleration, q — per-unit weir flow, B — width of the weir, L — length of the weir. Superficial tension and liquid density values have minor differences for different fluids.A broad-crested weir flow was organized in the rectangular tray (6,000×100×200. The flow had the following dimensions: weir length L = 40 mm, weir height P = 50 mm, weir width B = 100 mm. The findings of the experiment have proven that the increase in the Reynolds number causes the increase in the broad-crested weir flow discharge ratio (at the pre-set relative pressure and it approaches the constant value at Re ≈ 2000.Рассмотрен вопрос о влиянии числа Рейнольдса на коэффициент расхода водослива с широким порогом. Показано, что коэффициент расхода водослива увеличивается с ростом числа Рейнольдса (при заданном относительном напоре, приближаясь к постоянному значению при Re ≈ 2000.

  16. 多级拦水堰坝调控农田溪流营养盐滞留能力的仿真模拟%Experimental manipulations of efficiency of nutrients retention by multilevel low-grade weirs in an agricultural headwater stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如忠; 张翩翩; 杨继伟; 金菊良; 张瑞钢; 高苏蒂

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of multilevel low-grade weirs on nutrient retention of low-order streams, an agricultural headwater stream on the Nanfeihe River in Chaohu Lake basin was selected to de⁃scribe the regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus retention efficiency in response to multilevel mimic weirs by using transient storage and nutrient spiraling metrics, based on three groups of tracer addition experi⁃ments and mathematical simulations. Study results show that the Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficients in multilevel low-grade weirs situations are markedly higher than that of no weir, while the Froude numbers, Fr, and the Reynolds numbers, Re, are just opposite to it. The values of exchange length Ls, correspond⁃ing to multilevel low-grade weirs scenarios,are lower to two orders of magnitude than that of no weir,but its hydraulic retention factors are significantly higher than the later, suggesting that multilevel weirs could markedly improve the transient storage efficiency of agricultural headwater streams. Under the situations of multilevel low-grade weirs, the values of uptake length Sw corresponding to NH4+ and PO43- all greatly de⁃crease, and its reductions are 70.27 % ~ 89.47 % and 75.59 % ~ 81.92 %, respectively. Moreover, the val⁃ues of mass transfer coefficient, Vf, and uptake rate, U, corresponding to NH4+ and PO43- all increase sig⁃nificantly in the scenarios of multilevel weirs,indicating that multilevel low-grade weirs could effectively im⁃prove the retention efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural headwater streams.%为揭示多级拦水堰坝对于低等级小河流营养盐滞留能力的影响,以巢湖流域某一典型的农田源头溪流为对象,在野外示踪实验和计算机模拟的基础上,针对构建的多级简易水坝,采用暂态存储和营养螺旋指标,仿真模拟多级拦水堰坝对于氮磷营养盐滞留能力的调控效果。结果表明:多级拦水堰坝Darcy-Weisbach阻

  17. General conditions for building Europe's biggest fish pass at the northern riverbank at the weir Geesthacht; Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Bau Europas groesster Fischaufstiegsanlage am Nordufer des Wehres Geesthacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Hans-Juergen [Vattenfall Europe Genration AG, Cottbus (Germany); Schwevers, Ulrich [Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie, Kirtorf-Wahlen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the mitigation measures for abstracting cooling water for the coal-fired power plant Moorburg nearby Hamburg, Vattenfall Europe Generation AG was obliged to take measures to protect potentially affected fish species, which have been assigned a high conservation status (FFH species). One of these measures has been to build a fish pass at the Geesthacht weir. This facility now ensures full passability of the dam, which is of particular benefit to anadromous fishes, more of which may now reach spawning grounds upstream of Geesthacht. The design of the fish pass not only takes the FFH species into account, but a wide range of different fishes, from European sturgeon as the largest autochthonous species, to small species such as stickleback and smelt. Considering the complex conditions at the site, a transdisciplinary planning team was established, which consistently made use of state of the art technology to facilitate the highest possible efficiency of the fish pass. The planning permission for the double slot fish pass was given on 16{sup th} October 2009. After 16 months of construction the fish pass went into operation in August 2010. (orig.)

  18. 溢流堰表孔弧形闸门开启过程非恒定流水力特性%Analysis of hydraulic characteristics of unsteady flow during opening of radial gate located on overflow weir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春; 岳书波; 刘承兰

    2015-01-01

    采用RNGκ⁃ε紊流模型结合动网格技术对某水利工程Y型宽尾墩泄洪表孔弧形闸门开启过程进行了三维动态数值模拟研究。为了解闸门开启过程中各相对开度的水力要素特性,采用6种不同的开启总时间,给出各开启总时间对应的闸后流速、压强等水力要素对闸门开启速度的依赖关系,并定义了反弧及消力池3个压强分布区域。研究表明,闸门开启总时间较小时,闸后水流的滞后效应明显,各对应相对开度时闸后水面线偏低;开启过程中溢流堰反弧处最大流速、冲击区最大压强等都会远大于恒定情况时的对应值。冲击区最大压强及其与调节区平均压强的差值随开启速度的增大迅速增加,且需经过较长时间才逐渐回到正常值。开启速度较小时,各水力要素增加较为平缓。将闸后水面线等计算结果与试验结果进行对比,吻合良好,验证了数值方法的可靠性,可为类似水工闸门运行提供借鉴。%The RNG κ⁃ε turbulent model and dynamic mesh technology were applied to simulation of the unsteady flow of the flaring gate pier and the stilling basin during the radial gate opening. Six different total opening times were used to achieve the detailed hydraulic properties of different opening velocities. The opening velocities of the radial gate were homogeneous of every total opening time. The relationships between the opening velocities and pressures, flow velocities and other hydraulic characteristics were obtained by using six corresponding total opening times. Hysteresis effect was apparent while the total opening time was relatively small, and a water surface profile corresponding to different relative openings was also lower than those of other total opening times. The maximum flow velocity appeared at the ogee section of the overflow weir at the opening process no matter which total opening time was. The maximum velocity and

  19. Proposal for revision of ISO 4377: Flat-V weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Lianxiang, W.

    1983-01-01

    In ISO/TC 113/SC 2/308 it was suggested that ISO 4377 could be significantly simplified as far as the calculation of discharge was involved. The proposal for revision is based upon this suggestion. The revision is fully based upon the material given in ISO 4377. In that respect no changes have been

  20. Proposal for revision of ISO 4377: Flat-V weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Lianxiang, W.

    1983-01-01

    In ISO/TC 113/SC 2/308 it was suggested that ISO 4377 could be significantly simplified as far as the calculation of discharge was involved. The proposal for revision is based upon this suggestion. The revision is fully based upon the material given in ISO 4377. In that respect no changes have been

  1. AFSC/ABL: Pink salmon data collected at Sashin Creek Weir 1934-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A database describing a 67-year time series for Sashin Creek pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) data is presented. The database details the survival and other...

  2. 76 FR 44359 - Paul Weir Battershell, N.P.; Suspension Of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... anti-aging purposes. Id. at 223. Dr. Lundahl stated that Respondent prescribed both HGH and nandralone... done on his patients and a protocol of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine as proof. Id. at 449...

  3. Weir Farm National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  4. Water discharge coefficient of composed labyrinth weir%组合式迷宫堰的泄流系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙森林; 李文果; 孙雪林

    2008-01-01

    本文在单一传统迷宫堰基础上,将其与宽顶堰相结合(也即组合式迷宫堰),并通过模型试验,分析了其泄流形态,研究通过改变组合比H1/H2、水头比H0/P、平面布置形式、水舌通气等几个因素泄流系数的变化规律.

  5. 迷宫堰流量系数的探讨%Discussion on the Discharge Coefficient of Labyrinth Weir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾甄; 张志军

    2005-01-01

    迷宫堰与直线堰相比,在相同堰上水头条件下,可大幅度提高过流能力.从因次分析的角度阐述了迷宫堰流量系数的影响因素,并在分析讨论了前人的几种迷宫堰流量系数计算方法的基础上,拟合出迷宫堰流量系数计算公式,可为实际工程应用提供方便.

  6. Hydrogeology, Creeks, Streams, Ponds, Lakes dams, and weirs, Published in 1999, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrogeology dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1999. It is described as 'Creeks,...

  7. Two Dimensional Movement Patterns of Juvenile Winter Run and Late Fall Run Chinook Salmon at the Fremont Weir, Sacramento River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    predator avoidance of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(4):781– 787. doi:10.1139... Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70(October 2012):280–293. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2012-0186 Chapman, E. D., A. R. Hearn, C. J. Michel...juveniles from hatchery and wild populations of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47(3):566–571. doi

  8. Contamination of waterlands by underground weirs Hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic processes. Contaminacion de acuiferos a partir de vertederos enterrados: procesos hidrogeoquimicos e hidrodinamicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.; Font, X. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Geologia)

    1993-02-01

    The present study deals with the evolution of the contamination in the central area of the pan of La Llagosta (basin of the River Besos, Barcelona); whose waterland has, up till now, been supplying numerous towns and industries and which is, at present, affected by the contamination processes due to the presence of heavy metals and organic microcontaminants. the present analysis has been effected through the application of a mathematical model for the solute flow and hydrochemical speciation models using the data from diverse sampling campaigns and the tapping sites which the Sociedad de Aguas de Barcelona has in that area. (Author)

  9. Influence Factors on Discharge Coefficient of Labyrinth Weir%迷宫堰泄流系数影响因素的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪林; 李文果; 孙森林; 邹仁双

    2006-01-01

    迷宫堰相较于直线堰,最大的优越性体现在它的泄流能力上.通过模型试验,在分析迷宫堰的泄流形态的基础上,着重分析了堰墙与来流夹角α、水头比H0/P、平面布置形式、水舌通气等几个因素对迷宫堰泄流系数的影响.

  10. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  11. Maintenance Dredging & Confined Disposal Facility for the Crooked River Portion of Michigan’s Inland Route and the Operation, Maintenance, & Proposed Public Use Facilities for the Alanson Lock and Weir, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    musk- ellunge (Esox masquinongy), gar (Lepisosteus sp.), sucker (Catostomidac), carp (Cyprinus Carpio), and bowfin (Amia calva ). Winter ice fishing is a...Associates, Inc. Future Land Use Plan - Emmet County, MI., unpublished report, Southfield, MI, April, 1971. 14. Villican - Lehman and Associates, Inc

  12. Environmental Impact Research Program. Ecological Effects of Rubble Weir Jetty Construction at Murrells Inlet, South Carolina. Volume 3. Community Structure and Habitat Utilization of Fishes and Decapods Associated with the Jetties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Mycteroperca microlepis) was observed on the exposed face during summer (Table 9), and several juvenile gray snapper ( Lutjanus griseus) were observed...campechanus + Lutjamus griseus + Luti anus synagris ++ Gerreidae Gerreidae+ Haemulidae Anisotremus virginicus + Haemulon aurolineatun + Haemulon sp

  13. 401-IJBCS-Article-Thushari Bandara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Effects of Gymnema lactiferum leaf on serum glucose and cholesterol levels of ... The present study was designed to determine the effects of G. lactiferum leaf ..... Bonner-Weir S, Trent DF, Honey RN, Weir ... Estimation of the concentration of.

  14. 民国时期城固县堰渠水利管理与地方社会关系——以碑石资料为基础%Relationship between Weir Canals Hydraulic Management and Local Society of Chengu County in the Period of Republic of China ——Based on the Epigraphic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铭雪

    2012-01-01

    通过解读碑文,了解到明清以降城固县水利管理权日渐民间化,乡绅逐渐通过操控水权影响地方社会;而官府也在为限制绅权、收回水利管理权寻找最佳平衡点.对城固县水利碑文的解读,复原堰渠水利管理的原貌;对堰渠水利管理与地方社会多方面复杂关系的研究,再现民国时期城固县乡土社会的结构、组织脉络和生活图景.

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Sunrise Lake Dam (MO 31190), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Jefferson County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    27,500 cu.yds. (estimated) h. Diversion and Regulating Tunnel ...... None i. Spillway Type...Photo 4). The vertical faces of the weir were irregular indicating sloppy formwork at the time of placement. Water was flowing over the weir on the

  16. Immunotherapeutic Vaccine as an Alternative Treatment to Overcome Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cells by polyvalent Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines. J Immunother 32:856-69. 6. Karkada M, Weir, G.M., Quinton,T., Sammatur, L., MacDonald, L.D...polyva- lent Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines. J Immunother 2009; 32:856–69. 6 Karkada M, Weir GM, Quinton T et al. A novel breast/ovarian cancer

  17. Kodiak bear-salmon study, Sulua Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to weir failure an accurate escapement figure was not obtained. The total was 14,581 tor all salmon returns at the weir plus upstream surveys totaled 15,008....

  18. Water Modeling of Optimizing Tundish Flow Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-gang; YAN Hui-cheng; LIU Liu; WANG Xin-hua

    2007-01-01

    In the water modeling experiments, three cases were considered, i.e. , a bare tundish, a tundish equipped with a turbulence inhibitor, and a rectangular tundish equipped with weirs (dams) and a turbulence inhibitor. Comparing the RTD curves, inclusion separation, and the result of the streamline experiment, it can be found that the tundish equipped with weirs (dams) and a turbulence inhibitor has a great effect on the flow field and the inclusion separation when compared with the sole use or no use of the turbulent inhibitor or weirs (dams). In addition, the enlargement of the distance between the weir and dam will result in a better effect when the tundish equipped with weirs (dam) and a turbulence inhibitor was used.

  19. Effects of in-stream structures and channel flow rate variation on transient storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S. M. Masud; Scott, Durelle T.; Hester, Erich T.

    2017-05-01

    In-stream structures can potentially enhance surface and subsurface solute retention. They form naturally in small streams and their installation has gained popularity in stream restoration for multiple purposes, including improved water quality. Yet few studies have quantified the cumulative effect of multiple structures on solute transport at the reach scale, nor how this varies with changing stream flow. We built a series of weirs in a small stream to simulate channel spanning structures such as natural debris dams and stream restoration log dams and boulder weirs. We conducted constant rate conservative (NaCl) tracer injections to quantify the effect of the weirs on solute transport at the reach scale. We used a one dimensional solute transport model with transient storage to quantify the change of solute transport parameters with increasing number of weirs. Results indicate that adding weirs significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the surface stream (A) and transient storage zones (As) while exchange with transient storage (α) decreased. The increase in A and As is due to backwater behind weirs and increased hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange induced by the weirs, while we surmise that the reduction in α is due at least in part to reduced hydrodynamically driven hyporheic exchange in bed ripples drowned by the weir backwater. In order for weir installation to achieve net improvement in solute retention and thus water quality, cumulative reactions in weir backwater and enhanced hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange would have to overcome the reduced hydrodynamically driven exchange. Analysis of channel flow variation over the course of the experiments indicated that weirs change the relationship between transient storage parameters and flow, for example the trend of increasing α with flow without weirs was reversed in the presence of weirs. Effects of flow variation were substantial, indicating that transient storage measurements at a

  20. Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyu Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Movable weirs have been developed to address the weaknesses of conventional fixed weirs. However, the structures for riverbed protection downstream of movable weirs are designed using the criteria of fixed weirs in most cases, and these applications cause problems, such as scour and deformation of structures, due to misunderstanding the difference between different types of structures. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was conducted to examine weir type-specific hydraulic phenomena, compare hydraulic jumps and downstream flow characteristics according to different weir types, and analyze hydraulic characteristics, such as changes in water levels, velocities and energy. Additionally, to control the flow generated by a sluice gate, energy dissipators were examined herein for their effectiveness in relation to different installation locations and heights. As a result, it was found that although sluice gates generated hydraulic jumps similar to those of fixed weirs, their downstream supercritical flow increased to eventually elongate the overall hydraulic jumps. In energy dissipator installation, installation heights were found to be sensitive to energy dissipation. The most effective energy dissipator height was 10% of the downstream free surface water depth in this experiment. Based on these findings, it seems desirable to use energy dissipators to reduce energy, as such dissipators were found to be effective in reducing hydraulic jumps and protecting the riverbed under sluice gates.

  1. Restauración y adecuación ambiental de ríos y zonas húmedas. Aplicación al efecto de los azudes en el alto Turia entre Teruel y Benageber.

    OpenAIRE

    BASELGA NICOLAU, MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In this Final Project entitled "Restoration and environmental adaptation of rivers and wetlands. Application to the effect of weirs in the upper Turia between Teruel and Benagéber ", the problems and effects exerted by weirs on the fish fauna and the river are presented, quantifying them and proposing an improvement. In this stretch of the Turia, divided into 5 different masses of water, there are 15 weirs, whose barrier effect is a problem of passability for fish fauna, providing a v...

  2. 76 FR 71960 - KC Hydro LLC of New Hampshire; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Dam Hydropower Project (Main Street Dam Project or project) to be located on Salmon Brook, near the... owned by Pennichuck Water Works Company and includes a 31-foot-long crested weir spillway and a 54-inch...

  3. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  4. Food insecurity among students at the University of the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first-generation student, not having enough food money, having borrowed food ...... identified lack of food shopping skills23 and financial management .... Labadarios D, Davids YD, Mchiza Z, Weir-Smith G. The assessment of food insecurity.

  5. Estimation of sockeye salmon escapement in Mortensens Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2006; and 2001 to 2006 run comparisons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir and underwater video monitoring station was operated on Mortensens Creek from 18 June to 16 September 2006. Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka...

  6. Numerical Model Analysis of Fluid-Elastic Instability of Thin Rectangular Plate Due to Overflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A circular thermal baffle weir is located close to the main vessel of liquid sodium cooled pool type fast breeder reactors (fast reactor for short thereafter). During operation of the fast reactor, a little part of liquid sodium flows from

  7. Count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), River Temperature, and River Height in the Pilgrim River, Nome, Alaska, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset is the daily count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) passing through a fish counting weir on the Pilgrim River from 2003 to 2014. Also, included in...

  8. The potential for a fish ladder to mitigate against the loss of marine-estuarine-freshwater connectivity in a subtropical coastal lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weerts, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water demand in coastal regions has resulted in the construction of weirs and barrages in coastal freshwaters. These form barriers to migrations of estuarine and euryhaline marine fishes and crustaceans. This study assessed the impact...

  9. Design and implementation of a citizen technician–based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a citizen technician–based suspended sediment monitoring network: Lessons from ... SSC probe at a downstream Department of Water and Sanitation gauging weir. ... citizen technician, Open Data Kit, catchment restoration management ...

  10. 78 FR 12304 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... documents may be filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions... anchored to the existing left closure weir. A trash rack with 6-inch openings would be placed at...

  11. Research Project Segment : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimates at Lower Russian Lake weir revealed the out-migration of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, smelts was 1,018,527. The peak of the migration (75% of the...

  12. Duality Theorems on Multi-objective Programming of Generalized Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping Pang; Wei Wang; Zun-quan Xia

    2006-01-01

    The form of a dual problem of Mond-Weir type for multi-objective programming problems of generalized functions is defined and theorems of the weak duality, direct duality and inverse duality are proven.

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundish Using Analysis of RTD Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moumtez Bensouici; Ahmed Bellaouar; Kamel Tal-bi

    2009-01-01

    A detailed mathematical procedure of the optimization of the fluid flow in a tundish water model with and without flow control devices (weir and dam) was carried out using the commercial CFD code FLUENT 6.0. The (k-ε) two-equation model was used to model turbulence. The residence time distribution (RTD) curves were used to an-alyze the behavior of the flow in tundish. The location of flow control devices in the tundish was studied. The results show that the flow modifiers play an important role in promoting the floatation of nonmetallic inclusions in steel. Comparing the three geometric configurations that are considered (bare tundish, weir, weir+dam), the tundish equipped with the arrangement (weir+dam) is a best and optimal geometric configuration of tundish.

  14. StreamNet Query System: Hatchery Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These trends include all counts of fish obtained at a hatchery or one of its satellite facilities. The only method allowed is hatchery rack / weir, and the count...

  15. Centrifugal contactor modified for end stage operation in a multistage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubin, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    A cascade formed of a plurality of centrifugal contactors useful for countercurrent solvent extraction processes such as utilizable for the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels is modified to permit operation in the event one or both end stages of the cascade become inoperative. Weir assemblies are connected to each of the two end stages by suitable conduits for separating liquids discharged from an inoperative end stage based upon the weight of the liquid phases uses in the solvent extraction process. The weir assembly at one end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the heaviest liquid phase while the weir assembly at the other end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the lightest liquid phase. These weir assemblies function to keep the liquid discharge from an inoperative end stages on the same weight phase a would occur from an operating end stage.

  16. Estimation of sockeye and coho salmon escapement in Mortenses Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir was operated 25 June to 14 October 2003 during the third year of an ongoing investigation to evaluate and provide subsistence management...

  17. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    INTERVAL (YEARS) SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN ARIA CALIFORNIA STAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SACRAMENTO RIVER AT FREMONT WEIR/WEST END SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...Wildlife Biologist/ Environmental Planner Karen Amerman Kuhn Civil Engineer/ Water Resources Plnr Patricia Roberson Environmental Studies

  18. South Lancashire Fisheries Advisory Committee 19th June, 1980

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    This is the report from the South Lancashire Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 19th June, 1980. It includes information on the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activities which comments on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements for 1980 recorded at Winckley Hall on the River Hodder, and Waddow Weir and Locks Weir on the River Ribble. Also covered is an update on Langcliffe Hatchery, pollution incidents and fish mortalities. It also gi...

  19. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  20. Influence of periodic water level increase on flow in Poznań Water Ways System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kałuża

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1968-1972, a project named “Rebuilding of the Poznań Water Ways System” was carried out. Within the scope of the project the Chwaliszewo Meander of the Warta river was cut off and covered. A discussion about reconstruction of Chwaliszewo Meander has been run for many years. The results of hydraulic computations of the influence of a weir on water table distribution in Poznań Water Ways System have been presented in the paper. Two different localizations of the weir were considered. Initial maximum water level of upper side of the weir was calculated. The influence of damming up on water level distribution in the Poznań Water Ways System was analysed. One-dimensional unsteady open channel flow computer systems HEC-RAS and SPRuNeR were used to carry out calculations. Building the weir, regardless of its localization, allows to raise water level in the main channel of the Warta river, increase minimum water depth and point to the architecture and recreation values of the Warta river. It is assumed that damming up is necessary only for flow rate below 100 m3/s in both localizations of the weir. The weir in focus should not create obstacles to the inland navigation and fish migration. To meet these requirements two additional hydraulic constructions must be projected: sluice and fish migration water gate.

  1. A cell sorting and trapping microfluidic device with an interdigital channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jing; Qiao, Yi; Xu, Minghua; Li, Junji; Liang, Fupeng; Duan, Mengqin; Ju, An; Lu, Zuhong

    2016-12-01

    The growing interest in cell sorting and trapping is driving the demand for high performance technologies. Using labeling techniques or external forces, cells can be identified by a series of methods. However, all of these methods require complicated systems with expensive devices. Based on inherent differences in cellular morphology, cells can be sorted by specific structures in microfluidic devices. The weir filter is a basic and efficient cell sorting and trapping structure. However, in some existing weir devices, because of cell deformability and high flow velocity in gaps, trapped cells may become stuck or even pass through the gaps. Here, we designed and fabricated a microfluidic device with interdigital channels for cell sorting and trapping. The chip consisted of a sheet of silicone elastomer polydimethylsiloxane and a sheet of glass. A square-wave-like weir was designed in the middle of the channel, comprising the interdigital channels. The square-wave pattern extended the weir length by three times with the channel width remaining constant. Compared with a straight weir, this structure exhibited a notably higher trapping capacity. Interdigital channels provided more space to slow down the rate of the pressure decrease, which prevented the cells from becoming stuck in the gaps. Sorting a mixture K562 and blood cells to trap cells demonstrated the efficiency of the chip with the interdigital channel to sort and trap large and less deformable cells. With stable and efficient cell sorting and trapping abilities, the chip with an interdigital channel may be widely applied in scientific research fields.

  2. RELATIONSHIP OF FIRST STEP HEIGHT, STEP SLOPE AND CAVITY IN X-SHAPED FLARING GATE PIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; WU Chao; HU Yao-hua; MO Zheng-yu

    2007-01-01

    The energy dissipation of X-shaped flaring gate piers ahead of a stepped spillway was adopted in the Suofengying Hydroplant. Under the circumstance that the first step is higher than others, at the step surface an aerated cavity occured behind piers. The interaction of the weir head, the elevation difference between crest and chamber outlet, the first step height, the slopes of weir end and step, and the size of cavity, was investigated, the expression was derived to characterize their relationship, and the corresponding curves were plotted. The comparison of the calculated and simulated results with the measured data was performed. When the slopes of step and weir end are equivalent, the relative height difference between the first and second steps becomes the main factor influencing the aerated cavity. These findings may be useful in practical applications.

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - L-9 Irrigation Diversion Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-02

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage improvement project at the L-9 diversion on the Lemhi River in Lemhi County, Idaho with the Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District. The project proposes to replace the existing rock push-up irrigation diversion dam with a single rock weir that will incorporate a geotextile membrane to create a permanent diversion. The new weir will be a v-shaped vortex weir with a six-foot wide notch for fish passage. In addition, a ramp flume will be constructed in the diversion canal between the headgate and existing fish screen to provide for water measurement. The new diversion will provide better water delivery/control and improved passage for adult and juvenile resident and anadromous fish.

  4. Applying the Narrow Forms of PubMed Methods-based and Topic-based Filters Increases Nephrologists’ Search Efficiency. A Review of: Shariff, S. Z., Sontrop, J. M., Haynes, R. B., Iansavichus, A. V., McKibbon, K. A., Wilczynski, N. L., Weir, M. A., Speechley, M. R., Thind, A. … Garg, A. X. (2012. Impact of PubMed search filters on the retrieval of evidence by physicians. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(3, E184-E190. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether the use ofPubMed methods-based filters and topic-basedfilters, alone or in combination, improvesphysician searching.Design – Mixed methods, surveyquestionnaire, comparative.Setting – Canada.Subjects – Random sample of Canadiannephrologists (n=153, responses (n=115,excluded (n=15, total (n=100.Methods – The methods are described in detailin a previously published study protocol by asubset of the authors (Shariff et al., 2010.One hundred systematic reviews on renaltherapy were identified using theEvidenceUpdates service(http://plus.mcmaster.ca/EvidenceUpdatesand a clinical question was derived from eachreview. Randomly-selected Canadiannephrologists were randomly assigned aunique clinical question derived from thereviews and asked, by survey, to provide thesearch query they would use to searchPubMed. The survey was administered untilone valid search query for each of the onehundred questions was received. The physician search was re-executed and compared to searches where either or both methods-based and topic-based filters were applied. Nine searches for each question were conducted: the original physician search, a broad and narrow form of the clinical queries therapy filter, a broad and narrow form of the nephrology topic filter and combinations of broad and narrow forms of both filters.Significance tests of comprehensiveness (proportion of relevant articles found and efficiency (ratio of relevant to non-relevant articles of the filtered and unfiltered searches were conducted. The primary studies included in the systematic reviews were set as the reference standard for relevant articles.As physicians indicated they did not scan beyond two pages of default PubMed results, primary analysis was also repeated on search results restricted to the first 40 records.The ability of the filters to retrieve highly-relevant or highly-cited articles was also tested, with an article being considered highly-relevant if referenced by UpToDate and highly-cited if its citation count was greater than the median citation count of all relevant articles for that question – there was an average of eight highly-cited articles per question.To reduce the risk of type I error, the conservative method of Bonferroni was applied so that tests with a pMain Results – Response rate 75%. Physician-provided search terms retrieved 46% of relevant articles and a ratio of relevant to non-relevant articles of 1:16 (pConclusion – The use of PubMed search filters improves the efficiency of physician searches and saves time and frustration. Applying clinical filters for quick clinical searches can significantly improve the efficiency of physician searching. Improved search performance has the potential to enhance the transfer of research into practice and improve patient care.

  5. Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    discontinuous and highly permeable , our estimate is that the weir will most likely fail by breaking apart instead of overturning. Thus, the sliding or shearing...sheet o One 12 × 9 ft sheet o One 20 × 36 in. sheet • Two spruce 2 × 8 in. rough sawn 2 ft planks • Nails to fasten planks together Rock weir...Knoxville 2003). • A flow net consisting of a piece of wood (two 2 × 8 in. nailed togeth- er edge to edge) with holes drilled in it and geotextile

  6. Needleless coaxial electrospinning: A novel approach to mass production of coaxial nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysloužilová, Lucie; Buzgo, Matej; Pokorný, Pavel; Chvojka, Jiří; Míčková, Andrea; Rampichová, Michala; Kula, Jiří; Pejchar, Karel; Bílek, Martin; Lukáš, David; Amler, Evžen

    2017-01-10

    Herein, we describe a simple spinneret setup for needleless coaxial electrospinning that exceeds the limited production capacity of current approaches. The proposed weir spinneret enables coaxial electrospinning from free liquid surface. This approach leads to the formation of coaxial nanofibers with higher and uniform shell/core ratio, which results in the possibility of better tuning of the degradation rate. The throughput and quality increase favor the broader application of coaxial nanofibers from weir spinnerets as systems for controlled drug delivery in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  7. An Examination of "The Martian" Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was performed to support a request to examine the trajectory of the Hermes vehicle in the novel "The Martian" by Andy Weir. Weir developed his own tool to perform the analysis necessary to provide proper trajectory information for the novel. The Hermes vehicle is the interplanetary spacecraft that shuttles the crew to and from Mars. It is notionally a Nuclear powered vehicle utilizing VASIMR engines for propulsion. The intent of this analysis was the determine whether the trajectory as it was outlined in the novel is consistent with the rules of orbital mechanics.

  8. Measures to ensure the traceability of the double slot pass Geesthacht by upstream moving fish; Massnahmen zur Gewaehrleistung der Auffindbarkeit des Doppelschlitzpasses Geesthacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwevers, Ulrich [Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie, Kirtorf-Wahlen (Germany); Neumann, Christof [Knabe Enders Duehrkop Ingenieure GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Traceability is a decisive factor for the correct functioning of a fish pass. In the case of the newly built double slot pass at the northern river bank at the weir Geesthacht, this is facilitated by the entrance being located close to the bank, level with the river bed and nearly in line with the adjacent dam. This positioning also avoids any dead ends. Further, five additive spillways in the neighbouring fixed weir segment provide an adequate attraction flow. By supplying varying additional dotation, this attraction flow is independent of tidally induced changes in water level in the tall water. (orig.)

  9. Morskije prikljutshenija Rassela Krou / Ilja Svensson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Svensson, Ilja

    2003-01-01

    Seiklusfilm "Kapten ja komandör : retk maailma äärele" ("Master and Commander : The Far Side of the World") : stsenarist Patrick O'Briani romaanide järgi ja režissöör Peter Weir : peaosas Russell Crowe : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003

  10. 78 FR 4843 - Hydro Development; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... control structure consisting of a low-head weir and a 3-foot-high, 50-foot-wide crest gate; (3) a... to the powerhouse including: (i) A 26-foot-long, 26-foot-wide, 98-foot-deep concrete lined vertical...)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site...

  11. Structure - Riverine Flow Structure (Dike/Wingdam)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A natural or man-made flow (or sediment) control structure in a water course or water body such as a dike or weir. This feature should not be used to model a levee....

  12. Modeling Carbon Dioxide, pH and Un-Ionized Ammonia Relationships in Serial Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Rust, Michael; Colt, John

    2009-01-01

    In serial reuse systems, excretion of metabolic carbon dioxide has a significant impact on ambient pH, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia concentrations. This impact depends strongly on alkalinity, water flow rate, feeding rate, and loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. A reduction in pH from metabolic carbon dioxide can significantly reduce the un-ionized ammonia concentration and increase the carbon dioxide concentrations compared to those parameters computed from influent pH. The ability to accurately predict pH in serial reuse systems is critical to their design and effective operation. A trial and error solution to the alkalinity–pH system was used to estimate important water quality parameters in serial reuse systems. Transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the air–water interface, at overflow weirs, and impacts of substrate-attached algae and suspended bacteria were modeled. Gas transfer at the weirs was much greater than transfer across the air–water boundary. This simulation model can rapidly estimate influent and effluent concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia as a function of water temperature, elevation, water flow, and weir type. The accuracy of the estimates strongly depends on assumed pollutional loading rates and gas transfer at the weirs. The current simulation model is based on mean daily loading rates; the impacts of daily variation loading rates are discussed. Copies of the source code and executable program are available free of charge.

  13. Movement patterns of seaward migrating European eel (Anguilla anguilla) at a complex of riverine barriers: implications for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piper, Adam T.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Wright, Rosalind M.;

    2017-01-01

    River infrastructure such as weirs and hydropower stations commonly present migrating fish with multiple potential passage routes. Knowledge of the cues fish use to navigate such environments is required to protect migrants from hazardous areas and guide them towards safe passage; however...

  14. Process description of SWQN : A simplified hydraulic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Siderius, C.; Gerven, van L.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    SWQN is a simplified hydraulic model for surface water systems which computes water levels and flows in a network of nodes labelled as ‘volumes’ and segments labelled as ‘connectors’. The user can specify a variety of connectors like open water courses or structures such as weirs, gates, culverts or

  15. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  16. Entrainment and maximum vapour flow rate of trays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sinderen, AH; Wijn, EF; Zanting, RWJ

    This is a report on free entrainment measurements in a small (0.20 m x 0.20 in) air-water column. An adjustable weir controlled the liquid height on a test tray. Several sieve and valve trays were studied. The results were interpreted with a two- or three-layer model of the two-phase mixture on the

  17. 我国东南沿海的石沪文化遗产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尊慈

    2016-01-01

    The building of stone tidal weirs not only witness history of human ocean civilization and marine de⁃velopment, but also precious cultural and social resources. However, for a long time, the research and protection of stone tidal weirs cultural heritage in mainland China has not attracted enough attention. The historical, scientific, artis⁃tic value of stone tidal weirs also has not been fully recognized.This edge, this paper on China's southeast coast stone tidal weirs fisheries and their culture heritage for a brief discussion.%提石沪建筑不仅是人类海洋文明和海洋发展的历史见证,更是弥足珍贵的文化资源和社会资源。然而,长期来,我国大陆地区石沪文化遗产的研究和保护一直没有引起足够的关注,其历史、科学、艺术价值也一直没有得到充分的认识。缘此,本文拟对我国东南沿海的石沪渔业及其文化遗产作一简要论述。

  18. 76 FR 49786 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Reclamation (Reclamation), the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the lead State agency, have prepared a joint Final EIS/EIR for the proposed Nimbus Fish Hatchery Weir... Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River,...

  19. Discharge and sediment measurements at the outlet of a watershed on the Loess plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Hessel, R.; Liu Baoyuan,; Trouwborst, K.O.; Stolte, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Blijenberg, H.

    2003-01-01

    A dam and weir system was constructed to measure the discharge of water and sediment from a selected small catchment on the Loess plateau in China. The aim of the system described here was to collect data on discharge and sediment content during occasional summer storms. These data can be used for c

  20. Bagatellid : maailm / Mirjam Tally

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tally, Mirjam, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Helilooja Judith Weir sai Briti maineka autasu. Daniel Barenboim võttis Palestiina kodakondsuse. Portos keskendutakse sel aastal Põhjamaade muusikale. Wigmore Halli resideerivaks heliloojaks sai Luke Bedford. Sony Classics annab välja Glenn Gouldi eksklusiivse "Kogutud teosed". Tõusev täht - hiina naisdirigent Xian Zhang

  1. Oil/Water Emulsion and Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    where floating sludge is removed via a skimming system into the overflow/sludge tank. The clarified water flows over a weir into a clearwell , which...pump - Operation / Maintenance Manual - Recirculation / clearwell discharge pump - 1 Week on-site start up training - Chemical tanks (3) 29 5.3 COST

  2. Assessment of Average Tracer Concentration Approach for Flow Rate Measurement and Field Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sidauruk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer method is one of the methods available for open channel flow rate measurements such as in irrigation canals. Average tracer concentration approach is an instantaneous injection method that based on the average tracer concentrations value at the sampling point. If the procedures are correct and scientific considerations are justified, tracer method will give relatively high accuracy of measurements. The accuracy of the average tracer concentration approach has been assessed both in laboratory and field. The results of accuracy tests of open channel flow that has been conducted at the Center for Application Isotopes and Radiation Laboratory-BATAN showed that the accuracy level of average concentrations approach method was higher than 90% compared to the true value (volumetric flow rate. The accuracy of average tracer concentration approach was also assessed during the application of the method to measure flow rate of Mrican irrigation canals as an effort to perform field calibration of existing weirs. Both average tracer concentration approach and weirs can predict the trend of the flow correctly. However, it was observed that flow discrepancies between weirs measurement and average tracer concentration approach predictions were as high as 27%. The discrepancies might be due to the downgrading performances of the weirs because of previous floods and high sediment contents of the flow

  3. Do We Need to Rethink Our Waterways? Values of Ageing Waterways in Current and Future Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijdra, Arjan; Arts, Jos; Woltjer, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the past canals were developed, and some rivers were heavily altered, driven by the need for good transportation infrastructure. Major investments were made in navigation locks, weirs and artificial embankments, and many of these assets are now reaching the end of their technical lifetime. Since

  4. Theatre of/or Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The famous scene near the end of The Truman Show (Peter Weir, 1998), when Truman’s boat hits the wall of the television studio that has been his life’s scenery, is a moment of truth. Fans throughout the world hold their breath, glued to their television sets. Will Truman finally discover that his li

  5. Carbon isotope fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to outgassing of carbon dioxide from a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Doctor; Carol Kendall; Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Nobuhito Ohte; Elizabeth W. Boyer

    2008-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) was investigated as a potential tracer of streamflow generation processes at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont, USA. Downstream sampling showed δ13C-DIC increased between 3-5% from the stream source to the outlet weir...

  6. 76 FR 4097 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... License. b. Project No.: 2713-082. c. Date Filed: December 30, 2010. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard... Contact: Jon Elmer, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P, 800 Starbuck Ave., Suite 802, Watertown, New York... generation, while the Heuvelton and Eel Weir developments typically operate in a run-of-river mode. With...

  7. Improving the efficiency and sustainability of disinfection at a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The proper maintenance and operation of water supply, treatment and distribution ... that the Alice drinking water was generally of poor quality. Since June 2002 ... point just ahead of a 90o V-notch weir and hydraulic jump. Flash mixing at the ..... without central Alice, the University and Ntselamanzi Village suffering from ...

  8. An Assessment of River Resources for Louisiana Coastal Land Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Resources Max maximum Min minimum MRGO Mississippi River Gulf Outlet NAVD North American Vertical Datum RSLR relative sea-level rise SRED ...Enhancement Device ( SRED ), a low weir to enhance deposition, was not constructed and could be added later as the 20,000 cubic feet per second (cfs

  9. Accuracy vs. Robustness: Bi-criteria Optimized Ensemble of Metamodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    McCain Hall Tempe, AZ 85281, USA Starkville, MS 39762, USA Jeffery D. Weir Xianghua Chu Department of Operational Sciences Shenzhen ...stochastic environment will be considered instead, e.g., stochastic Kriging. What’s more, relationship between the problem properties and metamodeling

  10. Investigation of the Prediction of Lightning Strikes Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-11

    1989: Artificial intelligence and lightning prediction. Final report to Universal Energy Systems on research Acronyms conducted during the summer of 1989...K’ Shuritle Sunway 31 - K Weather Tow 12 14-K Comera SitelS 17 - K Weather Twor 40S 18 - K CorencCoo Sit e 19 - K Weir, Twrg Aea 2K Cae,l 22K CameraS

  11. 76 FR 54258 - Request for Comments-Fiscal Oversight Task Force Report and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Counsel, Legal Services Corporation, 3333 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20007; 202.295.1618 (phone); 202... Corporation, 3333 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20007; 202.295.1618 (phone); 202.337.6519 (fax); rweir@lsc.gov... e-mail to Rebecca D. Weir, Assistant General Counsel, Legal Services Corporation, 3333 K Street,...

  12. 非光滑多目标广义本性凸规划的最优性条件与对偶%Optimality Conditions and Duality for Nonsmooth Multiobjective Programms with Generalized Essential Convexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩玲; 刘庆怀; 李忠范

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce generalized essentially pseudoconvex func-tion and generalized essentially quasiconvex function, and give sufficient optimality conditions of the nonsmooth generalized convex multi-objective programming and its saddle point theorem about cone efficient solution.We set up Mond-Weir type duality and Craven type duality for nonsmooth multiobjective programming with generalized essentially convex functions, and prove them.

  13. 5 põhjust mängida golfi / Ülli Plink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plink, Ülli, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Vestlusest pro ehk golfiõpetaja Valdek Apivalaga golfi kasulikusest tervisele ja harrastamise võimalustest Eestis. Golfiklubide Niitvälja Golf, Otepää Golfikeskus, Jõelähtme Golfikeskus, Saaremaa Golfikeskus, Suuresta Golf, Citygolf ning Stockmanni kaubamajas asuva golfikeskuse Weir Golf Studio tutvustused

  14. 78 FR 68045 - Village of Morrisville, Vermont; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ...); (2) a 45- foot-long, 15-foot-high concrete gravity weir that creates a 180-foot- long, 11-foot-deep...-high concrete gravity dam and spillway with a crest elevation of 1,139 feet msl; (2) a 300-acre...: (1) A 384-foot-long, 37-foot-high concrete gravity dam comprised of a 138-foot-long...

  15. SMALL-SCALE MODELING OF DYNAMIC FACILITIES FOR PROTECTION OF HYDROSYSTEM TAILRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Y. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the formation of plunge basin in the Cheboksary hydroplant, we used a scale model of the spillway dam and all structures in the tailrace, installed in the slot flume. When we passed the flow corresponding to the diversion flow of the hydroplant with a glance to the modeling scale, it was found that the plunge basin was formed behind the end fixing of the spillway apron. To research the dynamic facilities of hydrosystem tailrace protection against erosion, we used a small glass flume with a model of the roundcrested weir. For the experiment, the water-surface elevations were built in the flume without the weir, and the uniform motion area was established. In MathCAD software environment, the curve of the flow of measuring rectangular weir of the flume was created. Because of measurements, the curve of water surface by the flow motion through the round-crested weir was made. As the main criterion for modeling, the criterion of Froude was selected. Scale of modeling of flow parameters was determined. For testing, models of hydrodynamic profile and sail structure with streamforming sluice valves were built. The process of sand washout from the flume bottom and formation of the bottom ridges when installing the profile was photographed. Impact of the profile on the flow and its relation with the formation of the bottom topography were studied. Full-scale values of geometric parameters of the bottom ridges and their movement velocity were established as well

  16. Transport of phosphorus, wash load and suspended sediment in the River Varde A in southwest Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodsen, Hans; Hasholt, Bent; Pejrup, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . Transport rates of TP, suspended sediment and wash load at the three stations, calculated using rating curves, indicate the dependence of TP transport on the transport of suspended sediment and wash load. Two stations are located on tributaries flowing upstream of the third station located at a weir...

  17. Retrieving Constitutive Parameters of Plasmonic Multilayers from Reflection and Transmission Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei;

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract the effective permittivity and permeability of plasmonic multilayers in the optical domain. For material parameters retrieval the classical Nicolson-Ross-Weir method is commonly used. However, its direct application leads to spurious zero-permittivity points...

  18. Spawning migration of sea trout ( Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    to stay on the southern side of the main river, and Males spent significantly more time of the freshwater stay in spawning tributaries than females. Most of the trout ascended the main spawning tributary, the River Lillea, where none passed a weir, 2 km upstream the confluence, despite the presence...

  19. The Effect of Truncation of Periodic Structures on NRW Material Parameter Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Using the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) material parameter extraction method, we compare the difference between using 1 or 10 cells when obtaining the scattering parameters. Obviously these parameters are different, but we see that we practically extract the same propagation constant, wave impedance...

  20. Russell Crowe maailma tipust maailma äärele / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Näitleja Russell Crowe ja tema suhe oma rolliga seiklusfilmis "Kapten ja komandör : retk maailma äärele" ("Master and Commander : The Far Side of the World") : stsenarist Patrick O'Briani romaanide järgi ja režissöör Peter Weir : peaosas Russell Crowe : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003

  1. Process description of SWQN : A simplified hydraulic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Siderius, C.; Gerven, van L.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    SWQN is a simplified hydraulic model for surface water systems which computes water levels and flows in a network of nodes labelled as ‘volumes’ and segments labelled as ‘connectors’. The user can specify a variety of connectors like open water courses or structures such as weirs, gates, culverts or

  2. Adaptive management in the context of barriers in European freshwater ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Tummers, Jeroen S.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2017-01-01

    Many natural habitats have been modified to accommodate for the presence of humans and their needs. Infrastructures e such as hydroelectric dams, weirs, culverts and bridges e are now a common occurrence in streams and rivers across the world. As a result, freshwater ecosystems have been altered...

  3. Knowledge exchange for efficient passage of fish in the southern hemispere (KEEPFISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkes, M. A.; Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    as a variety of other barriers such as weirs and culverts. Several locations in the southern hemisphere are among the major global hotspots of hydropower development. Mitigation measures for fish passage have traditionally relied on designs developed for strong swimming, generally salmonid species...

  4. Russell Crowe maailma tipust maailma äärele / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Näitleja Russell Crowe ja tema suhe oma rolliga seiklusfilmis "Kapten ja komandör : retk maailma äärele" ("Master and Commander : The Far Side of the World") : stsenarist Patrick O'Briani romaanide järgi ja režissöör Peter Weir : peaosas Russell Crowe : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003

  5. 78 FR 49735 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Dam Safety Study, Lake Lewisville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... length and has a maximum height of 125 feet at elevation 560 feet (all elevations are NGVD) with gated outlet works and an uncontrolled concrete ogee weir spillway. The primary purposes of the project are flood risk management, ] water supply, recreation and non-Federal hydropower. Top of conservation...

  6. Bagatellid : maailm / Mirjam Tally

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tally, Mirjam, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Helilooja Judith Weir sai Briti maineka autasu. Daniel Barenboim võttis Palestiina kodakondsuse. Portos keskendutakse sel aastal Põhjamaade muusikale. Wigmore Halli resideerivaks heliloojaks sai Luke Bedford. Sony Classics annab välja Glenn Gouldi eksklusiivse "Kogutud teosed". Tõusev täht - hiina naisdirigent Xian Zhang

  7. Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei;

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the standard Nicolson Ross Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated...

  8. Random Transect with Adaptive Clustering Sampling Design - ArcPad Applet Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    18527. Bais, H. P., T. L. Weir, L. G. Perry, S. Gilroy, and J. M. Vivanco. 2006. The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and...communities and alter important ecosystem-level properties such as hydrology, disturbance regimes, nutrient cycling, and microbial processes

  9. Adaptive Web Sampling - ArcPad Applet Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Weir, L. G. Perry, S. Gilroy, and J. M. Vivanco. 2006. The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annual...and microbial processes (Vitousek et al. 1989; Mack et al. 1998; D’ Antonio 2000; Zavaleta 2000; Brooks et al. 2004; Ehrenfeld 2004; Bais et al. 2006

  10. Chute cutoff as a morphological response to stream reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Stream restoration efforts often aim at creating new unconstrained meandering channels without weirs and bank revetments. In reconstructed streams, the initial morphological response of the new streams is often rapid, until a dynamic equilibrium is reached. Here we report on a chute cutoff that o

  11. Innovative Streambank Protection in an Urban Setting, Accotink Creek, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR...downstream so far as to negate the “ kicker ” effects of the two existing bank scallops located upstream and downstream of bendway weir 5 (Figure 15

  12. 78 FR 80385 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... in Cook Inlet. However, sea otters are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and are... airgun pulses under some conditions, at other times, mammals of both types have shown no overt reactions. Weir (2008) observed marine mammal responses to seismic pulses from a 24 airgun array firing a total...

  13. Wave propagation in structured materials as a platform for effective parameters retrieving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.;

    /transmission spectra at a fixed incident angle. However, for a complete description of MM properties, material EPs should be introduced. Up to now, a large variety of retrieval methods has been suggested. The simplest and most used definitely is the S-parameters method also referred to as the Nicholson-Ross-Weir (NRW...

  14. Annual Progress Report Fish Research Project Oregon : Project title, Evaluation of Habitat Improvements -- John Day River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected in 1983 to evaluate habitat improvements in Deer, Camp, and Clear creeks, tributaries of the John Day River. The studies are designed to evaluate changes in abundance of spring chinook and summer steelhead due to habitat improvement projects and to contrast fishery benefits with costs of construction and maintenance of each project. Structure types being evaluated are: (1) log weirs, rock weirs, log deflectors, and in stream boulders in Deer Creek; (2) log weirs in Camp Creek; and (3) log weir-boulder combinations and introduced spawning gravel in Clear Creek. Abundance of juvenile steelhead ranged from 16% to 119% higher in the improved (treatment) area than in the unimproved (control) area of Deer Creek. However, abundance of steelhead in Camp Creek was not significantly different between treatment and control areas. Chinook and steelhead abundance in Clear Creek was 50% and 25% lower, respectively in 1983, than the mean abundance estimated in three previous years. The age structure of steelhead was similar between treatment and control areas in Deer and Clear creeks. The treatment area in Camp Creek, however, had a higher percentage of age 2 and older steelhead than the control. Steelhead redd counts in Camp Creek were 36% lower in 1983 than the previous five year average. Steelhead redd counts in Deer Creek were not made in 1983 because of high streamflows. Chinook redds counted in Clear Creek were 64% lower than the five year average. Surface area, volume, cover, and spawning gravel were the same or higher than the corresponding control in each stream except in Deer Creek where there was less available cover and spawning gravel in sections with rock weirs and in those with log deflectors, respectively. Pool:riffle ratios ranged from 57:43 in sections in upper Clear Creek with log weirs to 9:91 in sections in Deer Creek with rock weirs. Smolt production following habitat improvements is estimated for each stream

  15. A cell sorting and trapping microfluidic device with an interdigital channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in cell sorting and trapping is driving the demand for high performance technologies. Using labeling techniques or external forces, cells can be identified by a series of methods. However, all of these methods require complicated systems with expensive devices. Based on inherent differences in cellular morphology, cells can be sorted by specific structures in microfluidic devices. The weir filter is a basic and efficient cell sorting and trapping structure. However, in some existing weir devices, because of cell deformability and high flow velocity in gaps, trapped cells may become stuck or even pass through the gaps. Here, we designed and fabricated a microfluidic device with interdigital channels for cell sorting and trapping. The chip consisted of a sheet of silicone elastomer polydimethylsiloxane and a sheet of glass. A square-wave-like weir was designed in the middle of the channel, comprising the interdigital channels. The square-wave pattern extended the weir length by three times with the channel width remaining constant. Compared with a straight weir, this structure exhibited a notably higher trapping capacity. Interdigital channels provided more space to slow down the rate of the pressure decrease, which prevented the cells from becoming stuck in the gaps. Sorting a mixture K562 and blood cells to trap cells demonstrated the efficiency of the chip with the interdigital channel to sort and trap large and less deformable cells. With stable and efficient cell sorting and trapping abilities, the chip with an interdigital channel may be widely applied in scientific research fields.

  16. Retrofitting of the small hydro power scheme 'Moulinets' on the river Orbe in Orbe, Switzerland; Centrale des Moulinets - Rehabilitation du barrage des Moulinets et des turbines des anciens Moulins 'Rod', Orbe - Rapport d'avant-projet 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerodetti, M.

    2009-08-15

    The existing dam and turbine installation called 'Les Moulinets' of the former 'Rod' mills includes a weir and intake structure located on the Orbe River upstream of the medieval stone bridge of the 'Rue des Moulins', a conveying channel along the rocky hillside and three turbine units housed in the old mill buildings downstream of the 'Moulinets' bridge. The location of the existing turbines in the sub-basements of the classified mill buildings is not favourable for a modernization of the installation. For the replacement of the power plant and for an optimised utilisation of the hydropower potential it is necessary to abandon the actual turbine site and to group together all the necessary installations for power production near the weir site. Based on the request of the cantonal authority concerning the optimised utilisation of the existing hydropower potential, the existing reservoir level was raised by some 40 cm, increasing at the same time the available head. The project design includes two turbine units with a total electrical power of 1060 kW located in a new powerhouse at the left riverbank in place of the actual conveying channel. The powerhouse thus encroaches on the existing weir, the foundations of which are under scoured and has to be repaired any way. The weir will have to be completely reconstructed, the piles demolished and two new 5.5 m wide openings equipped with two flap gates will be created. The legal obligations, Federal Law on Fishery (BGF) and concession agreement, imposes that fish migration be guaranteed. Therefore, several types of fish pathways were studied for the upstream passage of fish. Considering the difficulties for implementing a classic fish pass of the pool/weir type, the concept of a fish elevator is adopted. The total investment cost is some 10 million francs and includes the construction of a new power plant, the renovation of the weir and the construction of the fish elevator. The

  17. Numerical simulation of laboratory experiments in detention pond routing with long rainfall duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper establishes a numerical detention pond volume model based on the hydrological continuity equation and the Runge-Kutta numerical method. Experiments for the conditions of both steady and unsteady flow have been used to verify the model. In unsteady flow cases, the outflow hydrograph by numerical simulation are fairly consistent with experimental value. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that wider rectangular sharp-crested weirs or larger rectangular slot tend to induce greater outflow discharges, which undesirably cut down the detention volume. Experiments show that the necessary detention volume of rectangular slot is smaller than that of the rectangular sharp-crested weir for a constant flood peak reduction. That is, the rectangular slot is the recommended outflow device when flood peak reduction is the design criteria. The study also shows that necessary detention volume of the short rainfall duration is less than that of the long rainfall duration under constant allowable maximum discharge.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PONDS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SMALL RIVERS OF BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid AZAROUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ponds on dissolved oxygen in small rivers of Berry (France. Water temperature and oxygen saturation are two major indicators of water quality in surface hydrology. Geographical and cartographic studies about ponds of Central France did no exist until now. During two years, we measured dissolved oxygen using a hand oximeter upstream and downstream of three ponds in the headwaters of the Loire basin. Our results show that oxygen saturation depends on equipments located before and behind the dam, and upstream and downstream: spillways, outlets with a monk, diversion channel, artificial reoxygenation weirs and so on. In some cases (low water quality upstream, existence of weir, relative and absolute saturation of dissolved oxygen increases downstream of ponds.

  19. Overtopping breaching of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.

  20. Duality for Multitime Multiobjective Ratio Variational Problems on First Order Jet Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Postolache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of multitime multiobjective variational problems of minimizing a vector of quotients of functionals of curvilinear integral type. Based on the efficiency conditions for multitime multiobjective ratio variational problems, we introduce a ratio dual of generalized Mond-Weir-Zalmai type, and under some assumptions of generalized convexity, duality theorems are stated. We prove our weak duality theorem for efficient solutions, showing that the value of the objective function of the primal cannot exceed the value of the dual. Direct and converse duality theorems are stated, underlying the connections between the values of the objective functions of the primal and dual programs. As special cases, duality results of Mond-Weir-Zalmai type for a multitime multiobjective variational problem are obtained. This work further develops our studies in (Pitea and Postolache (2011.

  1. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland; Avant-projet. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Boudry 'Pontareuse'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2007-05-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered.

  2. Thin layer drying of cassava starch using continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Trisnaningtyas, Rona

    2015-12-01

    This paper present the experimental work and thin layer modelling of cassava starch drying in continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer. The experimental data was used to validate nine thin layer models of drying curve. Cassava starch with 0.21 initial moisture content was dried in different air drying temperature (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C), different weir height in bed (0 and 1 cm), and different solid feed flow (10 and 30 gr.minute-1). The result showed air dryer temperature has a significant effect on drying curve, while the weir height and solid flow rate are slightly. Based on value of R2, χ2, and RMSE, Page Model is the most accurate simulation for thin layer drying model of cassava starch.

  3. Potential of sustainable energy with regard to engineering structures. WINN Energy from Water; Energieverbruik nationaal en regionaal waterbeheer. WINN Energie uit Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahm, R.; Bruggers, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    An overview is offered of the annual energy use of pumping stations, weirs and sluices in the Netherlands. This involves both the energy use of wet objects (pumping stations, weirs and sluices) in the main water system and the regional water systems. The reports has an annex containing the report 'Inventarisatie energieverbruik waterwerken' (Inventory of energy use by water works) published by Grontmij Netherlands [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van het jaarlijkse energieverbruik door gemalen, stuwen en sluizen in Nederland. Het gaat daarbij zowel om het energieverbruik van de natte objecten (gemalen, stuwen en sluizen) in het hoofdwatersysteem als om de regionale watersystemen. Het rapport bevat als bijlage het rapport 'Inventarisatie energieverbruik waterwerken' door Grontmij Nederland.

  4. On the excretory system of the rotifer Habrotrocha rosa Donner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, U

    1978-06-08

    The excretory system of Habrotrocha rosa consists of two protonephridia. From each of them seven tubules lead to a terminal organ, also called cyrtocyte. Its weir basket contains structures which resemble ciliary rootlets. The lumen of the excretory system is bordered by a syncytial layer of cytoplasm. Cells are only found in the upper region of the trunk, where the channel is twisted several times.

  5. MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING WITH A CKLASS OF NON-SMOOTH FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This is a continuation of a recent work(J.Dutta)on a class of non-smooth functions and their subdifferentials.In this note,necessary optimality conditions are derived for the inequality constrained mathematical programming problems involving such non-smooth functions by employing Gordan's Alternative Theorem.This new approach is simpler than the earlier work of Yang and Craven.Mond-Weir type duality theorems are also obtained.

  6. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Electromagnetic Field Measurements and Engineering Support--1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    displacement points are just one point along a long route in which the animals reside momentarily. A possible future weir net site (site 5T7-1) was also...care, nes- tling growth and maturation, fecundity, homing, activity patterns, embryolog- ical development, and metabolic physiology. The electric and...microflora (fungi and streptomycetes ) populations. The electric and magnetic fields in the earth are considered important EM factors influencing soil biota

  7. National Dam Safety Program. David R. Wilson Dam (MO 10242), Mississippi - Salt - Quincy River Basin, Shelby County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Unknown Impervious core: Unknown Cutoff: Unknown Grout curtain: Unknown h. Diversion and Regulating Tunnel None i. Spillway Type: Concrete weir...and formwork ties were still projecting from the concrete. Minor chemical leaching was observed on the wall. F ; A portion of the left retaining wall...wall, which appears to have been due to formwork failure. Some formwork was observed between the contact of the new and old portion of the wall. Some

  8. MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING WITH A CLASS OF NON-SMOOTH FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. DUTTA; V. VETRIVEL

    2002-01-01

    This is a continuation of a recent work(J. Dutta) on a class of non-smooth functions and their subdifferentials. In this note, necessary optimality conditions are derived for the inequality constrained mathematical programming problems involving such non-smooth functions by employing Gordan's Alternative Theorem. This new approach is simpler than the earlier work of Yang and Craven. Mond-Weir type duality theorems are also obtained.

  9. Wave fronts in plane spillways with converging walls; Frentes de onda en aliviaderos planos de cajeros convergentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Iguacel, C. [Laboratorio de Hidraulica del CEDEX, Ministerio de Fomento (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    Equations are set out for water movement in a flat-bottomed weir with converging training walls, which provoke the generation of wave fronts. A two dimensional, stationary analysis is made, thus deducing the characteristic lines as well as the evolution ratios throughout them in terms of fluid speeds and local wave celerities. The results of the numerical model that resolves the equation are congruent with the experimental results. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. Changes in the area of the Mazurian Lakes in the light of the cartographic materials at the scale 1:25000

    OpenAIRE

    Marszelewski, Włodzimierz; Adamczyk, Alicja

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the result of comparative investigations of the areas of the Great Mazurian Lakes. Water decrease was found at the level of 3.1% in the period of approximately seventy years of the twentieth century. Similar tendency was documented with respect to several cases from the latter half of the nineteenth century. The authors draw attention to the role of hydrotechnical build-up (canals, sluices, weirs) constructed to slow down the pace of lake area decline. Several examples...

  11. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Upper Banjo Pond Dam (MA 00185) Massachusetts Coastal Basin, Gloucester, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    s end, moisture collecting at same location; - horizontal crack in overhanging slab(cap), heavy efflorescence, stalactites at joint of sloped back...dripping water, and few stalactites ; L- -horizontal crack about 1.5 feet from base of left buttress; less efflorescence on buttresses - . than on u/s...SpIllway cut into concrete section;walls b. Weir and Training Walls are about 1 foot high General Condition of Good to fair Concrete Rust or

  12. Ice Considerations in the Design of River Restoration Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    COVER: Freezeup ice jam at Rio Blanco diversion weir on the White River in Colorado. Flood and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program ERDC...structure or project will cause ice jams where none occurred before and also how well the structures will survive ice processes. For the freezeup period...Possible Effects of In-Stream Structures During the Freezeup Period..........................12 3.2.2 Possible Effects of In-Stream Structures on the Ice

  13. Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Israel River Ice Control Structure, Lancaster, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    weir was designed to retain both frazil ice during freezeup and broken ice after ice cover breakup. In recent years, the ICS has fallen into disrepair...respectively, from the Main Street bridge.” In recent years, freezeup jams have also contributed to the town’s ice prob- lems. Freezeup jams are the result...The first recorded freezeup jam in Lancaster occurred in February 1996 (CRREL 2005). An earlier breakup jam left most of the river free of ice and

  14. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  15. Surface-Finish Measurement with Interference Microscopes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    5) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Bewley, H. D. 65 Redstone Arsenal Hutcheson, G. J. Union Carbide Corporation • New York Winters, Charles...Singer, S. Sollid, J. E. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Stief, S. S. Wilcox.W. J.,Jr Oak Ridge National Laboratory Weir.J. R.,Jr OakRidge...February 1977 MIC QUALITY INSPECTED < UNION CARBIDE OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT OAK RIDGE. prepared for the U.S. ENERGY RESEARCH AND

  16. Gaillard Island Bio-degradable Geotube Test Project, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    western shore of Mobile Bay (Figure 1). The site is accessible to the Mobile Bay channel reach of the Theodore Ship Channel. The depth of water in...configuration was designed to make the shoreline parallel to the rest of that part of the island, allowing waves from all directions to roll along the shore ...Hay bale weir. CONCLUSIONS: The test project resulted in successfully testing several bio-degradable containment options for managing sandy and

  17. What drives flood trends along the Rhine River: climate or river training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vorogushyn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River catchment was heavily trained over the past decades and faced the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. For the same time period, several studies detected positive trends in flood flows and faced the challenge of flood trend attribution, i.e. identifying the drivers of observed change. The presented study addresses the question about the responsible drivers for changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the role of river training measures including the Rhine weir cascade and a series of detention basins in enhancing Rhine floods was investigated. By applying homogenisation relationships to the original flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, the relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be smaller up to about 20% points compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges was partly caused by the unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. It resulted from the acceleration of the Rhine waves due to construction of the weir cascade. However, at the same time, the tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual Rhine peaks, showed very strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of a large-scale driver such as climate variability/change which acted along with river training. In particular, the analysis suggests that the river training measures fell in a period with increasing flood trends driven by factors other than river training of the Rhine main channel.

  18. Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vorogushyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

  19. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Artner; Philipp K. Gentner; Johann Nicolics; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph F.

    2017-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the...

  20. Pinched Propagation of High-Power, Pulsed Electron Beams for Welding and Materials Processing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-03

    D. S. Prono , J. T. Weir, and F. W. Chambers, "Status of Beam Transport with the ETA and ATA Accelerators," NTIS Document No. DE84013205, 1984...Copies may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. 34 17. D. S. Prono , et al., in Proceedings of the 1989 IEEE...Particle Accelerator Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1989), p. 1441. 18. D. S. Prono , IEEE Trans. Nucl

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Thames River Basin, Norwich, Connecticut, Spaulding Pond Dam (CT 00202), Spaulding Pond Dike (CT 01685). Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    nuit A 1. se (I.D.) 0 In. B. Riser 1. Size ., Ft. H2. eight 21.0. C. Weir length 15 Ft. D. Orifce size 9 x 9 In. SFod drain size 18 In. F. Type of...STANDARD PROJECT FLOOD (Flat and Coastal Areas) River SPF D.A. IPF - (cfs) (sq. mi.) (cfs/sq. mi.) 1. Pawtuxet River 19,000 200 190 2. Mill River (R.I

  2. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-28

    the ordinary linkage-determined walking values. When seated, the patient’s feet, for example, rest comfortably and naturally flat on the floor . Two...storage capability or powered actuators. Future improvements to the passive dynamic MAE systems would include linkages to generate proper pelvic ...assistance because of their force control capabilities and their compliant behavior in the operational environment (Sensinger & Weir, 2005). The key

  3. COMPACT DIFFERENCES OF COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Liangying; Ouyang Caiheng

    2011-01-01

    We find a lower bound for the essential norm of the difference of two composition operators acting on H2(BN) or A28(BN) (s > -1).This result plays an important role in proving a necessary and sufficient condition for the difference of linear fractional composition operators to be compact,which answers a question posed by MacCluer and Weir in 2005.

  4. Extension of physical component BFC method for the analysis of free-surface flows coupled with moving boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D.; Takizawa, A.; Kondo, S.

    A newly developed ``physical component boundary fitted coordinate (PCBFC) method'' is extended for the analysis of free-surface flows coupled with moving boundaries. Extra techniques are employed to deal with the coupling movement of the free surface and moving boundaries. After the validation of the extension by several benchmark problems, the method is successfully applied for the first time to the simulation of overflow-induced vibration of the weir coupled with sloshing of the free-surface liquid.

  5. A Model Study of Inclusions Deposition, Macroscopic Transport, and Dynamic Removal at Steel-Slag Interface for Different Tundish Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Ni, Peiyuan; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Tilliander, Anders; Cheng, Guoguang; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of inclusions macroscopic transport as well as dynamic removal in tundishes. A novel treatment was implemented using the deposition velocity calculated by a revised unified Eulerian deposition model to replace the widely used Stokes rising velocity in the boundary conditions for inclusions removal at the steel-slag interface in tundishes. In this study, the dynamic removal for different size groups of inclusions at different steel-slag interfaces (smooth or rough) with different absorption conditions at the interface (partially or fully absorbed) in two tundish designs was studied. The results showed that the dynamic removal ratios were higher for larger inclusions than for smaller inclusions. Besides, the dynamic removal ratio was higher for rough interfaces than for smooth interfaces. On the other hand, regarding the cases when inclusions are partially or fully absorbed at a smooth steel-slag interface, the removal ratio values are proportional to the absorption proportion of inclusions at the steel-slag interface. Furthermore, the removal of inclusions in two tundish designs, i.e., with and without a weir and a dam were compared. Specifically, the tundish with a weir and a dam exhibited a better performance with respect to the removal of bigger inclusions (radii of 5, 7, and 9 μm) than that of the case without weir and dam. That was found to be due to the strong paralleling flow near the middle part of the top surface. However, the tundish without weir and dam showed a higher removal ratio of smaller inclusions (radius of 1 μm). The reason could be the presence of a paralleling flow near the inlet zone, where the inclusions deposition velocities were much higher than in other parts.

  6. Work-Family Conflict: The Effect of Job and Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Weir, 1977: Holahan & Gilbert. 1979a, 1979b) (see Greenhaua & Beutell, 1985, for a recent review). The purpose of the present study was to extend...related for women. Two additional studies by Holahan and Gilbert (1979a, 1979b) yielded different results. In one of their studies, Holahan and Gilbert...more work-family conflict than women in the job group. In their other study, Holahan and Gilbsrt (1979b) examined the experience of work- family

  7. Researching the cognitive validity of GEPT High-Intermediate and Advanced Reading: an eye tracking and stimulated recall study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is important for any language test to establish its cognitive validity in order to ensure that the test elicits from test takers those cognitive processes which correspond to the processes which they would normally employ in the target real-life context (Weir 2005). This study investigates the cognitive validity of the GEPT Reading Test at two levels. High-intermediate (CEFR B2) and Advanced (CEFR C1), using innovative eye-tracking technology and detailed stimulated recall interviews and s...

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Lewis Lake Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00061, DER-ID Number 58-7), Susquehanna River Basin, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    HISTORY None. A-4 NDI NO. PA-00061 VISUAL INSPECTION OBSERVATIONS AND REMARKS INSTRUMENTATION Monumentation None. Observation Wells None. Weirs...6.52 1 1079. ( 16.B9) I 30.56)( 2 5770. ( 163.39)( 3 abo.01 C 158.59)( 4 4538, I 12B,0)O 5 3238. C 91,70)( SUIhARY OF PAM SAFETY ANALISIS PLAN I

  9. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  10. Assessment of the Impacts of Global Climate Change and Regional Water Projects on Streamflow Characteristics in the Geum River Basin in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojun Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of two factors on future regional-scale runoff were assessed: the external factor of climate change and the internal factor of a recently completed large-scale water resources project. A rainfall-runoff model was built (using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT for the Geum River, where three weirs were recently constructed along the main stream. RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways climate change scenarios from the HadGEM3-RA RCM model were used to generate future climate scenarios, and daily runoff series were constructed based on the SWAT model. The indicators of the hydrologic alteration (IHA program was used to carry out a quantitative assessment on the variability of runoff during two future periods (2011–2050, 2051–2100 compared to a reference period (1981–2006. Analyses of changes in the runoff characteristics of the lower Geum River showed that climate change is likely to lead to an increase of the future runoff ratio and that weirs contributed to an increase in the minimum discharge and a decrease in the maximum discharge. The influence of the weirs on the runoff characteristics of the Geum River basin was projected to be greater than that of climate change.

  11. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  12. Stability Analysis of Absorption Chiller-Heaters by Applying Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuo; Miyake, Satoshi; Oka, Masahiro; Mori, Kiyoyuki

    A transfer function approach is found to be a practical method for ensuring stable operation of absorption chiller-heaters. The transfer function model is based on a solution-circuit of the machine, which dominates the stability of the operation. This model includes a solution pump, a generator with an overflow weir, and a float valve. We found that the solution-circuit system is designed with the cascade control, which makes the system stable. In this construction, the float valve actuates a primary control loop, and the overflow weir actuates a secondary loop. The effects of the characteristic of the solution pump and the overflow weir are estimated by the degree of the stabilities, which are the gain margin and the phase margin. We found that the characteristic of the solution pump strongly effects the stability by enhancing the effect of the cascade control and improving the stability. So it is essential for a better stability analysis model. According to these results, the established model is useful for quantitatively predicting the stabilities of a chiller-heater in operation, and simultaneously reducing its size and improving the stability of operation. We conclude that the methodology based on transfer function can provide compact and reliable absorption chiller-heaters.

  13. Assessment of the effect of rainfall dynamics on the storm overflow performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the effect of rainfall dynamics on the storm overfl ow performance. This research study analyzes the effect of the rainfall characteristics (total and maximum 10-, 15- and 30-minute rainfall depth, its duration, the dry weather period on the performance of the emergency overflow weir located at the inflow to an existing treatment plant. The analyses used the numerical calculation results of the inflow hydrographs performed in the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model program on the basis of six-year-long rainfall measurement sequence. The obtained simulation results for the analysed catchment allowed for the performance of statistical analyses, which demonstrated that the volume of stormwater discharge, the maximum instantaneous flow and the share of stormwater volume discharged through the emergency overflow weir in relation to the total volume of the inflow hydrograph from the catchment are affected by the maximum 30-minute rainfall depth, whereas the discharge duration is affected by the depth of the catchment rainfall layer. Taking into account the results of statistical and hydraulic calculations it can be concluded that in the case of the analysed catchment the performance of the emergency overflow weir is affected to the greatest extent by the rainfall intensity distribution.

  14. Continuous measurement of the rate of flow in turbines at the run-of-river power station at Lauffen/Neckar - experience gathered with long-term operation; Kontinuierliche Durchflussmessung an den Turbinen des Laufwasserkraftwerkes Lauffen/Neckar - Erfahrungen im Langzeitbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerke Neckar (GKN), of Neckarwestheim, is obliged to set up measuring devices for continuous flow measurement at the Lauffen barrage weir of the Neckar river, downstream of GKN. Four different measuring systems were installed at the Lauffen power plant for the continuous measurement of turbine flow rate as one of the partial flows through the barrage weir besides the weir and lock. The rate of flow is determined in each of the two turbines. A brief description of the measuring techniques is given, and the results from long-term operation are described. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Fuer die Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar GmbH (GKN), Neckarwestheim, besteht die Auflage, in der Neckarstaustufe Lauffen als Unterlieger des GKN Messeinrichtungen zur kontinuierlichen Abflussermittlung zu schaffen. Fuer die kontinuierliche Messung des Turbinendurchflusses als einem der Teildurchfluesse durch die Staustufe neben Wehr- und Schleusendurchfluss wurden deshalb im Kraftwerk Lauffen vier verschiedene Messverfahren installiert. Die Durchflussbestimmung erfolgt dabei an jeder der beiden Turbinen aus. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Messverfahren kurz beschrieben sowie die Ergebnisse im Langzeitbetrieb vorgestellt. (orig./AKF)

  15. 七流连铸中间包流场的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Flow Field for Seven Strand Tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良; 万文华

    2011-01-01

    The flow field of seven-strand tundish of Zenith Steel Group Corporation was simulated by using fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The characters of seven-strand tundish flow field were analyzed. The path lines of fluid and flow field in tundish and turbulent kinetic energy were compared on the condition of tundish with C shape weir or without weir. The simulation results show that the liquid steel among outlets are homogeneous because of the introduction of C shape weir, which is favourable for distribution of the liquid steel's temperature and composition,and the dead area is decreased.%采用FLUENT软件对中天钢铁集团公司七流连铸中间包内型流场进行数值模拟,研究速度矢量、湍动能和流体迹线分布规律,分析中间包内有无C型挡墙加入的流场特征.模拟结果表明,加入C型挡墙使中间包的湍动能主要集中在入口区域,利于延长包内各流的平均停留时间,减小死区体积分数,包内各流流动更加均匀,有利于钢液温度和成份的均匀.

  16. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  17. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica da água do açude Engenheiro Ávidos, Cajazeiras-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. F. Marques

    2015-12-01

    causing different types of pollution, causing a great waste and water contamination. In this context, it is essential to know the quality of water that is consumed in a city. Therefore, this study aimed to carry out an assessment of the bacteriological water quality of the weir Engenheiro Avidos that supplies the city of Cajazeiras - PB. The work was performed by the quantitative study applied exploratory, in which they analyzed the presence of heterotrophic bacteria from fecal contamination, in other words, untreated sewage. Three samples were collected at different points of the weir, these being: intake weir, proximity to housing and seawall. After analysis it was identified that the weir Engenheiro Avidos is within the parameters required by CONAMA, since were identified 150 (intake weir, 30 (housing and 0 (the breakwater coliforms per 100 ml of water, while also being among the values allowed by CONAMA, identifying yet, an elevation the amount of micro-organisms in the intake weir, which can be explained by the proximity to the town of São José de Piranhas and possible sewage. In this context is emphasized the importance of water quality monitoring that are designed primarily for human consumption, acting preventively about contamination to man.

  18. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and

  19. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  20. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin T Chester

    Full Text Available In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010 to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1 remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and

  1. Modeling the effect of Causeways on Circulation in the Banana River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, A.; Weaver, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a restricted estuary along the east coast of Florida. Although Banana River, a 50 km long sub-basin of IRL, has an outlet to the ocean through the Port Canaveral locks, the locks remain closed when there is no passing vessel. The lack of direct ocean connection results in limited circulation, long flushing time and poor water quality. Existence of the causeways limits the circulation even more. In this study, the impact of the causeways on flushing time is studied. This study also examines the extent to which constructing a low crested weir adjacent to Port Canaveral can improve flushing in this region. ADCIRC 2DDI is forced with meteorological inputs as well as tides to simulate the hydrodynamic properties of the study area and determine the 2D depth-averaged velocity field for four separate cases: Existing System with and without consideration of the causeways, and modified system (adding a weir near port Canaveral) with and without consideration of the causeways. Passive particles are placed in Banana River, and their movement is tracked using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Model (LPTM). Transport timescales are then computed, and residence time contours as well as pathlines of selected particles are plotted. Results indicate that the narrow raised pathway section of the causeways acts as a plate which diverts the flow direction and generates eddies in the downstream which causes the particles in the vicinity of the causeways remain in the domain for a longer duration. There is a longer residence time for the case in which the causeways are considered. The results with the added weir suggest a noticeable improvement in flushing time and residence time even for the case in which the causeways are considered in the model.

  2. Performance Prediction of Darrieus-Type Hydroturbine with Inlet Nozzle Operated in Open Water Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Matsushita, D.; Tsuda, S.; Furukawa, A.

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower is one of the renewable energies and is expected to be effectively used for local supply of electricity. We have developed Darrieus-type hydro-turbine systems, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a weir and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is, so far, in success to obtain more output power by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the weir covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic, and in such cases, the turbine should be put alone in open channels without upstream weir. Since the output power is very small in such a utilization of small hydropower, it is important to derive more power for the cost reduction. In the present study, we parametrically investigate the preferable shape of the inlet nozzle for the Darrieus-type hydroturbine operated in an open flow channel. Experimental investigation is carried out in the open channel in our lab. Tested inlet nozzles are composed of two flat plates with the various nozzle converging angles and nozzle outlet (runner inlet) widths with the nozzle inlet width kept constant. As a result, the turbine with the nozzles having large converging angle and wide outlet width generates higher power. Two-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation is also carried out to qualitatively understand the flow mechanism leading to the better performance of turbine. Since the depth, the width and the flow rate in the real open flow channels are different from place to place and, in some cases from time to time, it is also important to predict the onsite performance of the hydroturbine from the lab experiment at planning stage. One-dimensional stream-tube model is developed for this purpose, in which the Darrieus-type hydroturbine with the inlet nozzle is considered as an actuator-disk modelled based on our experimental and numerical results.

  3. Upper Mississippi River System, Environment Management Program, Definite Project Report with Integrated Environmental Assessment (R-8). Bay Island, Missouri Rehabilitation and Enhancement. Pool 22, Mississippi River Miles 311 through 312, Marion County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    phase Power Converter 30 hp, 3 phase Inflow Pipe 24 RCP Perimeter Levee Water Control Structures Concrete 54 Cubic Yards Weir Length 20 Feet Invert...Concrete 65 CY 400.00 26,000 :3,000 06.3.G.8 24-Inch RCP 116 LF 25.00 2,900 725 06.3.N.E Trash Rack, Ladder, M.14.’s, Etc. 1 LS 6,000.00 6,000 1,800...requires that the Fish and Wildlife Service ensure a maintenance practice which is ecologically unsound. Grass clipping studies have shown repeatedly that

  4. PHILIP GlASS: SCREEN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neretina Maina S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research is devoted to the music of contemporary composer Philip Glass, which he wrote specifically for the movies including feature and documentary films by American, British and Australian directors (M.Scorsese, E.Morris, S.Daldry, P.Weir etc.. It makes a connection of the composition technologies between his filmmusic and his artmusic written in the aesthetics of minimalism (the repetition and additive processes. The works in collaboration with director G.Reggio highlights as top Glass’ creative at the film industry. It also covers the principles of compilation the composer’s music for a variety of screen opuses, movies and commercials.

  5. An instance of sleep paralysis in Moby-Dick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J

    1997-07-01

    It is suggested that picturesque medical conditions can, at times, be encountered in literary works composed prior to their clinical delineation. This is true of sleep paralysis, of which the first scientific description was given by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1876. A quarter of a century earlier, Herman Melville, in Moby-Dick, gave a precise account of a case, including the predisposing factors and sexual connotations, all in accord with modern theory. The details of Ishmael's attack of sleep paralysis, the stresses leading up to it, and the associations causing him to recall the experience are given here.

  6. The Support of Air Operations Under Extreme Hot and Cold Weather Conditions (Les Operatons Aeriennes en Environnement Extreme Chaud/Froid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    foedsIte. Stndad ECO lcharodexskW w The caociate over the T10 wean affixed In the iaet, and the -I "jec then second 5- imte perod by plicction of the Weir...8217in terms of body 6nquoly and 10. Pugh, LA.CK and Bdholm, O.G., -The IK with ofime ofotaig Physiology of Channel swimmers ", Lancet ii, 1955, pp ,Atim...May1993. My next experience with seasick- By totally incapacitated, I mean 4 ness was in 1982 when I started that without our rescue swimmers to teach at

  7. Assessment of the Impacts of Global Climate Change and Regional Water Projects on Streamflow Characteristics in the Geum River Basin in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Soojun Kim; Huiseong Noh; Jaewon Jung; Hwandon Jun; Hung Soo Kim

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of two factors on future regional-scale runoff were assessed: the external factor of climate change and the internal factor of a recently completed large-scale water resources project. A rainfall-runoff model was built (using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) for the Geum River, where three weirs were recently constructed along the main stream. RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) climate change scenarios from the HadGEM3-RA RCM model were used to generate future cl...

  8. Development of Fatigue and Crack Propagation Design and Analysis Methodology in a Corrosive Environment for Typical Mechanically-Fastened Joints. Volume 3. Phase II Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Schaum Publishing Co., New York, 1961, pp. 241-268. 79. J. R. Benjamin and C. A. Cornell, Probability, Statis- -* tics, and Decision for Civil... chemistry , and Engineering, ASTM STP 801, 1983, pp. 405-422. 116. T. T. Shih and R. P. Wei, "Influences of Chemical and Thermal Environments on Delay in...K-0004, November, 1984. 120. R. P. Wei, P. S. Pao, R. G. Hart, T. W. Weir and G. W. Simmons, "Fracture Mechanics and Surface Chemistry Studies of

  9. Sub-THz Characterisation of Monolayer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Dadrasnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the optical and electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene by using pulsed optoelectronic terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the frequency range of 325–500 GHz based on fast direct measurements of phase and amplitude. We also show that these parameters can, however, be measured with higher resolution using a free space continuous wave measurement technique associated with a vector network analyzer that offers a good dynamic range. All the scattering parameters (both magnitude and phase are measured simultaneously. The Nicholson-Ross-Weir method is implemented to extract the monolayer graphene parameters at the aforementioned frequency range.

  10. Technical feasibility of the Mołstowa river energy utilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Nejranowski

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design a micro hydropower plant on the Mołstowa river near the Grąd town. The project was done based on 17 years of data from the hydrological yearbooks, topographic maps of terrain, cross-section to the Grąd river , and a map of the catchment of the Rega river. The project includes: Hydrologic analysis of the flow data, location of the reservoir, the analysis of power generation capacity, and the weir with the fish ladder. This type of power plants make poss...

  11. Replacement of the power plant Bruckhaeusl; Neubau des Kraftwerkes Bruckhaeusl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Andreas [TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The power plant Bruckhaeusl replaces the approx. 100 year-old power stations Einoeden and Soell/Leukental at the entrance to the Brixental in Tyrol. The design flow was raised to 12 from 5 m{sup 3}/s. Through the 2.2 km long penstock the water reaches to the Kaplan-S-turbine and is returned via a generously dimensioned underwater reservoir to the river. The residual water is delivered by a speed-regulated turbine at the weir. (orig.)

  12. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature models of Detroit Lake, Big Cliff Lake, and the North Santiam River in northwestern Oregon were used to assess the potential for a hypothetical structure with variable intake elevations and an internal connection to power turbines at Detroit Dam (scenario SlidingWeir) to release more natural, pre-dam temperatures year round. This hypothetical structure improved outflow temperature control from Detroit Dam while meeting minimum dry-season release rates and lake levels specified by the rule curve specified for Detroit Lake.

  13. Trace elements and organic compounds in bed sediment from selected streams in southern Louisiana, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2002-01-01

    Bed-sediment samples from 21 selected streams in southern Louisiana were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace elements and organic compounds during 1998 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of selected trace elements and organic compounds were compared on the basis of sediment-quality criteria, land use, and grain size; concentrations of selected trace elements also were compared with concentrations from previous studies. Concentrations of seven selected trace elements and 21 organic compounds were evaluated with sediment-quality criteria established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Concentrations of selected trace elements and organic compounds were highest at sites draining urban and agricultural areas and may result from cumulative effects of relatively high percentages of fine-grained material, iron, and organic material. Concentrations exceeding sediment-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life occurred most frequently at Bayou Grosse Tete at Rosedale and Bayou Lafourche below weir at Thibodaux. Exceedance of Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines occurred most frequently for arsenic and chromium. Trace-element concentrations in fine-grained samples were compared with concentrations in bulk samples and were determined to be significantly different, and concentrations were generally higher in finegrained sediment. Shapiro-Wilk, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum statistical procedures, with an alpha of 0.05, were used to compare concentrations of 21 trace elements, total organic carbon, and total carbon in finegrained and bulk sediment samples for 19 sites. Significant differences were determined between fine-grained and bulk sediment samples for aluminum, barium, beryllium, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, titanium, and zinc concentrations. Of 133 paired concentrations, 69 percent were greater in fine-grained samples, and 23

  14. 潜孔の設置位置がアユの遡上特性に与える影響

    OpenAIRE

    鬼束, 幸樹; 秋山, 壽一郎; 松田, 孝一郎; 寺島, 大輔

    2011-01-01

    Nakamura pointed out that the notch should be placed on one-side compared with alternate to shorten the amount of staying time of fish in a pool. However, there is little information on the suitable orifice location for shorten the amount of staying time of fish in a pool. In this study, orifice location in a pooland-weir fishway is changed alternate or one-side. Behaviors of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were obtained with the aid of two sets of digital video cameras. It was found t...

  15. The Dendrochronological Dating of Timber Crossings in West Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...... complete sapwood, to bark edge, preserved. Skjern Bridge, across the Skjern River and also in west Jutland, is medieval in date, with phases from the 12th to 14th centuries. The bridge is one element in a complex of activity by the river including an earlier ford, a fish weir contemporary with the bridge...

  16. Simulation of the Inclusion Movement in the Tundish of Slab Casting%板坯连铸中间包中夹杂物运动的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光明; 毕学工; 金焱; 李宏玉; 叶琛

    2011-01-01

    中间包现在已成为去除夹杂物的一种精炼装置.通常在中间包内安装上下挡墙来改变流体流动和夹杂物的运动轨迹,提高夹杂物的去除率.利用软件进行模拟计算研究中间包内上下挡墙之间的距离,以及到入水口的距离对夹杂物去除的影响,从而合理地设计中间包内上下挡墙,使夹杂物去除达到最佳的效果.计算结果表明,上挡墙到入水口的距离和夹杂物的去除率间关系不明显,受到其他因素较大的影响;下挡墙与入水口越远,明显对夹杂物的去除越有利.上下挡墙之间的距离对夹杂物的去除没有明显规律性的影响.%Tundish is now viewed as a refining device to remove inclusions. Usually weirs and dams are used in the tundish to change the flow and inclusion trajectories, thereby enhancing the removal of inclusions. A common software is used to simulate the influence on the removal of inclusions, with the changes of distance between the walls upside and downside and the distance from the nozzle to the weir. The results showed that: As the distance between the weir and inlet increased, the removal ratio of inclusions is reduced, and the other factor also influence this trend. As the distance between the dam and inlet increased, the removal ratio is obviously increased. And the distance between the dam and weir have no influence on the removal ratio.

  17. QUANDO A FICÇÃO CINEMATOGRÁFICA ENQUADRA O REALITY SHOW : UMA INTER-RELAÇÃO DE MÍDIAS AUDIOVISUAIS EM THE TRUMAN SHOW

    OpenAIRE

    Madalozzo, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Em The Truman Show (Peter Weir, 1998) apresenta-se ao espectador uma complexa estrutura narrativa multimidiática em abismo. Além de cenas em que a moldura televisiva se faz evidente, em certos momentos o olhar televisivo é englobado pelo cinematográfico por meio de um efeito de incorporação de quadros, resultando em duas molduras coincidentes que orientam diferentes percursos narrativos dentro do filme. Assim, apresenta-se um trabalho elaborado de referencialidade midiática. Entendendo-se que...

  18. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Cassaretto B.; Patricia Martínez U.

    2009-01-01

    This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A) by Casullo (2002) and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991) were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the exis...

  19. Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number, 3, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    but people in Australia still know what you mean when you say “I’ll have a brew ,” a coffee , “I’ll have a NATO standard” (that’s white and two... Cold War (2003, with Walter Boyne). Among his articles are two in this journal (Winter 1991, Autumn 1997). Dr. Weir is also founder and editor of the...who initially established very close ties with the Soviet Union within the context of the Cold War. His loy- alties later shifted when neighbor and

  20. GeoSys.Chem: Estimate of reservoir fluid characteristics as first step in geochemical modeling of geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2012-12-01

    A computer code GeoSys.Chem for the calculation of deep geothermal reservoir fluid characteristics from the measured physical-chemical parameters of separated water and condensed vapor samples obtained from drilled wells is presented. It was written as a dynamic link library (DLL) in Visual Basic in Visual Studio 2010 (VB.NET). Using this library a demonstration program GeoChem was developed in VB.NET, which accepts the input data file in the XML format. A stepwise calculation of deep reservoir fluid characteristics of 11 production wells of Los Azufres geothermal system is performed. The calculated concentration of CO2 (e.g.=1270 mmole/kg in the well AZ-09) in the vapor, discharged into the atmosphere at the weir box, from the water sample indicates some problem in the analysis of carbonic species concentrations. In the absence of good quality analysis of carbonic species it is suggested to consider the CO2 in the vapor sample at the separator and the total dissolved carbonic species concentration in the water sample (i.e., without considering the liberation of CO2 in the atmospheric vapor at the weir box) for the geothermal reservoir fluid composition calculations. Similarly, it presents various diagrams developed in Excel for the thermodynamic evolution of Los Azufres geothermal reservoir.

  1. Physical modeling of river spanning rock structures: Evaluating interstitial flow, local hydraulics, downstream scour development, and structure stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K.L.; Thornton, C.I.; Mefford, B.; Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Rock weir and ramp structures uniquely serve a necessary role in river management: to meet water deliveries in an ecologically sound manner. Uses include functioning as low head diversion dams, permitting fish passage, creating habitat diversity, and stabilizing stream banks and profiles. Existing information on design and performance of in-stream rock structures does not provide the guidance necessary to implement repeatable and sustainable construction and retrofit techniques. As widespread use of rock structures increases, the need for reliable design methods with a broad range of applicability at individual sites grows as well. Rigorous laboratory testing programs were implemented at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and at Colorado State University (CSU) as part of a multifaceted research project focused on expanding the current knowledge base and developing design methods to improve the success rate of river spanning rock structures in meeting project goals. Physical modeling at Reclamation is being used to measure, predict, and reduce interstitial flow through rock ramps. CSU is using physical testing to quantify and predict scour development downstream of rock weirs and its impact on the stability of rock structures. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  2. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwirin; Jang, Cheolhee; Kim, Sung

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day-1) with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  3. Numerical modelling to assess maintenance strategy management options for a small tidal inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeri, Saeed; Tomlinson, Rodger; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Strauss, Darrell

    2017-03-01

    Small tidal inlets are found to be more sensitive to anthropogenic alteration than their larger counterparts. Such alterations, although typically supported by technical design reports, sometimes require amendments or modification. One of the most suitable tools to conduct the necessary studies in this regard is numerical modelling, since the behaviour of the inlet system in response to proposed remedial actions, can easily be identified. In this paper, various alternative proposals are investigated to determine the most practical and viable option to mitigate the need for ongoing maintenance at a typical small, jettied tidal inlet. The main tool to investigate the alternatives is the hydro-sedimentological modelling of the inlet system, which was performed using the Delft3D software package. The proposed alternative entrance modifications were based upon structural alterations of the inlet system (such as a jetty extension or submerged weir) and non-structural scenarios (such as a change of the time of the dredging campaign or the deposition location of the dredged material). It was concluded that whilst a detailed study is inevitable in order to achieve a comprehensive design plan, based upon the results of this study the construction of a submerged weir at the entrance channel can satisfy the needs of most of the stakeholders, with justifiable costs over a longer period.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE FLOW THROUGH HANGED-PLATE OF THE TWO-STOREY INTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of the de-sign of the two storey intake in rivers with deficient discharge,gravel bed and higher diversion ratio. Instead of using classi-cal types of intake, a kind of two-level hanged-plate intake de-signs was suggested. The hanged-plate was arranged in themiddle level depth of flow and flow was separated to two por-tions I. E. The region above the hanged-plate and the regionunder the hanged-plate. In such way, the upper stream flowsinto channel and the bottom stream becomes the pressureflow. By using this arrangement, clearer water including lesssediment are deflected into irrigation channel in addition to in-creasing the transport sediment ratio. In this paper, flow pat-terns, velocity profile, pressure distribution, and diversionratio were studied experimentally for two different headers ofhanged-plate, P-weir and L-weir. The main characteristics offlow through hanged-plate was also inverstigated and com-pared with each other. The design works better in comparisonwith artificial band, sluice dam intake work, and so on.

  5. MODERNISATION OF WATER BARRAGE IN SKÓRKA VILLAGE ON THE GŁOMIA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Zawadzki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 the construction of a weir, a bridge and a fish pass on the river Głomia in the Skórka village was completed. The new weir allowed to continue operating hydroelectric power station (12 kW. The construction of fish ladders allowed the migration. The analysis of water flows by the barrage indicates the need for modernization of hydroelectric power. The problem on the barrage is also to provide sufficient current attractant in order to identify a suitable way for migratory fish. The analysis of the technical solutions proposed the construction of a second fish pass. The paper presents a detail analysis of the modernization of the barrage yet, taking into account all the elements constituting the upper and lower positions of the structure. Reconstruction of hydrotechnical objects, technical condition of which requires modernization should take into account the performance characteristics of all elements of the barrage to avoid the need to improve the operation of the elements already modernized. The repair work should be different scenarios that may occur during the lifetime of barrage.

  6. KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN POTENSI SUMBER DAYA AIR TERPADU ( STUDI KASUS MATA AIR INGAS (COKRO, KEC. COKRO TULUNG KABUPATEN KLATEN – JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyana Sriyana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potential exploitation of Ingas (Cokro water resource is currently less than optimal, there are still manywasted water flows and there is still no coordination in planning. The objective of this research is to reviewwater resource potential integratedly, by measuring the spring discharge in real terms, analyzing the utilizationof water source and water balance. The method used in this thesis is by measuring the discharge using currentmeter, analyzing water requirements for plants using Penman method, and analyzing data with the help ofMicrosoft Exel. It is resulted that the total potential of Ingas (Cokro water resource is 1297 l/dt, utilized fordrinking water (PDAM Surakarta at 400 l/dt, drinking water for Cokro Village at 4 l/dt, and the remainder isused for irrigation and moving a turbine with 50 Watt electric power. Water demand for irrigation is 995 l/dt,fullfilled from Ingas (Cokro source discharge at 593 l/dt plus surface water discharge as a result frommeasurment of pulsur river (Plosowareng weir at 696 l/dt, from the total water resource potential of 1289 l/dt.Water balance of Ingas (Cokro water resource has already balanced or optimal, while residual discharge of294 l/dt is obtained at measurement point (Plosowareng weir

  7. Sustainable Improvement of Urban River Network Water Quality and Flood Control Capacity by a Hydrodynamic Control Approach-Case Study of Changshu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Long; Fan, Ziwu

    2017-01-01

    Water environment of urban rivers suffers degradation with the impacts of urban expansion, especially in Yangtze River Delta. The water area in cites decreased sharply, and some rivers were cut off because of estate development, which brings the problems of urban flooding, flow stagnation and water deterioration. The approach aims to enhance flood control capability and improve the urban river water quality by planning gate-pump stations surrounding the cities and optimizing the locations and functions of the pumps, sluice gates, weirs in the urban river network. These gate-pump stations together with the sluice gates and weirs guarantee the ability to control the water level in the rivers and creating hydraulic gradient artificially according to mathematical model. Therefore the flow velocity increases, which increases the rate of water exchange, the DO concentration and water body self-purification ability. By site survey and prototype measurement, the river problems are evaluated and basic data are collected. The hydrodynamic model of the river network is established and calibrated to simulate the scenarios. The schemes of water quality improvement, including optimizing layout of the water distribution projects, improvement of the flow discharge in the river network and planning the drainage capacity are decided by comprehensive Analysis. Finally the paper introduces the case study of the approach in Changshu City, where the approach is successfully implemented.

  8. Estimation of Flow Resistance Due to Embankments and Spur Dikes during Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Flow resistance is a key factor in predicting the river conveyance capacity and associated water levels. In addition to bed resistance, the obstacles (embankments, spur dikes etc. in the flood plain of a river contribute to the flow resistance. In particular the elevated parts are expected to play an important role. The objective of this study is to develop and parameterize an analytical model for the form drag due to such obstacles. An experimental study was carried out for validation purposes of the developed analytical model. The prototype weir-like structure (in the form of an embankment was modeled as a weir with various leeside slopes. Measurements for energy head losses were carried out for a range of discharges and downstream water levels covering submerged flow conditions. The energy head loss due to submerged dikes was modeled as an expansion loss form drag. The analytical form drag model was estimated using a one-dimensional momentum conservation equation which accounts for the energy loss associated with a deceleration of the flow in the leeside region of the sudden expansion. The predicted losses from the analytical model agreed well with the experimental results. The minor deviations observed could be attributed to downstream slope effects and non- uniform velocity distribution in expansion zone (recirculation region of an embankment.

  9. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  10. Three-dimensional simulation of liquid flow on a sieve tray under different inclinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluid state on a sieve tray will change when the towers tilt under wind loads. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to predict the flow patters and hydraulics on the tray under different inclinations. The gas and liquid phases are modelled with the volume-of-fluid (VOF framework as two inmiscible phases. Several three-dimensional transient simulations were carried out for a 0.38m diameter tray with varying liquid weir loads and inclined angles. The clear liquid height determined from these simulations is in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements carried out for air-water in a round tray of the same dimensions. The simulation results show that, compared with the horizontal tray, the circulation area is bigger when the liquid flow and inclination direction of the tray are the same, but when they are opposite the circulation area is smaller. The percentage of circulation area to the tray area can obviously be decreased, along with increasing liquid weir loads. It is concluded that CFD can be used for the prediction of liquid flow on sieve trays under different inclinations

  11. Self-organizing numerical models of transient processes in water supply hydraulic structures of energy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Arefyev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is an increase of diversity in the design of complex hydraulic structures. Thus there is a need to establish adequate mathematical models and software with complete description of processes. These models should be focused on certain classes of problems, which statements may change during the simulation. So, in our opinion, so-called self-organizing simulation models are perspective, they adapt to changes in the operating practice of the objects that require rapid adjustments in the boundary conditions and the field of simulation. Results of development of self-adapting complexes of numerical models, permitting calculation of complex water passageway systems with varying flow regime on separate parts (discharge; movement on the dry bottom, provided hydraulic head in free-flow downstream tunnel etc.. Presented system traces the movement of modeling area boundaries (when filling and dumping water passage sections and chooses the appropriate boundary condition with changing flow regime on the border of modelling area of the flow (free-flowing weir – drowned weir.Given results of numerical simulation of real systems make it possible to consider proposed approach as efficient.

  12. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day−1 with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  13. Dam Removals and River Restoration in International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris S. Sneddon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Anthropocene era, questions over institutions, economics, culture and politics are central to the promotion of water-society relations that enhance biophysical resilience and democratic modes of environmental governance. The removal of dams and weirs from river systems may well signal an important shift in how human actors value and utilize rivers. Yet the removal of water infrastructure is often lengthy, institutionally complex, and characterized by social conflict. This Special Issue draws insights from case studies of recent efforts in North America and Europe to restore river systems through dam and weir removal. These cases include both instances where removal has come to fruition in conjunction with efforts to rehabilitate aquatic systems and instances where removal has been stymied by a constellation of institutional, political and cultural factors. Drawing from diverse theoretical frames and methodological approaches, the authors present novel ways to conceptualize water-society relations using the lens of dam removal and river restoration, as well as crucial reminders of the multiple biophysical and social dimensions of restoration initiatives for water resource practitioners interested in the rehabilitation of socioecological systems.

  14. 圆中环沉沙排沙池曲线型中心出水环堰试验研究%Research on center outlet ring in circular-rings of desilting and sediment ejection pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈治锋; 侍克斌; 杨真; 李燕波

    2016-01-01

    为了改进圆中环池内流速分布不均匀的不足,使用物理模型对中心出水环堰进行试验研究.对中心出水环堰进行结构优化:在保证中心出水环堰最优高度不变情况下,将环堰出口由平口型调整为曲线一型和曲线二型,分别在3种来流量条件下(2 m3/s,3 m3/s,4 m3/s)测量溢流堰行近流速.试验结果表明:曲线型中心出水环堰相比平口型可以使溢流堰行近流速整体下降且更均匀.从曲线一型和曲线二型最大、最小和平均流速的对比分析中发现,曲线二型对圆中环整体流速的下降更为明显,是优于曲线一型的一种曲线型中心出水环堰.试验对研究圆中环在不同来流量下的中心出水环堰的设计具有一定的参考价值.%In order to improve the shortage of uneven distribution of flow velocity in circular-ring desilting and sediment ejection pool,the paper used physical model to study the center outlet ring.It also carried out structure optimization to center outlet ring.Under the condition of constant guarantee ring maximum height of weir,the paper adjusted the ring weir export from flat mouth to curve type 1 and type 2.Under three kinds of flow condition (2 m3/s,3 m3/s,4 m3/s) it measured the velocity over flow weir outlet.The results show that the type curve center weir ring can make the overflow dam line nearly velocity overall decline compared with that of flat mouth ring and is more uniform.From the analysis of curve type 1 and type 2 maximum,minimum and average flow velocity contrast,it is found that the falling of curve type 2 on circular-ring desilting and sediment ejection pool is more apparent,the fall of velocity in circular-rings weir for curve type 2 is better than that for curve type 1.The test can provide a certain reference for the design of circular-ring desilting and sediment ejection pool under different flows.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  17. Implications of climate-driven variability and trends for the hydrologic assessment of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V.; Nayak, Anurag

    2010-05-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the implications of long-term climate trends for the hydroclimatology of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains, Idaho of the Intermountain West over a 40-year period (1967-2006). Calibration and validation of the macroscale hydrology model in this highly monitored watershed is key to address the watershed processes that are vulnerable to both natural climate variability and climate change. The model was calibrated using the streamflow data collected between 1997 and 2006 from the three nested weirs, the Reynolds Mountain East (RME), Tollgate and Outlet. For assessing the performance of the calibrated model, this study used 30 years of streamflow data for the period between 1966 and 1996. This investigation suggested that the model predicted streamflow was best at RME, and inadequate at Outlet. Simulated soil moisture was also verified using the data available from five soil moisture measurement sites. The model was able to capture the seasonal patterns of changes in soil water storage considering the differences in the spatial extent of the observed and predicted soil water storage (point measurements against the spatially averaged values for the HRU) and uncertainty associated with the soil moisture measurements due to instrument effects. Water budget partitioning during a wet (1984) water year and a dry (1987) water year were also analyzed to characterize the differences in hydrologic cycles during the extreme hydrologic conditions. Our analysis showed that in the dry water year, vegetation at the higher elevation were under water stress by the end of the water year. Contrastingly, in the wet water year only the vegetation at low and mid-elevations were under water stress whereas vegetation at the higher elevations derived substantial soil moisture for ET processes even towards the end of the growing season. To understand the effect of climate change on

  18. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  19. Runoff and sediment monitoring in an agricultural watershed in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetbauer, Ingrid; Strohmeier, Stefan; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Land degradation due to soil erosion is a major issue in the Ethiopian Highlands. Deforestation leads to ongoing gully erosion during the rainy season (June to September) and thus the hydrology of a watershed changes as dense gully networks cause direct drainage of rain water. To better understand watershed scale gully processes in the Ethiopian Highlands, three gauging stations were installed in the 56 km² large Gumara-Maksegnit catchment in the northern Amhara region, to monitor discharge and sediment load in the gullies during rainy season. Various weirs respectively a fixed cross section was installed: Two v-notched weirs were built in two approximately 30 ha large sub catchments. Discharge was determined based on continuously logged water level data (ultrasonic sensor respectively pressure sensor) and using a calibrated weir equation. Sediment concentration was estimated based on continuously logged turbidity sensor data. In the main outlet discharge was calculated based on water level data (pressure sensor) and by using a calibrated rating curve which was derived by means of spatial distributed flow velocity measurements within the fixed and rectangular shaped cross section. Sediment concentration was estimated by turbidity sensor equipment. To validate the continuously logged turbidity sensors data additional manually taken runoff samples were used. Additionally, rainfall data was logged at three gauging stations distributed in the watershed. Observed data from the rainy season 2012 showed that the runoff in the sub catchments as well as in the main outlet was mainly controlled by heavy single storm events. Although baseflow and interflow was observed in the main outlet, the portion of surface runoff dominated the runoff in the gully. As a consequence of the surface runoff driven regime in the gullies, huge amounts of sediment were observed during heavy rainfall events. The hydrological study at Gumara-Maksegnit watershed is part of an entire watershed

  20. Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison

  1. Small-scale hydro-electric scheme in Roches, Switzerland; Projet de concession. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Roches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2006-07-01

    The small hydropower plant (SHPP) project 'PCH Roches' is planned to be built in Roches, a small village located in the Jura region of the canton of Bern. The goal of this undertaking is to reactivate a site with hydro potential of the river Birs on a section that was already well exploited by some ancient SHPP (since 1953 or probably even earlier). Several modifications were performed on this plant over the years; not all contributed positively on its production figures. Following a transfer of the water rights in 1987, claims became loud against the owner to perform maintenance on the river banks and to modify the weir such that a free passage for the fishes will be granted. Those issues contributed to inflate a conflict which ended in the repeal of the water rights and a total plant shut down in 2001. The new project plans to reuse the existing pen stock and to carry out some refurbishing activities to grant security and better performance. The weir and the intake structure are also redesigned such that the water storage can be somewhat raised for normal operation; a weir gate will however allow to better discharge the river in flood situations. A new turbine house will be erected at the current location where the tail water pen stock rejoins the river. Hence, the existing old turbine house will be obsolete and the upper and lower pen stock sections are to be linked with each other. Limited by the existing pen stock size, the new plant is expected to produce some 50 kW power and 362,000 kWh/year. This represents an increase in energy generation of around 200% compared with the ancient SHPP. Gross head is 5.38 m, net head 4.12 m with a turbine flow of at least 1.6 m{sup 3}/s. The expected energy sales price applicable to this project reaches about 0.17 CHF/kWh as per the current tariffs set by the grid owner. This project calls for the building of a state-of-the-art SHPP. It will avoid the total dismantling of the existing works to take place and allow

  2. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement...... weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  3. Electromagnetic parameter retrieval at oblique incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saima I.; De La Rue, Richard M.; Drysdale, Tim D.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2013-05-01

    Optical metamaterials are able to achieve optical properties that do not exist in nature. Approaches to the homogenization of optical metamaterials are becoming more and more complex in the desire to achieve accurate representation. Here we propose to modify an existing retrieval approach for metamaterials to characterize their properties. To extract the effective refractive index and material parameters from reflection and transmission coefficients for double negative metamaterial in the optical regime, the modified Nicholson-Ross-Weir (NRW) method is used. In order to obtain a true picture of these metamaterials, as a function of angle of incidence of the illumination, it is important to present not only the effective parameters of permittivity and permeability but also some other important parameters such as coupling coefficients, that represent the inherent anisotropy.

  4. Fluid Flow and Interfacial Phenomenon of Slag and Metal in Continuous Casting Tundish With Argon Blowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; ZHU Miao-yong; ZHOU Hai-bing; WANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The fluid flow and the interracial phenomenon of slag and metal in tundish with gas blowing were studied with mathematical and physical modeling,and the effects of gas flowrate,the placement of porous beam for the generation of bubbles,and the combination of flow control devices on the flow and slag-metal interface were investigated.The results show that the position of gas bubbling has a significant effect on the flow in tundish,and the placement of porous beam and gas flowrate are the two main factors affecting the entrapment of slag in tundish.The closer the porous beam to the weir,the more reasonable is the flow,which is in favor of the control of slag entrapment in tundish.

  5. Influence of flow control devices on metallurgical effects in a large-capacity tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of flow control devices on metallurgical effects in a large-capacity tundish has been studied carefully with elements tracing, sampling and theoretical prospecting. The results from the studies are (1) in the continuous casting of clean steel, bad control of tundish operation may deteriorate the cleanliness of steel; (2) the cleanliness of steel is deteriorated mainly at the unsteady state; (3) large amount of macro inclusions come from the top slag and the refractory of tundish; (4) installing dam and weir can improve the cleanliness of steel and lighten the influence of steel fluctuation; and (5) the result of theoretical calculation suggests that the inclusions larger than the critical size of 92.6 μm can be floated out from the tundish bath completely.

  6. Simulasi Penggunaan Lahan untuk Kelestarian Bendung Bila pada Sub DAS Bila Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Nur Faridah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal land use system in Bila sub-watershed is the land use system that can give erosion contribution rate below or minimally equal to the Tolerable Soil Loss (TSL value of Bila sub-watershed soil. The erosion factors are determined by parameter : R (rain erosivity, K (soil erodibility,: LS (topography, C (land coverage, and P (land conservation. Each parameter is overlaid, than it is evaluated in each land unit in Bila sub-watershed. The acquired data is processed by using Geographic Information System (GIS supported with Arc View program and Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel softwares. The qualified erosion and sediment rate values obtained from simulation result which is meet the standard for erosion and sediment control and management in Bila sub-watershed area and Bi/a weir were 10,597 tonnes/ha/yearand 50,864 m3/km2/year respectively.

  7. Neuro-fuzzy GMDH based particle swarm optimization for prediction of scour depth at downstream of grade control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, neuro-fuzzy based-group method of data handling (NF-GMDH as an adaptive learning network was utilized to predict the maximum scour depth at the downstream of grade-control structures. The NF-GMDH network was developed using particle swarm optimization (PSO. Effective parameters on the scour depth include sediment size, geometry of weir, and flow characteristics in the upstream and downstream of structure. Training and testing of performances were carried out using non-dimensional variables. Datasets were divided into three series of dataset (DS. The testing results of performances were compared with the gene-expression programming (GEP, evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model, and conventional techniques. The NF-GMDH-PSO network produced lower error of the scour depth prediction than those obtained using the other models. Also, the effective input parameter on the maximum scour depth was determined through a sensitivity analysis.

  8. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation of permittivity and permeability of Teflon in X band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of an adequate characterization of radar absorbing materials, and consequently their development, the present study aims to contribute for the establishment and validation of experimental determination and numerical simulation of electromagnetic materials complex permittivity and permeability, using a Teflon® sample. The present paper branches out into two related topics. The first one is concerned about the implementation of a computational modeling to predict the behavior of electromagnetic materials in confined environment by using electromagnetic three-dimensional simulation. The second topic re-examines the Nicolson-Ross-Weir mathematical model to retrieve the constitutive parameters (complex permittivity and permeability of a homogeneous sample (Teflon®, from scattering coefficient measurements. The experimental and simulated results show a good convergence that guarantees the application of the used methodologies for the characterization of different radar absorbing materials samples.

  9. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  10. Computational flow simulation supporting the design of the Geesthacht fish pass; Numerische Modelluntersuchungen im Rahmen der Planung der Fischaufstiegsanlage Geesthacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Peter; Musall, Mark; Riesterer, Jochen; Nestmann, Franz [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung (IWG)

    2012-07-01

    In the year 2010 Europe's largest fish pass with basins at the Elbe-weir near Geesthacht was put into operation. Since then fish of many different kinds and sizes pass the building every day. The geometrical configuration of the facility, realized as a double slot pass, is based on extensive hydraulic model investigations. Thereby, apart from the flow characteristic within the building, also location-specific and operational aspects were to be analyzed and integrated into the planning concept. Due to the complex hydraulic boundary conditions as well as the high fish-ecological requirements a hybrid modeling approach with computational flow simulation in connection with physical model tests was employed, whereby substantial synergies as well as a good prognosis ability of the computer-aided simulation showed up. (orig.)

  11. Design optimization of flow control device for multi-strand tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The fluid flow phenomena in tundish have a strong influence not only on the uniform of composition and temperature ofbath, but also on the separation of non-metallic inclusions, especially for the multi-strand tundish. A water model of a multi-strandtundish has been set up based on the Froude number and Reynold number similarity criteria. The effect of dam+weir and baffle onthe uniform of composition and temperature of bath for different nozzles has been studied. The residence time distribution curves ofthe fluid flow were measured by SG800. Comparing the photos of the flow pattern in tundish, the optimum arrangement of baf-fle+dam was obtained. This new structure is benefit not only to uniform the temperature among different SENs (submerge entry noz-zles) but also to separate the non-inclusions from the liquid steel, it can be widely used in multi-strand tundish.

  12. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-15

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and

  13. The development of authentic personality with limitations of the educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA JARANOVIĆ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the urge of young people to find a purpose in their lives and make them more meaningful by insisting on the uniqueness of every individual. It is based on the analysis of two films: Professor Kosta Vujić’s Hat (directed by Zdravko Šotra, 2012; based on the novel by MilovanVitezović and Dead Poets Society (by Peter Weir, 1989. This journey is made through resisting and fighting against rigid rules of the educational system. The metamorphosis is influenced by two extraordinary teachers who give their students motivation and support. We will also consider the role of a teacher in the modern society and the possibility to switch from an ordinary lecturer to an exceptional leader, who encourages these students to look at life from different perspectives by making them question common thinking patterns.

  14. Effet structurant de la plante hôte chez la bruche de l'arachide, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembène, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structuring effect of the host plant in the groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Twenty-six samples of the groundnut seed-beetle which were reared from pods of five different host plants (Arachis hypogaea L., Bauhinia rufescens Lam., Cassia sieberiana DC., Piliostigma reticulatum (DC. Hochst. and Tamarindus indica L. in four localities of Senegal were compared using electrophoresis based on six loci of four enzymatic systems. The population structure of Caryedon serratus Olivier was analysed using Weir and Cockerham's estimator of Wright's F-statistics. θ value (0.235 and the dendrogram of Rogers'genetic distances revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation between host plants. Genetic analysis without C. sieberiana samples indicated that populations form host races which are partially isolated according to their host plants (θ = 0.035. Geographical distances between localities are not decisive for genetic structuration of C. serratus populations from a given host plant.

  15. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison HA [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xinya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and

  16. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  17. Metamaterial Multiband Antenna for Wireless Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader AZIZI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a Multi-band antenna along with the innovative metamaterial structure is proposed which consists of a circular geometry incorporated with c shaped structure. This work is mainly focused on increasing the potential parameters of planar antennas and analyzing the multi band operation of proposed antenna. The impedance bandwidth of proposed antenna are covered and utilized frequency range of (2.6~3.1 GHz, (3.5~4.4 GHz and (4.7~6.2 GHz. For verifying that the proposed metamaterial structure possesses Negative values of Permeability and Permittivity within the operating frequency ranges, Nicolson-Ross-Weir method (NRW has been employed. For simulation purpose HFSS Software has been used.

  18. The Feasibility of Using an Ultrasonic Fish Tracking System in the Tailrace of Lower Granite Dam in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cash, Kenneth; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2003-09-10

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL in Spring 2002 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic fish tracking in the untested environment of a hydroelectric dam tailrace. If fish tracking were determined to be feasible, we would track the movement of juvenile hatchery chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), juvenile hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss), and juvenile wild steelhead (O. mykiss) and relate their movement to dam operations. The majority of fish to be tracked were released as a part of a separate study conducted by the Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (BRD), which was investigating the movement of juvenile salmon in the forebay of Lower Granite Dam in relation to Removable Spillway Weir (RSW) testing. The two studies took place consecutively from April 14 to June 7, 2002.

  19. Derivation and application of the energy dissipation factor in the design of fishways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Brett; Mulligan, Kevin; Haro, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing turbulence and associated air entrainment is generally considered advantageous in the engineering design of fish passage facilities. The well-known energy dissipation factor, or EDF, correlates with observations of the phenomena. However, inconsistencies in EDF forms exist and the bases for volumetric energy dissipation rate criteria are often misunderstood. A comprehensive survey of EDF criteria is presented. Clarity in the application of the EDF and resolutions to these inconsistencies are provided through formal derivations; it is demonstrated that kinetic energy represents only 1/3 of the total energy input for the special case of a broad-crested weir. Specific errors in published design manuals are identified and resolved. New, fundamentally sound, design equations for culvert outlet pools and standard Denil Fishway resting pools are developed. The findings underscore the utility of EDF equations, demonstrate the transferability of volumetric energy dissipation rates, and provide a foundation for future refinement of component-, species-, and life-stage-specific EDF criteria.

  20. 中国调查性报道探秘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树华; 邵国松

    2002-01-01

    调查性报道是二十世纪初期兴起的,它意味着新闻记者开始冲破文学界限从而进入政治领域,同时也预示了记者与社会上层之间复杂的角力关系(Fitzpatrick,1994;Lotz,1991)。尤其在社会动荡或改革时期,调查性报道尤为兴盛。它的兴衰取决于大众对政治经济资源分配的合理悱是否了解,是否要求更多的知情权,以及该政治体系对批评是否有足够的忍耐力(weir & Noyes,1984)。

  1. Analysis of matches and partial-matches in a Danish STR data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Curan, James Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Over the recent years, the national databases of STR profiles have grown in size due to the success of forensic DNA analysis in solving crimes. The accumulation of DNA profiles implies that the probability of a random match or near match of two randomly selected DNA profiles in the database...... increases. We analysed 53,295 STR profiles from individuals investigated in relation to crime case investigations at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Incomplete STR profiles (437 circa 0.8% of the total), 48 redundant STR profiles from...... other, i.e. 1.3 × 109 comparisons. With these large number of comparisons, it is likely to observe DNA profiles that coincide on many loci, which has concerned some commentators and raised questions about “overstating” the power of DNA evidence. We used the method of Weir [11] and [12] and Curran et al...

  2. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation du Moulin de Bavois. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' located in Bavois on the Talent river, Switzerland. The existing scheme uses a 12 m water fall and its power amounts to about 10 kW. After retrofitting, based on a future new water-use concession, the maximum electric power produced should be 172 kW, generating 531 MWh/y, 65% of which in the wintertime. New weir and penstock are foreseen as is an axial Kaplan turbine and a reliable water cleaning device. The Talent river flows in the woods. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.214 CHF/kWh.

  3. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  4. Mixed type symmetric and self duality for multiobjective variational problems with support functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pair of mixed type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions is formulated. This mixed formulation unifies two existing pairs Wolfe and Mond-Weir type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions. For this pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problems, various duality theorems are established under convexity-concavity and pseudoconvexity-pseudoconcavity of certain combination of functionals appearing in the formulation. A self duality theorem under additional assumptions on the kernel functions that occur in the problems is validated. A pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problem with natural boundary values is also formulated to investigate various duality theorems. It is also pointed that our duality theorems can be viewed as dynamic generalizations of the corresponding (static symmetric and self duality of multiobjective nonlinear programming with support functions.

  5. Geodesic B-Preinvex Functions and Multiobjective Optimization Problems on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a class of functions called geodesic B-preinvex and geodesic B-invex functions on Riemannian manifolds and generalize the notions to the so-called geodesic quasi/pseudo B-preinvex and geodesic quasi/pseudo B-invex functions. We discuss the links among these functions under appropriate conditions and obtain results concerning extremum points of a nonsmooth geodesic B-preinvex function by using the proximal subdifferential. Moreover, we study a differentiable multiobjective optimization problem involving new classes of generalized geodesic B-invex functions and derive Kuhn-Tucker-type sufficient conditions for a feasible point to be an efficient or properly efficient solution. Finally, a Mond-Weir type duality is formulated and some duality results are given for the pair of primal and dual programming.

  6. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Quinto - Preliminary project; Progetto minicentrale idroelettrica, Ri Secco - Quinto. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the alpine stream 'Ri Secco' in the municipality of Quinto, southern Switzerland. The Ri Secco partly flows in a steep canyon. The elevation difference of 810 or 620 m (depending on the location of the water deviation from the stream) is favorable to the installation of a small-scale high-head power plant. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include two possible penstock diameters for each weir location. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  7. Making classifying selectors work for foam elimination in the activated-sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denny; Geary, Steve; Jones, Garr; McIntyre, Lori; Oppenheim, Stuart; Pedregon, Vick; Pope, Rod; Richards, Tyler; Voigt, Christine; Volpe, Gary; Willis, John; Witzgall, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Classifying selectors are used to control the population of foam-causing organisms in activated-sludge plants to prevent the development of nuisance foams. The term, classifying selector, refers to the physical mechanism by which these organisms are selected against; foam-causing organisms are enriched into the solids in the foam and their rapid removal controls their population at low levels in the mixed liquor. Foam-causing organisms are wasted "first" rather than accumulating on the surface of tanks and thereby being wasted "last", which is typical of the process. This concept originated in South Africa, where pilot studies showed that placement of a flotation tank for foam removal prior to secondary clarifiers would eliminate foam-causing organisms. It was later simplified in the United States by using the aeration in aeration tanks or aerated channels coupled with simple baffling and adjustable weirs to make continuous separation of nuisance organisms from the mixed liquor.

  8. Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fošumpaur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus. 

  9. From Natural to Degraded Rivers and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Christian K.; Birk, Sebastian; Bradley, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive degradation of ecosystems, combined with the increasing demands placed on the goods and services they provide, is a major driver of biodiversity loss on a global scale. In particular, the severe degradation of large rivers, their catchments, floodplains and lower estuarine reaches has...... been ongoing for many centuries, and the consequences are evident across Europe. River restoration is a relatively recent tool that has been brought to bear in attempts to reverse the effects of habitat simplification and ecosystem degradation, with a surge of projects undertaken in the 1990s in Europe......—riparian buffer management, instream mesohabitat enhancement and the removal of weirs and small dams—to provide a structured overview of the literature. We distinguish between abiotic effects of restoration (e.g. increasing habitat diversity) and biological recovery (e.g. responses of algae, macrophytes...

  10. GMDH algorithms applied to turbidity forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Min; Yen, Pei-Hwa

    2017-06-01

    By applying the group method of data handling algorithm to self-organization networks, we design a turbidity prediction model based on simple input/output observations of daily hydrological data (rainfall, discharge, and turbidity). The data are from a field test site at the Chiahsien Weir and its upper stream in Taiwan, and were recorded from May 2000 to December 2008. The model has a regressive mode that can assess the estimated error, i.e., whether a threshold has been exceeded, and can be adjusted by updating the field input data. Consequently, the model can achieve accurate estimations over long-term periods. Test results demonstrate that the 2006 turbidity prediction model was selected as the best predictive model (RMSE = 5.787 and CC = 0.975) because of its ability to predict turbidity within the acceptable error range and 90 % required confidence interval (50NTU). 70(3,1,1) is the optimum modeling data length and variable combinations.

  11. Construction of human and mouse brain cDNA libraries and isolation of full-length cDNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    cDNA libraries from aborted human 3-month fetal brain,adult rat and mouse brain were constructed by using a yZAP express cDNA library construction kin.Low molecular weight fragments of the second strand cDNASA were removed by flowing through the Sepharose CL-4B column and the frractionated long,Middle,Short fragments and the combined fragments weire respectively inserted into clone vectors to construct the cDNA libraries of the brain of human 3-month fetus.The 5'ends of 1200 clones from each of human fetal brain cDNA libraries were sequenced.A total of 894 ESTs were obtained and some full-length clones were squenced.By andalyaing the se-quences,12 novel full-length cDNAs were obtained.

  12. Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, C A; Puddifoot, J E

    2000-08-01

    The authors explored attitudes of young women in the United Kingdom (n = 108) and the United States (n = 91) toward (a) the possession and use of guns through the Attitude to Guns Scale (N. R. Branscombe, J. A. Weir, & P. Crosby, 1992) and (b) guns' perceived functional and symbolic significance through the Symbolic Nature of Guns Scale (C. A. Cooke & J. E. Puddifoot, 1997). There were significant differences in beliefs concerning the right to own a gun and the protective effect of guns but not in the perceived contribution of guns to crime. Although neither group strongly equated guns symbolically with power or control, the U.S. women were more likely to perceive guns as expressions of freedom or independence, and the U.K. women were more likely to view guns as expressions of danger and violence. The findings were contextualized by comparison with samples of male control participants of similar ages.

  13. 雅思与托福交际测试特点与有用性的对比分析%Comparative Analysis on Characteristics and Usefulness of Communicative Test between IELTS and TOEFL iBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐佳敏

    2010-01-01

    雅思与托福iBT皆是交际测试理论实践的先驱和典范.从Weir(2003)所归纳的交际测试特征以及Bachman和Palmer(1996)的交际测试有用性评价原则出发,对这两种大型语言测试分项进行交际测试对比和评价,以检测两者在应用交际测试理论的彻底性.研究结果显示两种语言测试在各项交际测试理论应用中各有侧重,互有千秋.

  14. Hydraulics of free overfall in -shaped channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; B Ravi Kumar

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, two methods are presented to analyse the free overfall in -shaped (equilateral triangle-shaped) channels. First, the flow upstream of a free overfall from smooth horizontal or mildly sloping -shaped channels is analysed theoretically to determine the end-depth-ratio (EDR), applying the momentum equation based on the Boussinesq approximation. Second, an alternate method for analysing free overfall in -shaped channels is also presented where the flow over a free overfall in a -shaped channel is simulated by that over a sharp-crested weir to calculate the EDR. The method of estimation of discharge from the known end depth is also presented for both the methods. These approaches eliminate the need of an experimentally determined pressure coefficient. Experiments are conducted to verify the results obtained from the present methods. Comparisons of the computed and experimental results are satisfactory.

  15. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  16. Preliminary study for the 'Stroppel' residual-water hydropower installation; Vorprojektstudie fuer ein Dotierkraftwerk Stroppel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A. [Hydrelec AG fuer Energietechnik, Burgdorf, Mandach (Switzerland); Zimmermann, D. [Hydrelec Ingenieure, Affoltern (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the replacement of an old weir that controls the flow of residual water with a small hydropower turbine. The present situation and installations on the river Limmat near Untersiggenthal in northern Switzerland is described. The local geology, hydro-geology and topography are discussed. Six different variants for the use of the hydropower potential are discussed. The variant chosen for recommendation is described in detail. Apart from the normal technical details, the study provides details on flood-water protection and describes a fish by-pass that has already been built. Environmental aspects are discussed that are to be considered when the hydropower installation is built. The calculations for investment and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the power station is discussed.

  17. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  18. Displacements and identities in the australian gothic: the case of Picnic at Hanging Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Wrege Rassier

    2017-01-01

    The mysteries of the novel Picnic at Hanging Rock, by Joan Lindsay (1967, and its film adaptation of same name, directed by Peter Weir (1975, have been intriguing readers and audiences for more than four decades. Set in the Australian countryside in 1900, both narratives illustrate the Australian Gothic genre by revolving around the mystery of the disappearance of three schoolgirls and a teacher from a repressive boarding school during a picnic at the mountain. Basing our approach on the reflections by Linda Hutcheon (2011 on adaptations we analyze to which extent literary and cinematographic works relate to each other, while the works presented by Susan Bassnett (2006 and Kristi Siegl (2004 on women’s travel writing will allow us to approach themes such as female sexuality and travel as a metaphor of transformation.

  19. Doplněk k poznání vodních měkkýšů Labe mezi Hřenskem a Střekovem a srovnání s malakofaunou Labe v jiných úsecích

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper completes knowledge on aquatic molluscs of the free flowing part of the Elbe River between Hřensko and the weir with lock in Ústí nad Labem – Střekov. Altogether, 21 species of aquatic molluscs (9 gastropods, 12 bivalves were found in 2009. Viviparus viviparus, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Bithynia tentaculata, Ancylus fluviatilis, Unio pictorum, Anodonta anatina, Corbicula fluminea, Sphaerium corneum and Pisidium supinum were the most frequently occurring molluscs found during this research. The occurrence of two endangered bivalves Pseudanodonta complanata and Pisidium moitessierianum was recorded. No significant difference from the previous author’s research was found. Molluscan communities of this part of the river were compared with those of the upper canalized part of the Elbe River which contain more species (especially gastropods living predominantly in stagnant or slowly flowing waters e. g. Stagnicola palustris, S. corvus, Lymnaea stagnalis, Planorbis planorbis, Bathyomphalus contortus, Anisus vortex, Hippeutis complanatus, Ferrissia fragilis.

  20. Reactivation of a small hydropower plant in Aathal-Seegraeben; Aathal-Seegraeben (ZH) - Reaktivierung KW Unteraathal - Bauprojekt - Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.; Scherrer, I.

    2008-10-15

    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a project for the reactivation of a small hydropower installation originally built in 1915 in an old spinning mill in Aathal-Seegraeben, Switzerland. The report reviews the existing installations, including weir, headwater channel, machine house and tailwater channel as well as the existing electrical installations. The reactivation project is presented and the work involved is discussed. The economic viability of the project is looked at and contributions from the Swiss cost-covering remuneration scheme for power from renewable sources of energy are noted. Environmental aspects are reviewed and the preservation of the historical buildings is discussed. The report is completed with a selection of attachments concerning the project.

  1. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  2. 幻肢痛的病因和治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈舜喜; 陈述荣; 陈昕; 郑家鼎

    2008-01-01

    幻肢痛(phantom limb pain)是神经痛的一种类型,是主观感觉已切除的肢体仍然存在,并有不同程度、不同性质疼痛的幻觉现象,该幻肢发生的疼痛称为幻肢痛。是截肢后常见并发症之一.常伴有幻肢觉和残肢痛。1551年首见于文献报道,1871年被Silas Weir Mitchell正式命名为幻肢痛。

  3. Microwave absorption properties of LiNb3O8 in X-band prepared by combustion synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, J. Pundareekam; Sindam, Bashaiah; Tumuluri, Anil; Raju, K. C. James

    2015-08-01

    Single phase LiNb3O8 powders were prepared using combustion synthesis technique. The powders were prepared by heat treating Li2CO3+Nb2O5/urea mixture in 1:3 ratio. Structural and morphological details have been done to confirm the presence of LiNb3O8. The S-parameters were measured using rectangular waveguide method in the X-band frequency (8.2GHz to 12.4GHz) by Vector Network Analyzer. The dielectric characteristics like dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss (ɛ″) were calculated using Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm. Complex permittivity of 28-0.2j and 26-1.0j at 8.2GHz and 12.4GHz respectively are observed. Reflection loss was derived with permittivity and permeability as input parameters. Microwave absorber thickness is optimized and the RL< -20dB is obtained in the X-band frequency.

  4. Evidence of morphological discrete units in an endemic fish, the rostrum dace (Leuciscus burdigalensis Valenciennes 1844, within a small river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulet N.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The rostrum dace is a rheophilous Cyprinid fish endemic to some French catchments. Particularly vulnerable to its habitat degradation, the rostrum dace appears to be a patrimonial species. Morphometric features were used to identify populations in a heavily impounded river, the Viaur River. A total of 176 fish, spread over 7 stations, were photographed and then released. A linear discriminant analysis correctly classified more than 80% of the individuals. Significant relationships were found between the morphological differences and (i the geographical distance, and (ii the number of artificial barriers (i.e. dams and weirs between the stations. These results show that discrete dace morphological units occur in the Viaur River and therefore suggest a fragmentation of the population. Although further investigations (e.g. genetics, life history traits, etc. are necessary to refine these results, conservation measures should be undertaken to preserve this endemic species in the Viaur River.

  5. Fish passage and abundance around grade control structures on incised streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.T.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Pierce, C.L.; Dermisis, D.C.; Litvan, M.E.; Larson, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes research from separate studies of fish passage over weirs (Larson et al., 2004; Litvan, 2006; Litvan, et al., 2008a-c) and weir hydraulics (Papanicolaou and Dermisis, 2006; Papanicolaou and Dermisis, in press). Channel incision in the deep loess region of western Iowa has caused decreased biodiversity because streams have high sediment loads, altered flow regimes, lost habitat, and lost lateral connectivity with their former floodplains. In-stream grade control structures (GCS) are built to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure, and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries abundance and migration, biodiversity, and longitudinal connectivity. Fish mark-recapture studies were performed on stretches of streams with and without GCS. GCS with vertical or 1:4 (rise/run) downstream slopes did not allow fish migration, but GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 did. GCS sites were characterized by greater proportions of pool habitat, maximum depths, fish biomass, slightly higher index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores, and greater macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity than non-GCS sites. After modification of three GCS, IBI scores increased and fish species exhibiting truncated distributions before were found throughout the study area. Another study examined the hydraulic performance of GCS to facilitate unimpeded fish passage by determining the mean and turbulent flow characteristics in the vicinity of the GCS via detailed, non-intrusive field tests. Mean flow depth (Y) and velocity (V) atop the GCS were critical for evaluating GCS performance. Turbulent flow measurements illustrated that certain GCS designs cause sudden constrictions which form eddies large enough to disorient fish. GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 best met the minimum requirements to allow catfish passage of a flow depth of ??? 0.31 m and a mean flow velocity of ??? 1.22 m/s. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  6. Impact of estuary barrage construction on fish assemblages in the lower part of a river and the role of fishways as a passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Duk; Kim, Jeong-Hui; Park, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Eve; Jang, Min-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The construction of an estuary barrage, an instream structure in the lower reaches of a river, causes significant physical changes in water flow patterns and river morphology, and results in altered environmental conditions. Here, we examined the impact of the Geum River estuary barrage, completed in 1990, on fish assemblages by using a literature search and fresh surveys of fishways in the barrage. We found that fish assemblages upstream and downstream of the barrage were altered following its completion. After construction, more species were found in the freshwater area, with a particularly great increase in freshwater species. Conversely, estuarine and marine species were only consistently caught in the downstream salt-water area, although the number of species increased. In total, 15,829 fish from 47 species and 20 families were identified at the three types (pool and weir, rubble type, and boat passage) of fishways in the barrage. The dominant species were Chelon haematocheilus, an estuarine species, Coilia nasus, a diadromous species, and Erythroculter erythropterus, a freshwater species. The mean total length of fish (101.9 ± 76.0 mm) in the boat passage fishway was approximately 100 mm lesser than those in the pool and weir (207.2 ± 112.8 mm) and rubble type (205.8 ± 112.7 mm) fishways. The boat passage fishway was the most efficient for fish movements. The current fishway system is not sufficient for fish migration, and thus additional ways are required to improve the system such as the boat passage. Few estuarine or diadromous species were found in both freshwater and salt-water areas, but freshwater fishes that accidently moved to salt-water area actively used fishways. Therefore, fishway management in the Geum River estuary barrage has to focus on freshwater fish; however, this may need to change to a focus on migratory fishes depending on ecological life cycles of migratory fish.

  7. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  8. Impact of estuary barrage construction on fish assemblages in the lower part of a river and the role of fishways as a passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Duk; Kim, Jeong-Hui; Park, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Eve; Jang, Min-Ho

    2017-02-01

    The construction of an estuary barrage, an instream structure in the lower reaches of a river, causes significant physical changes in water flow patterns and river morphology, and results in altered environmental conditions. Here, we examined the impact of the Geum River estuary barrage, completed in 1990, on fish assemblages by using a literature search and fresh surveys of fishways in the barrage. We found that fish assemblages upstream and downstream of the barrage were altered following its completion. After construction, more species were found in the freshwater area, with a particularly great increase in freshwater species. Conversely, estuarine and marine species were only consistently caught in the downstream salt-water area, although the number of species increased. In total, 15,829 fish from 47 species and 20 families were identified at the three types (pool and weir, rubble type, and boat passage) of fishways in the barrage. The dominant species were Chelon haematocheilus, an estuarine species, Coilia nasus, a diadromous species, and Erythroculter erythropterus, a freshwater species. The mean total length of fish (101.9 ± 76.0 mm) in the boat passage fishway was approximately 100 mm lesser than those in the pool and weir (207.2 ± 112.8 mm) and rubble type (205.8 ± 112.7 mm) fishways. The boat passage fishway was the most efficient for fish movements. The current fishway system is not sufficient for fish migration, and thus additional ways are required to improve the system such as the boat passage. Few estuarine or diadromous species were found in both freshwater and salt-water areas, but freshwater fishes that accidently moved to salt-water area actively used fishways. Therefore, fishway management in the Geum River estuary barrage has to focus on freshwater fish; however, this may need to change to a focus on migratory fishes depending on ecological life cycles of migratory fish.

  9. Design of Mine-used Ultrasonic Open-channel Flowmeter%矿用超声波明渠流量计的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乐年; 刘伟光; 王全

    2011-01-01

    针对矿井水中含有的煤粉、泥沙等杂质淤积在明渠流量计探头表面而使其无法正常工作的问题,设计了一种基于M-Bus的矿用超声波明渠流量计.该流量计由量水堰槽、智能超声波流量传感器组成,选定量水堰槽可确定实时流量与实测水头高度的关系式,通过智能超声波流量传感器测出水头高度即可计算出明渠的实时流量.实际应用表明,该流量计具有测量准确、可靠性高、操作简单等优点.%In view of problem that open-channel flowmeter can't work normally because mine water contains impurities of coal powder and sediment which deposit on surface of probe of open-channel flowmeter, a mine-used ultrasonic open-channel flowmeter based on M-Bus was designed.The flowmeter is composed of water-level weir slot and intelligent ultrasonic flow sensor, which can get formula between real-time flow and measured height of water head by water-level weir slot and calculate real-time flow by intelligent ultrasonic flow sensor to measure height of water head.The actual application showed that the flowmeter has advantages of accurate measurement, high reliability and simple operation.

  10. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuok K. Kuok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and

  11. Control-structure ratings on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lockport, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Hortness, Jon E.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago regulate flows through control structures along the Lake Michigan lakefront and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) for Lake Michigan diversion accounting, flood control, sanitary, and navigation purposes. This report documents the measurement and computation of flow through the Lockport Controlling Works (LCW) and the Lockport Powerhouse. This analysis aided in evaluation of the ratings at both structures, and the development of new ratings at the controlling works. The LCW structure consists of seven 30-feet (ft) wide sluice gates and is used to divert water from the CSSC and into the Des Plaines River. The flow regimes for the sluice gate included both free and submerged weir. Forty and 491 flow values from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were used to develop equations describing free- and submerged-weir flow, respectively, through the sluice gates. The equations were developed for canal headwater elevations ranging from -7.0 to -10.5 ft Chicago City Datum (CCD), and tailwater (Des Plaines River at Lockport) to headwater (CSSC-LCW-Base) ratios ranging from 0.31 to 0.66. The Lockport Powerhouse structure consists of nine 9-ft wide by 14-ft high sluice gates and two 10-ft diameter turbines. Both tailwater and no-tailwater effect flow regimes occurred during nine measurements. Also, the canal headwater elevations ranged from -2.74 to -8.45 ft CCD, and the gates were configured six different ways during the measurements.

  12. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James

    2017-09-01

    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  13. Spawning migration movements of Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon, following the removal of Chiloquin Dam-2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    The Chiloquin Dam was located at river kilometer (rkm) 1.3 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus), shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), and other fish in the Sprague River. Our research objectives in 2009 were to evaluate adult catostomid spawning migration patterns using radio telemetry to identify and describe shifts in spawning area distribution and migration behavior following the removal of Chiloquin Dam in 2008. We attached external radio transmitters to 58 Lost River suckers and 59 shortnose suckers captured at the Williamson River fish weir. A total of 17 radio-tagged Lost River suckers and one radio-tagged shortnose sucker were detected approaching the site of the former Chiloquin Dam but only two radio-tagged fish (one male Lost River sucker and one female Lost River sucker) were detected crossing upstream of the dam site. A lower proportion of radio-tagged shortnose suckers were detected migrating into the Sprague River when compared with previous years. Detections on remote passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays located in the Sprague River show that although the proportion of fish coming into the Sprague River is small when compared to the number of fish crossing the Williamson River fish weir, the number of fish migrating upstream of the Chiloquin Dam site increased exponentially in the first year since its removal. These data will be used in conjunction with larval production and adult spawning distribution data to evaluate the effectiveness of dam removal in order to provide increased access to underutilized spawning habitat located further upstream in the Sprague River and to reduce the crowding of spawning fish below the dam site.

  14. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, we continued our assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. We stocked both streams with 15 pair of hatchery adults and estimated the potential smolt production from the 1999 outplant. I estimated that about nine smolts per female could be produced in both streams from the 1999 outplant. The smolt-to-adult return would need to exceed 20% to return two adults at this level of production. In the Red River drainage, we stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts, from 1993 to 1999, to assess which life-stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2000, we operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. We continued to monitor wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages. We estimated that 26 wild adult steelhead returned to Fish Creek. This is the lowest adult escapement we have documented (when the weir was intact all spring) since we began monitoring Fish Creek in 1992. I estimated that nearly 25,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek this year. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were similar to those observed in 1999. In 2000, we obtained funding for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. We collected fin samples from wild steelhead in 70 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon River drainages and from our five hatchery stocks. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage, and will be completed in 2001.

  15. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  17. Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume II of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Bill

    1993-05-01

    Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 7 FTE's. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An l8 inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40 F. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55 to 60 F and 70 cfs of flow. The hatchery facility consists of 11 chinook raceways, 24 steelhead raceways, 2 adult holding ponds, a covered spawning area with 2 live wells and 60 concrete rearing vats. There are 40 double stacks of Heath-type incubators and each vat also has an incubation jar. All facility units are in excellent condition. Clearwater Hatchery also supports satellite facilities at Red River, Crooked River and Powell. The Red River satellite facility is located approximately 15 miles east of Elk City, Idaho. It is approximately 186 miles upstream from Lower Granite Dam and 618 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. It was first built in 1974 by the Columbia River Project and then remodeled by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1986. Red River is supplied by gravity flow from an intake located at the bottom of the South Fork of Red River, 225 yards upstream from the facility. Water rights allow for 10 cfs and during low flows in the summer about 5 cfs is available. Temperatures range from 40 F in the spring to 71 F in early August. The facility consists of two adult holding ponds, a removable tripod and panel weir, and a rearing

  18. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  19. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison H.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Bryan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Amanda C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trott, Donna M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xinya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  20. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, X.; Fu, Tao

    2014-03-28

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  1. Turbulence investigation and reproduction for assisting downstream migrating juvenile salmonids, Part II of II: Effects of induced turbulence on behavior of juvenile salmon, 2001-2005 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Farley , M.; Hansen, G.; Morse , J.; Rondorf, D.

    2005-01-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  3. Evolution of canals system linking the Vistula, Dnieper and Neman basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, Dariusz; Badziai, Vitali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct landscape changes in the Polesie Region - one of the largest European swampy areas (Belarus), as a result of the creation and operation of a network of canals. From the 16th century efforts were undertaken to connect the Polish areas located in the drainage basins of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea with canals. Already in 1631 the Polish Sejm (parliament) approved the project to build a canal linking the River Berezina (Dnieper basin) with the River Neris (Neman basin). However, the complicated political and economic situation of the country did not allow doing this. Only in the second half of the 18th c. hetman Ogiński financed the construction of a canal linking the Dnieper and Neman basins. The canal connecting the River Szczara (Neman basin) with the River Jasiołda (Pripyat basin) was named after its creator - the Ogiński Canal. At the same time the construction of the Królewski (Royal) Canal linking the River Muchavets (Vistula basin) and the River Pina (Pripyat basin) was under way. The construction of the canal was completed in 1783. The winding channels of the Pina and Muchavets were straightened, and the numerous canals feeding the waterway system drained vast area of marshes and wetlands of the Polesia Region. The last element that connects the catchments of the Vistula and Neman is the Augustów Canal built in the years 1825-1839 (linking the catchments of the Biebrza and Neman). Numerous changes in political boundaries in the watershed area between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea drainage basins caused the destruction of the hydraulic structures. All the analysed canals were completely destroyed during the two world wars. In the last 200 years the amount and type of locks and weirs has changed. For example, there were no weirs on the Royal Canal in the late 18th c., in the middle of the 19th c. there were 22 such structures, while now that number has gone down to 10. All canals were created for economic reasons

  4. Metabolismo de repouso de mulheres pós-menopausadas submetidas a programa de treinamento com pesos (hipertrofia Resting metabolism of post-menopause women submitted to a training program with weights (hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cléia Trevisan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o gasto energético de repouso (GER de mulheres pós-menopausadas submetidas a programa de treinamento com pesos. Foram estudadas 30 mulheres (FSH > 40mIU/mL entre 45 e 70 anos, separadas em dois grupos (GT: treinamento, n = 15 e GC: controle, n = 15. Calculou-se o índice de massa corporal (kg/m² e por meio da impedância bioelétrica (BIA determinaram-se o percentual de gordura corporal e a massa muscular. O GER foi obtido por meio da calorimetria indireta (O2 e CO2 respiratórios e calculado pela equação de Weir. A mensuração ocorreu após 12 horas de jejum, durante 30 minutos sob temperatura e umidade controladas. O GT participou do programa de treinamento com pesos durante 16 semanas, na freqüência de três vezes por semana. Os dados analisados pelos testes t de Student, Mann-Whitney e ANOVA (p The study had as objective to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE of post-menopause women submitted to a training program with weights. Thirty women, age between 45 and 70 years (FSH > 40 mIUmL, separated in two groups (TG: training n = 15 and CG: control n = 15 were studied. The body mass index (kg/m² was calculated and the body fat percentage and the muscular mass were determined through bioelectric impedance (BIA. The REE was obtained through indirect calorimetry (respiratory O2 and CO2 and calculated by the Weir equation. The measurement occurred after 12 hours of fasting, during 30 minutes under controlled temperature and humidity. The TG participated of the training program with weights during 16 weeks, in the frequency of three times per week. The analyzed data by the t-Student, Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests (p < 0.05 demonstrated that the TG had body mass increased in the 1.8 kg mean, muscular mass in 2.0 kg and the REE presented increase of 8.4% in relation to the CG. In conclusion, the training with weights increased muscular mass and REE. Therefore, this kind of exercise is recommended part of

  5. Enhancing water quality modelling & forecasting in the Han River basin (Korea) using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sibren; Sumihar, Julius; Min, Joong-Hyuk; El Serafy, Ghada; Kim, Kyunghyun; Weerts, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Data assimilation in operational systems is a promising method to enhance the lead-time and reduce the uncertainty of water quality forecasts and provides a good base for the setup of monitoring schemes in large catchments (locations and frequency of sampling). In the River Han (Korea) three weirs have been constructed to prevent flooding and improve the water quality in the main stream. With real-time automated data imports and two water quality models, HSPF and EFDC, embedded in the FEWS-NIER forecasting platform, information about the current water quality status and daily water quality forecasts seven days ahead is provided to -water management agencies in the basin. To improve both the quality and the lead time of the water quality forecasts the EFDC hydrodynamics and water quality model has been implemented in OpenDA, an open interface standard for data assimilation (DA) in numerical models. The setup of this real-time water quality data assimilation system to enhance the algal dynamics modelling and the forecasts in the Han River basin (20,960 km² in size) was performed by a number of steps using Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF). Using a twin experiment the correct working of the algorithm was tested. Noise was applied to several water quality variables in the main tributaries with a sequential simulation algorithm, to obtain correct noise settings that result in a realistic spread between the individual ensemble members. As the next step, the inclusion of observations in the main stream for data assimilation was tested using the EnKF algorithm to define their effect on the model results. Noise was applied to global solar radiation to improve water temperature forecasts, as well as to phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-α concentrations in the large tributaries to improve the prediction of algal level upstream of the weirs. Different combinations of noise and observation settings (standard deviation and time correlation) to find the best model update of

  6. Large discharge and high precision flow measurement facilities on Wanjiazhai Yellow River Diversion Project south branch No.7 tunnel outlet and the summary of application thereof%万家寨引黄南干7号洞出口大流量高精度测流设施及其使用总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑文才

    2016-01-01

    万家寨引黄工程向汾河输水量最大达19.35m3/s,在输水隧洞出口安装了梯形薄壁堰、Accusonic7500四声道超声波流量计、Risonic2000双面八声道超声波流量计。鉴于梯形薄壁堰超常规测流,对其流量系数进行了室内模型试验,并用断面流速法进行了校核。选取不同流量下长时段测流数据进行比较,测流相对精度均高于1.5%。本文结合现场建筑物布置情况、输水运行实践,对三套流量计使用情况进行了分析,认为三套流量计测流均精度高,稳定性好,并对各自优缺点进行了分析。%The maximum water diversion capacity of Wanjiazhai Yellow River Diversion Project to Fenhe River is up to 19.35m3 /s.The exit of water outlet tunnel is provided with a trapezoidal thin-wall weir,an Accusonic7500 four tracks ultrasonic flowmeter and a Risonic2000 double-sided eight tracks ultrasonic flowmeter.Indoor model test is implemented on the flow coefficient thereof,and it is calibrated through cross section flow rate method due to the extraordinary flow measurement of trapezoidal thin-wall weir.Long duration flow measurement data under different flow discharge are selected for comparison.The relative precision of flow measurement is higher than 1.5%.In the paper,site building layout condition and water conveyance operation practice are combined for analyzing the application condition of three sets of flowmeters.It is believed that the flow measurement precision of three sets of flowmeters are high with high stability. Respective advantages and disadvantages are analyzed.

  7. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS OF ACCOUNTING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDGARD B. CORNACHIONE JR.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas educacionales alrededor del mundo evalúan el desempeño académico de alumnos con base en habilidades de lectura y redacción, con evidencias sobre el papel esencial del raciocinio crítico. Para apurar la educación en la área de negocios es necesa-rio un mejor entendimiento sobre el raciocinio crítico de los alumnos, así como sobre sus habilidades de comunicación. Esta pesquisa se centró en la evaluación de habilidades de lectura, redacción y raciocinio crítico de alumnos de contabilidad utilizando instrumentos validados: (a Cuestionario de Estrategias Motivadoras para Aprendizaje (Motivated Stra-tegies sea Learning Questionnaire, MSLQ, (b Prueba Escrita de Raciocinio Crítico de Ennis-Weir (Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, EW-CTET, y (c Indicador Flesch de Facilidad de Lectura (Flesch Reading Ease, en Inglés y versión adaptada para el Portu-gués. Los participantes escribieron una pequeña redacción que fue evaluada en térmi-nos de calidad de escritura y raciocinio crítico con base en el EW-CTET. Los resultados trajeron indicaciones de buena calidad de escritura y evidencia de niveles elevados de raciocinio crítico. Diferencias significativas (por ejemplo, género, maternidad/paternidad, nivel de estudios, y nivel en el programa no fueron observadas en las métricas sobre niveles de facilidad de lectura de los productos escritos generados por los participantes. Elementos para el esmero de desempeño de los participantes alineados con sus habi-lidades de raciocinio crítico son discutidos juntamente con ponderación profunda sobre comportamiento de educadores como agentes de cambio en este escenario. Se sugiere que diferencias culturales sobre raciocinio crítico observadas en este estudio relaciona-das con la percepción de autoridad sean examinadas en futuras averiguaciones.

  8. Selection of an experimental fish ladder located at the dam of the Itaipu Binacional, Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Rodriguez Fernandez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific selection of a weir and orifice type experimental fish ladder in the dam of the Itaipu Reservoir (Paraná River was evaluated by samplings in the river downstream and at two points along the ladder (at heights of 10 m and 27 m during 28 months. Among the 65 species recorded in the river (immediate downstream of the dam, 27 were captured on the ladder. The species that showed highest density on the ladder, the majority migratory, were moderately, or only slightly, abundant downstream. Among the most abundant species downstream, only one, non-migratory, was recorded in the ladder. The structure presented a negative selection in relation to large migratory pimelodids that might be overcome by enlarging the scale of its design. The sampling demonstrated a moderate selection of species along the ladder and its hydraulic model proved satisfactory regarding the attraction and efficient ascent of the fishes.A seleção específica de uma escada de peixes do tipo seqüência de tanques, com passagem de fundo (tipo weir and orifice, na barragem da hidrelétrica de Itaipu (rio Paraná, foi avaliada através de amostragens no rio a jusante (amostragem trimestral em 1997 e em dois pontos ao longo da escada (10 e 27m de altura; nov/94 a jan/97 e nov/94 a fev/97, respectivamente. Das 65 espécies registradas no rio imediatamente a jusante da barragem, 27 foram capturadas na escada. As espécies com maior densidade na escada, em sua maioria migradoras, tiveram abundância moderada ou baixa a jusante. Entre as mais abundantes a jusante, apenas uma, não migradora, foi registrada na escada. A escada apresentou seleção negativa aos grandes pimelodídeos migradores que pode ser superada com a ampliação na escala do projeto. As amostragens evidenciaram baixa seletividade específica ao longo da escada, sendo seu modelo hidráulico satisfatório na atração e eficiente na ascensão de peixes.

  9. An Applied Local Wisdom to Manage Water for Developing Riverside Community: A Case Study of the Lam Ta Kong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapong Kongsat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An integrated water resource management is accepted technique to solve the water resource problems both water shortage and flood plane in order to improve human life. The combination between local wisdom and modern technology by farmer participation is a main part of integrated management. The mentioned techniques had been being applied for human life in the northeast region of Thailand. Approach: This study investigated the local wisdom of water resource management and an application of the local wisdom to manage water resource for developing the economic, society and culture of Lam Ta Kong’s community, Nakhorn Ratchasima province, Thailand. Information was investigated from relevant document and field survey including questionnaire and interview. Results: The result founded that there were two types of the local wisdoms including an original local wisdom on water management and a combination of original and modern science local wisdom to manage available water. For original wisdom, there were earth dam, rock dam, rocks dyke, wooden weir, waterwheel and shallow well that were found in source and midst of the river basin. They constructed the dams and weirs barrier flow river along the Lam Ta Kong River in order to storage water for using purposes in dry season and to mitigate flood plane during rainy season as an early age of the local wisdom. The waterwheel was used to bail water from river to their community. For the combination of original and modern science, there were concrete dam, Watergate, irrigating tube, irrigation channel, water pump, water pump dynamo and underground water drilling that were found at the source, midst and tide tail of the river basin. These combined local wisdoms are considered as a current apparatus in water resource management of the area. The stored water was managed with annual rainfall for cultivation, industrial, family activity and residences for the necessaries of life. Conclusion

  10. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  11. A Refined Technique for Management of Nasal Flaring: The Quest for the Holy Grail of Alar Base Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available “A smile is happiness you'll find right under your nose”– Tom Wilson. This quote holds true just for patients, not for surgeons. The correction of the nose always poses a challenge to the cosmetic surgeon. Deformities of the external and internal nose may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to soft tissue and/or osseo-cartilaginous abnormalities, leading to aesthetic and/or functional consequences. Alar flare poses a common problem, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with other external deformities. Alar base reduction is generally considered when the interalar distance exceeds the intercanthal distance. It has been well documented that this simple additional procedure brings about a substantial enhancement in the nose. Various techniques have been described and used in the past, each having their benefits and drawbacks, with the modified Weir wedge excision, Aufricht nasal sill excision, and Bernstein V-Y advancement being the common ones. We hereby describe a technique that is simple yet effective in achieving the desired results and at the same time aims at preventing relapse to obtain satisfactory long term results.

  12. Mitigating the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    2009-07-01

    Many low-head dams built within the streams that flow into the Great Lakes serve as barriers to the upstream migration of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes. One of the serious drawbacks to the construction and operation of barriers is the drowning hazard that can be created at such structures. This paper proposed an improved sea lamprey barrier design that would mitigate the dangerous flows that form at the structures, while maintaining the efficacy of the barriers at blocking lamprey. The proposed design involved modifications to low-head dams to eliminate any eddies and vortex flow that may present a drowning hazard. These modifications included steps, an underwater vane, baffles of various configurations, and rock piles. The successful modifications had to redirect the plunging flow over the weir to flow along the water surface and also create a cross-flow to disrupt the formation of any secondary eddies that may entrap a body. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Assessment of the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Thomson, J.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Aktar, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    2009-07-01

    In 2003, there were 54 fixed-crest lamprey barriers used in the Great Lakes region, with more construction planned. Although the barriers are relatively small structures of about 1-2 m in height, they present a drowning hazard. On the downstream side of the structure, a submerged hydraulic jump creates a strong vortex flow that even an experienced swimmer cannot escape. This study developed a method to assess the risk of hazardous flows at the barrier sites to enable dam owners to decide whether or not mitigative measures need to be undertaken at their sites. This hazard assessment was demonstrated for 2 existing lamprey barriers in Ontario, namely the Duffins Creek Barrier at Ajax and the Little Otter Creek Barrier near Straffordville. However, the work can be applied to the dam safety assessment and the development of potential mitigative strategies for drowning at other low-head dams and weirs. A flow-duration curves was developed for each site in order to determine the risk of having a drowning hazard at the barrier sites. In the flow-duration analysis, the percentage time, or probability, that a given flow rate was equalled or exceeded was calculated directly from observations of the average daily discharge in the channel. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  14. Skill Integration in Language Assessment——A Comparative Study of PTE-Academic and IB-CET6%技能综合对语言测试构念效度的影响——培生英语考试与大学英语六级网考的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳; 张晓艺

    2013-01-01

    随着计算机技术的广泛运用,21世纪的语言测试越来越多地采用技能综合型测试任务,以提高测试真实性.由于综合型测试的分数报告多采用传统的单项技能分,构念效度的模糊性问题由此而生.本研究对比了具有不同任务类型特征的培生英语考试和大学英语六级网考,探索了技能综合对语言测试构念效度的影响.研究表明,考生在两个考试中总分排序较一致,但单项技能排序偏差较大;技能综合对答题过程的认知策略也产生了一定影响.本研究还初步论证了Weir(2005)认知效度框架对认知策略研究的适用性,并对综合型测试的成绩报道提出了建议.

  15. Pilot Demonstration of Technology fo the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM 2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo; K.R. Henke

    2005-06-27

    Work on the project primarily focused on the design and testing of different hydraulic classifier configurations. A four cell, open channel, cross flow classifier with and without weirs separating the cells was evaluated. Drawbacks to this configuration included thick sediment compression zones and relatively low throughput. The configuration was redesigned with inclined lamellae plates, to increase sedimentation area and decreased sediment compression zone thickness. This configuration resulted in greater throughput for any given product grade and enhanced product recovery. A digital model of a hydraulic classifier was also constructed based upon Stokes law and the configurations of the tests units. When calibrated with the size of the ash used in the tests, it produced a reasonable approximation of the size, yield and recovery of the actual product. The digital model will be useful to generate test data, at least on a relative basis, of conditions that are hard to generate in the laboratory or at larger scale. Test work on the dispersant adsorption capacity, settling tests and leaching test were also conducted on materials collected from the Coleman power station pond.

  16. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  17. Modelling free surface flow with curvilinear streamlines by a non-hydrostatic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Yebegaeshet T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a particular phenomenon in open channel flows for which the basic assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution is essentially invalid, and expands previous suggestions to flows where streamline curvature is significant. The proposed model incorporates the effects of the vertical curvature of the streamline and steep slope, in making the pressure distribution non-hydrostatic, and overcomes the accuracy problem of the Saint-Venant equations when simulating curvilinear free surface flow problems. Furthermore, the model is demonstrated to be a higher-order one-dimensional model that includes terms accounting for wave-like variations of the free surface on a constant slope channel. Test results of predicted flow surface and pressure profiles for flow in a channel transition from mild to steep slopes, transcritical flow over a short-crested weir and flow with dual free surfaces are compared with experimental data and previous numerical results. A good agreement is attained between the experimental and computed results. The overall simulation results reveal the satisfactory performance of the proposed model in simulating rapidly varied gravity-driven flows with predominant non-hydrostatic pressure distribution effects. This study suggests that a higher-order pressure equation should be used for modelling the pressure distribution of a curvilinear flow in a steeply sloping channel.

  18. Vertebrate herbivory in managed coastal wetlands: A manipulative experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.A.; Foote, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Structural marsh management and nutria herbivory are both believed to strongly influence plant production in the brackish, deltaic marshes of coastal Louisiana, USA. Previous studies have tested the effects of structural management on aboveground biomass after implementing management, but very few studies have collected data before and after management. Thus, to test the effects of structural marsh management on Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. and Scirpus americanus Pers., the aboveground biomass of both species was estimated before and after the construction of shallow, leveed impoundments. The water level in each impoundment was managed with a single flap-gated culvert fitted with a variable crest weir. Additionally, the influence of nutria grazing on aboveground biomass was measured by nondestructively sampling fenced (ungrazed) and unfenced (grazed) plots in both managed and unmanaged areas. While there was no significant difference in S. patens production between managed and unmanaged areas, marsh management negatively affected Sc. americanus production the two species also differed in their responses to grazing. Grazing dramatically reduced the sedge, Sc. americanus, while the grass, S. patens, remained at similar biomass levels in grazed and ungrazed plant stands. These findings support the belief that herbivory has a strong influence on plant production, but do not support the claim that management increases plant production in the deltaic marshes of Louisiana.

  19. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  20. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  1. In-stream geomorphic structures as drivers of hyporheic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Erich T.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2008-03-01

    Common in-stream geomorphic structures such as debris dams and steps can drive hyporheic exchange in streams. Exchange is important for ecological stream function, and restoring function is a goal of many stream restoration projects, yet the connection between in-stream geomorphic form, hydrogeologic setting, and hyporheic exchange remains inadequately characterized. We used the models HEC-RAS, MODFLOW, and MODPATH to simulate coupled surface and subsurface hydraulics in a gaining stream containing a single in-stream geomorphic structure and to systematically evaluate the impact of fundamental characteristics of the structure and its hydrogeologic setting on induced exchange. We also conducted a field study to support model results. Model results indicated that structure size, background groundwater discharge rate, and sediment hydraulic conductivity are the most important factors determining the magnitude of induced hyporheic exchange, followed by geomorphic structure type, depth to bedrock, and channel slope. Model results indicated channel-spanning structures were more effective at driving hyporheic flow than were partially spanning structures, and weirs were more effective than were steps. Across most structure types, downwelling flux rate increased linearly with structure size, yet hyporheic residence time exhibited nonlinear behavior, increasing quickly with size at low structure sizes and declining thereafter. Important trends in model results were observed at the field site and also interpreted using simple hydraulic theory, thereby supporting the modeling approach and clarifying underlying processes.

  2. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  3. Effect of Hydrograph Separation on Suspended Sediment Concentration Predictions in a Forested Headwater with Thick Soil and Weathered Gneiss Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kabeya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-component hydrograph separation using oxygen-18 concentrations was conducted at a sediment runoff observation weir installed in a small subcatchment of a forested gneiss catchment in Japan. The mean soil thickness of this catchment is 7.27 m, which comprises 3.29 m of brown forest soil (A and B layers and a 3.98-m layer of heavily weathered gneiss. Data were collected for a storm on 20–21 May 2003, and the percentage of event water separated by the stable isotope ratio in comparison with the total rainfall amount was about 1%. This value is within the ratio of a riparian zone in a drainage area. Temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration exhibited higher correlation with the event water component than with the total runoff or pre-event water component. This shows that the riparian zone causes rainwater to flow out quickly during a rain event, and that this is an important area of sediment production and transportation in a forested headwater with thick soil and weathered gneiss layers.

  4. 2009: the year of living dangerously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2011-11-01

    Tenerife is not Jakarta. Neither is 2009 the year 1965, nor the Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos (Museum of Science and the Cosmos) the hotel "Indonesia", meeting point of reporters from around the world. Nor am I the journalist Jill Bryant (Sigourney Weaver) in the Australian Peter Weir film. But 2009, a year of international commitment to Astronomy (and wild economic crisis budget cuts), will be a time in space that many people will remember for how we live, what problems we face and what tools we used to discover together the Universe. Stimulating interest in the stars was our goal in the museum. Playing with all the colours of a filter wheel, our strategy. Energy and creativity were our available resources. We had to innovate and not die trying. Finally, mainstreaming was the concept, the philosophy, in exchange for bold value and ineffable endeavor. The Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos accepted the challenge, explored new resources for science communication and made risky bets, many of them hand in hand with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). A year later, we value the role of this museum in the film.

  5. Morphology analysis in middle-downstream area of Progo River due to the debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriadin, Ahmad Azmi; Ikhsan, Jaza'ul; Harsanto, Puji

    2017-06-01

    One of the problems that occur in Progo River is the formation of sediment in the downstream section. The sediment material in the upstream becomes the source of sediment at the downstream area. Excess sediment supply from the upstream causes morphological changes in a relatively short time. The morphological changes in riverbed will affect hydraulics conditions. Hydraulic has an important role in the process of aggradation and degradation in the riverbed. Furthermore, the process of erosion and sedimentation will affect the stability of the construction in the water. In Progo River, there are some buildings of infrastructure such as revetment, bridge, irrigation intake, groundsill, and weir. Based on the results of a numerical model of the hydraulic analysis system, there was approximately 87,000,000 m3 of sediment on Progo River in 2015. In fact, aggradation and degradation occurred very intensively in the middle-downstream area of Progo River. Sediment movement simulation also showed that the sediment supply of lava could prevent excessive bed degradation. Nevertheless, the absence of sediment supply will lead to bed degradation process. It indicates that the management of the sediment supply in the upstream area must be managed properly.

  6. [Open rhinoplasty: indications and limits of a controversial method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, M; Sacchi, M

    1992-01-01

    As Aufricht has said, rhinoplasty is "... an easy operation to do, but it is hard to get good results". As it clearly observed in ENT rhinoplasties which deal with severe and combined defects of the nose which result in functional impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse complications in a personal series of open rhinoplasties as well as those in literature in order to standardize different surgical approaches possible in correcting various nasal deformities, divided according to a personal classification. Other than the classical intramucosal technique (following Roe, Joseph and Weir), the more conservative extramucosal operation (described by Jost and Aiach) and the more aggressive external approach are available to the surgeon. Intramucosal rhinoplasty is still the most dependable and widely used technique. However open rhinoplasty which brings about complications in less than 10% of the procedures, offers clear-cut advantages if employed following precise indications. In our experience, the main indications for open rhinoplasty are: severely crooked nose, above all of the II and III arch: crooked nose with saddle deformity; asymetrical defects (including those due to a cleft lip); 50% of the secondary rhinoplasties (excluding minor procedures).

  7. The Hetex small-scale hydro plant; KWKW Hetex Vorstudie. Hetex Faerberei AG, Niederlenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentert, P.; Boller, F.; Wanner, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the 400 kW small hydroelectric power plant (SHP) installed on the Aabach stream in Niederlenz, Switzerland. With a maximum water-flow of 4.5 m{sup 3}/s, the turbine can produce about 1.5 GWh of electricity per year. In spring 2005, bearing damage necessitated substantial renovation to the turbine and the generator. This study examines the state of the rest of the plant noted during maintenance work. It also focuses on the feeding of the electricity produced into the grid, the effects of increased residual water-flow, the option of using the Hallwilersee lake as a buffer, upstream flood evacuation and the possibility of green electricity certification. The calculation of the amount of water available is discussed. Due to inconsistent data, a corrected flow-duration curve was used. For the local river authorities, the through passage for fish from the Aare river up to the Hallwilersee has a high priority. The Hetex SHP weir is one of nine barriers to a direct connection. The planning of a fish-pass to be built in 2006 is discussed.

  8. Crust behavior in simultaneous melting and freezing on a submerged flat plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguli, A.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1978-12-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the solidification of a flowing liquid onto a melting wall was carried out. In particular, the experimental work involved open channel laminar flow of water over a flat plate of n-decane. The point of interest is the dynamic behavior of the solidified crust, which forms a leading edge by melting. The motion of this leading edge was determined as a function of the water temperature, velocity, decane temperature and outlet weir height. This melting rate was found to be very sensitive to the water temperature and less dependent upon the other parameters. An approximate numerical method, using polynomial temperature profiles with time dependent coefficients, was used to solve the one-dimensional heat conduction model. From this, the dynamic behavior of the crust was predicted as a function of the experimental parameters and the local heat transfer coefficient on the freezing surface, which was later estimated. There is reasonable agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed motions of the leading edge.

  9. Electronic tags and genetics explore variation in migrating steelhead kelts (oncorhynchus mykiss), Ninilchik river, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic and archival tags examined freshwater and marine migrations of postspawn steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Ninilchik River, Alaska, USA. Postspawn steelhead were captured at a weir in 2002-2005. Scale analysis indicated multiple migratory life histories and spawning behaviors. Acoustic tags were implanted in 99 kelts (2002-2003), and an array of acoustic receivers calculated the average speed of outmigration, timing of saltwater entry, and duration of residency in the vicinity of the river mouth. Ocean migration data were recovered from two archival tags implanted in kelts in 2004 (one male and one female). Archival tags documented seasonal differences in maximum depth and behavior with both fish spending 97% of time at sea <6 m depth (day and night). All study fish were double tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in the body cavity. Less than 4% of PIT tags were retained in postspawn steelhead. Molecular genetics demonstrated no significant differences in genetic population structure across years or among spawning life history types, suggesting a genetically panmictic population with highly diverse life history characteristics in the Ninilchik River.

  10. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-08

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the 'great garbage patches'. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km (-2) on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km (-2) was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data from four western juniper-dominated experimental catchments in southwestern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Patrick R.; Marks, Danny G.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Williams, C. Jason; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Boehm, Alex R.; Havens, Scott C.; Hedrick, Andrew; Cram, Zane K.; Svejcar, Tony J.

    2017-02-01

    Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data are presented from the South Mountain experimental catchments. This study site was established in 2007 as a collaborative, long-term research laboratory to address the impacts of western juniper encroachment and woodland treatments in the interior Great Basin region of the western USA. The data provide detailed information on the weather and hydrologic response from four highly instrumented catchments in the late stages of woodland encroachment in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Hourly data from six meteorologic stations and four weirs have been carefully processed, quality-checked, and are serially complete. These data are ideal for hydrologic, ecosystem, and biogeochemical modeling. Data presented are publicly available from the USDA National Agricultural Library administered by the Agricultural Research Service (https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments" target="_blank">https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments, doi:10.15482/USDA.ADC/1254010).

  12. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  13. Una carpa al giorno a Walden Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Correggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 After a short rewiev of the stereotyped charachters of teacher in last 25 years italian and american movies, the focus is centred on John Keating, the unforgettable Literature teacher in Peter Weir ‘s  Dead Poets Society, looked with suspicion  of  sentimentalism when the movie arrived Italy in 1990. The sources of his nonconformist teaching method are inspected, the Emeroson and Thoreau trascendantalist philosophy, the invitation to seize the day by Orazio, both exposed to a risk of being misunderstood cause of them introduction in the mechanism of media manipulation. But the movie can help the reflection about new method which are not afraid of mixing advanced studies with midcult in order to reach students more powerfully. The most important thing is to come out from the backwash which from long period of time is reproposing always the same teacher stereotype: tired, disillusioned, disastrous. A new way of storytelling can work to appreciate the job of the many of us who, in spite of adversities and  short recognitions, have not give up   thinking, planning, experimenting.

  14. Biocompatibility of beta-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2004-11-01

    In comparison to the presently used alpha + beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications, beta-titanium alloys have many advantageous mechanical properties, such as an improved wear resistance, a high elasticity and an excellent cold and hot formability. This will promote their future increased application as materials for orthopaedic joint replacements. Not all elements with beta-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications-corrosion and wear processes cause a release of these alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. In this investigation, the biocompability of alloying elements for beta- and near beta-titanium alloys was tested in order to estimate their suitability for biomaterial components. Titanium (grade 2) and the implant steel X2CrNiMo18153 (AISI 316 L) were tested as reference materials. The investigation included the corrosion properties of the elements, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, cell morphology and the size of MC3T3-E1 cells and GM7373 cells after 7 days incubation in direct contact with polished slices of the metals. The statistical significance was considered by Weir-test and Lord-test (alpha = 0.05). The biocompatibility range of the investigated metals is (decreasing biocompatibility): niobium-tantalum, titanium, zirconium-aluminium-316 L-molybdenum.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  16. Simulation of the effect of defence structures on granular flows using SPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lachamp

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics numerical method adapted to complex rheology and free surface flow. It has been developed to simulate the local effect of a simple obstacle on a granular flow. We have introduced this specific rheology to the classical formalism of the method and thanks to experimental devices, we were able to validate the results. Two viscosity values have been simultaneously computed to simulate "plugs" and "dead zone" with the same code. First, some experiments have been done on a simple inclined slope to show the accuracy of the numerical results. We have fixed the mass flow rate to see the variations of the flow depth according to the channel slope. Then we put a weir to block the flow and we analysed the dependence between the obstacle height and the length of influence upstream from the obstacle. After having shown that numerical results were consistent, we have studied speed profiles and pressure impact on the structure. Also results with any topography will be presented. This will have a great interest to study real flow over natural topography while using the model for decision help.

  17. Genetic and phenotypic population divergence on a microgeographic scale in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Escher, Matthias; Wedekind, Claus

    2012-06-01

    Salmonid populations of many rivers are rapidly declining. One possible explanation is that habitat fragmentation increases genetic drift and reduces the populations' potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We measured the genetic and eco-morphological diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Swiss stream system, using multivariate statistics and Bayesian clustering. We found large genetic and phenotypic variation within only 40 km of stream length. Eighty-eight percent of all pairwise F(ST) comparisons and 50% of the population comparisons in body shape were significant. High success rates of population assignment tests confirmed the distinctiveness of populations in both genotype and phenotype. Spatial analysis revealed that divergence increased with waterway distance, the number of weirs, and stretches of poor habitat between sampling locations, but effects of isolation-by-distance and habitat fragmentation could not be fully disentangled. Stocking intensity varied between streams but did not appear to erode genetic diversity within populations. A lack of association between phenotypic and genetic divergence points to a role of local adaptation or phenotypically plastic responses to habitat heterogeneity. Indeed, body shape could be largely explained by topographic stream slope, and variation in overall phenotype matched the flow regimes of the respective habitats.

  18. Turbulence characteristics in skimming flows on stepped spillways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosi, G.; Chanson, H. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Div. of Civil Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Stepped spillways are used to increase the rate of energy dissipation of reinforced cement concrete (RCC) dams. Modern stepped spillways are often designed for large discharge capacities that correspond to skimming flow regimes. Skimming flows are non-aerated at the upstream end of the chute, while free-surface aeration occurs when turbulent shear next to the free surface is larger than the bubble resistance created by surface tension and buoyancy. This study investigated the air-water flow properties in skimming flows related to turbulent characteristics. Experiments were conducted at a hydraulics laboratory using a broad-crested weir with a stepped chute. Measurements were conducted using phase-detection intrusive probes. Air-water flow properties were recorded for several flow rates in order to determine the distributions of turbulence intensity and integral length scales. Air-water interfacial velocities were obtained using a basic correlation analysis between the 2 sensors of a double-tip probe. Turbulence levels were derived from the relative width of a cross-correlation function. Probability distribution functions of the air bubbles and water droplet chords were analyzed in terms of bubble chords in the bubbly flow. The study demonstrated that some turbulent energy was dissipated in the form of large vortices in the bull of the flow, while the stepped cavities contributed to turbulence production. It was concluded that the rate of energy dissipation on stepped spillways is related to high turbulence levels and large-scale vortical structures. 43 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Functional testing of a fish sluice, Buchholz small hydro plant - Final report; Funktionskontrolle Fischschleuse, KWKW Buchholz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhle, Ch. [Buero fuer Jagd- und Fischereifragen, Schmerikon (Switzerland); Scherrer, I. [Entegra Wasserkraft AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Since more than 100 years the diversion hydropower plant of Buchholz at the river Glatt (canton Saint Gall) has been out of operation. With its reactivation as run-of-river scheme, the river meadow, originated due to sedimentation in the former storage basin, with its beaver habitat, could be preserved. For the first time in Switzerland, a fish lock was implemented for the upstream passage way for fish. The fish lock was built directly into for stability reasons newly constructed secondary concrete at the downstream side of the old dam. At the upper lock opening a weir basked is installed, where the migrating fish are recorded. The examination proofed that the fish lock in principle is working for strong swimming fish species (qualitative proof of the performance control). In case of flood caused drift, the migrating fish seem to accept the fish passage. The attempt to quantify the proportion of the migrating willing fish which actually swim through the lock (quantitative proof of the performance control) did not produce satisfactory results. (authors)

  20. The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

  1. Energy saving by improvement in heat storage tank. Complex building `Sun Pedeck` management by CBS; Chikunetsuso kairyonado de shoene. Sogo tatemono `Sun Pedeck` (kabushiki kaisha CBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An example in which energy was considerably saved by improving the underground heat storage tank in complex building `Sun Pedeck` in front of Tsudanuma Station is introduced as the interview of an excellent business. Many speciality shops and restaurants move into this complex building, and the building consists of three buildings containing offices and cultural facilities. Therefore, the complicated management that the complex building is in the open state throughout the year and variously limited in equipment replacement is required. Since a cold-water tank of 450 tons under the ground is an initial heat storage tank, cold water is accumulated only at the bottom. This was very low in efficiency. A weir was thus installed in the cool-water tank to improve so that the water flow meanders up and down. At 10:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. that is the midnight time zone of power, a turbo-refrigerating machine for regenerative heat storage operates between 7:00 and 8:00 in the early morning so as to produce cool water. The annual power rate could be reduced 6,000,000 yen by circulating the heat-reserved cool water between 2:30 p.m. and 3:30 p.m. 6 figs.

  2. Development of an odorant emission model for sewage treatment works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Cobb, J

    2001-01-01

    In the field of odour assessment, much attention has been paid to the measurement of odour concentration. Whilst the concentration of an odour at a receptor is a useful indicator of annoyance, the concentration at the source tells only half the story. The emission rate - the product of odour concentration and air flow rate - is required to appreciate the significance of odour sources. Knowledge of emission rates allows odour sources to be ranked in terms of significance and facilitates appropriate selection and design of odour control units. The emission rate is also a key input for atmospheric dispersion models. Given the increasing importance of odour to sewage treatment works operators, there is a clear need for predictive methods for odour emission rates. Theory suggests that the emission of odorants from sewage to air is controlled by mass transfer resistances in both the gas and liquid phase. These are in turn controlled by odorant and emission source characteristics. The required odorant characteristics are largely known, and mass transfer from many different types of emission sources have been studied. Sewage treatment processes can be described by one or more of six characteristic emission sources, these being quiescent surfaces, channels, weirs and drop structures, diffused aeration, surface aeration and flow over media. This paper describes the development of odorant mass transfer models for these characteristic emission types. The models have been applied in the form of spreadsheet models to the prediction of H2S emissions and the results compared with commercial VOC emission models.

  3. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  4. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia:focus on wetland management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  5. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  6. The Atlin Hydro Project : generation for generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S. [Atlin Tlingit Development Corp., Atlin, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation documented the step-by-step process by which the Atlin Hydro Project was developed. The Taku River Tlingit First Nation undertook the Atlin project as part of its vision for responsible resource management, sustainable economic development, and cultural revival. The Atlin Community Energy Plan involved an assessment of electricity demand, a 20-year demand projection, energy efficiency recommendations, and an assessment of power supply options such as wind towers, connection to the Yukon power grid, and hydro. The potential impact on fisheries, hydrology, wildlife habitat, roads and bridges, navigable waters and forests, existing rights, and First Nation archaeology were assessed, along with other factors such as hazards and flood control. A hydrology assessment of the Surprise-Pine Drainage Basin was undertaken, and stream-flow measurements were taken near the intake location on Pine Creek. The project comprises a discharge control structure and a fish ladder; an intake and weir on Pine Creek; a penstock pipeline from intake to powerhouse; a powerhouse with a 2.1 MW Pelton turbine generator and a switch yard; and a power line from the powerhouse to the interconnection with the existing grid. The impacts on fisheries, wildlife, and human movement are expected to be minimal. 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF MONK EQUIPPED PONDS ON THE QUALITY OF BASIN HEAD STREAMS, THE EXAMPLE OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN LIMOUSIN AND BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent TOUCHART

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.

  8. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Chen

    Full Text Available Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  9. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqiong; Wu, Shijuan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Zhao, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  10. Perspective: Towards environmentally acceptable criteria for downstream fish passage through mini hydro and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Lee J.; Daniel Deng, Z.; Thorncraft, Garry; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.; Singhanouvong, Douangkham; Phonekhampeng, Oudom

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rivers have high annual discharges optimal for hydropower and irrigation development. The Mekong River is one of the largest tropical river systems, supporting a unique mega-diverse fish community. Fish are an important commodity in the Mekong, contributing a large proportion of calcium, protein, and essential nutrients to the diet of the local people and providing a critical source of income for rural households. Many of these fish migrate not only upstream and downstream within main-channel habitats but also laterally into highly productive floodplain habitat to both feed and spawn. Most work to date has focused on providing for upstream fish passage, but downstream movement is an equally important process to protect. Expansion of hydropower and irrigation weirs can disrupt downstream migrations and it is important to ensure that passage through regulators or mini hydro systems is not harmful or fatal. Many new infrastructure projects (<6 m head) are proposed for the thousands of tributary streams throughout the Lower Mekong Basin and it is important that designs incorporate the best available science to protect downstream migrants. Recent advances in technology have provided new techniques which could be applied to Mekong fish species to obtain design criteria that can facilitate safe downstream passage. Obtaining and applying this knowledge to new infrastructure projects is essential in order to produce outcomes that are more favorable to local ecosystems and fisheries.

  11. Idea on safety of large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank%对大型液氧、液氮贮槽安全的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大方

    2012-01-01

    简述大型液氧、液氮贮槽的常规安全措施,结合大型低温液体贮槽的爆炸事故,阐述在排液口设置重锤式快速切断阀和顶盖设计为薄弱结构的必要性及其作用,分析在大型液氧、液氮贮槽槽区不设安全围堰的可行性。%The routine safety measures for large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank are briefed. In combination with explosion accident of large-sized low-temperature liquid tank, the necessity to set a harmer type quick cut off valve at drain port and design the top cover as a weak structure and their reached effects are described, and the feasibility not to set a safe weir in the large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank is analyzed.

  12. Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of humor styles in US and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramtsova I.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness and self-compassion are increasingly coming into mainstream psychological research in the Western world as they correlate with and predict various aspects of mental health and positivity. However, little is known about their relationship to another construct that is also associated with well-being, that is, humor. The unique contribution of the present study is in exploring whether mindfulness and self-compas- sion would predict the use of adaptive and maladaptive humor styles and whether this prediction will be the same across cultures. 90 U.S. and 106 Russian college students responded to a survey consisting of three measures: Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003, Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF; Raes, Pommier, Neff, & Van Gucht, 2011, and Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003. Our findings suggest that mind- fulness and self-compassion can serve as predictors of humor styles, that is, more mind- ful and self-compassionate participants tended to use more adaptive humor styles and less maladaptive styles. However, the contribution of these two variables to the vari- ance in humor styles depended on the culture.

  13. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  14. Ensemble urban flood simulation in comparison with laboratory-scale experiments: Impact of interaction models for manhole, sewer pipe, and surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seong Jin; Lee, Seungsoo; An, Hyunuk; Kawaike, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hajime

    2016-11-01

    An urban flood is an integrated phenomenon that is affected by various uncertainty sources such as input forcing, model parameters, complex geometry, and exchanges of flow among different domains in surfaces and subsurfaces. Despite considerable advances in urban flood modeling techniques, limited knowledge is currently available with regard to the impact of dynamic interaction among different flow domains on urban floods. In this paper, an ensemble method for urban flood modeling is presented to consider the parameter uncertainty of interaction models among a manhole, a sewer pipe, and surface flow. Laboratory-scale experiments on urban flood and inundation are performed under various flow conditions to investigate the parameter uncertainty of interaction models. The results show that ensemble simulation using interaction models based on weir and orifice formulas reproduces experimental data with high accuracy and detects the identifiability of model parameters. Among interaction-related parameters, the parameters of the sewer-manhole interaction show lower uncertainty than those of the sewer-surface interaction. Experimental data obtained under unsteady-state conditions are more informative than those obtained under steady-state conditions to assess the parameter uncertainty of interaction models. Although the optimal parameters vary according to the flow conditions, the difference is marginal. Simulation results also confirm the capability of the interaction models and the potential of the ensemble-based approaches to facilitate urban flood simulation.

  15. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Physiological comparisons of plasma and tissue metrics of selected inland and coastal steelhead kelts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Jones, Bryan; Marston, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The physiological status of migrating steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Situk River, Alaska, and two tributaries of the Clearwater River, Idaho, was evaluated to explore potential differences in post-spawning survival related to energy reserves. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for metrics related to nutritional and osmotic status, and samples of white muscle tissue collected from recent mortalities at weirs were analyzed for proximate constituents. Female kelts from the Situk River had significantly higher plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and calcium concentrations, all of which suggested higher lipid and energy stores. Additional support for energy limitation in kelts was provided by evaluating the presence of detectable proteins in the plasma. Most all kelts sampled from the Situk River populations had detectable plasma proteins, in contrast to kelts sampled from the Clearwater River tributary populations where 27 % of kelts from one tributary, and 68 % of the second tributary were below the limits of detection. We found proximate constituents of kelt mortalities were similar between the Situk and Clearwater River populations, and the lipid fraction of white muscle averaged 0.1 and 0.2 %. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that energetic limitations likely affect post-spawn survival in the Clearwater River kelts.

  17. Johann Friedrich Horner and the Repeated Discovery of Oculosympathoparesis: Whose Syndrome Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Mantinderpreet; Belle, Vaijayantee; Chandar, Krishan; Miller, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of cranial sympathetic tone leads to the symptom complex of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis. It is widely believed that this phenomenon was discovered in 1869 by the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner, and as a result, the term Horner syndrome has become synonymous with the clinical presentation. However, the syndrome that would become Horner syndrome had actually been described several times before his report. François Pourfour du Petit documented the ocular effects of sympathetic trunk lesions in animal studies in 1727. Claude Bernard identified the full clinical triad in animal studies in 1852, and as a result, the condition is sometimes called Bernard syndrome. There were also 2 previous reports of ptosis and miosis resulting from sympathetic nerve damage in humans: 1 by Edward Selleck Hare in 1838 associated with brachial plexus tumor, and the other by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1864 associated with a gunshot wound to the neck. Although Horner was the first to objectively characterize the co-occurrence of vasomotor and ocular changes in a human patient, he did not identify the etiology of the condition, discuss its relationship to the sympathetic nervous system, or reference any of the previous studies in animals or humans. It is possible that a lack of familiarity with previous investigations delayed the full appreciation of the mechanism underlying this disorder.

  18. Adolescent sources of information on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, H D

    1981-04-01

    The sources, age and accuracy of sex information which adolescents learn was investigated. The underlying assumption was that peers are the primary contributors of such information. Thus, the accuracy of information becomes a primary research interest. All students in a large midwestern high school (n = 1152) were included. Peers were the single most-often-cited source of sex information (37.1%). Other sources in frequency were literature, mother, schools, experience, fathers, physicians, and ministers. Petting, homosexuality, and intercourse were subjects where peers contributed considerable information. They seemed to provide much infromation in behaviors that can be experienced immediately. Literature contributed much information in the areas of abortion, prostitution and seminal emissions. Mothers provided virtually all sex information from within the home. Their primary contributions weir in the areas of conception and menstruation, accounting for 1/2 of the total information provided. Schools accounted for only about 15% of the information. Females were more dependent on their mothers for information (22.3%) than were males (6.9%) who were more dependent on their peers (49.1%) than females (33.4%). Ages 12 and 13 were peak times when sexual concepts were being learned. The overall accuracy percentage was 78.7%. The 2 most reliable areas of information were conception and menstruation, and in both cases mothers were the primary contributors.

  19. Environmental diagnostic of the Bonifácio Creek, APA Jundiaí - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing discussion on topics related to water availability reveals the need of studies and understanding of the dynamics of this natural resource in a watershed scale. The main goal of this research was to evaluate which expedite assessments on water quality and quantity would provide a better management of the water resources of Bonifácio Creek, tributary of the Jundiaí River, aiming irrigation demand. To evaluate the water availability of that microbasin (2,98 Km² were carried out stream flow meter using triangular weir, located in the Technical School (ETE reservoir. pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen (OD, turbidity, color, total and fecal coliforms, and nitrogen (Total, NO3, NH3 were measured in four sites (ETE entrance, reservoir, after the vegetable garden, ETE exit in twelve samplings. Results indicated that some parameters extrapolated the water standards defined for the Creek in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005, probably due the soil occupation in the basin. Also high concentrations of nitrates were verified during dry and wet seasons. However, the topographic profile, the riparian forest and a natural wetland in the Technical School sector of the basin are contributing for the water pollution abatement, as indicated by the readings on color and turbidity.

  20. River lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L., fishery in Latvia – insight into the origin of catch statistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abersons Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most research to date on the status of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L. in Latvia has been done based on catch statistics data. The aim of this study was to explore the present status of the river lamprey fishery in Latvia to improve the understanding of catch statistics data. Currently, river lamprey fishing in Latvia is carried out at 24 fishing grounds located on 17 rivers. The most popular fishing gear is the lamprey fyke net, but lamprey weirs and lamprey trammel nets are also used. The type and design of the fishing gear depends on the parameters of the fishing ground. The catch size is highly variable and is greatly affected by the number of non-resources related circumstances, such as fishing regulations and meteorological factors determining the intensity of lamprey migration during the fishing season and opportunities for fishing during periods of the most intense migration. The fishing effort and the type of fishing gear have also largely changed since the 1960s and 1970s. Therefore, the fluctuation in both the long- and short-term catch data may not correspond to changes in the actual status of the lamprey population.

  1. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  2. Evaluation of approaches for identifying population informative markers from high density SNP Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Stephanie D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers can be used to identify and verify the origin of individuals. Motivation for the inference of ancestry ranges from conservation genetics to forensic analysis. High density assays featuring Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers can be exploited to create a reduced panel containing the most informative markers for these purposes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate methods of marker selection and determine the minimum number of markers from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip required to verify the origin of individuals in European cattle breeds. Delta, Wright's FST, Weir & Cockerham's FST and PCA methods for population differentiation were compared. The level of informativeness of each SNP was estimated from the breed specific allele frequencies. Individual assignment analysis was performed using the ranked informative markers. Stringency levels were applied by log-likelihood ratio to assess the confidence of the assignment test. Results A 95% assignment success rate for the 384 individually genotyped animals was achieved with ST (60 to 140 SNPs depending on the chosen degree of confidence. Certain breeds required fewer markers ( 95% assignment success. The power of assignment success, and therefore the number of SNP markers required, is dependent on the levels of genetic heterogeneity and pool of samples considered. Conclusions While all SNP selection methods produced marker panels capable of breed identification, the power of assignment varied markedly among analysis methods. Thus, with effective exploration of available high density genetic markers, a diagnostic panel of highly informative markers can be produced.

  3. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' in Cronay, Switzerland - Preliminary project; Rehabilitation du Moulin d'en Bas, commune de Cronay. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' located in Cronay on the Mentue river, Switzerland. Two variants are considered. In the first one the existing scheme uses a 4.72 m water fall and its power amounts to about 25 kW. A 4-blades Kaplan turbine is foreseen to generate 160,000 kWh/y. In the second variant, weir and penstock have to be adapted in order to take advantage of the full 6.74 m water fall indicated in the water-use concession granted in 1952. A new fish pass has to be built as well. The resulting electric power is in this case 80 kW and the power generation by the turbo group 353,000 kWh/y, about 60% of which in the wintertime. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.282 CHF/kWh in the second variant.

  4. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  5. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  6. Human Interventions versus Climate Change: Impacts on Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2009-12-01

    Water availability and occurrence of water induced disasters are impacted by both natural and human centric drivers. Climate change is considered to be one of the noted drivers in this regard. Human interventions through land use/land cover change, stream and floodplain regulations via dams, weirs, and embankments could be other equally important group of drivers. Unlike developed countries that have both resources and capabilities to adapt and mitigate the impact of such drivers, developing countries are increasingly at more risk. Identifying roles of such drivers are fundamental to the formulation of any adaptation and mitigation plans for their impacts for developing countries. In this study, we present a few examples from three regions of Nepal- a developing country in South Asia generally considered as a water rich country. Through results of modeling and statistical analyses, we show which driver is in control in different watersheds. Preliminary results show that climate change impact appears to be more prominent in large snow-fed river basins. In the smaller non-snow-fed watersheds originating from the middle hill, the impacts are not explicit despite perception of local people about changes in the water availability. In the southern belt bordering India, the impacts of river regulation on downstream areas are found to be the principal cause of flooding/inundation.

  7. THE HIDROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DANUBE ARMS AND LAKE COMPLEXIS IN THE DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basarab Victor DRIGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta, which is an open system, is permanently exchanging matter and energy with the external environment. The hydrological sub-system, basically the water circulation represents the vital component of the existence of the delta space. In view of the ecological requirements of this delta space, of the present and prospective situation of various managements, of the present legal framework and the future of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, it is advisable to make some changes to the water circulation system within the Letea unit as follows: to close down or undersize the Mila 35 Canal and the Mila 22 Canal, to reduce the Crânjală Canal flow section or close the canal, to secure the ecological reconstruction of inefficient dammed enclosures (e.g. Pardina by ensuring normal water circulation inside them, to reopen the Sireasa Canal at its junction with the Chilia Arm. The fact is that the water circulation system throughout the Caraorman unit will suffer essential changes, so that is recommendable to: revitalise the Litcov Canal and close the Filat canal, downsize the Crişan-Caraorman flow section, open up the Gorgova and Ceamurlia canals, revigorate the Ivancea and the Erenciuc canals (between the Puiu and the Erenciuc lakes, respectively, make 2 – 3 openings in the littoral dam and in the Împuţita Backwater, placing the weir level at + 70-80 cm, in order to facilitate the depression water outflow into the sea.

  8. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  9. An Improved Design of Spiral Groove Mechanical Seal%螺旋槽机械密封的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周剑锋; 顾伯勤; 陈晔

    2007-01-01

    The coupling effect among the flow of fluid film, the frictional heat of fluid film and the thermal deformation of sealing rings is inherent in mechanical seals. The frictional heat transfer analysis was carried out to optlmize the geometrical parameters of the sealing rings, such as the length, the inner radius and the outer radius. The geometrical parameters of spiral grooves, such as the spiral angle, the end radius, the groove depth, the ratio of the groove width to the weir width and the number of the grooves, were optimized by regarding the maximum bearing force of fluid film as the optimization objective with the coupling effect considered. The depth of spiral groove was designed to gradually increase from the end radius of spiral groove to the outer radius of end face in order to decrease the weakening effect of thermal deformation on the hydrodynamic effect of spiral grooves. The end faces of sealing rings were machined to form a divergent gap at inner radius, and a parallel gap will form to reduce the leakage rate when the thermal deformation takes place. The improved spiral groove mechanical seal possesses good heat transfer performance and sealing ability.

  10. A Refined Technique for Management of Nasal Flaring: The Quest for the Holy Grail of Alar Base Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Pabari, Mansi; Shrotriya, Raghav

    2016-11-01

    "A smile is happiness you'll find right under your nose"- Tom Wilson. This quote holds true just for patients, not for surgeons. The correction of the nose always poses a challenge to the cosmetic surgeon. Deformities of the external and internal nose may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to soft tissue and/or osseo-cartilaginous abnormalities, leading to aesthetic and/or functional consequences. Alar flare poses a common problem, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with other external deformities. Alar base reduction is generally considered when the interalar distance exceeds the intercanthal distance. It has been well documented that this simple additional procedure brings about a substantial enhancement in the nose. Various techniques have been described and used in the past, each having their benefits and drawbacks, with the modified Weir wedge excision, Aufricht nasal sill excision, and Bernstein V-Y advancement being the common ones. We hereby describe a technique that is simple yet effective in achieving the desired results and at the same time aims at preventing relapse to obtain satisfactory long term results.

  11. Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McBroom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1, while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2. V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1. Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.

  12. Flow hydrodynamics in embankment breach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Gensheng; VISSER Paul J; REN Yankai; UIJTTEWAAL Wim S J

    2015-01-01

    Breaching flow occurs during the breach development of the embankment, dike, earthen dam, landslide barrier, etc. and plays an import role in the breaching erosion as the driving force. According to the previous research, the breaching process can be classified into initiation phase, breach widening phase and breach deepening phase. Based on the breaching development classifications, the breaching flow can be seen as a special compound weir flow when the breach channel is in the relatively equilibrium condition. There were five physical flow models were designed in the hypothesis of rectangular shape and trapezoidal shape for the breach channel cross sections to study the breaching flow characteristics. The distributions of water level and velocity were measured and analysed in the breaching flows in overtopping condition and emerged condition. There were two helicoidal flows above the breach channel slopes and triangular hydraulic jump in the downstream of the breach channel in the overtopping condition and emerged condition. The hydraulic energy loss was calculated according to the breaching velocity and water level distribution in the upstream and downstream of the model. It is found that the test results of the breach flow physical model can be valuable to bring insight of the breaching process of embankment and make contributions to the validations and verifications of breach numerical models.

  13. Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Mahvi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led through an outer tube in the column by a set of radial, distributor arms. The polluted water flows up ward through the sand bed. The water emerges; clean, in the top section of the tank, and eventually spills over a weir, and then inters into a discharge pipe. In this research, the continuous sand filter was studied to determine its disinfection efficiency in addition to turbidity removal. The results showed that the filtered water had a high quality and the turbidity reduction was 95.5 %. Inspecting the work of the filter had revealed that the removal rates of coliforms and microbial colonies were 99.67 % and 98.99 % respectively. On the other hand, by the use of direct filtration, turbidity reduction was over 97 %. In direct filtration, drinking water with less than 1 NTU turbidity was provided. This continuous sand filter has the advantage of stable operation and more energy saving as compared to the conventional ones.

  14. Controls on the breach geometry and flood hydrograph during overtopping of non-cohesive earthen dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Joseph S.; Iverson, Richard M.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Logan, Matthew; Solovitz, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Overtopping failure of non-cohesive earthen dams was investigated in 13 large-scale experiments with dams built of compacted, damp, fine-grained sand. Breaching was initiated by cutting a notch across the dam crest and allowing water escaping from a finite upstream reservoir to form its own channel. The channel developed a stepped profile, and upstream migration of the steps, which coalesced into a headcut, led to the establishment of hydraulic control (critical flow) at the channel head, or breach crest, an arcuate erosional feature that functions hydraulically as a weir. Novel photogrammetric methods, along with underwater videography, revealed that the retreating headcut maintained a slope near the angle of friction of the sand, while the cross section at the breach crest maintained a geometrically similar shape through time. That cross-sectional shape was nearly unaffected by slope failures, contrary to the assumption in many models of dam breaching. Flood hydrographs were quite reproducible--for sets of dams ranging in height from 0.55 m to 0.98 m--when the time datum was chosen as the time that the migrating headcut intersected the breach crest. Peak discharge increased almost linearly as a function of initial dam height. Early-time variability between flood hydrographs for nominally identical dams is probably a reflection of subtle experiment-to-experiment differences in groundwater hydrology and the interaction between surface water and groundwater.

  15. Composite material made of plasmonic nanoshells with quantum dot cores: loss-compensation and ε-near-zero physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo

    2012-06-15

    A theoretical investigation of loss-compensation capabilities in composite materials made of plasmonic nanoshells is carried out by considering quantum dots (QDs) as the nanoshells' cores. The QD and metal permittivities are modeled according to published experimental data. We determine the modes with real or complex wavenumber able to propagate in a 3D periodic lattice of nanoshells. Mode analysis is also used to assess that only one propagating mode is dominant in the composite material whose optical properties can hence be described via homogenization theory. Therefore, the material effective permittivity is found by comparing different techniques: (i) the mentioned mode analysis, (ii) Maxwell Garnett mixing rule and (iii) the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method based on transmission and reflection when considering a metamaterial of finite thickness. The three methods are in excellent agreement, because the nanoshells considered in this paper are very subwavelength, thus justifying the parameter homogenization. We show that QDs are able to provide loss-compensated ε-near-zero metamaterials and also loss-compensated metamaterials with large negative values of permittivity. Besides compensating for losses, the strong gain via QD can provide optical amplification with particular choices of the nanoshell and lattice dimensions.

  16. Evaporation of pure liquids with increased viscosity in a falling film evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Felix; Scholl, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated fluid dynamics and heat transfer of viscous pure liquids in a falling film evaporator. This is of special benefit as it avoids mass transfer effects on the evaporation behaviour. Experiments at a single-tube glass falling film evaporator were conducted. It allowed a full-length optical film observation with a high-speed camera. Additionally the evaporator was equipped with a slotted weir distribution device. Test fluids provided viscosities ranging from μ = 0.3 to 41 mPa s. The Reynolds number was between 0.7 and 1,930. Surface evaporation and the transition to nucleate boiling were studied to gain information about the film stability at maximum wall superheat. A reliable database for laminar and laminar-wavy viscous single component films was created. The experimental results show a significant enhancement in the wave development due to the film distribution. A wavy flow with different wave velocities was superposed to the film in each liquid load configuration without causing a film breakdown or dry spots on the evaporator tube. It was found that nucleate boiling can be allowed without causing film instabilities over a significant range of wall superheat.

  17. Evaporation of pure liquids with increased viscosity in a falling film evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Felix; Scholl, Stephan [Technical University of Braunschweig (DE). Institute for Chemical and Thermal Process Engineering (ICTV)

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigated fluid dynamics and heat transfer of viscous pure liquids in a falling film evaporator. This is of special benefit as it avoids mass transfer effects on the evaporation behaviour. Experiments at a single-tube glass falling film evaporator were conducted. It allowed a full-length optical film observation with a high-speed camera. Additionally the evaporator was equipped with a slotted weir distribution device. Test fluids provided viscosities ranging from {mu}=0.3 to 41 mPa s. The Reynolds number was between 0.7 and 1,930. Surface evaporation and the transition to nucleate boiling were studied to gain information about the film stability at maximum wall superheat. A reliable database for laminar and laminar-wavy viscous single component films was created. The experimental results show a significant enhancement in the wave development due to the film distribution. A wavy flow with different wave velocities was superposed to the film in each liquid load configuration without causing a film breakdown or dry spots on the evaporator tube. It was found that nucleate boiling can be allowed without causing film instabilities over a significant range of wall superheat. (orig.)

  18. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  19. Some tests of the "migration hypothesis" for anadromous Dolly Varden (southern form)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D.R.; Hepler, K.R.; Jones, J.D.; Whalen, M.E.; McBride, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Some aspects of a previously described migratory paradigm for the southern form of anadromous Dolly Varden were investigated with seven 3-year mark-recapture experiments on fish that used lakes in eight watersheds as their winter residence. Weirs on Kodiak Island, around Prince William Sound, and near Juneau, Alaska, were used to capture Dolly Varden as they emigrated to the sea each spring. Dolly Varden (Dolly Varden at sea confirm observations from earlier studies. Our results support the paradigm that Dolly Varden home to the same lacustrine watershed when overwintering in fresh water, as more than 98% of the recaptured fish did so. Our results contradicted the paradigm that Dolly Varden return to lakes each fall, for across study populations, 14-58% failed to return. The most probable explanation for this anomalous behavior is that some Dolly Varden spend the winter as sea. Differences in maturity, size, and growth of Dolly Varden and timing of their entrance into salt water during spring emigration were excluded as causes of this anomalous behavior.

  20. 加筋土挡土墙结构的应用%Application of Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国伟; 方鸿琪

    2000-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development the reinforced earth, invented by French Henri Vidal, is now widely used in the field of civil engineering. Researches and projects conducted by Reinforced Earth Group in the respect of reinforced earth are presented herein. The projects involve retaining wall for high speed highway, abutment, railway embankment, river weir, flood protection dike and retaining walls for industrial and military purposes. More than ten thousand sturdy and durable retaining walls of reinforced earth are built around the world.%法国人亨利·维特(Henri Vidal) 发明的加筋土经过30年的研究和发展,现已广泛用于土木工程领域。本文介绍了Reinforced Earth集团在加筋土方面的研究及项目情况,其项目领域涉及高速公路挡土墙、桥台、铁路路堤、河堤、水坝、防洪堤、工业及军事用途挡土墙等。在世界各地建造了1万多幅坚固耐用的加筋土墙。

  1. Long term variation in transparency in the inner area of Ariake Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Yuichi; Maeda, Kazunori; Hamada, Takaharu

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the long time record of transparency (Secchi disk depth) in the inner area of Ariake Sea and determined the reason for the change. The data observed by the Saga Prefectural Ariake Fisheries Research and Development Center for 38 years at 10 or 11 stations was used. The Secchi disk depth increased significantly in autumn and winter. The analysis based on the 1 dimensional model of surface salinity and the SS concentration showed that the increase in Secchi disk depth would be caused by the decline of the SS supply at the source. It also suggested that there would have been an additional SS source existed in the bay head before 1984. It is coincident with the construction of the Chikugo Ozeki weir and the channel bed dredging. The channel bed depth of the Chikugo River estuary increased largely from 60's to 80's by dredging and became almost stable after 1985. Provided that the Chikugo River estuary was an additional SS source, the decline of the SS supply would be generated by the upstream displacement of the turbidity maximum induced by the increase in channel bed depth.

  2. EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL STATE and ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTION OF MELIORATIVE DEVICES AT LOWER SUPRAŚL OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It this paper the evaluation of drainage devices which are working at agricultural land of Podlaskie province and at drainage object of Lower Supraśl Valley was made. Their functions in production of vegetable biomass and in natural environmental protection was indicated. Detailed ditches drainage fulfill an important role in water balance in agricultural areas and result adjusting drainage weir in dehydration and irrigation. Meliorative devices were described and evaluated on a large (1153 ha object of Supraśl Valley. The object has an important economic function (irrigation meadow and pasture and natural functions (maintaining the diversity of typical flora of post-bog meadow. Ditches do not assure proper (suitable moistening on this object of the length of 125,6 km, because they are shallow, silted with slime and they lack proper bottom decreases. 75% of water damming up were working correctly, but the remaining did not grant their function. Drainage culvert enabling communication were proficient in 80%. Lack of their systematic conservation is the reason of low proficiency of detailed drainage devices, it result from lack of regulations in this range.

  3. Discussion on water diversion hub layout in Budaer Hydropower Station%布达尔水电站工程引水枢纽布置探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建良

    2015-01-01

    Design process of Budaer Hydropower Station is not limited to a fixed form or fixed experience aiming at characteristics of rivers in Xinjiang mountainous area.Concrete conditions of projects are fully considered,design concepts are updated,and design ideas are expanded.Advantages and disadvantages of river sluice water diversion hub and river weir water diversion hub are concretely analyzed and compared according to project design examples.Necessity and rationality of the water diversion hub layout mode are correspondingly studied and discussed.%在布达尔水电站设计过程中,针对新疆山区河流的特点,不限于某一种固定形式,不拘泥于固定经验,充分考虑到工程项目的具体情况,更新设计观念,拓展设计思路,依据工程设计实例,对拦河闸式引水枢纽和拦河堰式引水枢纽的优缺点作了具体的分析比较,并对该引水枢纽布置方式的必要性及合理性进行了相应的研究和探讨。

  4. Designing of Multiphase Fly Ash/MWCNT/PU Composite Sheet Against Electromagnetic Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Parth; Varshney, Swati; Dhawan, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced multiphase polyurethane (PU) composite sheets have been fabricated by using a solution casting technique. Utilization of fly ash was the prime objective in order to reduce environmental pollution and to enhance the shielding properties of PU polymer. Our study proves that fly ash particles with MWCNTs in a PU matrix leads to novel hybrid high performance electromagnetic shielding interference material. Scanning electron microscopy confirms the existence of fly ash particles along with MWCNTs in a PU matrix. This multiphase composite shows total shielding effectiveness of 35.8 dB (>99.99% attenuation) in the Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz) frequency range. This is attributed to high dielectric losses of reinforcement present in the polymers matrix. The Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm has been applied to calculate the electromagnetic attributes and dielectric parameters of the PU samples by using scattering parameters ( S 11, S 22, S 12, S 21). The synthesized multiphase composites were further characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis.

  5. The relative importance of water temperature and residence time in predicting cyanobacteria abundance in regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Hyuk; Kang, Taegu; Kim, Joon Ha

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the problems associated with cyanobacterial blooms in rivers, and particularly in regulated rivers, the drivers of bloom formation and abundance in rivers are not well understood. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to assess the relative importance of predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance, and to test whether the relative importance of each predictor varies by site, using monitoring data from 16 sites in the four major rivers of South Korea. The results suggested that temperature and residence time, but not nutrient levels, are important predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance in rivers. Although the two predictors were of similar significance across the sites, the residence time was marginally better in accounting for the variation in cyanobacteria abundance. The model with spatial hierarchy demonstrated that temperature played a consistently significant role at all sites, and showed no effect from site-specific factors. In contrast, the importance of residence time varied significantly from site to site. This variation was shown to depend on the trophic state, indicated by the chlorophyll-a and total phosphorus levels. Our results also suggested that the magnitude of weir inflow is a key factor determining the cyanobacteria abundance under baseline conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PERENCANAAN KAPASITAS PEMBANGKIT PLTM SUNGAI LOGUNG KARANGTALUN KABUPATEN TEMANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nugroho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Java Province intends to improve the use of renewable energy (EBT such as water resources. Logung river at Ngaliyan subdistrict, Temanggung district has potential energy for micro power plan. The first step to use the water resource is determining the capacity of a mini hydro power plan in accordance with the conditions of the river Logung. Based on the the technical study, the elvation height between the prospective weir with potential power house is 110 m and the effetive height at 105 m. Logung maximum river flow is 11.06 m3/dt, with average flow is 4,77 m3/dt., The minimum flow is 0,75 m3/dt. This electricity power is 10253.12 KW with maximum flow, it will be produced 4848.44 KW at maximum flow 60 %. The minimum flow can deliver 695,28 KW. The suitable capacity for the generator of micro power plants of Logung is 3220 KVA when it is according to manufacture. Key words : power, flow, power

  7. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian [AG Regenerative Energien, Institut für Statik, TU Braunschweig, Beethovenstrasse 51, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  8. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  9. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 1993-1999 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-02-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study has conducted field experiments since 1993 that assess the ability of hatchery stocks to reestablish natural populations. We have stocked hatchery adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss trapped at Sawtooth Fish Hatchery in Beaver Creek yearly and Frenchman creeks when enough fish were available. We stocked Dworshak Hatchery stock fingerlings in the South Fork Red River from 1993 to 1996 and smolts in Red River from 1996 to 1999. Although results from all experiments are not complete, preliminary findings indicate that these hatchery stocks will not reestablish natural steelhead populations. We focused most of our effort on monitoring and evaluating wild steelhead stocks. We operated a temporary weir to estimate the wild steelhead escapement in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. We snorkeled streams to monitor juvenile steelhead abundance, captured and tagged steelhead with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and recorded stream temperatures in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages. We operated screw traps in five to ten streams each year. We have documented growth rates in Fish and Gedney creeks, age of parr in Fish Creek, Gedney Creek, Lick Creek, and Rapid River, and documented parr and smolt migration characteristics. This report summarizes our effort during the years 1993 to 1999.

  10. Miniature dissolved oxygen and turbulence optical sensor for river and coastal environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Lombardi, Gabrial; Butman, Jerry; Babb, Ivar

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes an innovative miniature optical sensor for predicting dissolved oxygen concentrations and measuring turbulence in river and littoral water columns. The dissolved oxygen and turbulence sensor consists of a single-frequency laser transmitter and a photodetector on which the scattered light from the turbulent water at the base of a dam or spillway is coherently mixed with a sample of the transmitted beam. This miniature sensor could be used both upstream and downsteam of dams and weirs to predict the amount of dissolved oxygen and turbulence in these waters. It could also be used on mobile platforms, such as unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV's), to monitor the edges of biological or chemical plumes or for wake follow platforms, schools of fish or marine mammals or on stationary unattended underwater sensors to monitor natural aeration and turbulence in littoral and riverine waters. Arrays of fixed unattended sensors could be used to detect the wake of transiting submerged vehicles, scuba divers, marine mammals or large schools of fish. A mobile platform equipped with a miniature sensor could to be cued to the general location and depth of an underwater target and then the platform could use this small aperture sensor to acquire and follow the wake. This dissolved oxygen and turbulence sensor system could be miniaturized and packaged into a very small volume; approximately the size of a wristwatch.

  11. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1986 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, William H.; DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James M.

    1986-08-01

    We believe our results have clearly shown Kerr hydroelectric operations and operational constraints have negatively affected Flathead River trout and northern pike populations and the aquatic habitat which support them. Even so, it is possible to mitigate many of these impacts and develop a very important fishery. Trout abundance in the lower Flathead averaged only 19 fish per kilometer, the lowest abundance of trout for a river of this size in Montana. Little main channel spawning by trout was observed and most spawning probably occurs in tributaries. Lower river tributaries support resident populations of brook, rainbow, brown, and cutthroat trout; and a small resident population of bull trout is present in the South Fork of the Jocko River. Using weirs, spawning runs of rainbow and brown trout from the main river were monitored entering the Jocko River and the Post/Mission Creek system. Utilization of Crow Creek by main river trout stocks of trout was limited to the 6 km segment below Crow Dam. Evaluations of tributary spawning gravels showed high levels of silt which would suggest poor survival of trout eggs. Excessive harvest in the tributaries was indicated by analysis of age class structure and abundance of trout greater than 200 mm.

  12. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies.

  13. Relationship Between Storm Hydrograph Components and Subsurface Flow Processes in a Hilly Headwater Basin, Toyota, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, M.; Asai, K.; Takei, R.

    2001-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of tracer elements and subsurface flow processes were investigated to study relationship between storm hydrograph components and behavior of subsurface water in a headwater catchment of Toyota Hill, Aichi prefecture, central Japan. The catchment has an area of 0.857 ha with an altitude of 60 to 100 m, and is underlain by granite. The soil depth revealed by sounding test ranges from 0.5 to 4.0 m. Rain, stream, soil and ground waters were sampled once in a week, and the stream water was sampled at 5 to 60 minute intervals during rainstorms. The pressure head of subsurface water was monitored using tensiometers and piezometers nests, and the stream flow was monitored using V-notch weir. The stable isotopic ratios of deuterium and oxygen 18 and inorganic ion concentrations were determined on all water samples. The oxygen 18 isotopic ratio in stream water decreased with rainfall during the rainstorms. The ratio of event water component to the total runoff water at the peak discharge ranged from 16 to 92 %, and the event water ratio correlated with the peak discharge rate and rainfall intensity. The tesiometric data showed that the shallow subsurface water with low isotopic ratios at the lower slope discharged directly to the stream during the heavy rainstorms. The shallow subsurface flow at the lower slope and overland flow on the raiparian zone contributed much to the stream water chemistry during heavy rainstorms.

  14. Hydrological self-regulation of domed peatlands in south-east Asia and consequences for conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dommain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the hydrological constraints on the existence of forested peat domes (peat swamp forests in the humid tropics, the self-regulation mechanisms that enable them to persist and the implications for restoration of damaged domes. The most important requirement for the preservation of peat is permanent saturation by water. The variable input of precipitation must be translated into a constant water supply to the peat mound. In intact tropical peat swamp domes, water is stored above the peat surface in depressions between hummocks that surround tree trunks and between spreading buttress roots. This above-ground water store is analogous to the water stored in the loose upper layer of peat and vegetation in Sphagnum bogs. The horizontal differentiation of the peat swamp forest floor into hummocks with limited hydraulic conductivity and depressions with high storage capacity resembles the hummock-hollow patterning of these Sphagnum bogs. Hummocks and other surface elements functionally resemble V-notch weirs that regulate water availability. Buttressed trees play a key role in providing the structural elements for hydrological self-regulation. An additional level of regulation is found in the concentric zonation of forest types with increased presence of buttressed trees on steeper margins. Conservation and restoration efforts should take into account the inter-relationships between trees, water and peat and the hydrological feedbacks that operate as a consequence.

  15. Drought, floods and water quality: Drivers of a severe hypoxic blackwater event in a major river system (the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Baldwin, Darren S.; Kerr, Janice L.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryHypoxic blackwater events are characterised by high levels of dissolved organic carbon in the water column, the metabolism of which depletes dissolved oxygen, which can cause fish and crustacean mortality. Understanding the drivers of and controls on hypoxic blackwater events is important in order to reduce the potential for detrimental water quality impacts from both managed and natural flows. After a decade-long drought in south-eastern Australia, a series of spring and summer flood events in 2010-2011 resulted in a large-scale hypoxic blackwater event in the southern Murray-Darling Basin that affected over 2000 km of river channels and persisted for 6 months. We examined the biogeochemistry and hydrology underpinning this extreme event and found that multiple drivers contributed to the development and persistence of hypoxic blackwater. Inundation of both forested and agricultural floodplains that had not been flooded for over a decade mobilised large stores of reactive carbon. Altered flow seasonality, due to a combination of climatic effects and river regulation, not only increased the risk of hypoxic blackwater generation but also shifted the proportion of bioavailable carbon that was returned to the river channels. Hypolimnetic weir discharge also contributed to hypoxia at some sites. These findings highlight the need for a whole-of-system perspective for the management of regulated river systems - especially in the face of a changing climate.

  16. Detection of DNAs by Using Dual Packed Polystyrene Bead-Quantum Dots in a Microfluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tam; Kim, Jong Sung

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) have shown peculiar optical and electrical properties due to their exceptionally small size. In recent years, tremendous researches on quantum dots have been carried out. Among them, QDs as sensing media for biological assay have achieved a great progress. Recently we have reported the detection of DNAs by using fluorescence quenching of QDs after DNA hybridization. Several oligonucleotides and human genomic genes could be detected. In this report we used dual packing of polystyrene bead-quantum dots to detect different kinds of DNAs simultaneously. QDs with different emission peaks were used. Carboxylated-CdSe/ZnS QDs (emission: 525, 605 nm) could bind to microbeads of polystyrene/divinyl benzene via EDC/NHS cross-linking reaction. Polystyrene bead-QDs with different colors were packed in the channel of the microfluidic chip. The fluorescence quenching from the QDs by intercalating dye was observed after hybridization of exon 6 and 7 of p53 gene at the weir in the channel of microfluidic chip. The simultaneous fluorescence quenching of the QDs by PI and TOTO-3 were observed.

  17. Infrastructure effects on estuarine wetlands increase their vulnerability to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Saco, Patricia; Sandi, Steven; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    At the regional and global scales, coastal management and planning for future sea level rise scenarios is typically supported by modelling tools that predict the expected inundation extent. These tools rely on a number of simplifying assumptions that, in some cases, may result in important miscalculation of the inundation effects. One of such cases is estuarine wetlands, where vegetation strongly depends on both the magnitude and the timing of inundation. Many coastal wetlands display flow restrictions due to infrastructure or drainage works, which produce alterations to the inundation patterns that can not be captured by conventional models. In this contribution we explore the effects of flow restrictions on inundation patterns under sea level rise conditions in estuarine wetlands. We use a spatially-distributed dynamic wetland ecogeomorphological model that not only incorporates the effects of flow restrictions due to culverts, bridges and weirs as well as vegetation, but also considers that vegetation changes as a consequence of increasing inundation. We also consider the ability of vegetation to capture sediment and produce accretion. We apply our model to an estuarine wetland in Australia and show that our model predicts a much faster wetland loss due to sea level rise than conventional approaches.

  18. Adaptive management in the context of barriers in European freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Tummers, Jeroen S; Lucas, Martyn C; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-09-13

    Many natural habitats have been modified to accommodate for the presence of humans and their needs. Infrastructures - such as hydroelectric dams, weirs, culverts and bridges - are now a common occurrence in streams and rivers across the world. As a result, freshwater ecosystems have been altered extensively, affecting both biological and geomorphological components of the habitats. Many fish species rely on these freshwater ecosystems to complete their lifecycles, and the presence of barriers has been shown to reduce their ability to migrate and sustain healthy populations. In the long run, barriers may have severe repercussions on population densities and dynamics of aquatic animal species. There is currently an urgent need to address these issues with adequate conservation approaches. Adaptive management provides a relevant approach to managing barriers in freshwater ecosystems as it addresses the uncertainties of dealing with natural systems, and accommodates for future unexpected events, though this approach may not be suitable in all instances. A literature search on this subject yielded virtually no output. Hence, we propose a step-by-step guide for implementing adaptive management, which could be used to manage freshwater barriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorniak, T; Blanchet, S; De Oliveira, E; Daverat, F; Pierron, F

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing 'leaders', 'followers', 'finishers' and 'no climbers'. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing 'leaders' had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing 'followers'. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive 'leaders' express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess.

  20. Conor McPherson's The Seafarer: tinkering with tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira da Rocha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A reading of The Seafarer (2007, the  last published play by the Irish playwright Conor McPherson (1971- , which aims to investigate the rich intertextuality that the work presents. The text echoes both canonic and popular renderings of the Faustian myth, those of Christopher Marlowe (c. 1564-1593 and Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832, as well as its folk rewritings. In The Seafarer McPherson conveys a complex portrait of a group of Irish working-class mates, who are enthralled in existential and gender conflicts. In this his fourth full-length ensemble play to reach both the London West End and New York Broadway (the first being The Weir of 1999 McPherson critically dialogues with the modernist and postmodernist dramatic tradition mainly through the works of John Middleton Synge (1871-1909, Samuel Beckett (1906-1989, Harold Pinter (1930-2008 and David Mamet (1947- , without losing, however, a genuine sense of deep Irishness.

  1. An approach for assessment of water quality using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and bioindicator tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Jones, S.B.; Huckins, J.N.; Cranor, W.L.; Parris, J.T.; McTague, T.B.; Boyle, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    As an integral part of our continued development of water quality assessment approaches, we combined integrative sampling, instrumental analysis of widely occurring anthropogenic contaminants, and the application of a suite of bioindicator tests as a specific part of a broader survey of ecological conditions, species diversity, and habitat quality in the Santa Cruz River in Arizona, USA. Lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sequester waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Instrumental analysis and a suite of bioindicator tests were used to determine the presence and potential toxicological relevance of mixtures of bioavailable chemicals in two major water sources of the Santa Cruz River. The SPMDs were deployed at two sites; the effluent weir of the International Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP) and the Nogales Wash. Both of these systems empty into the Santa Cruz River and the IWWTP effluent is a potential source of water for a constructed wetland complex. Analysis of the SPMD sample extracts revealed the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The bioindicator tests demonstrated increased liver enzyme activity, perturbation of neurotransmitter systems and potential endocrine disrupting effects (vitellogenin induction) in fish exposed to the extracts. With increasing global demands on limited water resources, the approach described herein provides an assessment paradigm applicable to determining the quality of water in a broad range of aquatic systems.

  2. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part II: development of gas transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The basic mass transfer equation for gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can be derived from integration of the driving force equation. Because of the physical characteristics of the gas transfer processes, slightly different models are used for aerators tested under the non steady-state procedures, than for packed columns, or weirs. It is suggested that the standard condition for carbon dioxide should be 20 °C, 1 atm, CCO2=20 mg/kg, and XCO2=0.000285. The selection of the standard condition for carbon dioxide based on a fixed mole fraction ensures that standardized carbon dioxide transfer rates will be comparable even though the value of C*CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing with time. The computation of mass transfer for carbon dioxide is complicated by the impact of water depth and gas phase enrichment on the saturation concentration within the unit, although the importance of either factor depends strongly on the specific type of aerator. For some types of aerators, the most accurate gas phase model remains to be determined for carbon dioxide. The assumption that carbon dioxide can be treated as a non-reactive gas in packed columns may apply for cold acidic waters but not for warm alkaline waters.

  3. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  4. American shad migratory behavior, weight loss, survival, and abundance in a North Carolina River following dam removals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive management and research, populations of American Shad Alosa sapidissima have experienced prolonged declines, and uncertainty about the underlying mechanisms causing these declines remains. In the springs of 2007 through 2010, we used a resistance board weir and PIT technology to capture, tag, and track American Shad in the Little River, North Carolina, a tributary to the Neuse River with complete and partial removals of low-head dams. Our objectives were to examine migratory behaviors and estimate weight loss, survival, and abundance during each spawning season. Males typically immigrated earlier than females and also used upstream habitat at a higher percentage, but otherwise exhibited relatively similar migratory patterns. Proportional weight loss displayed a strong positive relationship with both cumulative water temperature during residence time and number of days spent upstream, and to a lesser extent, minimum distance the fish traveled in the river. Surviving emigrating males lost up to 30% of their initial weight and females lost up to 50% of their initial weight, indicating there are potential survival thresholds. Survival for the spawning season was low and estimates ranged from 0.07 to 0.17; no distinct factors (e.g., sex, size, migration distance) that could contribute to survival were detected. Sampled and estimated American Shad abundance increased from 2007 through 2009, but was lower in 2010. Our study provides substantial new information about American Shad spawning that may aid restoration efforts.

  5. A review of methods for monitoring streamflow for sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyal, Pariva; Badola, Ruchi; Tuboi, Chongpi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of streamflow may help to determine the optimum levels of its use for sustainable water management in the face of climate change. We reviewed available methods for monitoring streamflow on the basis of six criteria viz. their applicability across different terrains and size of the streams, operational ease, time effectiveness, accuracy, environmental impact that they may cause and cost involve in it. On the basis of the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods reviewed, we conclude that the timed volume method is apt for hilly terrain having smaller streams due to its operational ease and accuracy of results. Although comparatively expensive, the weir and flume methods are suitable for long term studies of small hill streams, since once the structure is put in place, it yields accurate results. In flat terrain, the float method is best suited for smaller streams for its operational ease and cost effectiveness, whereas, for larger streams, the particle image velocimetry may be used for its accuracy. Our review suggests that the selection of a method for monitoring streamflow may be based on volume of the stream, accuracy of the method, accessibility of the terrain and financial and physical resources available.

  6. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km -2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km -2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Dry processing of power plant coal rich in inerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Ditzler, H.

    1982-07-01

    A system for pneumatic classifying was constructed in order to examine the effects of quality and composition of coal as well as the machine-related factors, such as the sieve shaking frequency, sieve hole size, air distribution, position of the separating weirs, and arrangement of the charging chute. It was determined that the Berry pneumatic table fulfills the requirements for product purity when the supply of material is held constant and the machine related factors are optimized. For a bituminous coal with a mean ash content between 40% and 50%, the best separation results were obtained. At a purity rate of inerts of over 97%, it was possible to reduce the ash content of the coal by 20%. Due to its compactness, the system can be put in operation at different sites. It is economic to operate, and can be adapted to any required capacity as a result of its modular design. During the tests a high degree of wear was noted on the fan and fan housing. The fan housing was protected to a great extent by synthetic plates.

  8. Measurements of the velocity fields by PIV method round about titling gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistrová Ivana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of using of measurement method Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV to measure velocity fields in the flowing water in front, above and behind drowned titling weir gate. The aim was to obtain information about the distribution of speed in the area of interest for the verification or calibration of the numerical model. Experiments were carried out in inclinable channel connected to the hydraulic circuit with a pump and storage tank at the Water Management Research Laboratory (LVV of Institute of Water Structures at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Brno University of Technology. Hydraulic inclinable channel has cross-section with dimensions of 0.4×0.4m and length of 12.5m. The measured area has cross-section approximately 0.2m wide and 0.4m high and its length is 1m. The results of physical modelling allowed a comparison of experimental data with numerical simulation results of this type of flow in the commercial software ANSYS CFX-12.0.

  9. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-14

    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  10. Alien reef-building polychaete drives long-term changes in invertebrate biomass and diversity in a small, urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, K. A.; Griffiths, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Two of the greatest threats to native biodiversity are the construction of artificial structures in natural environments and the introduction of invasive species. As the development and urbanisation of estuaries continues at an increasing rate worldwide, these environments are being simultaneously affected by these threats. This study quantifies the spread of an invasive reef-building polychaete, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, in a small, highly manipulated urban estuary in South Africa and investigates its role as an ecosystem engineer. Anthropogenic changes to the Zandvlei Estuary, including construction of a rubble weir and canalisation near the estuary mouth, construction of an extensive marina development and hardening of the banks with concrete, have facilitated the expansion of F. enigmaticus. The standing stock of F. enigmaticus increased from 13.69 t, as measured in 1986, to 50.03 t in 2012, due both to increase in the total area colonised and standing stock per m2. Since F. enigmaticus reefs support a greater biomass of infauna than adjacent sandy areas, total invertebrate biomass in the estuary is estimated to have increased from less than 0.30 t in 1942, to over 56.80 t in 2012, due mainly to hardening of banks in parts of the main estuary with concrete and construction of a marina system. A positive correlation between reef mass and infaunal biomass, density and diversity was also found.

  11. Recent TCP(Tidal Current Power) projects in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chul; Hee; JO; Kang; Hee; LEE; Yu; Ho; RHO

    2010-01-01

    Having strong current on the west coast with up to 10 m tidal range in Korea,there are many suitable and applicable locations for TCP(Tidal Current Power) application in Korea.Not only the west coast,but also the south west regions having narrow channels between islands creating fast ocean stream are suitable for TCP.The first TCP application in Korea is 1 MW helical VAT(Vertical Axis Turbine) device installed in Wooldolmog area in 2008.The first HAT(Horizontal Axis Turbine) TCP device of 25 KW was developed and installed in cooling water weir of Samchonpo power plant in 2008.Furthermore,a 100 kW prototype HAT TCP device is being planned to be installed in Daebang strait in 2009.Another big project would be Inchon TCP farm of 200 MW on the west coast in Korea.The consortium of 5 members was formed in April,2009.This site will be the largest TCP site in the world.The paper describes recent TCP projects in Korea with background and environmental conditions of the projects.

  12. Cholinesterase activities and sensitivity to pesticides in different tissues of silver European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, P; Brunelli, F; Mattioli, M; Rossi, T; Fabbri, E

    2011-11-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activities were characterized in silver European eel, Anguilla anguilla, grown in the brackish lagoon of Comacchio (Italy). All specimens were harvested at the "lavoriero", a traditional eel trapping weir that captures eels while leaving internal waters at the onset of reproductive migration. To our knowledge, no investigation on ChE was reported in silver eels. Therefore a first characterization of enzyme activity in muscle, brain, liver and plasma of silver eel was carried out, in the presence of different substrates, selective inhibitors, and four pesticides representative of the carbamate and organophosphate classes. Brain and white skeletal muscle showed similar ChE activities, 5- and 10-fold higher than those detected in liver and plasma, respectively. Km values of 0.31 and 0.30 mM, and Vmax values of 40.28 and 35.47 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) were obtained in brain and muscle ChE, respectively. Acetycholinesterase was the predominant ChE form in all tissues, as concluded by comparing the effects of BW 284c51, iso-OMPA and eserine. ChE activities in brain and muscle were significantly inhibited by in vitro treatment with pesticides, with the following order of potency: carbofuran>carbaryl>chlorpyrifos≥diazinon.

  13. Effect of Coarse Aggregate and Slag Type on the Mechanical Behavior of High and Normal Weight Concrete Used at Barrage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sanaullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an effort to assess the composite effect of limestone aggregate and blast furnace slag on the mechanical characteristics of normal and high weight concrete at various structural units (barrage girders, main weir and block apron of New Khanki Barrage Project, Punjab. Mix designs for different concrete classes falling under the domain of high and normal weight concrete were prepared after aggregate quality testing. On attaining satisfactory results of quality testing nine concrete mixes were designed (three for each class: A1, A and B by absolute volume method (ACI- 211.1. The required compressive strength of normal and high strength was set at 6200, 5200 and 4200 Psi for the concrete types A1, A and B respectively after 28 days (ACI -318. For compressive strength assessment, a total 27 concrete cylinders were casted (9-cylinders for each mix and were water cured. The achieved average UCS of cylinder concrete specimens at 3, 7 and 28 days are 5170, 6338 and 7320 Psi for A1 – type, 3210, 4187 and 5602 Psi for A-type and 2650, 3360 and 4408 Psi for B- type mix. It has been found that all concrete mixes for suggested classes attained target strength at age of 7-days. The coarse aggregate (Margala Hill limestone and fine aggregates (from Lawrancepur /Qibla Bandi quarries used in all concrete mix designs have demonstrated a sound mechanical suitability for high and normal weight concrete.

  14. Field validation of a new low-cost method for determining occurrence and duration of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Gutierrez, O; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2013-10-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events produced in combined sewer systems (CSS) during wet weather conditions are a threat for the receiving water bodies. The large number of CSO structures normally present in a CSS makes that the monitoring of the complete CSO network in a simultaneous way would drastically increase the investment costs. In this paper, a new methodology is presented aiming to characterize the occurrence and duration of CSO events by means of low-cost temperature sensors. Hence, a large number of CSO structures can be simultaneously monitored and the system can be characterized as a whole. The method assumes temperature differences between the overflowing mix of wastewater and stormwater and the sewer gas phase, so the temperature shift produced during a rainfall episode is related to a CSO event occurrence. The method has been tested and validated in La Garriga CSS (Spain) where the temperature at 13 CSO weirs was monitored for a period of 1 year (57 rainfall episodes). For the whole set of CSO events, occurrence and duration were successfully determined in 80% of cases. Advantages, limitations and potential applications of the method are discussed at the end of the paper.

  15. Evaluasi Kinerja Instalasi Pengolahan Lumpur Tinja (IPLT Keputih, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dian Mega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Instalasi Pengolahan Lumpur Tinja (IPLT Keputih merupakan instalasi pengolah lumpur tinja di Kota Surabaya yang berdiri pada tahun 1991 dengan kapasitas desain 400 m3/hari. Prinsip pengolahan IPLT adalah pengolahan fisik dan pengolahan biologis. Saat ini effluen IPLT Keputih memiliki kualitas yang hanya memenuhi baku mutu Kepmen LH No.5/2014 dengan nilai Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 72 mg/L, tetapi belum memenuhi baku mutu Pergub Jatim No.72/2013. Pada studi ini dilakukan evaluasi kondisi eksisting dengan kriteria desain dan rekomendasi, baik dari segi operasi maupun proses untuk setiap unit bangunan agar effluen pengolahan memenuhi baku mutu. Debit influen IPLT eksisting adalah 137 m3/hari dengan kapasitas desain 400 m3/hari. Kandungan solid inlet sebesar 4,80%. Solid separation chamber memiliki kandungan solid outlet sebesar 5,87% dan direkomendasikan menjadi 20%. Oxidation ditch memiliki nilai Food to Mass (F/M ratio sebesar 0,01 dengan rekomendasi ditingkatkan menjadi 0,023.  Final Clarifier (FC memiliki debit resirkulasi sebesar 23,80 m3/s. Berdasarkan rekomendasi, debit resirkulasi FC sebesar 18,31 m3/s, dengan weir loading rate sebesar 6,84m3/m.hari. Sludge drying bed memiliki kandungan solid pada lumpur kering sebesar 63,14% dan direkomendasikan menjadi 80%. Drying area memiliki kandungan solid pada lumpur kering sebesar 61,16% dan direkomendasikan menjadi 80%.

  16. Conduction mechanism in Polyaniline-flyash composite material for shielding against electromagnetic radiation in X-band & Ku band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avanish Pratap; Anoop Kumar, S.; Chandra, Amita; Dhawan, S. K.

    2011-06-01

    β-Naphthalene sulphonic acid (β-NSA) doped polyaniline (PANI)-flyash (FA) composites have been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization route whose conductivity lies in the range 2.37-21.49 S/cm. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has also been recorded which shows that composites follow Mott's 3D-VRH model. SEM images demonstrate that β-NSA leads to the formation of the tubular structure with incorporated flyash phase. TGA studies show the improvement in thermal stability of composites with increase in loading level of flyash. Complex parameters i.e. permittivity (ɛ* = ɛ'- iɛ″) and permeability (μ*=μ'- iμ″) of PANI-FA composites have been calculated from experimental scattering parameters (S11 & S21) using theoretical calculations given in Nicholson-Ross and Weir algorithms. The microwave absorption properties of the composites have been studied in X-band (8.2 - 12.4 GHz) & Ku-Band (12.4 - 18 GHz) frequency range. The maximum shielding effectiveness observed was 32dB, which strongly depends on dielectric loss and volume fraction of flyash in PANI matrix.

  17. Conduction mechanism in Polyaniline-flyash composite material for shielding against electromagnetic radiation in X-band & Ku band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Pratap Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β–Naphthalene sulphonic acid (β–NSA doped polyaniline (PANI–flyash (FA composites have been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization route whose conductivity lies in the range 2.37–21.49 S/cm. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has also been recorded which shows that composites follow Mott's 3D–VRH model. SEM images demonstrate that β–NSA leads to the formation of the tubular structure with incorporated flyash phase. TGA studies show the improvement in thermal stability of composites with increase in loading level of flyash. Complex parameters i.e. permittivity (ɛ* = ɛ′- iɛ″ and permeability (μ*=μ′- iμ″ of PANI-FA composites have been calculated from experimental scattering parameters (S11 & S21 using theoretical calculations given in Nicholson–Ross and Weir algorithms. The microwave absorption properties of the composites have been studied in X-band (8.2 – 12.4 GHz & Ku–Band (12.4 – 18 GHz frequency range. The maximum shielding effectiveness observed was 32dB, which strongly depends on dielectric loss and volume fraction of flyash in PANI matrix.

  18. Exploring the utility of Bayesian Networks for modelling cultural ecosystem services: A canoeing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edward; Kumar, Vikas; Lange, Eckart; Lerner, David N

    2016-01-01

    Modelling cultural ecosystem services is challenging as they often involve subjective and intangible concepts. As a consequence they have been neglected in ecosystem service studies, something that needs remedying if environmental decision making is to be truly holistic. We suggest Bayesian Networks (BNs) have a number of qualities that may make them well-suited for dealing with cultural services. For example, they define relationships between variables probabilistically, enabling conceptual and physical variables to be linked, and therefore the numerical representation of stakeholder opinions. We assess whether BNs are a good method for modelling cultural services by building one collaboratively with canoeists to predict how the subjective concepts of fun and danger are impacted on by weir modification. The BN successfully captured the relationships between the variables, with model output being broadly consistent with verbal descriptions by the canoeists. There were however a number of discrepancies indicating imperfect knowledge capture. This is likely due to the structure of the network and the abstract and laborious nature of the probability elicitation stage. New techniques should be developed to increase the intuitiveness and efficiency of probability elicitation. The limitations we identified with BNs are avoided if their structure can be kept simple, and it is in such circumstances that BNs can offer a good method for modelling cultural ecosystem services.

  19. Small hydropower plants standardization, between myth and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivescu, A. V.; Ahmad-Rashid, K.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.

    2017-01-01

    Many providers for small hydropower plants equipment have tried to standardize the components and even the entire equipment. So called “compact turbines” were launched on the market, ensuring the pre-designed solution of the modular components, but usually with lower efficiency then turbines specially designed for a certain site. For civil works it is possible to standardize some components, such as the powerhouse, the surge tank or the headrace, but not the intake and the weir. Part of the hydropower plants can be standardized, but not the entire project, because there are a lot of variables that influence the design. Among these, the dimension, materials and design of the canal and the penstock are given by the hydrology, topography and the geology of the project’s area. This paper presents an attempt at standardization by using different heads and different installed flows. The case study is made on the Lukosi River from Tanzania, because there is a good hydrological database on power and energy calculation. For the powerhouse, pressure tower and intake dimensioning, the assumptions and materials considered cover all challenges that could appear in the geological and topographical structure of the project’s area (worst case, most expensive). The study has highlighted African climatologic and hydrological conditions and the adapting of current technology to these conditions.

  20. Die epigäische Spinnenzönose (Araneae auf Schotterbänken der Mittelgebirgsbäche und -flüsse im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit, Janna

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider communities on gravel bars along streams in lower montainous areas of Northern Hess were investigated. Eight streams differently altered by human impact were studied: four small streams without weirs and impoundments, two regulated small streams and two larger regulated streams. The sampling sites were located in one kilometer streches of the upper, middle and lower reach of each small stream, respectively. In addition the gravel bars in several floodplain sections of larger streams were investigated. Altogether 592 quantitative samples of spiders were made. 7027 spiders (Araneae comprising 77 species were encountered. Only two species (Oedothorax agrestis, Pirata knorri make up more than 70 percent of all spiders captured. Erigone atra and Erigone dentipalpis were frequently foung along all streams investigated. While Diplocephalus permixtus and Diplocephalus protuberans were only encountered along the small streams, Oedothorax retusus and Pardosa amentata were predominantly recorded on gravelbars of large streams. Diplocephalus protuberans was recorded for the first time in Hesse. The mean abundances (median ranged between 4 and 28 individuals/m2. 198 individuals/m2 have been the maximum of abundance.

  1. Nasal base narrowing of the caucasian nose through the cerclage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocellin, Marcos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to reduce the nasal base (narrowing, as skin resection vestibular columellar skin resection, resection of skin in elliptical lip narinary, sloughing of skin and advancements (VY technique of Bernstein and the use of cerclage sutures in the nasal base. Objective: To evaluate the technique of cerclage performed in the nasal base, through endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery of basic technique, in the Caucasian nose, reducing the distance inter-alar flare and correcting the wing with consequent improvement in nasal harmony in the whole face. Methods: A retrospective analysis by analysis of clinical documents and photos of 43 patients in whom cerclage was made of the nasal base by resecting skin ellipse in the region of the vestibule and the nasal base (modified technique of Weir using colorless mononylon® 4 "0" with a straight cutting needle. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Hospital of Paraná Institute of Otolaryngology - IPO in Curitiba, Parana - Brazil. Patients had a follow up ranging 7-12 months. Results: In 100% of cases was achieved an improvement in nasal harmony, by decreasing the inter-alar distance. Conclusion: The encircling with minimal resection of vestibular skin and the nasal base is an effective method for the narrowing of the nasal base in the Caucasian nose, with predictable results and easy to perform.

  2. Hypersonic simulations using open-source CFD and DSMC solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseau, V.; Scanlon, T. J.; John, B.; Emerson, D. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    Hypersonic hybrid hydrodynamic-molecular gas flow solvers are required to satisfy the two essential requirements of any high-speed reacting code, these being physical accuracy and computational efficiency. The James Weir Fluids Laboratory at the University of Strathclyde is currently developing an open-source hybrid code which will eventually reconcile the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method, making use of the OpenFOAM application called dsmcFoam, and the newly coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics solver named hy2Foam. In conjunction with employing the CVDV chemistry-vibration model in hy2Foam, novel use is made of the QK rates in a CFD solver. In this paper, further testing is performed, in particular with the CFD solver, to ensure its efficacy before considering more advanced test cases. The hy2Foam and dsmcFoam codes have shown to compare reasonably well, thus providing a useful basis for other codes to compare against.

  3. Long term pipeline monitoring in geomechanically sensitive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir-Jones, I.; Sun, M. [Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, monitoring pipeline structural integrity is necessary for both regulatory and environmental purposes. Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants developed an automated structural integrity monitoring (SIM) system, data on strain, displacement and temperature are continuously acquired and automatically transmitted to the monitoring personnel. The aim of this paper is to present this technology and its implementation on one of Inter Pipeline Fund's lines as well. The automated SIM equipment was installed on a new 42'' line at the crossing of the Clearwater River close to Fort McMurray. Results showed that this technology is a good way to monitor pipelines in remote locations, environmentally sensitive areas, river and embankment crossings and in locations where external forces can put the pipeline at risk; but it should not be used otherwise as that would not be cost effective. This paper described the developed automated SIM and showed that it should only be used in specific locations to be cost effective.

  4. Species-specific responses to landscape fragmentation: implications for management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Simon; Rey, Olivier; Etienne, Roselyne; Lek, Sovan; Loot, Géraldine

    2010-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation affects the integrity of many species, but little is known about species-specific sensitivity to fragmentation. Here, we compared the genetic structure of four freshwater fish species differing in their body size (Leuciscus cephalus; Leuciscus leuciscus; Gobio gobio and Phoxinus phoxinus) between a fragmented and a continuous landscape. We tested if, overall, fragmentation affected the genetic structure of these fish species, and if these species differed in their sensitivity to fragmentation. Fragmentation negatively affected the genetic structure of these species. Indeed, irrespective of the species identity, allelic richness and heterozygosity were lower, and population divergence was higher in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape. This response to fragmentation was highly species-specific, with the smallest fish species (P. phoxinus) being slightly affected by fragmentation. On the contrary, fish species of intermediate body size (L. leuciscus and G. gobio) were highly affected, whereas the largest fish species (L. cephalus) was intermediately affected by fragmentation. We discuss the relative role of dispersal ability and effective population size on the responses to fragmentation we report here. The weirs studied here are of considerable historical importance. We therefore conclude that restoration programmes will need to consider both this societal context and the biological characteristics of the species sharing this ecosystem.

  5. Genetic fragmentation in India's third longest river system, the Narmada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Jamdade, Rahul; Kalyankar, Amol; Tiknaik, Anita; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2014-01-01

    India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations. Our results clearly show that these barriers can contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure of these fish communities, Furthermore, these barriers enhance the effects of natural isolation by distance and the asymmetry of dispersal flows. This may be a slow process, but it can create significant isolation and result in genetic disparity. In particular, populations furthest upstream having low migration rates could be even more subject to genetic impoverishment. This study serves as a first report of its kind for a river system on the Indian subcontinent. The results of this study also emphasize the need for appropriate attention towards the creation of fish passages across the dams and weirs that could help in maintaining biodiversity.

  6. Numerical investigation of underground drain radius, depth and location on uplift pressure reduction (Case study: Tabriz diversion dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Salmasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water penetration from beneath of built structures on permeable soils causes uplift force along the contact of structure with foundation. This uplift force reduces hydraulic structure stability. Typically, these instabilities occur due to under-pressure development (uplift force, gradual inner degradation of foundation material (piping or sand boil phenomenon. Thus, it seems necessary to calculate the pressure applied to the contact surface of the dam. One method for preventing piping phenomenon, reduction in exit gradient as well as decrease of uplift force beneath diversion dams includes implementation of weep hole. This study aims to study the effect of radius, depth and location of pipe drains under stilling basin upon how much uplift force decreases. The benefit of this study in agricultural field for soil and water engineers is to have a safe design of lined canals, weirs or diversion dams. To do this, numerical simulation of Tabriz diversion dam with Geo-Studio software was carried out. Results showed that application of drain pipe under the structure reduced uplift force respect to without drain under the structure. Increasing of drain radius; caused reduction of uplift pressure more but increased of seepage flow slightly. Installation of drain in upper part of stilling basin had a tendency to decrease uplift pressure more. Existence of drain near the stilling basin bottom caused in more reducing of uplift pressure than of installation of it in deeper depth

  7. The stability analysis of the second stage cofferdam on the left bank of Changsha Xiangjian%湘江长沙综合枢纽左岸二期围堰稳定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 刘晓平; 林积大; 周千凯; 凌威

    2012-01-01

    采用GEOSTUDIO边坡稳定及渗流分析程序,对围堰在设计洪水位时、过水工况及降雨条件下纵向边坡渗流和稳定情况进行了分析.分析结果表明:防渗心墙对围堰和边坡具有良好的防渗作用,它增强了围堰和基础边坡的稳定性.在降雨和过水情况下,堰体内渗流场发生明显改变,应对背水坡结构进行优化或采取适当安全预防措施.%The seepage stability is analyzed using the GEOSTUDIO slope stability and seepage analysis program, the cofferdam seepage stability of the slope longitudinal is analyzed under the situation of design flood in a rain fall conditions. The calculated results show that the impervious core wall has good anti-seepage effect on the cofferdam and slope, it can increase the stability of cofferdam and the slope base. In rainfall and overflow cases, seepage field within the weir body changed obviously, the structure of downstreamslope should be optimized or take proper safety precautions.

  8. Hydrological regulations, land use and a mud volcano affecting the sediment and carbon load of the tropical Brantas River, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, Tim; Jänen, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Intensive human uses of the coastal zone and increasing extreme events are more and more endangering the integrity of coastal ecosystems during the Anthropocene. This is of particular importance in SE Asia where large parts of the population live in the coastal zone and economically depend on its resources. Intensive tectonic activity in the circum-Pacific 'Ring of fire' exposes the region to extreme natural events like volcano eruptions, earthquakes and occasionally following tsunamis. The Indonesian island of Java is a prime example in this respect because of its location on an active continental margin and a population density >1,000 inhabitants km-2. Its second largest river, the Brantas, empties into the shallow Madura Strait through two major branches, the Wonokromo and the Porong, the latter being responsible for 80 % of the discharge. Major land use in the catchment is agriculture (61 %) and the hydrology and sediment load of the river is regulated by 8 large dams and numerous weirs. The estuarine lowlands in the prograding delta were once covered by mangroves which were to a large extent replaced by aquaculture ponds. The eruption of a mud volcano near the Porong in 2006 added another factor affecting the amount and composition of the dissolved and particulate river loads. Concentrations of total suspended sediments (TSM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) displayed large seasonal variations in the Brantas before its diversion into the Porong and the Wonokromo as well as in the latter two with maxima during the wet season (Nov-April). High concentrations in the Porong during both seasons were mainly due to the constantly high input from the mud volcano. Favourable weathering conditions and agriculture as the predominant land use are responsible for high erosion rates of 4-14 mm yr-1 in the catchment. The 8 major dams and numerous weirs built between the 1970s and the 1990s retain a large amount of that sediment leading to an overall low sediment yield of

  9. Variabilidade genética de etnovariedades de mandioca, avaliada por marcadores de DNA Genetic diversity of cassava folk varieties assessed by DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Santos Mühlen

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a variabilidade genética de etnovariedades ("folk varieties" de mandioca e examinar a distribuição desta variabilidade entre grupos de etnovariedades de diferentes locais de origem e tipos. Foram escolhidas 54 etnovariedades de mandioca originárias de quatro regiões brasileiras: 45 etnovariedades da Amazônia (23 do Rio Negro, 6 do Rio Branco e 16 do Rio Solimões e 9 do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo. A variedade moderna Mantiqueira¹, de ampla distribuição mundial, também foi incluída. Destas, 38 variedades eram mandiocas bravas e 17 de mesa (aipins ou macaxeiras. Foram utilizados três tipos de marcador de DNA: RAPD, AFLP e microssatélites. A análise dos resultados consistiu na descrição do padrão de bandas, cálculo de índices de similaridade (Nei & Li; 1979 e análise de coordenadas principais (PCoA, para cada tipo de marcador. Para os locos de microssatélites foram calculados também: heterozigozidade, índices de diversidade (DI, de Weir e coeficientes de diferenciação genética (G ST. A variabilidade genética mostrou-se mais concentrada dentro de regiões do que entre regiões (G ST = 0,07. A heterozigozidade média foi de 56%. Os índices médios de similaridade entre variedades variaram em função do tipo de marcador: S = 0,89 para RAPD, S = 0, 85 para AFLP e S = 0,59 para microssatélites. Análises de coordenadas principais mostraram agrupamentos separando as variedades de mesa das bravas.The objective of this work was to quantify the genetic diversity among cassava folk varieties as well as to examine the distribution of the genetic diversity among varieties of different origin and type. Fifty-four cassava varieties were chosen from 4 Brasilian regions: 45 of the Amazon basin (23 from River Negro, 6 of the River Branco and 16 of the River Solimões and 9 of the south coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. The modern variety Mantiqueira was also included as a

  10. Estimating long-term evolution of fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir using a simplified method based on classification of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The Iffezheim reservoir is the last of a series of reservoirs on the Upper Rhine in Germany. Since its construction in 1977, approximately 115,000 m3 of fine sediments accumulate annually in the weir channel (WSA Freiburg, 2011). In order to obtain detailed information about the space-time development of the topography, the riverbed evolution was measured using echo sounding by the German Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration (WSV). 37 sets of sounding data, which have been obtained between July 2000 and February 2011, were used in this research. In a previous work, the morphodynamic processes in the Iffezheim reservoir were investigated using a high-resolution 3D model. The 3D computational fluid dynamic software SSIIM II (Olsen, 2014) was used for this purpose (Zhang et al., 2015). The model was calibrated using field measurements. A computational time of 14.5 hours, using 24 cores of a 2.4 GHz reference computer, was needed for simulating a period of three months on a grid of 238,013 cells. Thus, the long-term (e.g. 30 years) simulation of morphodynamics of the fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir with this model is not feasible. A low complexity approach of "classification of the boundary conditions of discharge and suspended sediment concentration" was applied in this research for a long-term numerical simulation. The basic idea of the approach is to replace instationary or quasi-steady simulations of deposition by a limited series of stationary ones. For these, daily volume changes were calculated considering representative discharge and concentration. Representative boundary conditions were determined by subdividing time series of discharge and concentration into classes and using central values per class. The amount of the deposition in the reservoir for a certain period can then be obtained by adding up the calculated daily depositions. This approach was applied to 10 short-term periods, between two successive echo sounding measurements

  11. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    , acclimation of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from February 27, 2006 through to April 10, 2006 and a total of 240,568 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2004 egg source and included captive brood (40,982) and conventional (199,586) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2006 began May 15th, the first Chinook was captured on June 14, 2006 and the last Chinook was captured on September 27, 2006. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2006. A total of 534 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 205 natural origin fish and 329 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 33 natural and 120 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to LGH for holding and spawning and 397 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally. In 2006, no hatchery origin adult Chinook were transported and out planted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in under seeded habitat. In order to meet egg take goals for the conventional portion of the program, a determination was made that approximately 147 adults were needed for broodstock. As a result 16 (8 males and 8 females) of the 153 fish collected for broodstock were returned to the Lostine River to spawn naturally. Females that were spawned and provided the brood source were made up of 12 natural females and 45 supplementation females. One of these females tested positive for high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease and consequently this females eggs were destroyed. The remaining females produced a total of 241,372 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 85.47% which yielded a total of 206,309 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 4

  12. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    , acclimation of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from March 1, 2004 through to April 14, 2004 and a total of 250,249 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2002 egg source and included captive brood (133,781) and conventional (116,468) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2004 began May 10, the first Chinook was captured on May 19, 2004 and the last Chinook was captured on September 16, 2004. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2004. A total of 1,091 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 299 natural origin fish and 792 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 46 natural and 69 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to Lookingglass Hatchery for holding and spawning, 537 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally, and 447 hatchery origin adult Chinook were transported and outplanted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in underseeded habitat. Of the 107 adults retained (eight additional hatchery females were collected and then later returned to the Lostine River to spawn naturally) for broodstock at Lookingglass Hatchery, 22 natural females and 30 supplementation females were represented in spawning. These females produced a total of 221,889 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 94.9% which yielded a total of 210,661 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 4,267 eggs per female. These eggs were incubated and at Lookingglass Hatchery until eyed stage and then transferred to Oxbow Hatchery where they will be reared to the fingerling stage. They will then be transported back to LGH and reared to the smolt stage and then transported to the Lostine

  13. Application of a Genetic Algorithm in a Collaborative Process to Resolve Hydrology and Physical Reality with Both Western and Maori Cultural Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, D.; Sheer, A.; Lebherz, S.

    2009-12-01

    Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti are two sizeable, culturally and economically important lakes on the North Island of New Zealand. Rotorua outflows traverse the short Ohau Channel before entering Lake Rotoiti. Ohau channel flows are partially controlled by a stoplog structure. Rotoiti outflows to the Kaituna River are fully controlled by the Okere Gate structure. The structures are managed by Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP), a government agency. Management objectives include maintaining minimum lake levels to support recreational boating, restricting maximum lake levels to avoid residential flooding, minimum instream flows below the lower lake to maintain aquatic ecosystems, limits on maximum releases to control erosion and prevent flooding. In addition, management seeks to provide for a minimum annual variation in lake levels to control the growth of aquatic plants in the littoral zone and to periodically expose beaches with important cultural value to the indigenous Maori population. The levels necessary to expose beaches may be lower than the minimum levels desired to support boating. Records of beach exposure are scant; the existence of beaches may depend on climate cycles. There is flow dependent recreational rafting below Okere Gates. This rafting is economically valuable, but is also contentious because the reach of Kaituna River flows through important Maori cultural areas, including grave sites. The Maoris have expressed a preference for replacing the Okere Gates with a fixed stepped weir, although the existing gates can be relatively easily operated to reproduce the flows over any of the fixed weir designs so far proposed. HydroLogics created a model of the two-lake system using its OASIS software system. The inflows to the lakes were estimated based on available historical flow and lake level data and on flow estimates derived from Mike-11 modeling of historical lake outlet configurations. A custom genetic algorithm (GA) was created to “wrap” the

  14. The case of the Upper Rhine: unravelling the past, wrapping up the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenzinger, P.; Bölscher, J.; de Jong, C.

    2003-04-01

    the first bigger steamboats entering the new harbor of Basel. The new situation was settled by the peace treaty of Versailles with its entrustment of the Rhine to France. This resulted in the construction of the Canal d’Alsace between the wars and after the last World War. Wrapping up the future of the Upper Rhine cannot be a turn back to the past, but should be an attempt to reduce the deficits and to amplify the ecological benefits. As already stated in 1824 the new river system causes more peaky floods and induces a deficit of bedload. The last problem was overcome by a bedload management scheme proposed by Felkel in 1970. For flood protection a German-French agreement defined the ’integrated Rhine programm’ in 1982 to create more flood storage capacity using the following approaches: - special operation of the power scheme, - construction of more weire and more flood polders. The largest retention measure so far is planned along the Restrhein between the weir at the entrance of the Canal d’Alsace and Breisach(D). A strip of approx. 95 m width the ancient floodplain on the German side will be excavated down to the groundwater level in order to develop a new artificial floodplain capable of storing approx. 25 million m3 of floodwater. This project will not only create a new river but will be encountered by 50 million m3 of sediments which have to be removed and sold. The development of the Upper Rhine is an extreme example for river genesis during the last 200 years. There is no way back to the future but only the possibility to create an improved and more sustainable riversystem for the next century.

  15. The Chief Joseph Hatchery Program 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Casey; Pearl, Andrea; Laramie, Matthew; Rohrback, John; Phillips, Pat; Wolf, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The Chief Joseph Hatchery is the fourth hatchery obligated under the Grand Coulee Dam/Dry Falls project, originating in the 1940s. Leavenworth, Entiat, and Winthrop National Fish Hatcheries were built and operated as mitigation for salmon blockage at Grand Coulee Dam, but the fourth hatchery was not built, and the obligation was nearly forgotten. After the Colville Tribes successfully collaborated with the United States to resurrect the project, planning of the hatchery began in 2001 and construction was completed in 2013. The monitoring program began in 2012 and adult Chinook Salmon were brought on station for the first time in June 2013. BPA is the primary funding source for CJH, and the Mid-Columbia PUDs (Douglas, Grant and Chelan County) have entered into cost-share agreements with the tribes and BPA in order to meet some of their mitigation obligations. The CJH production level was set at 60% in 2013 in order to train staff and test hatchery facility systems during the first year of operation. Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery (LNFH) provided 422 Spring Chinook broodstock in June, 2013; representing the official beginning of CJH operations. In July and August the CCT used a purse seine vessel to collect 814 summer/fall Chinook as broodstock that were a continuation and expansion of the previous Similkameen Pond program. In-hatchery survival for most life stages exceeded survival targets and, as of April 2014, the program was on track to exceed the 60% production target for its start-up year. The CJH monitoring project collected field data to determine Chinook population status, trend, and hatchery effectiveness centered on five major activities; 1) rotary screw traps (juvenile outmigration, natural-origin smolt PIT tagging) 2) beach seine (naturalorigin smolt PIT tagging) 3) lower Okanogan adult fish pilot weir (adult escapement, proportion of hatchery-origin spawners [pHOS], broodstock) 4) spawning ground surveys (redd and carcass surveys)(viable salmonid

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from March 3, 2003 through to April 14, 2003 and a total of 242,776 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2001 egg source and included captive broodstock (141,860) and conventional broodstock (100,916) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2003 began April 30th, the first Chinook was captured on May 16, 2003 and the last Chinook was captured on September 21, 2003. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2003. A total of 464 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 239 natural origin fish and 225 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 45 natural and 4 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to LGH for holding and spawning, 366 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally, and 49 hatchery origin adult jack Chinook were transported and outplanted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in underseeded habitat. Of the 49 adults retained for broodstock at Lookingglass Hatchery, 21 natural females and no hatchery origin females were represented in spawning. These females produced a total of 106,609 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 95.50% which yielded a total of 101,811 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 5,077 eggs per female. These eggs were incubated and at Lookingglass Hatchery until eyed stage. At eye they were transferred to Oxbow Hatchery where they were reared to the fingerling state at which time they were transported back to LGH until they were smolts in the spring of 2005. Captive brood program eggs/fish will be added to the conventional program eggs to make up the entire juvenile release for the Lostine

  17. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  18. Full Equations (FEQ) model for the solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    The Full EQuations (FEQ) model is a computer program for solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures. A stream system that is simulated by application of FEQ is subdivided into stream reaches (branches), parts of the stream system for which complete information on flow and depth are not required (dummy branches), and level-pool reservoirs. These components are connected by special features; that is, hydraulic control structures, including junctions, bridges, culverts, dams, waterfalls, spillways, weirs, side weirs, and pumps. The principles of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum are used to calculate the flow and depth throughout the stream system resulting from known initial and boundary conditions by means of an implicit finite-difference approximation at fixed points (computational nodes). The hydraulic characteristics of (1) branches including top width, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, and flux coefficients and (2) special features (relations between flow and headwater and (or) tail-water elevations, including the operation of variable-geometry structures) are stored in function tables calculated in the companion program, Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL). Function tables containing other information used in unsteady-flow simulation (boundary conditions, tributary inflows or outflows, gate settings, correction factors, characteristics of dummy branches and level-pool reservoirs, and wind speed and direction) are prepared by the user as detailed in this report. In the iterative solution scheme for flow and depth throughout the stream system, an interpolation of the function tables corresponding to the computational nodes throughout the stream system is done in the model. FEQ can be applied in the simulation of a wide range of stream configurations (including loops), lateral-inflow conditions, and special features. The

  19. Modeling of basin-wide water management for dry-season paddy irrigation with large reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, R.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Yoshida, T.

    2012-12-01

    Northeast Thailand, one of the regions in the Mekong River Basin, has less rainfall than adjacent countries and its rainfall is heavily concentrated in rainy seasons (almost 90% of annual rainfall). Therefore, this area is characterized as semi-arid region especially during dry seasons. In this region, rain-fed paddies account for about 90% and this leads to unstable rice production. Against these backgrounds, a number of large irrigation projects have been carried out since the 1970s to increase agricultural productivity. In these projects, a lot of irrigation facilities such as large/medium reservoirs, diversion weirs and irrigation canals were constructed for stable water supply in dry seasons. These projects enable farmers to pursue double rice cropping as rainy- and dry-season cropping in this region. Paddy field irrigation, however, exerts a great influence on water circulation of river basins in Monsoon Asia and modeling of these processes is crucial to understand the hydrological cycle especially in areas where irrigated agriculture is dominant. In this study, to quantify the hydrological cycle in irrigation-dominant basins, we applied a distributed hydrological model incorporating paddy irrigation schemes to the Mun River Basin, one of the tributaries of the Mekong River, in Northeast Thailand, and analyzed water circulation considering complex water use by agricultural activities. The model used in this study consists of four sub-models, such as referential evapotranspiration, cropping pattern/area, agricultural water use, and runoff model in order to estimate various information on agricultural water use. Additionally, water allocation and reservoir operation models were integrated into the hydrological model to account for the water circulation in large irrigation areas. For the analysis, the basin is divided into 10km-mesh and each mesh contains the ratio of 5 land-use category as forest, rain-fed paddy, irrigated paddy, upland field and water area

  20. Validation of resting metabolic rate prediction equations for teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Santos da Fonseca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The resting metabolic rate (RMR can be defi ned as the minimum rate of energy spent and represents the main component of the energetic outlay. The purpose of this study is to validate equations to predict the resting metabolic rate in teenagers (103 individuals, being 51 girls and 52 boys, with age between 10 and 17 years from Florianópolis – SC – Brazil. It was measured: the body weight, body height, skinfolds and obtained the lean and body fat mass through bioimpedance. The nonproteic RMR was measured by Weir’s equation (1949, utilizing AeroSport TEEM-100 gas analyzer. The studied equations were: Harry and Benedict (1919, Schofi eld (1985, WHO/FAO/UNU (1985, Henry and Rees (1991, Molnár et al. (1998, Tverskaya et al. (1998 and Müller et al. (2004. In order to study the cross-validation of the RMR prediction equations and its standard measure (Weir 1949, the following statistics procedure were calculated: Pearson’s correlation (r ≥ 0.70, the “t” test with the signifi cance level of p0.05 in relation to the standard measure, with exception of the equations suggested for Tverskaya et al. (1998, and the two models of Müller et al (2004. Even though there was not a signifi cant difference, only the models considered for Henry and Rees (1991, and Molnár et al. (1995 had gotten constant error variation under 5%. All the equations analyzed in the study in girls had not reached criterion of correlation values of 0.70 with the indirect calorimetry. Analyzing the prediction equations of RMR in boys, all of them had moderate correlation coeffi cients with the indirect calorimetry, however below 0.70. Only the equation developed for Tverskaya et al. (1998 presented differences (p ABSTRACT0,05 em relação à medida padrão (Weir 1949, com exceção das equações sugeridas por Tverskaya et al. (1998 e os dois modelos de Müller et al (2004. Mesmo não havendo diferença signifi cativa, somente os modelos propostos por Henry e Rees (1991

  1. Large wood recruitment processes and transported volumes in Swiss mountain streams during the extreme flood of August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Badoux, Alexandre; Rickli, Christian; Waldner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The extreme flood event that occurred in August 2005 was the most costly (documented) natural hazard event in the history of Switzerland. The flood was accompanied by the mobilization of > 69,000 m3 of large wood (LW) throughout the affected area. As recognized afterward, wood played an important role in exacerbating the damages, mainly because of log jams at bridges and weirs. The present study aimed at assessing the risk posed by wood in various catchments by investigating the amount and spatial variability of recruited and transported LW. Data regarding LW quantities were obtained by field surveys, remote sensing techniques (LiDAR), and GIS analysis and was subsequently translated into a conceptual model of wood transport mass balance. Detailed wood budgets and transport diagrams were established for four study catchments of Swiss mountain streams, showing the spatial variability of LW recruitment and deposition. Despite some uncertainties with regard to parameter assumptions, the sum of reconstructed wood input and observed deposition volumes agree reasonably well. Mass wasting such as landslides and debris flows were the dominant recruitment processes in headwater streams. In contrast, LW recruitment from lateral bank erosion became significant in the lower part of mountain streams where the catchment reached a size of about 100 km2. According to our analysis, 88% of the reconstructed total wood input was fresh, i.e., coming from living trees that were recruited from adjacent areas during the event. This implies an average deadwood contribution of 12%, most of which was estimated to have been in-channel deadwood entrained during the flood event.

  2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and waist circumference for assessing body composition in ambulant and non-ambulant wheelchair games players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eWillems

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n =7 or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n =7. Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan & Weir, Durnin & Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses and sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2±=6.6 kg vs. 59.4±8.2 kg, P =.006 and total body mass (65.8 ±4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ±14.9 kg; P =0.05 than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  3. ALOKASI DAN DISTRIBUSI AIR DI DAERAH IRIGASI JATILUHUR INDONESIA: EVALUASI DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Sudiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has rich natural resources including water resources. The abundance of water resources is characterized by an annual rainfall averaging about 2790 mm. Jatiluhur irrigation area is one of large irrigation system in Indonesia which plays main role for national food and agriculture defense. It receives water from Djuanda Multipurpose Reservoir located in Citarum River West Java Indonesia. This reservoir is responsible to irrigate 240,000 ha paddy field, raw water for domestic municipal industrial (DMI and hydropower generation. The water is released from the reservoir to Curug Diversion Weir where the water is diverted to West Tarum Canal (WTC, East Tarum Canal (ETC and North Tarum Canal (NTC. Mechanisms for water allocation and distribution are professionally managed by Jasa Tirta II Public Corporation (PJT II. Although provision of irrigation system seems performing well, some aspects still need improvement and development. The important issue for improvement is quality and reliability of basic data required to prepare the water allocation plan and distribution schedule. Taking into account future developments which will increase combined water demand. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how efficient the system is working currently and which improvements can be proposed to increase overall water use efficiency. Water balance in the Jatiluhur irrigation system theoretically capable to fulfill water demand until 2025 but climate change issue should be considered as period of dry season and wet season will be shifted. Based on the research scenario, dry season will be longer and wet season will be shorter with more intense rainfall.    Keywords: Jatiluhur irrigation area, Djuanda multipurpose reservoir, water allocation & distribution, water efficiency, water balance

  4. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  5. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  6. Tracking Sediment Movement with Pittag Surveys during Storm Events in the North Fork of Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, S. Z.; Yarnell, S. M.; Yager, E.

    2015-12-01

    Caspar Creek is a gravel-bedded stream near Fort Bragg in Jackson Demonstration State Forest in Northern California's Coast Range. Since 1962, detailed measurements of streamflow, turbidity, and rainfall have been made at a weir just below the study area by the Pacific Southwest Research Station and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). However, little research has been done to identify how gravel-sized sediment moves through the system during storm flows. The North Fork of Caspar Creek drains a relatively small and steep watershed providing fast residence times that allow direct correlation between rainfall events and movement of the gravel-dominated (<20% sand) bed material. The study reach has an average discharge of 3.8x10-2 m3/s, yet over the past two years has had 4 storm events with flows greater than 1.0 m3/s, a flow that has shown to be a minimum needed for bedload movement. Gravel sized rocks inserted with HDX pit tags were placed throughout the study reach and surveyed after each storm to track their movement through the system. The results show that bed movement responds nonlinearly to increased peak storm discharge with larger storms disproportionately moving sediment further downstream. The movement distances appear independent of local slope, and the distribution of transported sediment sizes does not show significant variance between different storm events. This info will contribute to a better understanding of gravel deposition and bar formation in rainfall-driven watersheds and may help predict sediment fluxes during storm events.

  7. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.

  8. Performance of a surface bypass structure to enhance juvenile steelhead passage and survival at Lower Granite Dam, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of efforts to recover stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss in Pacific Northwest rivers is to increase passage efficacy and survival of juveniles past hydroelectric dams. As part of this effort, we evaluated the efficacy of a prototype surface bypass structure, the removable spillway weir (RSW), installed in a spillbay at Lower Granite Dam, Washington, on the Snake River during 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006. Radio-tagged juvenile steelhead were released upstream from the dam and their route of passage through the turbines, juvenile bypass, spillway, or RSW was recorded. The RSW was operated in an on-or-off condition and passed 3–13% of the total discharge at the dam when it was on. Poisson rate models were fit to the passage counts of hatchery- and natural-origin juvenile steelhead to predict the probability of fish passing the dam. Main-effect predictor variables were RSW operation, diel period, day of the year, proportion of flow passed by the spillway, and total discharge at the dam. The combined fish passage through the RSW and spillway was 55–85% during the day and 37–61% during the night. The proportion of steelhead passing through nonturbine routes was 95% when the RSW was on during the day. The ratio of the proportion of steelhead passed to the proportion of water passing the RSW was from 6.3:1 to 10.0:1 during the day and from 2.7:1 to 5.2:1 during the night. Steelhead passing through the RSW exited the tailrace about 15 min faster than fish passing through the spillway. Mark–recapture single-release survival estimates for steelhead passing the RSW ranged from 0.95 to 1.00. The RSW appeared to be an effective bypass structure compared with other routes of fish passage at the dam.

  9. Impact of ZnO substitution on magnetic response and microwave absorption capability of strontium-natural nanoferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widanarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferrite being a compound derived from iron oxides including magnetite and hematite possesses similar properties as ceramics which are hard and brittle. Certainly, the mounting demand for electronics has been a major factor driving the exponential growth of ferrite based materials. ZnO doped strontium-natural nanoferrites of composition (80 − xFe2O3:xZnO:20SrCO3, where x = 0, 10, 20 mol% are synthesized and sintered via the solid state reaction scheme. Samples are characterized by SEM, XRD, VSM, and VNA measurements to determine the impact of ZnO contents’ variation on the surface morphology, structure, magnetic and microwave absorption properties. The Nicolson–Ross–Weir method is applied to evaluate samples’ reflection loss. The average grain size of the strontium ferrite is found to reduce with the increase in ZnO concentration. Materials sintered at 1100 °C without ZnO incorporation are composed of hexagonal SrFe12O19. Meanwhile, the addition of ZnO produces cubic ZnFe2O4 and SrFeO2 phases. Insertion of ZnO results in reduction of magnetic parameters and reflection loss. Furthermore, the anisotropy magnetic field of strontium natural ferrites displays a rapid drop from 350 kA/m to 79.6 kA/m with the increase in ZnO. Strontium ferrite containing 20 mol% of ZnO exhibits superior microwave absorption with reflection loss within −45 dB to −55.94 dB in the frequency range of 7–13 GHz. This facilely synthesized a new class of materials which is believed to be economically promising for microwave absorption applications in the GHz range.

  10. Assessing habitat exposure to eutrophication in restored wetlands: model-supported ex-ante approach to rewetting drained mires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoruk, Mateusz; Bańkowska, Agnieszka; Jabłońska, Ewa; Janauer, Georg A; Kubrak, Janusz; Mirosław-Świątek, Dorota; Kotowski, Wiktor

    2015-04-01

    A multi-model-based study was performed in order to unravel valuable fen meadow habitats' possible exposure to eutrophication, which is expected to occur as a result of the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The framework was tested in a 3000-ha fen-drain system to be restored in the Middle Biebrza Basin (northeast Poland), where the datasets and related models were used to delineate prospective eutrophication hotspots and nutrient transport. A 1-d hydrodynamic model and a 3-d groundwater flow model were applied to constitute the hydrological response of the fen-drain system to the prospective construction and function of weirs and spillways, which are expected to induce the increase of groundwater levels in degraded fens. A groundwater particle-tracking postprocessor was applied to delineate flow pathways and discharge zones and to determine water residence time in modelled layers. Soil and habitat maps, a high-resolution digital elevation model and historic groundwater level observations were applied to the model performance, calibration and spatial analysis of prospective eutrophication hotspots where increased eutrophication of groundwater can be expected due to the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The study revealed that the large-scale fen rewetting that occurred as a result of surface water bodies' damming can potentially result in groundwater-driven nutrient dispersion along with an enhanced nutrient transport from a fen to the adjacent water bodies. Spatial analyses showed that, although the rewetting-driven eutrophication of Molinia fen meadows located in the study area is not likely, one can expect increased nutrient discharges to adjacent drains, inducing the contamination of ox-bow lakes located along the rivers. We propose the presented methodology to be applied ex-ante to fen-rewetting projects in strategic environmental assessments of restoration projects in order to manage the potentially negative environmental consequences of fen and river

  11. Spatial rainfall variability and runoff response during an extreme event in a semi-arid catchment in the South Pare Mountains, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Mul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an extreme flood event that occurred in the South Pare Mountains in northern Tanzania. A high spatial and temporal resolution data set was gathered in a previously ungauged catchment. This data was analysed using a multi-method approach, to gather information about the processes that resulted in the flood event. On 1 March 2006, extreme rainfall occurred in the Makanya catchment, (300 km2, where up to 100 mm were recorded in Bangalala village in only 3 h. Runoff was devastating, inundating large parts of the flood plain. The spatial variability of the rainfall during the event was very large, even in areas with the same altitude. The Vudee sub-catchment (25.8 km2 was in the centre of the rainfall event, receiving about 75 mm in 3 h divided over the two upstream tributaries: the Upper-Vudee and Ndolwa. The peak flow at the weir site has been determined using the slope-area method and gradually varied flow calculations, indicating a peak discharge of 32 m3 s−1. Rise and fall of the flood was very sharp, with the peak flow occurring just one hour after the peak of the rainfall. The flow receded to 1% of the maximum flow within 24 h. Hydrograph separation using hydrochemical parameters indicates that at the peak of the flow 50% was generated by direct surface runoff (also indicated by the large amount of sediments in the samples, whereas the recession originated from displaced groundwater (>90 %. The subsequent base flow in the river remained at 75 l s−1 for the rest of the season, which is substantially higher than the normal base flow observed during the previous rainy seasons (15 l s−1 indicating significant groundwater recharge during this extreme event.

  12. River channel morphology and hydraulics properties due to introduction of plant basket hydraulic structures for river channel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its

  13. The Improvement of USL Linear Vibrating Screen in Malan Coal Preparation Plant%USL直线振动筛在马兰矿选煤厂的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪溢

    2014-01-01

    In order to adapt the changes of coal quality and the demand of market to product quality and recover-y,analyzes the existing problems of USL linear vibrating screen in Malan coal preparation plant.Puts forward a series of transformation measures such as increasing the amplitude of sieve running,adding water retaining weir and reinfor-cing plate,splitting the casing of cardan shaft,changing the way of equipment oiling.After transform,the equipment has good mechanical properties,can meet the production requirements in the long-term using process,it is worthy to popularization and application.%为适应矿井原煤煤质变化及市场对产品质量、回收率的要求,分析了马兰矿选煤厂USL直线振动筛存在的问题,提出了工艺性能方面增大筛子运行的振幅及增设挡水堰以延长筛分时间;结构方面分拆万向轴外罩以适应安全检修,改变设备注油方式以降低维护成本,补加加强板以防止裂纹延伸,改造后经过长期使用,得出该设备机械性能较好,性价比高,满足了生产要求,值得推广应用。

  14. Optimizing environmental flows for multiple reaches affected by a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan: Restoring natural flow regimes at multiple temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    For reservoirs that are operated for multiple purposes such as water supply, flood control, and power generation, any attempts to incorporate environmental flow targets in the reservoir operation rules need to take into account both the human and ecosystem demands. To date, however, none of the reservoir operation schemes that consider environmental flow requirements includes subdaily flow regimes and is able to optimize for multiple reaches. Here, we address the temporal and spatial issues associated with the optimal environmental flow and operation strategies for a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan. We propose an environmental flow proportion strategy and three-period release approach, and multireach operation scenarios that simultaneously optimize reservoir performances and environmental flow objectives at subdaily to interannual timescales for a maximum of three connected reaches. Our results imply that taking into account the environmental flow objectives does not necessarily degrade the overall reservoir performance due to the positive effect on flood control, which in turn would compensate for the adverse effects on domestic water supply and hydropower generation. The three-period release approach benefits mainly the subdaily flow regime, while the environmental flow proportion strategy benefits primarily the daily flow regime. Spatially, a mutual exclusion is observed between the reaches above and below a diversion weir, a fact that revises the conventional perception that restoring the flow regimes of a downstream reach would automatically restore those of upstream reaches. An overall evaluation reveals that the three-reach scenario outperforms the two-reach scenarios, which then outperform the one-reach scenarios. The one- or two-reach scenario that incorporates the midstream reach may be taken as an alternative because such scenario would benefit the upstream or downstream reach in addition to the midstream reach.

  15. Toward conservation of genetic and phenotypic diversity in Japanese sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Jun; Mori, Seiichi

    2016-10-13

    Stickleback fishes have been established as a leading model system for studying the genetic mechanisms that underlie naturally occurring phenotypic diversification. Because of the tremendous diversification achieved by stickleback species in various environments, different geographical populations have unique phenotypes and genotypes, which provide us with unique opportunities for evolutionary genetic research. Among sticklebacks, Japanese species have several unique characteristics that have not been found in other populations. The sympatric marine threespine stickleback species Gasterosteus aculeatus and G. nipponicus (Japan Sea stickleback) are a good system for speciation research. Gasterosteus nipponicus also has several unique characteristics, such as neo-sex chromosomes and courtship behaviors, that differ from those of G. aculeatus. Several freshwater populations derived from G. aculeatus (Hariyo threespine stickleback) inhabit spring-fed ponds and streams in central Honshu and exhibit year-round reproduction, which has never been observed in other stickleback populations. Four species of ninespine stickleback, including Pungitius tymensis and the freshwater, brackish water and Omono types of the P. pungitius-P. sinensis complex, are also excellent model systems for speciation research. Anthropogenic alteration of environments, however, has exposed several Japanese stickleback populations to the risk of extinction and has actually led to extinction of several populations and species. Pungitius kaibarae, which is endemic to East Asia, used to inhabit Kyoto and Hyogo prefectures, but is now extinct. Causes of extinction include depletion of spring water, landfill of habitats, and construction of river-mouth weirs. Here, we review the importance of Japanese sticklebacks as genetic resources, the status of several endangered stickleback populations and species, and the factors putting these populations at risk.

  16. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  17. Experimental study of depth-limited open-channel flows over a gravel bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zeng; Chiwai Li; Hongwu Tang; Lingling Wang; Jingqiao Mao

    2015-01-01

    abstract Laboratory experiments of depth-limited open-channel flows over a gravel bed were conducted in the study. Two gravel patches with identical individual element size and different lengths (3.81 m and 7.5 m) were tested. The depth-limited uniform flow regime with relative submergence Sr ( ¼ D/ks) ranging from 2.68 to 5.94 was produced by adjusting the tailgate weir. The velocity profiles were measured by using both an ultra-sound velocity profiler (UVP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The conventional methods used to determine the zero-plane displacement and estimate the bed shear velocity were then reviewed and compared. The measured double-averaged (DA) velocity profiles were found to fit well with the log law and defect law with a non-universal Karman constantκ.κ-value remains nearly constant and in the range from 0.2 to 0.3 for the long patch (LP) cases andκ-values are scattered within a wider range from 0.3 to 0.5 for the short patch (SP) cases. While the Br-value in log law remains constant and equal to 8.5 for LP cases, the Br-value was found to decrease with the increase of the dimensionless roughness height ksþ for SP cases. The streamwise turbulence intensity distributions were found to be independent on the patch length and agree well with the available experimental data in the intermediate region and wall region. The Manning resistance coefficient and Darcy–Weisbach friction factor were analyzed. Theκ-value decreases to 0.22 for the fitting of the logarithmic flow resistance law under small relative submergence. The value of the integration constant Ar in the logarithmic law falls within the normal range between 3.25 and 6.25.

  18. The Martian Goes To College: Open Inquiry with Science Fiction in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, L.; Patterson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Storytelling is an ancient art; one that can get lost in the reams of data available in a typical geology or astronomy classroom. But storytelling draws us to a magical place. Our students, with prior experience in either a geology or astronomy course, were invited to explore Mars in a special topics course at Johnson County Community College through reading The Martian by Andy Weir. As they traveled with astronaut Mark Watney, the students used Google Mars, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS), and learning modules from the Mars for Earthlings web site to investigate the terrain and the processes at work in the past and present on Mars. Our goal was to apply their understanding of processes on Earth in order to explain and predict what they observed on Mars courtesy of the remote sensing opportunities available from Viking, Pathfinder, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and Maven missions; sort of an inter-planetary uniformitarianism. Astronaut Mark Watney's fictional journey from Acidalia Planitia to Schiaparelli Crater was analyzed using learning modules in Mars for Earthlings and exercises that we developed based on Google Mars, JMARS, Rotating Sky Explorer, and Science Friday podcasts. Each student also completed an individual project that either focused on a particular region that Astronaut Mark Watney traveled through or a problem that he faced. Through this open-inquiry learning style, they determined some processes that shaped Mars such as crater impacts, volcanism, fluid flow, mass movement, and groundwater sapping and also investigated the efficacy of solar energy as a power source based on location and the likelihood of regolith potential as a mineral matter source for soil.

  19. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. H.; Nearing, M.; Hernandez, M.; Polyakov, V. O.

    2016-07-01

    Gullies that terminate at a vertical-wall are ubiquitous throughout arid and semiarid regions. Multi-year assessments of gully evolution and headcut advance are typically accomplished using traditional ground surveys and aerial photographs, with much recent research focused on integrating data collected at very high spatial resolutions using new techniques such as aerial surveys with blimps or kites and ground surveys with LiDar scanners. However, knowledge of specific processes that drive headcut advance is limited due to inadequate observation and documentation of flash floods and subsequent erosion that can occur at temporal resolutions not captured through repeat surveys. This paper presents a method for using very-high temporal resolution ground-based time-lapse photography to capture short-duration flash floods and gully head evolution in response. In 2004, a base level controlling concrete weir was removed from the outlet of a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeastern Arizona, USA. During the ten year period from 2004 to 2014 the headcut migrated upchannel a total of 14.5 m reducing the contributing area at the headwall by 9.5%. Beginning in July 2012, time-lapse photography was employed to observe event scale channel evolution dynamics. The most frequent erosion processes observed during three seasons of time-lapse photography were plunge pool erosion and mass wasting through sidewall or channel headwall slumping that occurred during summer months. Geomorphic change during the ten year period was dominated by a single piping event in August 2014 that advanced the channel head 7.4 m (51% of the overall advance) and removed 11.3 m3 of sediment. High temporal resolution time-lapse photography was critical for identifying subsurface erosion processes, in the absence of time-lapse images piping would not have been identified as an erosion mechanism responsible for advancing the gully headwall at this site.

  20. FISHERY MANAGEMENT IN THE DANUBE CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three successive regions of the Danube, each of which has to deal with its own problems in fisheries. Sport fishing and ecological recontruction problem matters predominate in the upper flow. These problems also characterize the middle flow, where to a certain extent, commercial fishery is coming into view, while the lower flow has to deal with commercial fishery problems to full extent. The difference is not so much due to the morphometry as to the development and state of the economy of the countries in the river basin, their legislation on fishery and the manner in which the legislation is applied. Numerous dams of the upper flow of the Danube (29 in Germany, 9 in Austria, influence significantly the ichthyocenoses. An extreme example of that is Gabčikovo dam at the Slovak-Hungarian border where fish catch decreased to one fourth. In the lower segment of the Danube fish catch falls down to one third and is followed, by a drastically negative change of fish species composition. The records show that highly valued species as sturgeons, pike and tench are in drastic decline over the last few years. The changes were caused by physical barriers, like dams and weirs, by water pollution, by increasing concentration of nutrients and heavy metals, by poaching and by overexploitation. For all those alarming reasons, some legal interventions in commercial fishery must be undertaken. In the middle flow, where the Danube flows through Croatian territory, there have also been declining trends of bentivore and phytophyl species respectively. The law supports the coexistence of sport and commercial fishery in this area and although sport fishing should be given the advantage, commercial fishing should be rigorously supervised and allowed only when there is a naturally produced surplus. Because of fish migrations and political frontiers of Danube area, it is essential that the neighboring countries coordinate their efforts in managing fisheries

  1. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  2. A century-scale, human-induced ecohydrological evolution of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Giri R.; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's largest river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back for some centuries from wetlands of these river basins, reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced the resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. Large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread modification of aquatic biological communities. Changes to cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the historical hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze river wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45, and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu, and Liangzi lakes (Yangtze), showed strong responses to hydrological changes in the river after the mid-20th century. In particular, river regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs together with river channel modifications, has led to significant hydrological alterations. These hydrological disturbances were either (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands or (2) reduced river flow, both of which caused variability in wetland depth. Inevitably, these phenomena have subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages to species preferring poor water quality, and in some cases to eutrophication. The quantitative and qualitative decline of wetland water conditions is indicative of reduced ecosystem services, and requires effective restoration measures for both river basins which have been impacted by recent socioeconomic development and climate change.

  3. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  4. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A W; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost-effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  5. Genetic structure and population dynamics of a heteroecious plant pathogen Melampsora larici-epitea in short-rotation coppice willow plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Carlos; Pei, Ming H; Ruiz, Carmen; Hunter, Tom; Karp, Angela; Tubby, Ian

    2009-07-01

    Complex life strategies are common among plant pathogens belonging to rust fungi (Uredinales). The heteroecious willow rust Melampsora larici-epitea produces five spore stages and alternates on larch (Larix). To shed light on the epidemiology of this pathogen, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of rust samples collected from coppice willow (Salix) plantations at three UK sites (LA, CA and MC) over three sampling dates (September 2000, July 2001 and September 2001). Of the total of 819 isolates, 465 were unique AFLP phenotypes and there was a shift in genotype diversity between the two seasons (0.67 in 2000 and 0.87-0.89 in 2001). No phenotypes were common between the two seasons within a site, suggesting that the rust did not overwinter as an asexual stage within plantations. A temporal analysis detected large amounts of genetic drift (F(S) = 0.15-0.26) between the two seasons and very small effective population sizes (N(e) = 2-3) within sites. These results all point to a new colonization of the plantations by the rust in the second season (2001). The F(ST)-analogue values were Phi(CT) = 0.121, Weir and Cockerham's theta = 0.086 and the Bayesian estimate theta(B) = 0.087-0.096. The results suggest that the sources of inoculum were somewhat localized and the same sources were mainly responsible for disease epidemics in LA and CA over the two seasons. The relatively low F(ST)-values among sites (0.055-0.13) suggest the existence of significant gene flow among the three sampled sites.

  6. 自动化监测技术在大型抽水试验中的应用%Application of automatic monitoring technology to large pumping test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 吴彬; 王智

    2011-01-01

    本文通过与传统监测方法比较,介绍了地下水位及流量的自动化监测技术,即利用Mini-Diver监测水位埋深并利用TC403水位流量计结合矩形堰监测流量.而且,通过对新疆温宿县台兰河地下水库大型抽水试验地下水监测的实例研究,证明该自动化监测技术的记录准确,误差小,监测数据量大,操作方便灵活,可及时掌握地下水动态变化,具有广泛的推广利用价值.%An automatic technology of monitoring on the level and flow rate of groundwater is described herein through a comparison made with the conventional monitoring methods, I. E. The buried depth of groundwater level is monitored with Mini-Diver and the flow rate is measured with TC-403 level/flow-meter combined with rectangular weir. Furthermore, based on the case study made on the groundwater monitoring for the large pumping test of the groundwater reservoir in Tailanhe River Basin within Wensu County of Xinjiang, the technology is demonstrated to have the merits such as accurate recording, small error, large amount of monitoring data, convenient and flexible to be operated, etc. , and can monitor the dynamic variation of ground water in time, and then it has a usable value to be widely popularized as well.

  7. Design of parallel microfluidic gradient-generating networks for studying cellular response to chemical stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui WANG; Dayu LIU; Bo WANG; Jie SUN; Lianhong LI

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic chip featuring laminar flow-based parallel gradient-generating networks was designed and fabricated. The microchip contains 5 gradient genera-tors and 30 cell chambers where the resulting concentra-tion gradients of drugs are delivered to stimulate on-chip cultured cells. The microfluidics exploits the advantage of lab-on-a-chip technology by integrating the generation of drug concentration gradients and a series of cell opera-tions including seeding, culture, stimulation and staining into a chip. The microfluidic network was patterned on a glass wafer, which was further bonded to a PDMS film. A series of weir structures were fabricated on the cell culture reservoir to facilitate cell positioning and seeding. Cell injection and fluid delivery were controlled by a syringe pump. Steady parallel concentration gradients were gen-erated by flowing two fluids in each network. Over time observation shows that the microchip was suitable for cell seeding and culture. The microchip described above was applied in studying the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) in mediating chemotherapy sensitivity of MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with concentration gradients of As2O3 and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for GSH modu-lation, followed by exposure to adriamycin. GSH levels were down-regulated upon As203 treatment and up-regu-lated upon NAC treatment. Suppression of intracellular GSH by treatment with As2O3 has been shown to increase sensitivity to adriamycin. Conversely, elevation of intra-cellular GSH by treatment with NAC leads to increased drug resistance. The integrated microfluidic chip is able to perform multiparametric pharmacological profiling with easy operation, and thus holds great potential for extra-polation to the cell based high-content drug screening.

  8. New urban area flood model: a comparison with MIKE11-quasi2d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sole

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent hydrogeological events have increased both public interest and that of the Scientific Community in a more accurate study of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model which offers an optimal integration of two models, one for flood wave propagation in riverbeds and the other for flooding in urban areas. We consider it necessary to not only treat the modelling of the outflow in riverbeds and outside riverbeds.together but to integrate them thoroughly. We simulate the propagation in riverbed of the flood event with a model solving the equations of De Saint Venant with the explicit scheme at the finite differences by McCormack. The propagation outside the riverbed is simulated using an algorithm proposed by Braschi et al. (1990. This algorithm is based on a local discretization of the urban territory, divided in a series of "tanks" and "channels". Each tank is associated with an area of an extension related to the position of the other tanks and the quantity of buildings, modelled as insurmountable obstacles. The model facilitates the simultaneous performance of the two simulations: at each instant, the quantitiy of water overflow, depending on the piezometric level in every section, is calculated as a function of the dimensions of the weirs (the banks, assuming it passes through the critical state. Then, it is transferred to the tanks placed in the surroundings of the overflow points. Those points are the starting nodes for the propagation of the flood because they are connected to the network of tanks in which the surrounding land has been schematised. In this paper, we present a comparison of one of the most powerful models of inundation simulation in urban and no-urban areas. The field area is the city of Albenga (SV, Italy and the simulated event is the inundation of the 1994 (return period of about 25 years.

  9. Metabolic responses of upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Leah C; Amonette, William E; Dupler, Terry L

    2010-10-01

    Historically, video games required little physical exertion, but new systems utilize handheld accelerometers that require upper-body movement. It is not fully understood if the metabolic workload while playing these games is sufficient to replace routine physical activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify metabolic workloads and estimate caloric expenditure while playing upper-body accelerometer-controlled and classic seated video games. Nineteen adults completed a peak oxygen consumption treadmill test followed by an experimental session where exercising metabolism and ventilation were measured while playing 3 video games: control (CON), low activity (LOW) and high activity (HI). Resting metabolic measures (REST) were also acquired. Caloric expenditure was estimated using the Weir equation. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for HI condition was greater than LOW, CON, and REST. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for LOW condition was also greater than CON and REST. Mean exercise intensities of oxygen consumption reserve for HI, LOW, and CON were 25.8% ± 5.1%, 6.4% ± 4.8%, and 0.8% ± 2.4%, respectively. Estimated caloric expenditure during the HI was significantly related to aerobic fitness, but not during other conditions. An active video game significantly elevated oxygen consumption and heart rate, but the increase was dependent on the type of game. The mean oxygen consumption reserve during the HI video game was below recommended international standards for moderate and vigorous activity. Although upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games provided a greater exercising stimulus than classic seated video games, these data suggest they should not replace routine moderate or vigorous exercise.

  10. The History of Metals and Ceramics Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The division was formed in 1946 at the suggestion of Dr. Eugene P. Wigner to attack the problem of the distortion of graphite in the early reactors due to exposure to reactor neutrons, and the consequent radiation damage. It was called the Metallurgy Division and assembled the metallurgical and solid state physics activities of the time which were not directly related to nuclear weapons production. William A. Johnson, a Westinghouse employee, was named Division Director in 1946. In 1949 he was replaced by John H Frye Jr. when the Division consisted of 45 people. He was director during most of what is called the Reactor Project Years until 1973 and his retirement. During this period the Division evolved into three organizational areas: basic research, applied research in nuclear reactor materials, and reactor programs directly related to a specific reactor(s) being designed or built. The Division (Metals and Ceramics) consisted of 204 staff members in 1973 when James R. Weir, Jr., became Director. This was the period of the oil embargo, the formation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by combining the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) with the Office of Coal Research, and subsequent formation of the Department of Energy (DOE). The diversification process continued when James O. Stiegler became Director in 1984, partially as a result of the pressure of legislation encouraging the national laboratories to work with U.S. industries on their problems. During that time the Division staff grew from 265 to 330. Douglas F. Craig became Director in 1992.

  11. Effects of catchment, first-flush, storage conditions, and time on microbial quality in rainwater harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M T; Kim, Tschung-il; Amin, M N; Han, M Y

    2013-12-01

    Rainwater collected from a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is typically not considered suitable for potable uses, primarily because of poor microbial quality. The quality of stored rainwater, however, can be improved through basic design and maintenance practices during the construction and operation of an RWH system. This paper presents the microbial analysis of rainwater in two RWH systems installed at the Seoul National University Campus in South Korea. Rainwater samples were collected at different locations within each system and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Within their storage tanks, water quality improved horizontally from inlet to outlet points, and higher quality was observed at the supply point (located about 0.5 m from the base of the tank) than at the surface or bottom of the tank. First-flush rainwater was found to be highly contaminated but rainwater quality improved following about 1 mm of precipitation. The catchment surface also had a significant effect on the quality of rainwater; samples collected from a rooftop exhibited better microbial quality than from a terrace catchment. Better water quality in underground tanks (dark storage conditions) compared to open weirs/ filters (exposed to natural light) demonstrated the importance of storage conditions. Water quality also improved with longer storage, and a decrease of 70% to 90% in microbial concentrations was observed after about 1 week of storage time. The findings of this study demonstrate that the microbial quality of harvested rainwater can be improved significantly by the adoption of proper design and maintenance guidelines such as those discussed in this paper.

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems.

  13. Quantifying Hillslope to Watershed Erosional Response Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, S.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Pierce, J. L.; Roehner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfires is increasing across western US sagebrush steppe rangelands as the result of warming climate conditions and invasive plant species. Following wildfire, the soil surface is left with little vegetation, exposing it to erosion by wind and water. Erosion following wildfires is a concern among land managers due to the threat it poses to resources, infrastructure, and human health. Most post-fire erosion research has used artificial rainfall. This study uses natural rainfall and a network of silt fences to quantify hillslope to watershed scale erosion response following the 2015 Soda Fire that burned 113,300 ha in southwestern Idaho and southeastern Oregon. In this study, we will evaluate the drivers of erosion over multiple spatial scales and assess the recovery of vegetation and soil water repellency for a two year period post-fire. We installed a network of silt fences over long and short hillslope distances and in swales within a 130 ha catchment within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The overall study design consists of thirty silt fences spanning north and south facing aspects, an existing weir measuring watershed streamflow and sediment discharge, and two meteorological stations. The erosional response following the fire was mainly driven by wind and snowmelt. The swales produced the most sediment compared to the long and short hillslopes. On the south facing aspect the long and short hillslopes did not produce any sediment whereas on the north facing aspect the swales produced the most sediment. This presentation summarizes these preliminary first year hydrologic and erosion responses. The results provide data for determining the drivers for erosion at different spatial scales, advance understanding of post-fire hillslope to watershed erosional responses, and offer insight into recovery of vegetation and soil water repellency post-fire. This study will aid land management agencies

  14. Assessment of Teaching Methods and Critical Thinking in a Course for Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Whittington, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Ability to think critically is a key ingredient to the scientific mindset. Students who take science courses may or may not be predisposed to critical thinking - the ability to evaluate information analytically. Regardless of their initial stages, students can significantly improve their critical thinking through learning and practicing their reasoning skills, critical assessments, conducting and reflecting on observations and experiments, building their questioning and communication skills, and through the use of other techniques. While, there are several of teaching methods that may help to improve critical thinking, there are only a few assessment instruments that can help in evaluating the efficacy of these methods. Critical thinking skills and improvement in those skills are notoriously difficult to measure. Assessments that are based on multiple-choice questions demonstrate students’ final decisions but not their thinking processes. In addition, during the course of studies students may develop subject-based critical thinking while not being able to extend the skills to the general critical thinking. As such, we wanted to design and conduct a study on efficacy of several teaching methods in which we would learn how students’ improve their thinking processes within a science discipline as well as in everyday life situations. We conducted a study among 20 astronomy, physics and geology majors-- both graduate and undergraduate students-- enrolled in our Solar System Science course (mostly seniors and early graduate students) at the University of Missouri. We used the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay test to assess students’ general critical thinking and, in addition, we implemented our own subject-based critical thinking assessment. Here, we present the results of this study and share our experience on designing a subject-based critical thinking assessment instrument.

  15. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to outgassing of carbon dioxide from a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, D.H.; Kendall, C.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Shanley, J.B.; Ohte, N.; Boyer, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (??13C-DIC) was investigated as a potential tracer of streamflow generation processes at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont, USA. Downstream sampling showed ?? 13C-DIC increased between 3-5??? from the stream source to the outlet weir approximately 0??5 km downstream, concomitant with increasing pH and decreasing PCO2. An increase in ??13C-DIC of 2.4 ?? 0??1??? per log unit decrease of excess PCO2 (stream PCO2 normalized to atmospheric PCO2) was observed from downstream transect data collected during snowmelt. Isotopic fractionation of DIC due to CO2 outgassing rather than exchange with atmospheric CO2 may be the primary cause of increased ?? 13C-DIC values downstream when PCO2 of surface freshwater exceeds twice the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Although CO2 outgassing caused a general increase in stream ??13C-DIC values, points of localized groundwater seepage into the stream were identified by decreases in ??13C-DIC and increases in DIC concentration of the stream water superimposed upon the general downstream trend. In addition, comparison between snowmelt, early spring and summer seasons showed that DIC is flushed from shallow groundwater flowpaths during snowmelt and is replaced by a greater proportion of DIC derived from soil CO2 during the early spring growing season. Thus, in spite of effects from CO2 outgassing, ??13C of DIC can be a useful indicator of groundwater additions to headwater streams and a tracer of carbon dynamics in catchments. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): implementation and application to the freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment and controlled Cabauw polder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Teuling, Ryan; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) to fill the gap between complex, spatially distributed models which are often used in lowland catchments and simple, parametric models which have mostly been developed for mountainous catchments. This parametric rainfall-runoff model can be used all over the world in both freely draining lowland catchments and polders with controlled water levels. Here, we present the model implementation, opportunities for practical application and experience from validation studies with data from two field sites. The open source model code is implemented in R and is set-up such that it can be used by both practitioners and researchers. For direct use by practitioners, defaults are implemented for relations between model variables and to compute initial conditions, leaving only four parameters which require calibration. For research purposes, the defaults can easily be changed. WALRUS is computationally efficient, which allows operational forecasting and uncertainty estimation by creating ensembles. An approach for flexible time steps increases numerical stability and makes model parameter values independent of time step size, which facilitates use of the model with the same parameter set for multi-year water balance studies as well as detailed analyses of individual flood peaks. We applied WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the slightly sloping, freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment and the flat Cabauw polder with controlled water levels. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well during the years used for calibration and validation. The model also performs well during extremely wet periods (flash flood in the Hupsel Brook catchment in August 2010) and extremely dry periods (summer 1976) and can forecast the effect of control operations (changing weir elevations and surface water supply).

  18. Drought conditions and sediment transport in the Sabie River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Heritage

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought conditions in the Sabie catchment in the eastern Transvaal (now called Mpumalanga, South Africa, has had an observable effect on the sediment dynamics of the river. Sediment production within the catchment is largely unaffected by a reduction in the frequency and magnitude of rainfall events, although the rate of translocation of the weathered material from the catchment into the river channel is noticeably altered. The infrequent storm events during drought conditions generate a greater sed- iment input to the river from the catchment than a similar-magnitude event under average conditions. This sediment is also less likely to be transported through the system due to the reduced frequency of intermediate flows which act to rework in-channel sed- iment accumulations. Thus, significant accumulations of alluvial material are likely to form at specific locations, particularly where the local sediment transport capacity of the channel is low. Studies of the transport dynamics of the Sabie River, under both nor- mal and drought conditions, reveal that there are major depositional zones between Kruger Weir and Skukuza, and in the area around Lower Sabie. The 1992 drought resulted in a significant build-up of sediment in these areas, with a consequent reduc- tion in geomorphic diversity. This sediment is becoming stabilised due to the lower and less variable flows of the recent drought and associated vegetative colonisation. An increase in the magnitude and frequency of high and intermediate flows is needed to mobilise this accumulated sediment and to prevent its stabilisation by riparian vegetation.

  19. Runoff of small rocky headwater catchments: Field observations and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoretti, C.; Degetto, M.; Bernard, M.; Crucil, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; De Vido, G.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2016-10-01

    In dolomitic headwater catchments, intense rainstorms of short duration produce runoff discharges that often trigger debris flows on the scree slopes at the base of rock cliffs. In order to measure these discharges, we placed a measuring facility at the outlet (elevation 1770 m a.s.l.) of a small, rocky headwater catchment (area ˜0.032 km2, average slope ˜320%) located in the Venetian Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps). The facility consists of an approximately rectangular basin, ending with a sharp-crested weir. Six runoff events were recorded in the period 2011-2014, providing a unique opportunity for characterizing the hydrological response of the catchment. The measured hydrographs display impulsive shapes, with an abrupt raise up to the peak, followed by a rapidly decreasing tail, until a nearly constant plateau is eventually reached. This behavior can be simulated by means of a distributed hydrological model if the excess rainfall is determined accurately. We show that using the Soil Conservation Service Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method and assuming a constant routing velocity invariably results in an underestimated peak flow and a delayed peak time. A satisfactory prediction of the impulsive hydrograph shape, including peak value and timing, is obtained only by combining the SCS-CN procedure with a simplified version of the Horton equation, and simulating runoff routing along the channel network through a matched diffusivity kinematic wave model. The robustness of the proposed methodology is tested through a comparison between simulated and observed timings of runoff or debris flow occurrence in two neighboring alpine basins.

  20. The value of experiential knowledge and the impact of scale in river management processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, C.

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that involving those with experiential knowledge in catchment management can have multiple benefits ranging from a more efficient decision making process to a greater sense of community ownership around projects. Many statutory bodies for the environment in the UK and Europe are now expected to work with local people to a certain degree. But to what level do we define 'participation' and can we realistically include public knowledge as part of an accepted scientific procedure? This paper presents a case study of a competence group in the catchment of the Derwent River, Northumberland, who have lobbied for the repair of a broken weir within their community. Their extensive knowledge coupled with scientific analysis of flow and geomorphology (using a 2-D flow model, DELFT) has allowed us to investigate potential immediate and future impacts of the restoration on flow and habitat. However, the process has led to a series of questions, such as: How do we get others to trust work we do that involves public knowledge? How can we account for uncertainty in that knowledge? Who should be involved and to what level? Further questions arise around the relationship between scale of a project and its success. The case study is compared to a number of cases operating on a much larger scale throughout Europe, some of which have been less successful and conclusions are drawn over the importance of scale. It is suggested that the co-production of knowledge process can have great value at a local scale, but an increase in the number of people affected or involved can be to the detriment of the level of involvement possible. This can have major implications for environmental governing bodies who are increasingly expected to involve participants and account for local knowledge in procedure and planning.