WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighting functions

  1. Psychophysics of the probability weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2011-03-01

    A probability weighting function w(p) for an objective probability p in decision under risk plays a pivotal role in Kahneman-Tversky prospect theory. Although recent studies in econophysics and neuroeconomics widely utilized probability weighting functions, psychophysical foundations of the probability weighting functions have been unknown. Notably, a behavioral economist Prelec (1998) [4] axiomatically derived the probability weighting function w(p)=exp(-() (01e)=1e,w(1)=1), which has extensively been studied in behavioral neuroeconomics. The present study utilizes psychophysical theory to derive Prelec's probability weighting function from psychophysical laws of perceived waiting time in probabilistic choices. Also, the relations between the parameters in the probability weighting function and the probability discounting function in behavioral psychology are derived. Future directions in the application of the psychophysical theory of the probability weighting function in econophysics and neuroeconomics are discussed.

  2. Weights of Exact Threshold Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babai, László; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Boolean exact threshold functions defined by linear equations, and in general degree d polynomials. We give upper and lower bounds on the maximum magnitude (absolute value) of the coefficients required to represent such functions. These bounds are very close and in the linear case...

  3. Weight effects on the periodic ambiguity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Benjamin; Levanon, Nadav

    1995-01-01

    CW radar signals and processors are discussed. The use of the periodic ambiguity function (PAF) to analyze the delay-Doppler performance of CW signals and their corresponding correlation receivers, is extended to include weight function effects. This work provides tools which can predict the delay-Doppler response of almost any phase-coded CW radar. Examples demonstrate that a combination of CW signals having perfect periodic autocorrelation, a matched reference signal with a large number of modulation periods and a smooth weight function, can create a delay-Doppler response with extremely low sidelobes, strongly resembling the response of a coherent pulse train.

  4. Generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Weighted Hurwitz numbers for $n$-sheeted branched coverings of the Riemann sphere are introduced, together with associated weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by transpositions. The generating functions for these, which include all formerly studied cases, are 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions of generalized hypergeometric type. Two new types of weightings are defined by coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the exponentiated quantum dilogarithm function. These are shown to provide $q$-deformations of strictly monotonic and weakly monotonic path enumeration generating functions. The standard double Hurwitz numbers are recovered from both types in the classical limit. By suitable interpretation of the parameter $q$, the corresponding statistical mechanics of random branched covers is related to that of Bose gases.

  5. The mean square of weighted multiplicities function

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir, Lukianov

    2005-01-01

    We define a weighted multiplicity function for closed geodesics of given length on a finite area Riemann surface. These weighted multiplicities appear naturally in the Selberg trace formula, and in particular their mean square plays an important role in the study of statistics of the eigenvalues of the Laplacian on the surface. In the case of the modular domain, E. Bogomolny, F. Leyvraz and C. Schmit gave a formula for the mean square, which was rigorously proved by M. Peter. In this paper we...

  6. Eigenvector Weighting Function in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Ying Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF, is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.

  7. Meromorphic functions sharing one value by weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Li-ping; LI Chun-hong

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness of meromorphic fuctions sharing one value was studied.Using the concept of weighted sharing,we proved the following theorem.For two meromorphic functions f and g which are not polynominals of degree less than a positive integer k, if.fnf(k) and gng(k) share(1,2),where n is another positive integer not less than k+10,then fnf(k) identically equals gng(k) or fnf(k)gng(k) identically equals 1.Particularly for k=1,we improved the results of Yang[Yang CC,Hua XH,Uniqueness and value-sharing of meromorphic functions,Annales Academi(ae) Scientiarum Fennic(ae) Mathematica,1997,22:395-406],and Fang[Fang ML,Hua XH,Entire function that share one value,Joumal of Nanjing University,1996,13(1):44-48.(In Chinese)].

  8. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  9. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  10. Some Properties of Weighted Pseudo almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several interesting and new properties of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions are established. Firstly, we obtain an equivalent definition for weighted pseudo almost periodic functions, which shows a close relationship between asymptotically almost periodic functions and weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; secondly, we prove that the space of asymptotically almost periodic functions is always a proper subspace of the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; thirdly, we show that under some cases, the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions equals the classical space of pseudo almost periodic functions.

  11. Optimally weighted L(2) distance for functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaihou; Reiss, Philip T; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2014-09-01

    Many techniques of functional data analysis require choosing a measure of distance between functions, with the most common choice being L2 distance. In this article we show that using a weighted L2 distance, with a judiciously chosen weight function, can improve the performance of various statistical methods for functional data, including k-medoids clustering, nonparametric classification, and permutation testing. Assuming a quadratically penalized (e.g., spline) basis representation for the functional data, we consider three nontrivial weight functions: design density weights, inverse-variance weights, and a new weight function that minimizes the coefficient of variation of the resulting squared distance by means of an efficient iterative procedure. The benefits of weighting, in particular with the proposed weight function, are demonstrated both in simulation studies and in applications to the Berkeley growth data and a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set.

  12. Weighted hardy type integral inequalities involving many functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to derive some new weighted Hardy type integral inequalities involving many functions and to obtain a classical weighted Hardy type inequality involving many functions.

  13. Cardiac Structure and Function in Weight Trainers Runners, and Runner/Weight Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Barbara A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study compared cardiac structure and function in adult male weight trainers, runners, and those who did both. Results indicate men who run or weight train and run have similar heart structural and functional characteristics and greater relative internal diameter and left ventricular wall thickness than men who only weight train. (SM)

  14. Exact quantum algorithm to distinguish Boolean functions of different weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, Samuel L [Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Choi, Byung-Soo [Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Ghosh, Subhroshekhar [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Maitra, Subhamoy [Applied Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108 (India)

    2007-07-20

    In this work, we exploit the Grover operator for the weight analysis of a Boolean function, specifically to solve the weight-decision problem. The weight w is the fraction of all possible inputs for which the output is 1. The goal of the weight-decision problem is to find the exact weight w from the given two weights w{sub 1} and w{sub 2} satisfying a general weight condition as w{sub 1} + w{sub 2} = 1 and 0 < w{sub 1} < w{sub 2} < 1. First, we propose a limited weight-decision algorithm where the function has another constraint: a weight is in {l_brace} W{sub 1} = sin{sup 2}(k/(2k+1) {pi}/2), w{sub 2} = cos{sup 2}(k/(2k+1) {pi}/2){r_brace} for integer k. Second, by changing the phases in the last two Grover iterations, we propose a general weight-decision algorithm which is free from the above constraint. Finally, we show that when our algorithm requires O(k) queries to find w with a unit success probability, any classical algorithm requires at least {omega}(k{sup 2}) queries for a unit success probability. In addition, we show that our algorithm requires fewer queries to solve this problem compared with the quantum counting algorithm.

  15. Unicity Theorems of Mesomorphic Functions with Three Weighted Sharing Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-li; CAO Zhang-long

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,with the idea of weighted sharing values,we deal with the problem of uniqueness of mesomorphic functions sharing three weighted values. We obtaia some theorems which improve the results of H X Yi and W R Lü.

  16. Intrinsic square functions on the weighted Morrey spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we will study the boundedness properties of intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area integral, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on the weighted Morrey spaces $L^{p,\\kappa}(w)$ for $1

  17. Improved parameter estimation for hydrological models using weighted object functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Zaadnoordijk, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of calibration of hydrological model parameters to different objective functions. Several functions are defined with weights depending upon the hydrological background. These are compared with an objective function based upon kriging. Calibration is applied to pi

  18. How should spin-weighted spherical functions be defined?

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Spin-weighted spherical functions provide a useful basis for analyzing tensor-valued functions on the sphere. A tensor field can be decomposed into complex-valued functions by taking contractions with tangent vectors on the sphere and the normal. These component functions are usually presented as functions on the sphere itself, but this requires an implicit choice of tangent vectors with which to contract. Thus, we may more accurately say that spin-weighted spherical functions are functions of both a point on the sphere and a choice of frame in the tangent space at that point. The distinction becomes extremely important when transforming the coordinates in which these functions are expressed, because the implicit choice of frame will also transform. Here, it is proposed that spin-weighted spherical functions should be treated as functions on the spin group. This approach more cleanly reflects the geometry involved, and allows for a more elegant description of the behavior of spin-weighted functions. In this f...

  19. How should spin-weighted spherical functions be defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Spin-weighted spherical functions provide a useful tool for analyzing tensor-valued functions on the sphere. A tensor field can be decomposed into complex-valued functions by taking contractions with tangent vectors on the sphere and the normal to the sphere. These component functions are usually presented as functions on the sphere itself, but this requires an implicit choice of distinguished tangent vectors with which to contract. Thus, we may more accurately say that spin-weighted spherical functions are functions of both a point on the sphere and a choice of frame in the tangent space at that point. The distinction becomes extremely important when transforming the coordinates in which these functions are expressed, because the implicit choice of frame will also transform. Here, it is proposed that spin-weighted spherical functions should be treated as functions on the spin or rotation groups, which simultaneously tracks the point on the sphere and the choice of tangent frame by rotating elements of an orthonormal basis. In practice, the functions simply take a quaternion argument and produce a complex value. This approach more cleanly reflects the geometry involved, and allows for a more elegant description of the behavior of spin-weighted functions. In this form, the spin-weighted spherical harmonics have simple expressions as elements of the Wigner 𝔇 representations, and transformations under rotation are simple. Two variants of the angular-momentum operator are defined directly in terms of the spin group; one is the standard angular-momentum operator L, while the other is shown to be related to the spin-raising operator ð.

  20. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  1. ON WEIGHTED GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH QUADRATIC FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider certain types of weighted generalized functions associated with nondegenerate quadratic forms. Such functions and their derivatives are used for constructing fundamental solutions of iterated ultra-hyperbolic equations with the Bessel operator and for constructing negative real powers of ultra-hyperbolic operators with the Bessel operator.

  2. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Justin J., E-mail: j.boutilier@mail.utoronto.ca; Lee, Taewoo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR

  3. Improving compact gravity inversion using new weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnoee, Mohammad Hossein; Ansari, Abdolhamid; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a method to estimate the geometry, location and densities of anomalies coming from 2-D gravity data based on compact gravity inversion technique. Compact gravity inversion is simple, fast and user friendly but severely depends on the number of model parameters, that is, by increasing the model parameters, the anomalies tend to concentrate near the surface. To overcome this ambiguity new weighting functions based on density contrast, depth, and compactness models have been introduced. Variable compactness factors have been defined here to get either a sharp or a smooth model based on the depth of the source or existence of prior information. Depth weighting derived from one station of gravity data whereas the effect of gravity data is 2-D and 3-D. To compensate this limitation an innovating weighting function namely kernel function has been introduced which multiplies with weight and compactness matrixes to yield a general model weighting function. The method is tested using three different sets of synthetic examples: a body at various depths (20, 40, 80 and 140 m), two bodies at the same depth but various distances to estimate lateral resolution and three bodies with negative and positive density contrast in different depths. The method is also applied to three real gravity data of Woodlawn massive sulphide body, sulphides mineralization of British Colombia and iron ore body of Missouri. The method produces solutions consistent with the known geologic attributes of the gravity sources, illustrating its potential practicality.

  4. Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnoee, Mohammad Hossein; Ansari, Abdolhamid; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a method to estimate the geometry, location and densities of anomalies coming from two-dimensional gravity data based on compact gravity inversion technique. Compact gravity inversion is simple, fast and user friendly but severely depends on the number of model parameters, i.e. by increasing the model parameters, the anomalies tend to concentrate near the surface. To overcome this ambiguity new weighting functions based on density contrast, depth, and compactness models have been introduced. Variable compactness factors have been defined here to get either a sharp or a smooth model based on the depth of the source or existence of prior information. Depth weighting derived from one station of gravity data whereas the effect of gravity data is two- and three-dimensional. To compensate this limitation an innovating weighting function namely kernel function has been introduced which multiplies with weight and compactness matrixes to yield a general model weighting function. The method is tested using three different sets of synthetic examples: a body at various depths (20, 40, 80 and 140 m), two bodies at the same depth but various distances to estimate lateral resolution and three bodies with negative and positive density contrast in different depths. The method is also applied to three real gravity data of Woodlawn massive sulfide body, sulfides mineralization of British Colombia and iron ore body of Missouri. The method produces solutions consistent with the known geologic attributes of the gravity sources, illustrating its potential practicality.

  5. Optimum Weight Design of Functionally Graded Material Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Shikai; ZHANG He; ZHOU Jingtao; SONG Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Traditional gear weight optimization methods consider gear tooth number, module, face width or other dimension parameters of gear as design variables. However, due to the complicated form and geometric features peculiar to the gear, there will be large amounts of design parameters in gear design, and the influences of gear parameters changing on gear trains, transmission system and the whole equipment have to be taken into account, which increases the complexity of optimization problem. This paper puts forward to apply functionally graded materials (FGMs) to gears and then conduct the optimization. According to the force situation of gears, the material distribution form of FGM gears is determined. Then based on the performance parameters analysis of FGMs and the practical working demands for gears, a multi-objective optimization model is formed. Finally by using the goal driven optimization (GDO) method, the optimal material distribution is achieved, which makes gear weight and the maximum deformation be minimum and the maximum bending stress do not exceed the allowable stress. As an example, the applying of FGM to automotive transmission gear is conducted to illustrate the optimization design process and the result shows that under the condition of keeping the normal working performance of gear, the method achieves in greatly reducing the gear weight. This research proposes a FGM gears design method that is able to largely reduce the weight of gears by optimizing the microscopic material parameters instead of changing the macroscopic dimension parameters of gears, which reduces the complexity of gear weight optimization problem.

  6. On designated-weight Boolean functions with highest algebraic immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic immunity has been considered as one of cryptographically significant properties for Boolean functions. In this paper, we study ∑d-1 i=0 (ni)-weight Boolean functions with algebraic immunity achiev-ing the minimum of d and n - d + 1, which is highest for the functions. We present a simpler sufficient and necessary condition for these functions to achieve highest algebraic immunity. In addition, we prove that their algebraic degrees are not less than the maximum of d and n - d + 1, and for d = n1 +2 their nonlinearities equalthe minimum of ∑d-1 i=0 (ni) and ∑ d-1 i=0 (ni). Lastly, we identify two classes of such functions, one having algebraic degree of n or n-1.

  7. Weighted Hurwitz numbers and hypergeometric $\\tau$-functions: an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J

    2015-01-01

    This is an overview of recent results on the use of 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for multiparametric families of weighted Hurwitz numbers. The Bose-Fermi equivalence composed with the characteristic map provides an isomorphism between the zero charge sector of the Fermionic Fock space and the direct sum of the centers of the group algebra of the symmetric groups $S_n$. Specializing the fermionic formula to the case of diagonal group elements gives $\\tau$-functions of hypergeometric type, for which the expansion over products of Schur functions is diagonal, with coefficients of {\\em content product} type. The corresponding abelian group action on the centre of the $S_n$ group algebra is determined by forming symmetric functions multiplicatively from a weight generating function $G(z)$ and evaluating on the Jucys-Murphy elements of the group algebra. The resulting central elements act diagonally on the basis of orthogonal idempotents and the eigenvalues $r^{G(z)}_\\lambda$ are the {\\em conten...

  8. Identification of Multimodel LPV Models with Asymmetric Gaussian Weighting Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of linear parameter varying (LPV systems by utilizing a multimodel structure. To improve the approximation capability of the LPV model, asymmetric Gaussian weighting functions are introduced and compared with commonly used symmetric Gaussian functions. By this mean, locations of operating points can be selected freely. It has been demonstrated through simulations with a high purity distillation column that the identified models provide more satisfactory approximation. Moreover, an experiment is performed on real HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning to further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Function estimation by feedforward sigmoidal networks with bounded weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopoescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Qiao, H. [Fort Valley State Coll., GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-05-01

    The authors address the problem of PAC (probably and approximately correct) learning functions f : [0, 1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [{minus}K, K] based on iid (independently and identically distributed) sample generated according to an unknown distribution, by using feedforward sigmoidal networks. They use two basic properties of the neural networks with bounded weights, namely: (a) they form a Euclidean class, and (b) for hidden units of the form tanh ({gamma}z) they are Lipschitz functions. Either property yields sample sizes for PAC function learning under any Lipschitz cost function. The sample size based on the first property is tighter compared to the known bounds based on VC-dimension. The second estimate yields a sample size that can be conveniently adjusted by a single parameter, {gamma}, related to the hidden nodes.

  10. Lower Bound on Weights of Large Degree Threshold Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Podolskii, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    An integer polynomial $p$ of $n$ variables is called a \\emph{threshold gate} for the Boolean function $f$ of $n$ variables if for all $x \\in \\{0,1\\}^n$ $f(x)=1$ if and only if $p(x)\\geq 0$. The \\emph{weight} of a threshold gate is the sum of its absolute values. In this paper we study how large weight might be needed if we fix some function and some threshold degree. We prove $2^{\\Omega(2^{2n/5})}$ lower bound on this value. The best previous bound was $2^{\\Omega(2^{n/8})}$ (Podolskii, 2009). In addition we present substantially simpler proof of the weaker $2^{\\Omega(2^{n/4})}$ lower bound. This proof is conceptually similar to other proofs of the bounds on weights of nonlinear threshold gates, but avoids a lot of technical details arising in other proofs. We hope that this proof will help to show the ideas behind the construction used to prove these lower bounds.

  11. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  12. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper.First,the original message is divided into blocks.Then,each block is divided into components,and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations.Namely,the WCDN closely related to the original message is established.Furthermore,the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map.After chaotic iterations,quantization and exclusive-or operations,the fixed-length hash value is obtained.This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN,leading to very different hash values.Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties,excellent confusion and diffusion,strong collision resistance and high efficiency.

  13. Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnák, Jiří; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-08-01

    Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments and labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.

  14. WEIGHT FUNCTIONS FOR INTERFACE CRACKS IN DISSIMILAR ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lifeng; CHEN Yiheng

    2004-01-01

    Bueckner's work conjugate integral customarily adopted for linear elastic materials is established for an interface crack in dissimilar anisotropic materials. The difficulties in separating Stroh's six complex arguments involved in the integral for the dissimilar materials are overcome and then the explicit function representations of the integral are given and studied in detail. It is found that the pseudo-orthogonal properties of the eigenfunction expansion form (EEF) for a crack presented previously in isotropic elastic cases, in isotopic bimaterial cases, and in orthotropic cases are also valid in the present dissimilar arbitrary anisotropic cases. The relation between Bueckner's work conjugate integral and the J-integral in these cases is obtained by introducing a complementary stressdisplacement state. Finally, some useful path-independent integrals and weight functions are proposed for calculating the crack tip parameters such as the stress intensity factors.

  15. Soluble, High Molecular Weight Polysilsesquioxanes with Carboxylate Functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.

    2000-07-14

    Trialkoxysilyl-containing monomers of the type (RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}C(O)OtBu (R = Me, Et) were prepared by hydrosilation of the corresponding vinylic tert-butyl esters CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 2}C(O)OtBu. Acid- or base-catalyzed polymerization of the monomers leads to very high molecular weight polymers with relatively narrow polydispersities. The polymerization results in complete condensation of the alkoxy groups while the tert-butyl ester functionality remains fully intact. Partial or full deprotection of the tert-butyl group can easily be achieved to yield the corresponding carboxylic acid polymers. The ester and carboxylic acid functionalities of these new materials allow for their potential use in a variety of applications such as scavenging of heavy metals.

  16. Anti-aliasing weighting functions for multislice helical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Riviere, Patrick J.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2002-05-01

    We develop a new projection weighting function for interpolation and reconstruction of multi-slice helical computed tomography data with the hope of reducing longitudinal aliasing in reconstructed volumes. The weighting function is based on the application of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem to the interlaced longitudinal samples acquired by the multi-slice scanner. We call the approach 180MAA, for multi-slice anti-aliasing. For pitch 3, the 180MAA approach yields high-quality images of the 3D Shepp-Logan phantom as well as a longitudinal MTF superior to that of the 180MLI approach, which is based on the use of linear interpolation. However, it is not as successful at mitigating aliasing as had been doped due to the presence of a significant and unexpected aliasing component that can be attributed to the small cone angle in multi-slice helical CT. The presence of this effect is interesting and significant in its own right, however.

  17. Weight lifting training and left ventricular function in adolescent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, M; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D

    2007-09-01

    Training during adolescence may influence the myocardium's adaptation. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function differ depending whether they result from pressure or volume overload. Accordingly, the present study was designed to examine, by echocardiography studies, the effects of endurance versus weight lifting training modes on left ventricular contractility in healthy adolescent boys. Sixty healthy adolescent boys were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: weightlifting training, run-training, and control. Exercising groups underwent 28-week training programs, 3-4 times a week, 35 min each session. The weight lifting program for consisted of training on 6 dynamic resistive machines at resistance corresponding to 6-repetition maximum. The running program was composed of aerobic exercise training at 65% of their VO(2max). At rest, only in the runners end diastolic volume and end systolic pressure-volume ratio differed significantly (Pweightlifters demonstrated improvement respectively in: wall stress (245+/-42 and 290+/-35 103 dyn.cm(2)), end systolic pressure-volume ratio (7.2+/-.7 and 6.4+/-.5 ratio) and ejection fraction (82+/-5% and 76+/-5%). Maximal oxygen uptake (48.2+/-3.2 and 43.8+/-3.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), also improved significantly (Padolescent boys the mode of exercise training leads to significant differences in left ventricular function and contractility, related to differences in volume-after-load relationship and not to fundamental differences in the properties of the myocardium.

  18. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; pdiscrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  19. Normal weight obesity and functional outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher levels of functional impairment. However, BMI strata misrepresent true adiposity, particularly in those with a normal BMI but elevated body fat (BF%) (normal weight obesity [NWO]) whom are at higher metabolic and mortality risk. Whether this subset of patients is associated with worsening functional outcomes is unclear. Subjects aged ≥60 years with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) from NHANES III (1988-1994) were included. We created sex-specific tertiles of BF%. Data on physical limitations (PL), instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL) were obtained. The analysis focused on the association between NWO and these outcomes. Comparative rates among each tertile using logistic regression (referent=lowest tertile) were assessed, incrementally adding co-variates. Of the 4484 subjects aged ≥60 years, 1528 had a normal BMI, and the range of the mean age of tertiles was 69.9-71.2 years. Lean mass was lowest in the elevated BF% group than in the middle or low tertiles (42.6 vs 44.9 vs 45.8; polder adults in females only, highlighting the importance of recognizing the association of obesity with disability in elders. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The boundedness of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the boundedness properties are obtained for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces.

  1. WSLA Schema for Functionality Based Weight fixing of Non-Functional Parameters of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Pavithra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently Web services have evolved as a cost-effective solution for exchanging information between distributed applications over different operating system, platform, and software environment. The success of such a system is mainly depends on the quality offered by the service and the extent to which the web service meets the customer requirements. So while selection of a service the top priority is given to the functionality related aspects. From the list of service with same functionality the selection of a service is made by evaluating the QoS by considering the domain specific and domain independent attribute that leads to the achievement of maximum functionality. But while monitoring the performance of a service, the quality is mainly evaluated by measuring the non functional parameters such as response time, throughput, availability, reliability and sucessiblity. Satisfied level for these non functional values shows that the web service met the customer needs. In this paper we are proposing a method and a schema to assign functionality related weight to the non functional parameters and thereby evaluate the expected level of QoS at the time of selection itself. Apart from the guaranteed level of non functional values asserted in the WSLA, the weights are also assigned to the non functional parameters to evaluate the actual QoS.

  2. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  3. Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Hardy spaces, we will give some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.

  4. Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces, we will obtain some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.

  5. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: the role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lina; Shi, Zhuanghua; Feng, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag) presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective duration of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color) of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The congruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  7. Weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAURABH SHRIVASTAVA

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal functions. In particular, we give a new proof of $l_r$-valued extension of weighted $L^p$-inequalities for one-sided maximal functions. In the process, we prove an analogue of the well-known Fefferman–Stein’s weighted lemma in the context of one-sided maximal functions. Further, we also study $l_r$-valued extension of the lemma.

  8. A Generalization on Weighted Means and Convex Functions with respect to the Non-Newtonian Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur Kadak; Yusuf Gürefe

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigating some characteristic features of weighted means and convex functions in terms of the non-Newtonian calculus which is a self-contained system independent of any other system of calculus. It is shown that there are infinitely many such useful types of weighted means and convex functions depending on the choice of generating functions. Moreover, some relations between classical weighted mean and its non-Newtonian version are compared and discussed in a table...

  9. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markers of inflammation and endothelial function were measured before and after 3 ... (CRP), inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule ... Keywords: Menopause, cytokines, endothelial function, exercise, diet ...

  10. Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taewoo, E-mail: taewoo.lee@utoronto.ca; Hammad, Muhannad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by

  11. A Generalization on Weighted Means and Convex Functions with respect to the Non-Newtonian Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Kadak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating some characteristic features of weighted means and convex functions in terms of the non-Newtonian calculus which is a self-contained system independent of any other system of calculus. It is shown that there are infinitely many such useful types of weighted means and convex functions depending on the choice of generating functions. Moreover, some relations between classical weighted mean and its non-Newtonian version are compared and discussed in a table. Also, some geometric interpretations of convex functions are presented with respect to the non-Newtonian slope. Finally, using multiplicative continuous convex functions we give an application.

  12. A Weighted Estimate for the Square Function on the Unit Ball in $\\C^n$

    OpenAIRE

    PETERMICHL, stefanie; Wick, Brett D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Luzin area integral or the square function on the unit ball of ℂn, regarded as an operator in the weighted space L2(w) has a linear bound in terms of the invariant A2 characteristic of the weight. We show a dimension-free estimate for the “area-integral” associated with the weighted L2(w) norm of the square function. We prove the equivalence of the classical and the invariant A2 classes.

  13. An almost Sure Central Limit Theorem for the Weight Function Sequences of NA Random Variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qunying Wu

    2011-08-01

    Consider the weight function sequences of NA random variables. This paper proves that the almost sure central limit theorem holds for the weight function sequences of NA random variables. Our results generalize and improve those on the almost sure central limit theorem previously obtained from the i.i.d. case to NA sequences.

  14. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... functional ability and quadriceps muscle strength in children with hemophilic knee arthritis. Thirty patients had ... arthropathy and structural damage of joints, and causes mus- cle atrophy ... osteoporosis [9]. Joint tissue ...

  15. Nonlinear neurobiological probability weighting functions for aversive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Capra, C Monica; Chappelow, Jonathan; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2008-02-15

    While mainstream economic models assume that individuals treat probabilities objectively, many people tend to overestimate the likelihood of improbable events and underestimate the likelihood of probable events. However, a biological account for why probabilities would be treated this way does not yet exist. While undergoing fMRI, we presented individuals with a series of lotteries, defined by the voltage of an impending cutaneous electric shock and the probability with which the shock would be received. During the prospect phase, neural activity that tracked the probability of the expected outcome was observed in a circumscribed network of brain regions that included the anterior cingulate, visual, parietal, and temporal cortices. Most of these regions displayed responses to probabilities consistent with nonlinear probability weighting. The neural responses to passive lotteries predicted 79% of subsequent decisions when individuals were offered choices between different lotteries, and exceeded that predicted by behavior alone near the indifference point.

  16. Cryptographic Properties of the Hidden Weighted Bit Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Pohlig–Hellman method, the 20-variable Carlet–Feng function allows computing one output bit per cycle with more than 1000 half- adders and full- adders . In...comparison, the 64-variable HWBF allows computing one output bit with only 26 − 1 = 63 half- adders and 26 − 6− 1 = 57 full- adders [16]. Therefore, by

  17. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  18. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout MD, PhD; Saroj Saigal MD; Katherine M. Morrison MD; Michael H. Boyle PhD; Louis A. Schmidt PhD

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. A...

  20. Neural networks: further insights into error function, generalized weights and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-08-01

    The article is a continuum of a previous one providing further insights into the structure of neural network (NN). Key concepts of NN including activation function, error function, learning rate and generalized weights are introduced. NN topology can be visualized with generic plot() function by passing a "nn" class object. Generalized weights assist interpretation of NN model with respect to the independent effect of individual input variables. A large variance of generalized weights for a covariate indicates non-linearity of its independent effect. If generalized weights of a covariate are approximately zero, the covariate is considered to have no effect on outcome. Finally, prediction of new observations can be performed using compute() function. Make sure that the feature variables passed to the compute() function are in the same order to that in the training NN.

  1. Action-angle formulation of generalized, orbit-based, fast-ion diagnostic weight functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the usually complicated and anisotropic nature of the fast-ion distribution function, diagnostic velocity-space weight functions, which indicate the sensitivity of a diagnostic to different fast-ion velocities, are used to facilitate the analysis of experimental data. Additionally, when velocity-space weight functions are discretized, a linear equation relating the fast-ion density and the expected diagnostic signal is formed. In a technique known as velocity-space tomography, many measurements can be combined to create an ill-conditioned system of linear equations that can be solved using various computational methods. However, when velocity-space weight functions (which by definition ignore spatial dependencies) are used, velocity-space tomography is restricted, both by the accuracy of its forward model and also by the availability of spatially overlapping diagnostic measurements. In this work, we extend velocity-space weight functions to a full 6D generalized coordinate system and then show how to reduce them to a 3D orbit-space without loss of generality using an action-angle formulation. Furthermore, we show how diagnostic orbit-weight functions can be used to infer the full fast-ion distribution function, i.e., orbit tomography. In depth derivations of orbit weight functions for the neutron, neutral particle analyzer, and fast-ion D-α diagnostics are also shown.

  2. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  3. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  4. Function-weighted frequency response function sensitivity method for analytical model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Since the frequency response function (FRF) sensitivity method was first proposed [26], it has since become a most powerful and practical method for analytical model updating. Nevertheless, the original formulation of the FRF sensitivity method does suffer the limitation that the initial analytical model to be updated should be reasonably close to the final updated model to be sought, due the assumed mathematical first order approximation implicit to most sensitivity based methods. Convergence to correct model is not guaranteed when large modelling errors exist and blind application often leads to optimal solutions which are truly sought. This paper seeks to examine all the important numerical characteristics of the original FRF sensitivity method including frequency data selection, numerical balance and convergence performance. To further improve the applicability of the method to cases of large modelling errors, a new novel function-weighted sensitivity method is developed. The new method has shown much superior performance on convergence even in the presence of large modelling errors. Extensive numerical case studies based on a mass-spring system and a GARTEUR structure have been conducted and very encouraging results have been achieved. Effect of measurement noise has been examined and the method works reasonably well in the presence of measurement uncertainties. The new method removes the restriction of modelling error magnitude being of second order in Euclidean norm as compared with that of system matrices, thereby making it a truly general method applicable to most practical model updating problems.

  5. SEMI-WEIGHT FUNCTION METHOD ON COMPUTATION OF STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS IN DISSIMILAR MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马开平; 柳春图

    2004-01-01

    Semi-weight function method is developed to solve the plane problem of two bonded dissimilar materials containing a crack along the bond. From equilibrium equation,stress and strain relationship, conditions of continuity across interface and free crack surface, the stress and displacementfields were obtained. The eigenvalue of these fields is lambda. Semi-weight functions were obtained as virtual displacement and stress fields with eigenvalue-lambda. Integral expression of fracture parameters, KⅠ and KⅡ, were obtained from reciprocal work theorem with semi-weight functions and approximate displacement and stress values on any integral path around crack tip. The calculation results of applications show that the semi-weight function method is a simple, convenient and high precision calculation method.

  6. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is one of the major health problems today. The inclusion of foods or the replacement of habitual foods with others that may enhance energy expenditure (EE) or improve satiety may be a practical way to maintain a stable body weight or assist in achieving weight loss; such foods may act as functional foods in body weight control. Some foods that might be classified as functional foods for weight control because of their effects on EE and appetite-including medium-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, tea, milk, and nuts-are reviewed here. Only human studies reporting EE, appetite, or body weight are discussed. When studies of whole food items are unavailable, studies of nutraceuticals, the capsular equivalents of functional foods, are reviewed. To date, dietary fats seem to be most promising and have been the most extensively studied for their effects on body weight control. However, the weight loss observed is small and should be considered mostly as a measure to prevent weight gain. Carefully conducted clinical studies are needed to firmly ascertain the effect of tea, milk, and nuts on body weight maintenance, to assess their potential to assist in weight-loss efforts, and to ascertain dose-response relations and mechanisms of action for the 4 food types examined.

  7. APPLICATION OF WAVELET THEORY IN RESEARCH ON WEIGHT FUNCTION OF MESHLESS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; ZHANG Xuan-bing; GE Xiu-run

    2005-01-01

    Multiresolution analysis of wavelet theory can give an effective way to describe the information at various levels of approximations or different resolutions, based on spline wavelet analysis, so weight function is orthonormally projected onto a sequence of closed spline subspaces, and is viewed at various levels of approximations or different resolutions.Now, the useful new way to research weight function is found, and the numerical result is given.

  8. Presurgical Weight Is Associated with Pain, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety among Gastric Bypass Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Wedin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and obesity are significant public health concerns in the United States associated with significant levels of health-care expenses and lost productivity. Previous research suggests that obesity is a risk factor for chronic pain, mainly due to excessive weight placed on the joints. However, the obesity-pain relationship appears to be complex and reciprocal. Little work to date has focused on the relationship between weight and pain among patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. Patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss at a large southeastern academic medical center ( completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression scale (CESD-10, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher pain-on-average ratings, higher functional impairment due to pain across the domains of physical activity, mood, walking ability, relationships, and enjoyment of life. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher BAI scores, but weight was not related to depression. Findings suggest that bariatric surgery candidates report a moderate amount of pain prior to surgery and that presurgical weight is associated with higher pain, increased functional impairment due to pain, and increased anxiety. Anxiety was found to mediate the relationship between increased weight and pain.

  9. Functional-Coefficient Spatial Durbin Models with Nonparametric Spatial Weights: An Application to Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Koroglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a functional-coefficient spatial Durbin model with nonparametric spatial weights. Applying the series approximation method, we estimate the unknown functional coefficients and spatial weighting functions via a nonparametric two-stage least squares (or 2SLS estimation method. To further improve estimation accuracy, we also construct a second-step estimator of the unknown functional coefficients by a local linear regression approach. Some Monte Carlo simulation results are reported to assess the finite sample performance of our proposed estimators. We then apply the proposed model to re-examine national economic growth by augmenting the conventional Solow economic growth convergence model with unknown spatial interactive structures of the national economy, as well as country-specific Solow parameters, where the spatial weighting functions and Solow parameters are allowed to be a function of geographical distance and the countries’ openness to trade, respectively.

  10. Prognostic importance of weight change on short-term functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yerim; Kim, Chi Kyung; Jung, Seunguk; Ko, Sang-Bae; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Controversy exists regarding the question of whether weight change decreases or increases the risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of weight change on short-term outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients. A total of 654 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled in this study from March 2010 to May 2013. We assessed the weight change of each participant between admission and discharge from the Department of Neurology. Weight change was defined as change ≥0·05 kg/baseline body mass index unit. We evaluated the short-term outcomes using a modified Rankin Scale at three-months after the onset of a stroke. Among the 654 patients, 35·2% were included in the weight-change group. Weight loss occurred in 24·6% of the participants during the hospital stay following the stroke, which lasted an average of nine-days. Compared with the weight-stable group, the pronounced weight-loss group had a higher risk of unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio 2·43; 95% confidence interval 1·12-5·25). Short-term weight loss after stroke appears to be more common than we expected, and our results suggest that it is associated with unfavorable functional outcomes. Therefore, clinical nutrition should be considered as a component of medical treatment and weight loss should be monitored as an indicator of malnutrition. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Based on the SPSS Software t+ of Weight Control on Taekwondo Athletes' Body Function Influence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Weight control has become the ideal level of Taekwondo athletes participate in the competition the important method. According to the nine elite Taekwondo athletes as the research samples, research mainly by using the method of experiments, the experiments were carried out at six weeks, 1 times a week to sweat ion and the anaerobic capacity test and the four body fat content of the test, t test method for analysis of pre-race weight control on Athletes' body function influence. Results showed that, after a period of six weeks after the athlete's weight control, were highly significant changes in weight control; from the beginning of the third week, athlete's body weight and body fat content began to drop dramatically; through the test showed the percentage of body fat and lean body mass were decreased significantly; the anaerobic exercise capacity in athletes the weight control period was not changed significantly; from the beginning of the third week athletes sweat sodium and calcium ion concentration increased significantly, while carbon dioxide binding force is greatly reduced, until the end of sixth week weight control. By the appropriate increase in relaxation time and increase training of aerobic training proportion, can realize the athletes in weight control process to consume fat goal primarily, can provide excellent athletes to provide beneficial reference for weight control research.

  12. The refinement of partial robust M-regression model using winsorized mean and Hampel weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Mazni; Mamat, Nor Azura Md Ghani @; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Ahmad, Sanizah

    2015-02-01

    Partial Robust M-Regression (PRM) is a robust Partial Least Squares (PLS) method using M-estimator, with multivariate L1 median and a monotonous weight function, known as Fair function in its algorithm. In many studies, the use of re-descending weight functions were much preferred to monotonous weight function due to the fact that the latter often failed to assign proper weights to outliers according to their severity. With the intention of improving the performance of PRM, this study suggested slight modifications to PRM by using winsorized mean and Hampel function, which comes from the family of re-descending weight functions. The proposed method was applied to a real high dimensional dataset which then modified to contain residual outliers as well as bad leverage points. The performance of PLS, PRM and modified PRM was assessed by means of their standard error of prediction (SEP) values. Compared to classical PLS and PRM, an improved performance was observed from the proposed method.

  13. Decision about criticality of power transformers using whitenization weight functions on DGA caution levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikal R. Ingle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are the most significant as well as the major asset of any power system network. The condition monitoring and assessment is the main concern in transformer management activities. As a first information source, dissolved gases-in-oil analysis (DGA is universally accepted. The assessment of dissolved gases is characteristically observed analogous to grey system analysis. Grey system theory is supportive to the cases, when less information about the system is available. The cluster of grey incidences and whitenization weight functions classifies the factors of same type, in order to simplify a complex system. Three caution levels of key gases specified in IEEE standards are utilized in this study, to whiten the weight functions. The whitenization weight function with lower measure is selected for caution level-1. However, whitenization weight functions with middle measure are preferred for level-2 and level-3. Several key gas samples of the equal rating transformers are collected from gas analyzer section and utilized in condition assessment computations. The test samples are verified with variable and equal weight clustering criteria. The criticality judgment of transformer with variable weight clustering successfully identifies the crucial elements amongst samples.

  14. Term frequency - function of document frequency: a new term weighting scheme for enterprise information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Hongping

    2012-11-01

    In today's business environment, enterprises are increasingly under pressure to process the vast amount of data produced everyday within enterprises. One method is to focus on the business intelligence (BI) applications and increasing the commercial added-value through such business analytics activities. Term weighting scheme, which has been used to convert the documents as vectors in the term space, is a vital task in enterprise Information Retrieval (IR), text categorisation, text analytics, etc. When determining term weight in a document, the traditional TF-IDF scheme sets weight value for the term considering only its occurrence frequency within the document and in the entire set of documents, which leads to some meaningful terms that cannot get the appropriate weight. In this article, we propose a new term weighting scheme called Term Frequency - Function of Document Frequency (TF-FDF) to address this issue. Instead of using monotonically decreasing function such as Inverse Document Frequency, FDF presents a convex function that dynamically adjusts weights according to the significance of the words in a document set. This function can be manually tuned based on the distribution of the most meaningful words which semantically represent the document set. Our experiments show that the TF-FDF can achieve higher value of Normalised Discounted Cumulative Gain in IR than that of TF-IDF and its variants, and improving the accuracy of relevance ranking of the IR results.

  15. RADIAL MINIMIZER OF P-GINZBURG-LANDAU FUNCTIONAL WITH A WEIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yutian

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the asymptotic behavior of the radial minimizer of the p-Ginzburg-Landau functional with a weight in the case p > n ≥ 2. The location of the zeros and the uniqueness of the radial minimizer are derived. Moreover, the W1,p convergence of the radial minimizer of this functional is proved.

  16. On the Modeling of Error Functions as High Dimensional Landscapes for Weight Initialization in Learning Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Julius,; T., Sumana; Adityakrishna, C S

    2016-01-01

    Next generation deep neural networks for classification hosted on embedded platforms will rely on fast, efficient, and accurate learning algorithms. Initialization of weights in learning networks has a great impact on the classification accuracy. In this paper we focus on deriving good initial weights by modeling the error function of a deep neural network as a high-dimensional landscape. We observe that due to the inherent complexity in its algebraic structure, such an error function may conform to general results of the statistics of large systems. To this end we apply some results from Random Matrix Theory to analyse these functions. We model the error function in terms of a Hamiltonian in N-dimensions and derive some theoretical results about its general behavior. These results are further used to make better initial guesses of weights for the learning algorithm.

  17. Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. Methods In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p Results Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P Conclusion Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight loss exceeded 5% there was a significantly reduced resection rate to detect, but the changes were significantly more substantial if weight loss was 10% or more. We propose that a weight loss of 10% be defined as

  18. Influence of weight loss on pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, U Evers

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of weight reduction by dieting on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in everyday life. : Female outpatients in weight-loss programmes at the Karolinska Hospital, who met the criteria for participating in this study: age 20-65 y and body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m(2). In all, 57 entered the programme studied and 43 completed it. Diet programmes for 8-12 weeks and thereafter 6688 kJ/day for >52 weeks. Questionnaires on musculoskeletal symptoms and obesity-specific questions on basic activities of daily living (ADL), mobility, housework, occupational disability and activities outside home. Test protocol developed for observation of functional limitations in obese women. Assessments at baseline, after 12 and after 64 weeks of dieting. In all, 75% completed the study. Weight loss was 14% (14.7+/-6.1 kg) at 12 weeks and, due to a weight relapse, 10% (10.1+/-8.1 kg) at 64 weeks. At the end of the study period, the proportion of current pain from lower backs and feet had normalised. Important perceived improvements were ability to rise from having fallen over, to walk up stairs and to lift heavy things. Most functional limitations improved, such as climbing onto high stools, walking up stairs with grocery bags, doing pedicure, rising from floor or low furniture. The questionnaire results partly followed the weight development, but the observed improvements were long-lasting. Weight reduction had positive short-term effects on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations. A partial weight relapse had some impact on perceived pain and disability, but not on observed limitations. The maintained improvements may be due to weight loss, but also less pain and increased physical activity.

  19. A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé

    2013-02-01

    Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance to the input points. It matches the expected time bound of the best known randomized algorithm for this problem. Our approach relies on Coles improved parametric searching technique. As a direct application, our result yields the first O(nlogn)-time algorithm for computing a k-center of a set of n weighted points on the real line. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Composition of S^p-weighted pseudo almost automorphic functions and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the background space of $S^p$-weighted pseudo almost automorphic functions (abbr. $S^p$-wpaa functions is endowed with a norm coming from $L^p$ norm, it is natural to consider the composition of $S^p$-wpaa functions under conditions of $L^p$ norm. However, the known resutls for composition of $S^p$-wpaa functions were always given under conditions of supremum norm. Motivated by this, we establish some new results for the composition of $S^p$-almost automorphic functions and $S^p$-wpaa functions under a ``uniform continuity condition'' with respect to $L^p$ norm. As an application, we prove the existence of mild weighted pseudo almost automorphic solutions for some semilinear differential equations with an $S^p$-wpaa force term. An example of the heat equation illustrates our results.

  1. A STUDY ON THE WEIGHT FUNCTION OF THE MOVING LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION IN THE LOCAL BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LongShuyao; HuDe'an

    2003-01-01

    The meshless method is a new numerical technique presented in recent years .It uses the moving least square (MLS) approximation as a shape function . The smoothness of the MLS approximation is determined by that of the basic function and of the weight function, and is mainly determined by that of the weight function. Therefore, the weight function greatly affects the accuracy of results obtained. Different kinds of weight functions, such as the spline function, the Gauss function and so on, are proposed recently by many researchers. In the present work, the features of various weight functions are illustrated through solving elasto-static problems using the local boundary integral equation method. The effect of various weight functions on the accuracy, convergence and stability of results obtained is also discussed. Examples show that the weight function proposed by Zhou Weiyuan and Gauss and the quartic spline weight function are better than the others if parameters c and a in Gauss and exponential weight functions are in the range of reasonable values, respectively, and the higher the smoothness of the weight function, the better the features of the solutions.

  2. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  3. The Impact of Acute and Chronic Weight Restriction and Weight Regulation practices on Physiological, Osteogenic, Metabolic and Cognitive Function in Elite Jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Eimear

    2010-01-01

    Horse racing is a weight category sport. One of the key challenges facing jockeys is the pressure of “making weight” throughout the protracted racing season. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a chronically weight restrictive lifestyle and acute weight loss practices on aspects of physiological, osteogenic, metabolic and cognitive function in jockeys. Methods: The primary aim was achieved through the completion of four related studies. Study One: The effect of a 4% reduct...

  4. INFERRING FUNCTIONAL NETWORK-BASED SIGNATURES VIA STRUCTURALLY-WEIGHTED LASSO MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dajiang; Shen, Dinggang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Most current research approaches for functional/effective connectivity analysis focus on pair-wise connectivity and cannot deal with network-scale functional interactions. In this paper, we propose a structurally-weighted LASSO (SW-LASSO) regression model to represent the functional interaction among multiple regions of interests (ROIs) based on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data. The structural connectivity constraints derived from diffusion tenor imaging (DTI) data will guide the selection of the weights which adjust the penalty levels of different coefficients corresponding to different ROIs. Using the Default Mode Network (DMN) as a test-bed, our results indicate that the learned SW-LASSO has good capability of differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects from their normal controls and has promising potential to characterize the brain functions among different condition, thus serving as the functional network-based signature.

  5. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  6. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight.

  7. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  8. Characterization and prediction of chemical functions and weight fractions in consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Isaacs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents. We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos. We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties. We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-based chemical prioritization.

  9. Thermal performance of functionally graded parabolic annular fins having constant weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, Vivek Kumar; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Bhowmick, Shubhankar [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2014-10-15

    The proposed work reports the performance of parabolic annular fins of constant weight made of functionally graded materials. The work involves computation of temperature gradient, efficiency and effectiveness of such fins and compares the performances for different functionally graded parabolic fin profiles obtained by varying grading parameters and profile parameters respectively keeping the weight of the fins constant. The functional grading of thermal conductivity is based on a power function of radial co-ordinate which consists of parameters, namely grading parameters, varying which different grading combinations are studied. A general second order ordinary differential equation has been derived for all the profiles and material grading. The efficiency and effectiveness of the annular fins of different profile and grading combinations have been calculated and plotted and the results reveal the dependence of fin performance on profile and grading parameter.

  10. Weighted Approximation of Continuous Functions by Sequences of Linear Positive Operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tülin Coşkun

    2000-11-01

    In this work we obtain, under suitable conditions, theorems of Korovkin type for spaces with different weight, composed of continuous functions defined on unbounded regions. These results can be seen as an extension of theorems by Gadjiev in [4] and [5].

  11. Uncertainty plus Prior Equals Rational Bias: An Intuitive Bayesian Probability Weighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several…

  12. Radial basis function networks with linear interval regression weights for symbolic interval data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shun-Feng; Chuang, Chen-Chia; Tao, C W; Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Hsiao, Chih-Ching

    2012-02-01

    This paper introduces a new structure of radial basis function networks (RBFNs) that can successfully model symbolic interval-valued data. In the proposed structure, to handle symbolic interval data, the Gaussian functions required in the RBFNs are modified to consider interval distance measure, and the synaptic weights of the RBFNs are replaced by linear interval regression weights. In the linear interval regression weights, the lower and upper bounds of the interval-valued data as well as the center and range of the interval-valued data are considered. In addition, in the proposed approach, two stages of learning mechanisms are proposed. In stage 1, an initial structure (i.e., the number of hidden nodes and the adjustable parameters of radial basis functions) of the proposed structure is obtained by the interval competitive agglomeration clustering algorithm. In stage 2, a gradient-descent kind of learning algorithm is applied to fine-tune the parameters of the radial basis function and the coefficients of the linear interval regression weights. Various experiments are conducted, and the average behavior of the root mean square error and the square of the correlation coefficient in the framework of a Monte Carlo experiment are considered as the performance index. The results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed structure.

  13. Using Preferred Outcome Distributions to estimate Value and Probability Weighting Functions in Decisions under Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); T. Lourenco (Tania); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); D.G. Goldstein (Daniel G.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract In this paper we propose the use of preferred outcome distributions as a new method to elicit individuals' value and probability weighting functions in decisions under risk. Extant approaches for the elicitation of these two key ingredients of individuals' risk attitude typically rely

  14. Enhancement of partial robust M-regression (PRM) performance using Bisquare weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Mazni; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Ghani@Mamat, Nor Azura Md; Ahmad, Sanizah

    2014-09-01

    Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression is a popular regression technique for handling multicollinearity in low and high dimensional data which fits a linear relationship between sets of explanatory and response variables. Several robust PLS methods are proposed to accommodate the classical PLS algorithms which are easily affected with the presence of outliers. The recent one was called partial robust M-regression (PRM). Unfortunately, the use of monotonous weighting function in the PRM algorithm fails to assign appropriate and proper weights to large outliers according to their severity. Thus, in this paper, a modified partial robust M-regression is introduced to enhance the performance of the original PRM. A re-descending weight function, known as Bisquare weight function is recommended to replace the fair function in the PRM. A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the modified PRM and its efficiency is also tested in both contaminated and uncontaminated simulated data under various percentages of outliers, sample sizes and number of predictors.

  15. Uncertainty plus Prior Equals Rational Bias: An Intuitive Bayesian Probability Weighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several…

  16. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  17. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time.

  18. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND METHODS OF PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEM DEVICES. METHOD OF WEIGHT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mishchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and substantiation of a new method of structural identification of electrical devices of electric traction systems for both DC and AC current. Methodology. To solve this problem the following methods are used: the methods and techniques of the linear electrical engineering, in particular, the Laplace operator method; the numerical method for solving the integral equation, which is based on the representation of the Wiener-Hopf linear equations system (this allows forming the solutions of the problem in a mathematical form of the correlation and weight functions; the factorization method, which provides certain partition of the correlation functions of the stochastic processes. Findings. It was developed the method of weight function of the electrical devices identification, which can be fully used in the systems of electric traction. As the use example of the developed method it was considered a feeder section of DC electric traction with the single power supply. On this section move two electric locomotives of the type DE 1, they have been identified by the weighting functions. The required currents and voltages of electric locomotives are also formulated in the electric traction network in probabilistic and statistical form, that is, the functions of mathematical expectation and the correlation functions are determined. At this, it is taken into account that the correlation function of the sum of random functions is equal to the sum of the correlation functions of additives, and the correlation function of the integral of a random function is defined as the double integral of the correlation function of the output of a random function. Originality. Firstly, originality consists of the adaption of the developed method of structural identification for the devices of electric traction system. Secondly, it lies in the proper development of the new method of weight function. And finally, it lies in the solution of the Wiener

  19. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  20. Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formulae for the Jacobi weight and Gori-Micchelli weight functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士俊

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to find for any non-negative measure, the relations between the Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formula and Gauss formula e for the same measure. As applications, the author obtained the explicit Gauss-Radau and Gaus s-Lobatto formulae for the Jacobi weight and the Gori-Micchelli weight.

  1. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  2. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  3. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  4. Weighted LS-SVM for function estimation applied to artifact removal in bio-signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Alexander; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Weighted LS-SVM is normally used for function estimation from highly corrupted data in order to decrease the impact of outliers. However, this method is limited in size and big time series should be segmented in smaller groups. Therefore, border discontinuities represent a problem in the final estimated function. Several methods such as committee networks or multilayer networks of LS-SVMs are used to address this problem, but these methods require extra training and hence the computational cost is increased. In this paper a technique that includes an extra weight vector in the formulation of the cost function for the LS-SVM problem is proposed as an alternative solution. The method is then applied to the removal of some artifacts in biomedical signals.

  5. Role of the sampling weight in evaluating classical time autocorrelation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We analyze how the choice of the sampling weight affects the efficiency of the Monte Carlo evaluation of classical time autocorrelation functions. Assuming uncorrelated sampling or sampling with constant correlation length, we propose a sampling weight for which the number of trajectories needed for convergence is independent of the correlated quantity, dimensionality, dynamics, and phase-space density. In contrast, it is shown that the computational cost of the "standard" intuitive algorithm which samples directly from the phase-space density may scale exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom. Yet, for the stationary Gaussian distribution of harmonic systems and for the autocorrelation function of a linear function of phase-space coordinates, the computational cost of this standard algorithm is also independent of dimensionality.

  6. Alternative growth functions for predicting body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks: Lomolino equation and extreme value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, A; Murawska, D; Golian, A; Mottaghitalab, M; Gitoee, A; Lopez, S; France, J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, 2 alternative growth functions, the Lomolino and the extreme value function (EVF), are introduced and their ability to predict body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks evaluated. A comparative study was carried out of these equations with standard growth functions: Gompertz, exponential, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten. Goodness of fit of the functions was evaluated using R(2), mean square error, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, whereas bias factor, accuracy factor, Durbin-Watson statistic, and number of runs of sign were the criteria used for analysis of residuals. Results showed that predictive performance of all functions was acceptable, though the Richards and exponential equations failed to converge in a few cases for both male and female ducks. Based on goodness-of-fit statistics, the Richards, Gompertz, and EVF were the best equations whereas the worst fits to the data were obtained with the exponential. Analysis of residuals indicated that, for the different traits investigated, the least biased and the most accurate equations were the Gompertz, EVF, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten, whereas the exponential was the most biased and least accurate. Based on the Durbin-Watson statistic, all models generally behaved well and only the exponential showed evidence of autocorrelation for all 3 traits investigated. Results showed that with all functions, estimated final weights of males were higher than females for the body, carcass, and breast weight profiles. The alternative functions introduced here have desirable advantages including flexibility and a low number of parameters. However, because this is probably the first study to apply these functions to predict growth patterns in poultry or other animals, further analysis of these new models is suggested.

  7. Effects of weight regain following intentional weight loss on glucoregulatory function in overweight and obese adults with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Caroline S; Katula, Jeffery A; Goff, David C; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-01-01

    To assess the extent to which initial, intentional weight loss-associated improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action are diminished with weight regain. 138 overweight and obese (BMI: 32.4±3.9kg/m(2)), adults (59.0±9.7 years), with pre-diabetes were followed through a 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 18-month weight maintenance period, or usual care control condition. Longitudinal change in weight (baseline, 6, 24 months) was used to classify individuals into weight pattern categories (Loser/Maintainer (LM), n= 50; Loser/Regainer (LR), n=51; and Weight Stable (WS), n=37). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and model adjusted changes, by weight pattern category, were assessed. LMs and LRs lost 8.3±4.7kg (8.7±4.5%) and 9.6±4.7kg (10.2±4.7%) during the first 6 months, respectively. LM continued to lose 1.1±3.4kg over the next 18 months (9.9±6.5% reduction from baseline; pregained 6.5±3.7kg (3.3±5.3% reduction from baseline; pWeight change was directly associated with change in all DM risk factors (all pweight (from baseline to 24 months) achieved in the LR group, 24-month changes in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR did not differ between WS and LR groups. Conversely, LM saw sustained improvements in all measured DM risk factors. Significant weight loss followed by weight loss maintenance is associated with sustained improvements in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR; conversely, even partial weight regain is associated with regression of initial improvements in these risk factors towards baseline values. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Sevda; Stein, Juergen; Bauer, Boris; Teupe, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Subjects/methods Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. Results A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2 to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01). TDI displayed a significantly lower a′-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01). Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Conclusion Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure and heart rate and partially normalize diastolic dysfunction. PMID:28123309

  9. Stroh formalism in analysis of skew-symmetric and symmetric weight functions for interfacial cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Morini, Lorenzo; Movchan, Alexander; Movchan, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the article is on analysis of skew-symmetric weight matrix functions for interfacial cracks in two dimensional anisotropic solids. It is shown that the Stroh formalism proves to be an efficient approach to this challenging task. Conventionally, the weight functions, both symmetric and skew-symmetric, can be identified as a non-trivial singular solutions of the homogeneous boundary value problem for a solid with a crack. For a semi-infinite crack, the problem can be reduced to solving a matrix Wiener-Hopf functional equation. Instead, the Stroh matrix representation of displacements and tractions, combined with a Riemann-Hilbert formulation, is used to obtain an algebraic eigenvalue problem, that is solved in a closed form. The proposed general method is applied to the case of a quasi-static semi-infinite crack propagation between two dissimilar orthotropic media: explicit expressions for the weight matrix functions are evaluated and then used in the computation of complex stress intensity factor ...

  10. Effects of weight training on cognitive functions in elderly with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Martins Vital

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deterioration in cognitive functions is characteristic in Alzheimer's disease (AD and may be associated with decline in daily living activities with consequent reduced quality of life. Objective: To analyze weight training effects on cognitive functions in elderly with AD. Subjects: 34 elderly with AD were allocated into two groups: Training Group (TG and Social Gathering Group (SGG. Methods: Global cognitive status was determined using the Mini-Mental State Exam. Specific cognitive functions were measured using the Brief Cognitive Battery, Clock Drawing Test and Verbal Fluency Test. The protocols were performed three times a week, one hour per session. The weight training protocol consisted of three sets of 20 repetitions, with two minutes of rest between sets and exercises. The activities proposed for the SGG were not systematized and aimed at promoting social interaction among patients. The statistical analyses were performed with the U Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests for group comparisons. All analyses were considered statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences associated to the effects of the practice of weight training on cognition in AD patients. Conclusion: In this study, no improvement in cognitive functions was evident in elderly with AD who followed a low intensity resistance exercise protocol. Thus, future studies could evaluate the effect of more intense exercise programs.

  11. Effect of weight support exercise therapy on the cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong Jiao; Wen-Yu Zhang; Jing Xu; Guang-Jian Zhu; Jia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of weight support exercise therapy on the cardiac function and living quality in patients with chronic heart failure.Methods: A total of 75 patients with CHF were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=38) and the control group (n=37). the patients in the control group were given routine drug therapy. on the above basis, the patients in the observation group were given weight support exercise therapy for rehabilitation. six-month treatment was regarded as one course. the plasma BNP and aldosterone levels before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. the related cardiac function indicators in the two groups were compared. 6mwt and MHL were used to evaluate the exercise tolerance and living quality, respectively.Results:The comparison of plasma BNP and aldosterone levels, various cardiac function indicators, 6 min walking distance, and MHL score before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. BNP and aldosterone levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the observation group was significantly greater than that in the control group. after treatment, HR, LVEDD, and MHL score were significantly reduced, LVEF, FS, and 6 min walking distance were significantly increased, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant.Conclusions:Weight support exercise therapy can significantly reduce the plasma BNP and aldosterone levels in CHF patients, improve the cardiac function, and enhance the exercise tolerance and living quality.

  12. Predictiveness of sonographic fetal weight estimation as a function of prior probability of intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N V; Levisky, J S; Shearer, D M; Morris, K C; Hansberry, P A

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the predictiveness of sonographically estimated fetal weight as a function of the estimation of probability of having intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before obtaining an ultrasound scan (prior probability). The value of the estimated fetal weight resided more in its high specificity than in its sensitivity, hence in its ability to confirm that the fetus is normal. The predictiveness of the method was further enhanced when the fetal weight estimation was placed in the context of the prior probability of IUGR. In particular, the positive predictive value of the test as well as the likelihood of having a growth-retarded infant in spite of an estimated fetal weight within the normal range were considerably higher as the prior probability of IUGR increased. Since the obstetrician using all available evidence is likely to form a rather good estimate of the possibility of IUGR before ordering a scan, this improvement in the predictiveness of estimated fetal weight through a Bayesian approach can be advantageously applied to ultrasound analysis and can effectively support clinical decision making.

  13. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  14. [Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio G; Pessolano, Fernando A; Suárez, Adrián A; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC) was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga), esophageal pressure (Pes), thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max). Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi) were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP), abdominal pattern (AP) and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1) The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2) Only with 6 kg (NP and AP) the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001), 3) the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects). Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  15. WEIGHT FUNCTION FOR STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS IN ROTATING THICK-WALLED CYLINDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ai-jun; ZENG Wen-ji

    2006-01-01

    The equation of stress intensity factors(SIF) of internally pressurized thickwalled cylinder was used as the reference case. SIF equation of rotating thick-walled cylinder containing a radial crack along the internal bore was presented in weight function method. The weight function formulas were worked out and can be used for all kinds of depth of cracks, rotating speed, material, size of thick-walled cylinder to calculate the stress intensity factors. The results indicated the validity and effectiveness of these formulas. Meanwhile, the rules of the stress intensity factors in rotating thick-walled cylinder with the change of crack depths and the ratio of outer radius to inner radius were studied. The studies are valuable to engineering application.

  16. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...

  18. Analytical calculation of the Green's function and Drude weight for a correlated fermion-boson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, A.; Edwards, D. M.; Fehske, H.

    2010-04-01

    In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

  19. Construction of microRNA functional families by a mixture model of position weight matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Keun Rhee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory molecules that repress the translational processes of their target genes by binding to their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs. Because the target genes are predominantly determined by their sequence complementarity to the miRNA seed regions (nucleotides 2–7 which are evolutionarily conserved, it is inferred that the target relationships and functions of the miRNA family members are conserved across many species. Therefore, detecting the relevant miRNA families with confidence would help to clarify the conserved miRNA functions, and elucidate miRNA-mediated biological processes. We present a mixture model of position weight matrices for constructing miRNA functional families. This model systematically finds not only evolutionarily conserved miRNA family members but also functionally related miRNAs, as it simultaneously generates position weight matrices representing the conserved sequences. Using mammalian miRNA sequences, in our experiments, we identified potential miRNA groups characterized by similar sequence patterns that have common functions. We validated our results using score measures and by the analysis of the conserved targets. Our method would provide a way to comprehensively identify conserved miRNA functions.

  20. Construction of microRNA functional families by a mixture model of position weight matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Je-Keun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules that repress the translational processes of their target genes by binding to their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Because the target genes are predominantly determined by their sequence complementarity to the miRNA seed regions (nucleotides 2-7) which are evolutionarily conserved, it is inferred that the target relationships and functions of the miRNA family members are conserved across many species. Therefore, detecting the relevant miRNA families with confidence would help to clarify the conserved miRNA functions, and elucidate miRNA-mediated biological processes. We present a mixture model of position weight matrices for constructing miRNA functional families. This model systematically finds not only evolutionarily conserved miRNA family members but also functionally related miRNAs, as it simultaneously generates position weight matrices representing the conserved sequences. Using mammalian miRNA sequences, in our experiments, we identified potential miRNA groups characterized by similar sequence patterns that have common functions. We validated our results using score measures and by the analysis of the conserved targets. Our method would provide a way to comprehensively identify conserved miRNA functions.

  1. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Karimian,1 Juergen Stein,2 Boris Bauer,3 Claudius Teupe1 1Department of Medicine – Cardiology, 2Department of Medicine – Gastroenterology, 3Department of Radiology, Krankenhaus Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany Background/objectives: Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler ­imaging (TDI. Subjects/methods: Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. Results: A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2 to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (p < 0.01. Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01. TDI displayed a significantly lower a′-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01. Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Conclusion: Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure

  2. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example.

  3. Effects of surgical and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer on sexuality, cognitive functions, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Moggio, Giulia; Peano, Elisa; Sgandurra, Paola; Ponzone, Riccardo; Nappi, Rossella E; Sismondi, Piero

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment negatively affect the important aspects of a woman's life such as sexual health, cognitive functions, body image, and weight. Abrupt estrogen deficiency following chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy plays an important role in worsening of sexuality. To evaluate the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual functioning, cognitive function, and body weight in premenopausal women. Thirty-five women with a premenopausal diagnosis of breast cancer who are candidate to adjuvant treatment completed validated questionnaires on menopausal symptoms, sexuality, partner relationship, depression, body image, and cognitive functions after surgery (T0), then after chemotherapy or at least 6 months of endocrine therapy (T1), and after 1 year (T2). In addition, gynecological and dietological examinations were performed. The following validated questionnaires were used: Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Body Attitude Test, McCoy revised Italian version McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire, Cues for Sexual Desire Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Numeric Matrix Test and Rey auditory-verbal learning test, to measure cognitive functions, a recall 24 H questionnaire to evaluate food intake, Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire and Eating Attitude Test-40, while anthropometric and plicometry data were assessed by a dietitian. Low levels of sexual functioning were registered at baseline; a further decrease in sexual activity, quality of the partnered relationship, desire, and arousability was demonstrated at T1 and T2. We found a significant increase in hot flushes and anxiety. Nonsignificant deterioration of body image was demonstrated. Although women reported losing memory and concentration, "chemobrain" effect was not demonstrated as cognitive tests improved after 6 months, probably because of "learning effect." Women who had undergone chemotherapy gained weight and fat disposition was typically android. Young women

  4. Structural social support predicts functional social support in an online weight loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kevin O; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Bernstam, Elmer V; Thomas, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    Online weight loss programmes allow members to use social media tools to give and receive social support for weight loss. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of social media tools and the perception of specific types of support. To test the hypothesis that the frequency of using social media tools (structural support) is directly related to perceptions of Encouragement, Information and Shared Experiences support (functional support). Online survey. Members of an online weight loss programme. The outcome was the perception of Encouragement (motivation, congratulations), Information (advice, tips) and Shared Experiences (belonging to a group) social support. The predictor was a social media scale based on the frequency of using forums and blogs within the online weight loss programme (alpha = 0.91). The relationship between predictor and outcomes was evaluated with structural equation modelling (SEM) and logistic regression, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI and duration of website membership. The 187 participants were mostly female (95%) and white (91%), with mean (SD) age 37 (12) years and mean (SD) BMI 31 (8). SEM produced a model in which social media use predicted Encouragement support, but not Information or Shared Experiences support. Participants who used the social media tools at least weekly were almost five times as likely to experience Encouragement support compared to those who used the features less frequently [adjusted OR 4.8 (95% CI 1.8-12.8)]. Using the social media tools of an online weight loss programme at least once per week is strongly associated with receiving Encouragement for weight loss behaviours. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  6. Source reconstruction using a bilevel optimisation method with a smooth weighted distance function

    CERN Document Server

    Brännström, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    We consider a bilevel optimatisation method for inverse linear atmospheric dispersion problems where both linear and non-linear model parameters are to be determined. We propose that a smooth weighted Mahalanobis distance function is used and derive sufficient conditions for when the follower problem has local strict convexity. A few toy-models are presented where local strict convexity and ill-posedness of the inverse problem are explored, indeed the smooth distance function is compared and contrasted to linear and piecewise linear ones. The bilevel optimisation method is then applied to sensor data collected in wind tunnel experiments of a neutral gas release in urban environments (MODITIC).

  7. BUECKNER'S WORK CONJUGATE INTEGRALS AND WEIGHT FUNCTIONS FOR A CRACKIN ANISOTROPIC SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yiheng; Ma Lifeng

    2000-01-01

    The Bueckner work conjugate integrals are studied for cracks in anisotropic elastic solids. The difficulties in separating Lekhnitskii's two complex arguments involved in the integrals are overcome and explicit functional representations of the integrals are given for several typical cases. It is found that the pseudoorthogonal property of the eigenfunction expansion forms presented previously for isotropic cases, isotropic bimaterials, and orthotropic cases, are proved to be also valid in the present case of anisotropic material. Finally, Some useful path-independent integrals and weight functions are proposed.

  8. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  9. Visualization of the eloquent motor system by integration of MEG, functional, and anisotropic diffusion-weighted MRI in functional neuronavigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Ishii, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Jun; Sawamura, Yutaka; Kuriki, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2003-05-01

    In this study, we visualized the eloquent motor system including the somatosensory-motor cortex and corticospinal tract on a neuronavigation system, integrating magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and anisotropic diffusion-weighted MRI (ADWI). Four patients with brain lesions adjacent to the eloquent motor system were studied. Motor-evoked responses (MER) by finger-tapping paradigm were acquired with a 1.5-Tesla MR scanner, and somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEF) by median nerve stimulation were measured with a 204-channel MEG system. In the same fMRI examination, ADWI and anatomic three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (3-D MRI) were obtained. Activated areas of MER, estimated SEF dipoles, and the corticospinal tract on ADWI were coregistered to 3-D MRI, and the combined MR data were transferred to a neuronavigation system (functional neuronavigation). Intraoperative recording of cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials was performed for confirmation of the central sulcus. Combination of fMRI and MEG enabled firm identification of the central sulcus. Functional neuronavigation facilitated extensive tumor resection, having the advantage of sparing the motor cortex and corticospinal tract in all cases. The proposed functional neuronavigation allows neurosurgeons to perform effective and maximal resection of brain lesions, identifying and sparing eloquent cortical components and their subcortical connections. Potential clinical application of this technique is discussed.

  10. An Approximation to the Effective Beam Weighting Function for Scanning Meteorological Radars with an Axisymmetric Antenna Pattern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blahak, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    ... a simple moving sum of single-beam weighting functions. Assuming a Gaussian shape of a single pulse, a simple and easy-to-use parameterization of the effective beam weighting function is arrived at, which depends only on the single beamwidth and the ratio of the single beamwidth to the rotational angular averaging interval. The derived relation ...

  11. The Distribution of Weighted Sums of the Liouville Function and P\\'olya's Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Under the assumption of the Riemann Hypothesis, the Linear Independence Hypothesis, and a bound on negative discrete moments of the Riemann zeta function, we prove the existence of a limiting logarithmic distribution of the normalisation of the weighted sum of the Liouville function, $L_{\\alpha}(x) = \\sum_{n \\leq x}{\\lambda(n) / n^{\\alpha}}$, for $0 \\leq \\alpha < 1/2$. Using this, we conditionally show that these weighted sums have a negative bias, but that for each $0 \\leq \\alpha < 1/2$, the set of all $x \\geq 1$ for which $L_{\\alpha}(x)$ is positive has positive logarithmic density. For $\\alpha = 0$, this gives a conditional proof that the set of counterexamples to P\\'olya's conjecture has positive logarithmic density. Finally, when $\\alpha = 1/2$, we conditionally prove that $L_{\\alpha}(x)$ is negative outside a set of logarithmic density zero, thereby lending support to a conjecture of Mossinghoff and Trudgian that this weighted sum is nonpositive for all $x \\geq 17$.

  12. An overview of the effect of weight loss on cardiovascular autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Raelene E; Lenhard, M James

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising to epidemic proportions in many countries worldwide. Obesity seriously increases an individual's risk of developing many health problems including diabetes. Diabetes, like obesity, is also in epidemic proportions with 300 million adults predicted to have the disease by 2025. Investigating strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes is vitally important. Autonomic dysfunction is evident in both obesity and diabetes. In persons with diabetes, impaired cardiovascular autonomic activity is characterized by a reduction in parasympathetic tone with a relative increase in sympathetic activity and is specifically associated with a number of clinically significant manifestations including exercise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular lability, orthostatic hypotension, silent myocardial ischemia, and increased risk of mortality. In obesity, parasympathetic function is decreased while regional heterogeneity of increased sympathetic activity may occur. Autonomic dysfunction increases cardiovascular workload, hemodynamic stress, serious dysrhythmias, and significant cardiac pathology. Thus, cardiac autonomic imbalance may also be an important link between obesity and increased morbidity and mortality. Beyond the obese and diabetic state, multiple variables associated with these conditions such as insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and free fatty acids have an affect on the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic disturbances, however, appear to be reversible with weight reduction. Since autonomic imbalance is a marker of adverse risk, improvement obtained from weight loss should be beneficial for the health of individuals with obesity and diabetes. This overview will examine the relationship of the autonomic nervous system in obesity and diabetes and explore the effect of weight loss on autonomic function.

  13. Associations between birth weight, preeclampsia and cognitive functions in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor-Litvak, P; Straka, N; Cherkerzian, S; Richards, M; Liu, X; Sher, A; Neils, G; Goldstein, J

    2011-12-01

    Both reductions in birth weight and preeclampsia (PE) have been associated with decrements in scores on tests of intelligence in children and adolescents. We examined whether these decrements persist into middle adulthood and expand into other domains of cognitive functioning. Using data from the Early Determinants of Adult Health project and from the ancillary project, Fetal Antecedents of Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease, we selected term same-sex sibling sets or singletons from these sets, from the New England Family Study (NEFS) and the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), discordant on either fetal growth or PE, to test the hypotheses that prenatal exposure to inflammation was associated with decrements in attention, learning and executive function 40 years later. Exposure was defined as a continuous measure of percentile birth weight for gestational age, reduced fetal growth (age) or maternal PE. Given that the sample was comprised, in part, of sibling sets, the analyses were performed using mixed models to account for the inter-sibling correlations. Analyses were performed separately by study site (i.e. NEFS and CHDS). We found few statistically significant associations (suggesting a possible type II error) consistent with previous literature, suggesting that the associations with low birth weight do not persist into midlife. We discuss the possible reasons for the lack of associations, which include the possible mediating effects of the postnatal environment.

  14. Measurement of neutron dose with an organic liquid scintillator coupled with a spectrum weight function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Nakamura, T.; Shiomi, T

    2002-07-01

    A dose evaluation method for neutrons in the energy range of a few MeV to 100 MeV has been developed using a spectrum weight function (G-function), which is applied to an organic liquid scintillator of 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm in length. The G-function that converts the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator into the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), was calculated by an unfolding method using successive approximation of the response function of the scintillator and the ambient dose equivalent per unit neutron fluence (H*(10) conversion coefficients) of ICRP 74. To verify the response function of the scintillator and the value of H*(10) evaluated by the G-function, pulse height spectra of the scintillator were measured in some different neutron fields, which have continuous energy, monoenergetic and quasi-monoenergetic spectra. Values of H*(10) estimated using the G-function and pulse height spectra of the scintillator were compared with those calculated using neutron energy spectra. These doses agreed with each other. From the results, it was concluded that H*(10) can be evaluated directly from the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator by applying the G-function proposed in this study. (author)

  15. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  17. A review of the history, development and application of auditory weighting functions in humans and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Yost, William; Burkard, Robert; Finneran, James J; Reichmuth, Colleen; Mulsow, Jason

    2017-03-01

    This document reviews the history, development, and use of auditory weighting functions for noise impact assessment in humans and marine mammals. Advances from the modern era of electroacoustics, psychophysical studies of loudness, and other related hearing studies are reviewed with respect to the development and application of human auditory weighting functions, particularly A-weighting. The use of auditory weighting functions to assess the effects of environmental noise on humans-such as hearing damage-risk criteria-are presented, as well as lower-level effects such as annoyance and masking. The article also reviews marine mammal auditory weighting functions, the development of which has been fundamentally directed by the objective of predicting and preventing noise-induced hearing loss. Compared to the development of human auditory weighting functions, the development of marine mammal auditory weighting functions have faced additional challenges, including a large number of species that must be considered, a lack of audiometric information on most species, and small sample sizes for nearly all species for which auditory data are available. The review concludes with research recommendations to address data gaps and assumptions underlying marine mammal auditory weighting function design and application.

  18. Is payoff necessarily weighted by probability when making a risky choice? Evidence from functional connectivity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    Full Text Available How people make decisions under risk remains an as-yet-unresolved but fundamental question. Mainstream theories about risky decision making assume that the core processes involved in reaching a risky decision include weighting each payoff or reward magnitude by its probability and then summing the outcomes. However, recently developed theories question whether payoffs are necessarily weighted by probability when making a risky choice. Using functional connectivity analysis, we aimed to provide neural evidence to answer whether this key assumption of computing expectations holds when making a risky choice. We contrasted a trade-off instruction choice that required participants to integrate probability and payoff information with a preferential choice that did not. Based on the functional connectivity patterns between regions in which activity was detected during both of the decision-making tasks, we classified the regions into two networks. One network includes primarily the left and right lateral prefrontal cortices and posterior parietal cortices, which were found to be related to probability in previous reports, and the other network is composed of the bilateral basal ganglia, which have been implicated in payoff. We also found that connectivity between the payoff network and some regions in the probability network (including the left lateral prefrontal cortices and bilateral inferior parietal lobes were stronger during the trade-off instruction choice task than during the preferential choice task. This indicates that the functional integration between the probability and payoff networks during preferential choice was not as strong as the integration during trade-off instruction choice. Our results provide neural evidence that the weighting process uniformly predicted by the mainstream theory is unnecessary during preferential choice. Thus, our functional integration findings can provide a new direction for the investigation of the principles

  19. Analysis of bi-material interface cracks with complex weighting functions and non-standard quadrature

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

    2010-01-01

    A boundary element formulation is developed to determine the complex stress intensity factors associated with cracks on the interface between dissimilar materials. This represents an extension of the methodology developed previously by the authors for determination of free-edge generalized stress intensity factors on bi-material interfaces, which employs displacements and weighted tractions as primary variables. However, in the present work, the characteristic oscillating stress singularity is addressed through the introduction of complex weighting functions for both displacements and tractions, along with corresponding non-standard numerical quadrature formulas. As a result, this boundary-only approach provides extremely accurate mesh-independent solutions for a range of two-dimensional interface crack problems. A number of computational examples are considered to assess the performance of the method in comparison with analytical solutions and previous work on the subject. As a final application, the method ...

  20. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Cryotherapy, in the form of ice massge is used to reduce inflammation after acute musculoskeletal injury or trauma. The potential negative effects of ice massage on proprioception are unknown, despite equivocal evidence supporting its effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of cooling on weight discrimination ability and hence the performance in footballers. The study was of same subject experimental design (pretest-posttest design). Thirty male collegiate football players, whose mean age was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes on hamstrings muscle tendon. Pre cooling scores of Single Leg Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 166.65 (± 10.16) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 167.25 (± 11.77) cm. Pre cooling scores of Crossed Over Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 174.14 (± 8.60) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 174.45 (± 9.28) cm. Pre cooling scores of Weight Discrimination Differential Threshold of the dominant leg in the subjects was 1.625 ± 1.179 kg compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg 1.85 (± 1.91) kg. Pre cooling scores of single leg hop and crossed over hop test of the dominant leg in the subjects compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg showed no significant differences and it was also noted that the weight discrimination ability (weight discrimination differential threshold) didn't show any significant difference. All the values are reported as mean ± SD. This study provides additional evidence that proprioceptive acuity in the hamstring muscles (biceps femoris) remains largely unaffected after ice application to the hamstrings tendon (biceps femoris).

  1. Comment on: `Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions', by Mohammad Hossein Ghalehnoee, Abdolhamid Ansari and Ahmad Ghorbani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Saeed; Renaut, Rosemary A.

    2017-10-01

    The recent paper of Ghalehnoee et al., `Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions', discusses weighting functions for the compact inversion of gravity data. We studied the paper with great interest but deduced that the paper presents minor changes to already published methods. In the manuscript, the model weighting function is the product of three diagonal matrices, that is, a depth weighting matrix, a compactness constraint and a scaling matrix. The authors claim that the scaling matrix is new and introduce the notation `kernel weighting'. Based on our knowledge and understanding of the ideas, not only all the matrix weighting matrices have been used before but also their combination has been used in many published research papers. Here we explain why we believe that the ideas in Ghalehnoee et al. are not new.

  2. Relation Between Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, Successful Long-Term Weight Reduction, and Right Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Judith; Strack, Christina; Fenk, Sabine; Mohr, Margareta; Loew, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd; Maier, Lars; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea

    2016-07-27

    This study sought to examine the relationships between right ventricular (RV) function and geometry, morbid obesity with and without the metabolic syndrome, and the effect of long-term weight loss. Obese (n = 153, BMI 41.2 ± 8.7 kg/m(2)) and healthy non-obese control subjects (n = 38, BMI 25.5 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) of similar age and gender distribution were prospectively studied during the course of a 1-year weight reduction program with echocardiography at baseline and after one year of follow up. Function and geometry of the right heart were evaluated by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TDI S'), RV myocardial performance index (TEI), RV end-diastolic (RVEDD) and end-systolic diameter (RVESD), area of the right atrium (RAA), and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Whereas parameters of systolic and diastolic LV function were significantly worse in the obese subjects than those in the non-obese subjects (EF 66 ± 6 versus 69 ± 6%, P = 0.004; E/E' 7.4 ± 2.5 versus 6.3 ± 2.6, P = 0.010), parameters of RV function (TAPSE 25.6 ± 4.5 versus 25.1 ± 3.5 mm, P = 0.528; TDI S' 13.5 ± 2.9 versus 13.8 ± 2.9 mm/second, P = 0.553; TEI 0.25 ± 0.13 versus 0.28 ± 0.09, P = 0.283) as well as geometry measurements were comparable between the obese and non-obese participants and also in obese subjects with full blown metabolic syndrome. Additionally, successful weight reduction did not alter the RV parameters. Nevertheless, in the few obese subjects with RV dysfunction (n = 7), metabolic syndrome parameters were more pronounced than in obese with normal RV function.Morbid obesity with and without the metabolic syndrome is accompanied by an impaired LV systolic and diastolic function. In contrast, RV function appears to be less affected by obesity independent of the presence of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Determining importance weighting functions for Contributon theory eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfetti, C.; Martin, W. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Rearden, B.; Williams, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Reactor and Nuclear Systems Div., Bldg. 5700, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study introduced two new approaches for calculating the F*(r) importance weighting function for Contributon and CLUTCH eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient calculations, and compared them in terms of accuracy and applicability. The necessary levels of F*(r) mesh refinement and mesh convergence for obtaining accurate eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients were determined for two preliminary problems through two parametric studies, and the results of these studies suggest that a sufficiently accurate F*(r) mesh for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients can be obtained for these problems with only a small increase in problem runtime. (authors)

  4. Determining Importance Weighting Functions for Contributon Theory Eigenvalue Sensitivity Coefficient Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfetti, Christopher M [ORNL; Martin, William R [University of Michigan; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This study introduced three approaches for calculating the importance weighting function for Contributon and CLUTCH eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient calculations, and compared them in terms of accuracy and applicability. The necessary levels of mesh refinement and mesh convergence for obtaining accurate eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients were determined through two parametric studies, and the results of these studies suggest that a sufficiently-accurate mesh for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients can be obtained for the Contributon and CLUTCH methods with only a small increase in problem runtime.

  5. A method of weighted residuals with trigonometric basis functions for sound transmission in circular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, P. T.; Eversman, W.

    1978-01-01

    The method of weighted residuals (MWR) in the form of a modified Galerkin method with trigonometric basis functions is used to compute the transmission of sound in an axisymmetric duct. The method is used to generate the axial wave number for uniform ducts. These are compared with exact solutions generated by a formal eigenvalue routine in the hard-wall case and a Runge-Kutta integration eigenvalue scheme in the soft-wall case. The method is applicable to both flow and no-flow cases.

  6. Limit theorems for minimum-weight triangulations, other euclidean functionals, and probabilistic recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golin, M.J. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Let MWT(n) be the weight of a minimum-weight triangulation of n points chosen independently from the uniform distribution over [0, 1]{sup 2}. Previous work has shown that E(MWT(n)) = {Theta} ({radical}n). In this paper we develop techniques for proving that MWT(n)/{radical}n actually converges to a constant in both expectation and in probability. An immediate consequence is the development of an O(n{sup 2}) time algorithm that finds a triangulation whose competive ratio with the MWT is, in a probabilistic sense, exactly one. The techniques developed to prove the above results are quite general and can also prove the convergence of certain types of probabilistic recurrence equations and other Euclidean Functionals. This is illustrated by using them to prove the convergence of the weight of MWTs of random points in higher dimensions and a sketch of how to use them to prove the convergence of the degree probabilities for Delaunay triangulations in {Re}{sup 2}.

  7. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lohse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  8. Effects of weight loss on structural and functional alterations of subcutaneous small arteries in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Corbellini, Claudia; La Boria, Elisa; Boari, Gianluca E M; Pilu, Annamaria; Mittempergher, Francesco; Di Betta, Ernesto; Casella, Claudio; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Caimi, Luigi; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-07-01

    Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media:lumen ratio, are frequently present in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients and may represent the earliest alteration observed. In addition, media:lumen ratios of small arteries have a strong prognostic significance. However, no data are available about the structure of small resistance arteries of obese patients, particularly after weight loss. We have investigated 27 patients with severe obesity. Twelve of them were normotensive, and 15 were hypertensive. All of the obese patients underwent bariatric surgery. We compared results obtained with those observed in 13 normotensive lean controls and in 13 hypertensive lean patients. All of the subjects and patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during surgical intervention. In 8 obese patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and structural parameters were measured. A concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed to evaluate endothelial function. Obese patients, independent from the presence of hypertension, show the presence of an increased media:lumen ratio and media cross-sectional area, together with an impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. After surgical correction of obesity and consistent weight loss, a significant improvement of microvascular structure and of some oxidative stress/inflammation markers were observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of obesity is associated with structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, mainly characterized by hypertrophic remodeling. Weight loss may improve microvascular structure.

  9. SU-F-BRD-01: A Logistic Regression Model to Predict Objective Function Weights in Prostate Cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, T; Sharpe, M [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre - UHN, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time.

  10. Cluster-span threshold: An unbiased threshold for binarising weighted complete networks in functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Keith; Azami, Hamed; Parra, Mario A; Starr, John M; Escudero, Javier

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new unbiased threshold for network analysis named the Cluster-Span Threshold (CST). This is based on the clustering coefficient, C, following logic that a balance of `clustering' to `spanning' triples results in a useful topology for network analysis and that the product of complementing properties has a unique value only when perfectly balanced. We threshold networks by fixing C at this balanced value, rather than fixing connection density at an arbitrary value, as has been the trend. We compare results from an electroencephalogram data set of volunteers performing visual short term memory tasks of the CST alongside other thresholds, including maximum spanning trees. We find that the CST holds as a sensitive threshold for distinguishing differences in the functional connectivity between tasks. This provides a sensitive and objective method for setting a threshold on weighted complete networks which may prove influential on the future of functional connectivity research.

  11. Improved theory of generalized meteo-ballistic weighting factor functions and their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It follows from the analysis of artillery fire errors that approximately two-thirds of the inaccuracy of indirect artillery fire is caused by inaccuracies in the determination of the meteo parameters included in fire error budget model. Trajectories calculated under non-standard conditions are considered to be perturbed. The tools utilized for the analysis of perturbed trajectories are weighting factor functions (WFFs which are a special kind of sensitivity functions. WFFs are used for calculation of meteo ballistic elements µB (ballistic wind wB, density ρB, virtual temperature τB, pressure pB as well. We have found that the existing theory of WFF calculation has several significant shortcomings. The aim of the article is to present a new, improved theory of generalized WFFs that eliminates the deficiencies found. Using this theory will improve methods for designing firing tables, fire control systems algorithms, and meteo message generation algorithms.

  12. Functional models of non-selfadjoint operators, strongly continuous semigroups, and matrix Muckenhoupt weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubreev, Gennady M; Latushkin, Yurii D

    2011-04-30

    We consider unbounded continuously invertible operators A, A{sub 0} on a Hilbert space H such that the operator A{sup -1}-A{sup -1}{sub 0} has finite rank. Assuming that {sigma}(A{sub 0})= nothing and the semigroup V{sub +}(t):= exp{l_brace}iA{sub 0}t{r_brace}, t{>=}0, is of class C{sub 0}, we state criteria under which the semigroups U{sub {+-}}(t):= exp{l_brace}{+-}iAt{r_brace}, t{>=}0, are also of class C{sub 0}. We give applications to the theory of mean-periodic functions. The investigation is based on functional models of non-selfadjoint operators and on the technique of matrix Muckenhoupt weights.

  13. Peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in young women with childhood onset weight problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikvaidze, N; Kristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M

    2014-10-01

    The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity. 103 young females (48 - with low BMI, 55 - with high BMI) with different reproductive problems were examined prospectively. In all investigated patients full clinical examination was held, including body mass index (BMI), type of body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio), age of body weight changes, assessment of hirsutism, acne, stretch marks and hyperpigmentation, menstrual disturbances and fertility problems were recorded and gynecological ultrasound was performed. There was no difference established according to the age of menarche and types of menstrual disturbances between the groups of low BMI and high BMI females (p>.05). The correlation was established between the onset of menstrual disruption and progression of changes in body mass (R=.448, p=.005). Hirsutism, stretch marks and acantosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation) were exhibited significantly more frequently in the patients with high BMI (p.05). 74.5% of overweight and obese patients had upper body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.8), whilst underweight patients had mostly equal (66.7%) or lower body fat distribution (31.3%) (p=.000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in the underweight females (p<.05). Infertility was mostly observed in patients with high BMI (p<.05). In conclusion, the peculiarities of sexual development and menstrual function in young females with childhood thinness and obesity

  14. Vector-Valued Polynomials and a Matrix Weight Function with B2-Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Dunkl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of orthogonal polynomials on $mathbb{R}^{2}$ with the weight function $vert x_{1}^{2}-x_{2}^{2}vert ^{2k_{0}}vertx_{1}x_{2}vert ^{2k_{1}}e^{-( x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}/2}$ is based on the Dunkl operators of type $B_{2}$. This refers to the full symmetry group of the square, generated by reflections in the lines $x_{1}=0$ and $x_{1}-x_{2}=0$. The weight function is integrable if $k_{0},k_{1},k_{0} +k_{1}>-frac{1}{2}$. Dunkl operators can be defined for polynomials taking values in a module of the associated reflection group, that is, a vector space on which the group has an irreducible representation. The unique $2$-dimensional representation of the group $B_{2}$ is used here. The specific operators for this group and an analysis of the inner products on the harmonic vector-valued polynomials are presented in this paper. An orthogonal basis for the harmonic polynomials is constructed, and is used to define an exponential-type kernel. In contrast to the ordinary scalar case the inner product structure is positive only when $( k_{0},k_{1}$ satisfy $-frac{1}{2} < k_{0}pm k_{1} < frac{1}{2}$. For vector polynomials $(f_{i}_{i=1}^{2}$, $(g_{i}_{i=1}^{2}$ the inner product has the form $iint_{mathbb{R}^{2}}f(x K(x g(x^{T}e^{-( x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}/2}dx_{1}dx_{2}$ where the matrix function $K(x$ has to satisfy various transformation and boundary conditions. The matrix $K$ is expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  15. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-11-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0‑100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal

  16. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0–100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal plasma

  17. Grouping miRNAs of similar functions via weighted information content of gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chaowang; Chen, Qingfeng; Li, Jinyan

    2016-12-22

    Regulation mechanisms between miRNAs and genes are complicated. To accomplish a biological function, a miRNA may regulate multiple target genes, and similarly a target gene may be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Wet-lab knowledge of co-regulating miRNAs is limited. This work introduces a computational method to group miRNAs of similar functions to identify co-regulating miRNAsfrom a similarity matrix of miRNAs. We define a novel information content of gene ontology (GO) to measure similarity between two sets of GO graphs corresponding to the two sets of target genes of two miRNAs. This between-graph similarity is then transferred as a functional similarity between the two miRNAs. Our definition of the information content is based on the size of a GO term's descendants, but adjusted by a weight derived from its depth level and the GO relationships at its path to the root node or to the most informative common ancestor (MICA). Further, a self-tuning technique and the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian matrix are applied to determine the optimal parameters for the spectral clustering of the similarity matrix of the miRNAs. Experimental results demonstrate that our method has better clustering performance than the existing edge-based, node-based or hybrid methods. Our method has also demonstrated a novel usefulness for the function annotation of new miRNAs, as reported in the detailed case studies.

  18. A functional study of low molecular weight IgM from patients with autoimmune disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI JUN ZHOU; XIAO PING YANG; WAN SHENG CHEN; PETER ROBERTS THOMSON; HU JI XU

    2006-01-01

    High levels of low molecular weight (LMW) IgM in certain diseases are associated with clinical and laboratory indices which reflect the severity of the disease. These associations suggest that LMW IgM may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. To further approach the question concerning the functional activity of LMW IgM in disease, a panel of LMW IgM and high molecular weight (HMW) IgM preparations with or without rheumatoid factor (RF) activity were used to investigate their antibody binding activity and their effector function. It was found that LMW IgM-RF and HMW IgM-RF had a similar binding capacity to Fc fragment as there was no significant difference in the affinity index between them. It further showed that the rate of activation and total amount of utilization of complement by LMW IgM and HMW IgM was similar, although the mean fluorescence of C3 deposition by IgM-RF and HMW IgM-RF was slightly higher than that of LMW IgM-RF and other control RF antibodies. However, the current study demonstrated that LMW IgM had strong neutrophil activating properties when compared with HMW IgM. These findings suggest that one mechanism of LMW IgM contributing to the immunopathogenesis of RA may be due to the formation of circulating immune complex (CIC) by LMW IgM with subsequent activation of neutrophils. Whether LMW IgM has other functional activity in disease is unclear and needs further investigation.

  19. Analytic evaluation of the weighting functions for remote sensing of blackbody planetary atmospheres : the case of limb viewing geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent publication (Ustinov, 2002), we proposed an analytic approach to evaluation of radiative and geophysical weighting functions for remote sensing of a blackbody planetary atmosphere, based on general linearization approach applied to the case of nadir viewing geometry. In this presentation, the general linearization approach is applied to the limb viewing geometry. The expressions, similar to those obtained in (Ustinov, 2002), are obtained for weighting functions with respect to the distance along the line of sight. Further on, these expressions are converted to the expressions for weighting functions with respect to the vertical coordinate in the atmosphere. Finally, the numerical representation of weighting functions in the form of matrices of partial derivatives of grid limb radiances with respect to the grid values of atmospheric parameters is used for a convolution with the finite field of view of the instrument.

  20. Using Reaction Time and Equal Latency Contours to Derive Auditory Weighting Functions in Sea Lions and Dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E

    2016-01-01

    Subjective loudness measurements are used to create equal-loudness contours and auditory weighting functions for human noise-mitigation criteria; however, comparable direct measurements of subjective loudness with animal subjects are difficult to conduct. In this study, simple reaction time to pure tones was measured as a proxy for subjective loudness in a Tursiops truncatus and Zalophus californianus. Contours fit to equal reaction-time curves were then used to estimate the shapes of auditory weighting functions.

  1. A New Weighting Function for Estimating Microwave Sounding Unit Channel 4 Temperature Trends Simulated by CMIP5 Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuanze; ZHENG Xiaogu; YANG Chi; LUO San

    2013-01-01

    A new static microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4 weighting function is obtained from using Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project,Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical multimodel simulations as inputs into the fast Radiative Transfer Model for TOVS (RTTOV vl0).For the same CMIP5 model simulations,it is demonstrated that the computed MSU channel 4 brightness temperature (T4) trends in the lower stratosphere over both the globe and the tropics using the proposed weighting function are equivalent to those calculated by RTTOV,but show more cooling than those computed using the traditional UAH (University of Alabama at Huntsville) or RSS (Remote Sensing Systems in Santa Rosa,California) static weighting functions.The new static weighting function not only reduces the computational cost,but also reveals reasons why trends using a radiative transfer model are different from those using a traditional static weighting function.This study also shows that CMIP5 model simulated T4 trends using the traditional UAH or RSS static weighting functions show less cooling than satellite observations over the globe and the tropics.Although not completely removed,this difference can be reduced using the proposed weighting function to some extent,especially over the tropics.This work aims to explore the reasons for the trend differences and to see to what extent they are related to the inaccurate weighting functions.This would also help distinguish other sources for trend errors and thus better understand the climate change in the lower stratosphere.

  2. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Yoshino, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; He, Songbing; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-04-12

    Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and β cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved β cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time information feedback based on a sharp decay weighted function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bokui; Dong, Chuanfei; Liu, Yike; Tong, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao; Liu, Jie; Wang, Binghong

    2012-10-01

    Information feedback strategy, serving as the critical part of intelligent traffic systems, has been treated with growing emphasis. In recent years, a variety of feedback strategies have been proposed. Despite the fact that these strategies have been proved to enhance the traffic efficiency, we find that the road capacity has not been saturated and there is still plenty of room for improvement. Based on the analytic approximations, we found the reason why corresponding angle feedback strategy is superior to weighted congestion coefficient feedback strategy. Given that the sharp decay of the weighted coefficient is the key point, we proposed an efficient feedback strategy called the exponential function feedback strategy (EFFS). We applied it to both the symmetrical two-route model with two exits and that with a single exit. The simulation results indicate that, compared with other strategies, EFFS has decided numerical advantages in average flow, a physical quantity used for depicting the road capacity. Even more importantly, EFFS stands out for its convenient application as well as its fitness for modeling the rugged roads.

  4. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  5. On the 2-th Power Mean of Dirichlet -Functions with the Weight of Trigonometric Sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rong Ma; Junhuai Zhang; Yulong Zhang

    2009-09-01

    Let be a prime, denote the Dirichlet character modulo $p,f(x)=a_0+a_1 x+\\cdots+a_kx^k$ is a -degree polynomial with integral coefficients such that $(p, a_0,a_1,\\ldots,a_k)=1$, for any integer , we study the asymptotic property of \\begin{equation*}\\sum\\limits_{≠ _0}\\left| \\sum\\limits^{p-1}_{a=1}(a)e\\left( \\frac{f(a)}{p}\\right)\\right|^2 |L(1,)|^{2m},\\end{equation*} where $e(y)=e^{2 iy}$. The main purpose is to use the analytic method to study the $2m$-th power mean of Dirichlet -functions with the weight of the general trigonometric sums and give an interesting asymptotic formula. This result is an extension of the previous results.

  6. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  7. Independent Associations of Organized Physical Activity and Weight Status with Children’s Cognitive Functioning: A Matched-Pairs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Joseph P.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Bustamante, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tested whether participation in organized physical activity (active vs. inactive) or weight status (normal weight vs. overweight or obese) independently relate to hildren’s cognition, using a matched-pairs design. Design and Methods Normal weight, active children (8–11 yrs, 5th–75th percentile BMI) were recruited from extracurricular physical activity programs while normal weight inactive (5th–75th percentile BMI) and overweight inactive children (BMI ≥85th percentile) were recruited from local Augusta, Georgia area schools. Measures included the Cognitive Assessment System, anthropometrics, and parent- and self-report of physical activity. Paired t-tests compared cognition scores between matched groups of normal weight active vs. normal weight inactive (N=24 pairs), normal weight inactive vs. overweight inactive (N=21 pairs), and normal weight active vs. overweight inactive children (N=16 pairs). Children in each comparison were matched for race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Results Normal weight active children had higher Planning (M±SD=109±11 vs. 100±11, p=.011) and Attention scores (108±11 vs. 100±11, p=013) than overweight inactive children. Normal weight inactive children had higher Attention scores than overweight inactive children (105±13 vs. 93±12, p=008). When compared to normal weight inactive children, normal weight active children had higher Planning (113±10 vs. 102±13, p=008) and marginally higher Attention scores (111±11 vs. 104±12, p=06). Conclusion Findings suggest independent associations of children’s weight status with selective attention, and physical activity with higher-order processes of executive function. PMID:26252198

  8. Independent Associations of Organized Physical Activity and Weight Status with Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Matched-Pairs Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph P; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Bustamante, Eduardo E

    2015-11-01

    This study tested whether participation in organized physical activity (active vs. inactive) or weight status (normal weight vs. overweight or obese) independently relate to children's cognition, using a matched-pairs design. Normal weight, active children (8-11 yrs, 5th-75th percentile BMI) were recruited from extracurricular physical activity programs while normal weight inactive (5th-75th percentile BMI) and overweight inactive children (BMI ≥85th percentile) were recruited from local Augusta, Georgia area schools. Measures included the Cognitive Assessment System, anthropometrics, and parent- and self-report of physical activity. Paired t tests compared cognition scores between matched groups of normal weight active vs. normal weight inactive (N = 24 pairs), normal weight inactive vs. overweight inactive (N = 21 pairs), and normal weight active vs. overweight inactive children (N = 16 pairs). Children in each comparison were matched for race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Normal weight active children had higher Planning (M± SD = 109 ± 11 vs. 100 ± 11, p = .011) and Attention scores (108 ± 11 vs. 100 ± 11, p = .013) than overweight inactive children. Normal weight inactive children had higher Attention scores than overweight inactive children (105 ± 13 vs. 93 ± 12, p = .008). When compared with normal weight inactive children, normal weight active children had higher Planning (113 ± 10 vs. 102 ± 13, p = .008) and marginally higher Attention scores (111 ± 11 vs. 104 ± 12, p = .06). Findings suggest independent associations of children's weight status with selective attention, and physical activity with higher-order processes of executive function.

  9. Treadmill-based locomotor training with leg weights to enhance functional ambulation in people with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tania; Luttmann, Kathryn; Houldin, Adina; Chan, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Novel locomotor training strategies for individuals with disorders of the central nervous system have been associated with improved locomotor function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill-based locomotor training combined with leg weights on functional ambulation in individuals with chronic stroke. We assessed functional ambulation and muscle activity in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke. We used a pre/posttest design. Six individuals with chronic stroke who were community ambulators were recruited. Participants underwent a 30-minute treadmill-based locomotor training sessions three times per week for four to 12 weeks. The training program involved treadmill walking for 30 minutes with partial body weight support as needed. Leg weights, equivalent to 5% of body weight, were affixed around the paretic leg. Outcome measures consisted of the 10-m walk test, the modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, and temporal gait parameters. Improvements were observed in functional ambulation measures, particularly the stairs subscore of the modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile. Participants also exhibited an increase in the proportion of time the paretic leg spent in swing. No significant improvements were observed in the 10-m walk test. This pilot study demonstrates that the combination of leg weights and treadmill training is a feasible approach, that is well tolerated by participants. This approach may have the potential to improve some aspects of functional ambulation and the performance of activities requiring hip and knee flexion.

  10. Synthesis And Properties Of Functional Ultra-High Molecular Weight Transparent Styrene-Butadiene Block Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guang-bi; ZHAO Xu-tao; WANG Gui-lun

    2004-01-01

    Functional ultra-high molecular weight transparent styrene-butadiene block copolymer possesses both high transparency and impact resistance and has excellent comprehensive properties prior to other transparent resins. In this paper we not only use anionic polymerization process which includes 1 time addition of initiator and 3 time addition of monomers, but also introduce functional coupling agent for the fist time to prepare mentioned functional block copolymer.The typical preparation process is described as the following: (a) Adding cyclohexane, styrene and initiator to the polymerizer, the polymerization is carried out at 50~75℃; (b) adding a mixture of styrene, butadiene and cyclohexane, the polymerization is carried out at 50~70℃ ;(c) adding a mixture of butadiene and cyclohexane, the polymerization is finished at 60~70℃ ;(d) adding coupling agent which is a substituted trimethoxysilane being expressed as N-silane, O-silane and being converted into a functional group (-NH, -OH) of mentioned block copolymer, coupling at 75~90℃ for 1 hr; (e) The amounts of coupling agent are about one sixth to one third of the initiator; (f) treating the prepared copolymer solution with some water and Carbon dioxide at 50~70℃ for 15 min.The copolymer is from three-arm to six-arm mono-modal radial block copolymer having 75~90%styrene, 10~25% butadiene and functional group of-NH or-OH. of the copolymer, Mw is from 30×104 to 120×104, Mw/Mn from 2.0 to 2.5, Izod notched impact strength 50~65 J/m,light transmission not less 87.5%, tensile strength not less 45 Mpa.The exploratory research shows that the mole ratio and feed rate of the random copolymerized styrene-butadiene, as well as the total ratio of styrene-butadiene have greater influence on the properties of the copolymer. The following model is established:Y=bo +∑3j=1 bjxj+∑3j=1bkjxkxj+∑3j=1bjjx2j (k<j)Where: Y is the light transmission, tensile strength, elongation, Izod notched impact

  11. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly ePursey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests specific food related behaviours contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they: used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n=26, healthy weight compared to obese participants (n=17, and weight loss interventions (n=12. High calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n=36, however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post- weight loss revealed small areas of convergence of activation across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory and learning such as the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus and precuneus.Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight and weight loss populations. Future studies require standardisation of dietetic variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  12. WSDF: Weighting of Signed Distance Function for Camera Motion Estimation in RGB-D Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Minh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advent of the cost-effective Kinect, which can capture real-time high-resolution RGB and visual depth information, has opened an opportunity to significantly increase the capabilities of many automated vision based recognition including object/action classification, 3D reconstruction, etc… In this work, we address the camera motion estimation which is an important phase in 3D object reconstruction system based on RGB-D data. We segment objects by thresholding algorithm based on depth data and propose the weighting function for SDF that is called WSDF. The problem of minimizing of this function is solved by Gauss-Newton methods. We systematically evaluate our method on TUM dataset. The experimental results are measured by ATE and RPE that evaluate both global and local consistency of camera motion estimation algorithm. We demonstrate large improvements over the state-of-the-art methods on both plant and teddy3 objects and achieve the best ATE as 0.00564 and 0.0182 and the best RPE as 0.00719 and 0.00104, respectively. These experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.

  13. Function of Succinoglycan Polysaccharide in Sinorhizobium meliloti Host Plant Invasion Depends on Succinylation, Not Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajeewaka C. Mendis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic polysaccharide succinoglycan produced by the rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is required for this bacterium to invade the host plant Medicago truncatula and establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. S. meliloti mutants that cannot make succinoglycan cannot initiate invasion structures called infection threads in plant root hairs. S. meliloti exoH mutants that cannot succinylate succinoglycan are also unable to form infection threads, despite the fact that they make large quantities of succinoglycan. Succinoglycan produced by exoH mutants is refractory to cleavage by the glycanases encoded by exoK and exsH, and thus succinoglycan produced by exoH mutants is made only in the high-molecular-weight (HMW form. One interpretation of the symbiotic defect of exoH mutants is that the low-molecular-weight (LMW form of succinoglycan is required for infection thread formation. However, our data demonstrate that production of the HMW form of succinoglycan by S. meliloti 1021 is sufficient for invasion of the host M. truncatula and that the LMW form is not required. Here, we show that S. meliloti strains deficient in the exoK- and exsH-encoded glycanases invade M. truncatula and form a productive symbiosis, although they do this with somewhat less efficiency than the wild type. We have also characterized the polysaccharides produced by these double glycanase mutants and determined that they consist of only HMW succinoglycan and no detectable LMW succinoglycan. This demonstrates that LMW succinoglycan is not required for host invasion. These results suggest succinoglycan function is not dependent upon the presence of a small, readily diffusible form.

  14. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies...

  15. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognitive functioning in underweight, weight-recovered and partially weight-recovered females with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, Johannes; Hass, Johanna; Schober, Ilka; Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; Seidel, Maria; Weiss, Jessika; Roessner, Veit; Hellweg, Rainer; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2014-10-03

    Several studies support the assumption that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders. In the present cross-sectional and longitudinal study, we investigated BDNF levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) at different stages of their illness and the association with cognitive functioning. We measured serum BDNF in 72 acutely underweight female AN patients (acAN), 23 female AN patients who successfully recovered from their illness (recAN), and 52 healthy control women (HCW). Longitudinally, 30 acAN patients were reassessed after short-term weight gain. The association between BDNF levels and psychomotor speed was investigated using the Trail Making Test. BDNF serum concentrations were significantly higher in recAN participants if compared to acAN patients and increased with short-term weight gain. In acAN patients, but not HCW, BDNF levels were inversely associated with psychomotor speed. AcAN patients with higher BDNF levels also had lower life time body mass indexes. Taken together, our results indicate that serum BDNF levels in patients with AN vary with the stage of illness. Based on the pleiotropic functions of BDNF, changing levels of this neurotrophin may have different context-dependent effects, one of which may be the modulation of cognitive functioning in acutely underweight patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight bias as a function of person variables and contact experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jay W; James, Audrey; Poulsen, Joan Rose; Dumford, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model of weight bias that considers person attributes and contact experiences with overweight individuals. In Study 1, we administered a survey to assess Openness, Agreeableness, Attributional Complexity, contact experiences with overweight individuals, and weight bias. Mediation analyses found that Agreeableness predicted less weight bias through contact experiences. In Study 2, we asked participants to interact with a peer whose weight and attributions regarding the weight were experimentally manipulated. We then measured acceptance of the peer. Agreeableness was found to indirectly predict more acceptance of an overweight peer through Empathy and contact experiences. These results show that contact theory is applicable to the domain of weight bias, and support person-situation approaches to prejudice.

  17. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD...... might impact prognosis of CAD through improvement of coronary microvascular function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01724567....

  18. Features of Discontinuous Galerkin Algorithms in Gkeyll, and Exponentially-Weighted Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Shi, E. L.

    2016-10-01

    There are various versions of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) algorithms that have interesting features that could help with challenging problems of higher-dimensional kinetic problems (such as edge turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators). We are developing the gyrokinetic code Gkeyll based on DG methods. Higher-order methods do more FLOPS to extract more information per byte, thus reducing memory and communication costs (which are a bottleneck for exascale computing). The inner product norm can be chosen to preserve energy conservation with non-polynomial basis functions (such as Maxwellian-weighted bases), which alternatively can be viewed as a Petrov-Galerkin method. This allows a full- F code to benefit from similar Gaussian quadrature employed in popular δf continuum gyrokinetic codes. We show some tests for a 1D Spitzer-Härm heat flux problem, which requires good resolution for the tail. For two velocity dimensions, this approach could lead to a factor of 10 or more speedup. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. New modified weight function for the dissipative force in the DPD method to increase the Schmidt number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, S.; Shirani, E.; Pishevar, A. R.; Afshar, Y.

    2015-04-01

    To simulate liquid fluid flows with high Schmidt numbers (Sc), one needs to use a modified version of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Recently the modifications made by others for the weight function of dissipative forces, enables DPD simulations for Sc, up to 10. In this paper, we introduce a different dissipative force weight function for DPD simulations that allows achieving a solution with higher values of Sc and improving the dynamic characteristics of the simulating fluid. Moreover, by reducing the energy of DPD particles, even higher values of Sc can be achieved. Finally, using the new proposed weight function and kBT =0.2 , the Sc values can reach up to 200.

  1. On the Nemytskii Operator in the Space of Functions of Bounded (p, 2, α-Variation with Respect to the Weight Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Wadie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the Nemytskii operator (Hf(t = h(t, f(t, generated by a given function h. It is shown that if H is globally Lipschitzian and maps the space of functions of bounded (p,2,α-variation (with respect to a weight function α into the space of functions of bounded (q,2,α-variation (with respect to α 1weight function in the sense of Merentes into another space of the same type, its generator function is an affine function.

  2. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Pieper, Carl F; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; McClure, Luisa B; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E; Bales, Connie W

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4-10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  3. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and bloo

  4. Rheological properties of poly (vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of average molecular weight and its applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Ragnar

    characterized regarding their viscosimetric properties in ethanol. Average molecular weights (Mw, Mn, and Mz) have been determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then used in a numerical method to evaluate the viscosity average molecular weight (Mv) via the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation...

  5. Molecular weight fibrinogen variants alter gene expression and functional characteristics of human endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, E.M.; Wijhe, M.H. van; Joosten, L.; Horrevoets, A.J.; Maat, M.P. de; Hinsbergh, V.W.H. van; Koolwijk, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrin is a temporary matrix that not only seals a wound, but also provides a temporary matrix structure for invading cells during wound healing. Two naturally occurring fibrinogen variants, high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fibrinogen, display different properti

  6. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie;

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0......Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow...

  7. Elliptically Weighted HOLICs for Weak-lensing Shear Measurement. I. Definitions and Isotropic Point-spread Function Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Yuki; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2011-03-01

    We develop a new method of estimating gravitational shear by adopting an elliptical weight function to measure background galaxy images. In doing so, we introduce the new concept of "zero plane," which is an imaginary source plane where shapes of all sources are perfect circles, and regard the intrinsic shear as the result of an imaginary lensing distortion. This makes the relation between the observed shear, intrinsic shear, and lensing distortion much simpler, and thus higher-order calculations are easier. The elliptical weight function allows us to measure the multipole moments of the shapes of background galaxies more precisely by weighting brighter parts of the image highly, and to reduce systematic error due to insufficient expansion of the weight function in the original approach of Kaiser et al. (KSB). Point-spread function (PSF) correction in the elliptically weighted higher-order lensing image characteristics (E-HOLICs) method becomes more complicated than in the KSB method. In this paper, we study isotropic PSF correction in detail. By adopting the lensing distortion as the ellipticity of the weight function, we are able to show that the shear estimation in the E-HOLICs method reduces to solve a polynomial in the absolute magnitude of the distortion. We compare the systematic errors between our approach and that of KSB using the Shear Testing Programme 2 simulation. It is confirmed that the KSB method overestimates the input shear for images with large ellipticities, and E-HOLICs correctly estimates the input shear even for such images. Anisotropic PSF correction and analysis of real data will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  8. Functional Movement Is Negatively Associated with Weight Status and Positively Associated with Physical Activity in British Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have suggested that overweight and obesity in childhood are associated with poorer functional movement performance, no study appears to have examined this issue in a pediatric population. The relations between BMI, ambulatory physical activity and functional movement screen (FMS performance were compared in 58, 10-11-year-old children. Total FMS score was significantly, negatively correlated with BMI (=.0001 and positively related to PA (=.029. Normal weight children scored significantly better for total FMS score compared to children classified as overweight/obese (=.0001. Mean ± S.D. of FMS scores were 15.5±2.2 and 10.6±2.1 in normal weight and overweight/obese children, respectively. BMI and PA were also significant predictors of functional movement (=.0001, Adjusted 2=.602 with BMI and PA predicting 52.9% and 7.3% of the variance in total FMS score, respectively. The results of this study highlight that ambulatory physical activity and weight status are significant predictors of functional movement in British children. Scientists and practitioners therefore need to consider interventions which develop functional movement skills alongside physical activity and weight management strategies in children in order to reduce the risks of orthopaedic abnormality arising from suboptimal movement patterns in later life.

  9. Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R, the modified weight functions have range 3R. Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g(r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g(r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r  >  6R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r  =  2R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan-Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus-Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT.

  10. Three-month exercise and weight loss program improves heart rate recovery in obese persons along with cardiopulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Junzo; Musha, Haruki; Takada, Hideomi; Takagi, Kumiko; Mita, Toshiharu; Mochida, Takashi; Yoshihisa, Takeshi; Imagawa, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Ishige, Narumi; Fujimaki, Rikiya; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Masahiro

    2010-07-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, and it is well known to be modifiable by weight loss. We investigated whether HRR was mainly improved by better cardiopulmonary function or by alteration of the metabolic profile. The weight loss program included 2h of group exercise per week and individual dietary instruction by a qualified dietician every week. Clinical assessment (including HRR) was done before and after the 3-month program. The subjects were 125 obese persons without a past history of stroke, cardiovascular events, or use of medications who participated in and completed our exercise plus weight loss program. HRR (35.61+/-12.83 to 45.34+/-13.6 beats/min, pchange in HRR was significantly correlated (pchanges in body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, resting heart rate, peak exercise heart rate, exercise time, maximal work load, physical working capacity divided by body weight (PWC75%HRmax/weight), subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin. Multivariate analysis showed that the change in HRR was significantly correlated (pchanges in resting heart rate, peak exercise heart rate, and PWC75%HRmax/weight. Our data demonstrated that HRR can be improved in obese subjects by a 3-month exercise and weight loss program. Improvement in cardiopulmonary function by exercise seems to be the main contributor to the increment of HRR. Copyright 2010 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of reduced weight maintenance and leptin repletion on functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in obese humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hinkle

    Full Text Available Treating obesity has proven to be an intractable challenge, in part, due to the difficulty of maintaining reduced weight. In our previous studies of in-patient obese subjects, we have shown that leptin repletion following a 10% or greater weight loss reduces many of the metabolic (decreased energy expenditure, sympathetic nervous system tone, and bioactive thyroid hormones and behavioral (delayed satiation changes that favor regain of lost weight. FMRI studies of these same subjects have shown leptin-sensitive increases in activation of the right hypothalamus and reduced activation of the cingulate, medial frontal and parahippocampal gryi, following weight loss, in response to food stimuli. In the present study, we expanded our cohort of in-patient subjects and employed psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis to examine changes in the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus. During reduced-weight maintenance with placebo injections, the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus increased with visual areas and the dorsal anterior cingulate (dorsal ACC in response to food cues, consistent with higher sensitivity to food. During reduced-weight maintenance with leptin injections, however, the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus increased with the mid-insula and the central and parietal operculae, suggesting increased coupling with the interoceptive system, and decreased with the orbital frontal cortex, frontal pole and the dorsal ACC, suggesting a down-regulated sensitivity to food. These findings reveal neural mechanisms that may underlie observed changes in sensitivity to food cues in the obese population during reduced-weight maintenance and leptin repletion.

  12. Microvesicles of pregnant women receiving low molecular weight heparin improve trophoblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomer, Einat; Katzenell, Sarah; Zipori, Yaniv; Rebibo-Sabbah, Annie; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Microvesicles including exosomes and microparticles, participate in the placental-maternal crosstalk in normal pregnancies and gestational vascular complications (GVC). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is known to reduce the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. This study was aimed to characterize microvesicles of pregnant women receiving LMWH and explore microvesicle involvement in trophoblast and endothelial cell function. Microvesicles were isolated from blood samples obtained from non-pregnant women, healthy pregnant women (HP) and pregnant woman treated with LMWH. Microvesicle protein contents were assessed by protein array and ELISA. Microvesicle effects on early stage trophoblasts, term trophoblasts and endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis were evaluated. Microvesicles derived from the group treated with LMWH contained higher levels of several proangiogenic proteins compared to those of HP women. Exposure of endothelial cells to circulating microvesicles derived from HP and LMWH treated groups induced significantly higher cell migration and branch tube formation compared to untreated cells. The effect of microvesicles from HP- and LMWH groups on early-stage trophoblast migration was similar. Microvesicles derived from these two study groups significantly decreased early-stage trophoblast apoptosis, while microvesicles derived from the HP-group (but not from the LMWH-group) significantly increased the term trophoblast apoptosis (TUNEL assay) compared to untreated cells. Therapy with LMWH affects patients' microvesicle content, leading to normalization of invasion, angiogenesis activity and survival of endothelial and trophoblast cells in vitro. The effects of LMWH on microvesicles may point to an additional mechanism of heparin action in high-risk pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Bern (Switzerland); Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Gugger, Mathias [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Vermathen, Peter [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Department of Clinical Research/AMSM, Pavillon 52, Inselspital, P.O. Box 35, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC{sub T}) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F{sub P}), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC{sub D}). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} were (x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s) 228 {+-} 14 and 203 {+-} 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 {+-} 16 and 199 {+-} 9, respectively, in medulla. F{sub P} values were 18 {+-} 5% in cortex and 19 {+-} 5% in medulla. F{sub P} values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F{sub P} values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  14. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  15. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  16. Entropy numbers of embeddings of function spaces with Muckenhoupt weights, III. Some limiting cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee D. Haroske

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study compact embeddings for weighted spaces of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin type where the weight belongs to some Muckenhoupt Ap class. This extends our previous results [25] to more general weights of logarithmically disturbed polynomial growth, both near some singular point and at infinity. We obtain sharp asymptotic estimates for the entropy numbers of this embedding. Essential tools are a discretisation in terms of wavelet bases, as well as a refined study of associated embeddings in sequence spaces and interpolation arguments in endpoint situations.

  17. A relationship between the weighted density approximation and the local-scaling transformation version of density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Reinaldo Pis [CEQUINOR, Centro de Quimica Inorganica (CONICET, UNLP), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP CC 962, B1900AVV La Plata (Argentina); Karasiev, Valentin V [Centro de Qimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    2003-07-14

    A relationship between the auxiliary density, {rho}(r), defined within the framework of the weighted density approximation and the kinetic energy modulating factor, A{sub N}([{rho}(r)]; r), which appears in the local-scaling transformation version of density functional theory is presented. This relationship imposes the condition of positiveness on the kinetic energy modulating factor and this, in turn, leads to an important mathematical condition on any approximate kinetic energy density functional. It is shown that two well-known approximate kinetic energy density functionals do not satisfy the above relationship at distances very close to the nucleus. By forcing a given approximate kinetic energy density functional to obey the above condition, both the kinetic and exchange energies can be obtained within a framework similar to that of the weighted density approximation. Results on some closed-shell atomic systems provide support for those ideas.

  18. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Terentjevienė, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer for atmospheric remote sensing in thermal IR: atmospheric weighting functions and surface partials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, we apply the adjoint sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer in thermal IR to the general case of the analytic evaluation of the weighting functions of atmospheric parameters together with the partial derivatives for the surface parameters. Applications to remote sensing of atmospheres of Mars and Venus are discussed.

  20. Calculation of the weighting function and determination of the depth of correlation in micro-PIV from experimental particle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, M.; Wieneke, B.; Seemann, R.

    2014-08-01

    Micro-particle image velocimetry (µPIV) uses volume-illumination and imaging of particles through a single microscope objective. Displacement fields are obtained by image correlation and depend on all imaged particles, including defocused particles. The measured in-plane displacement is a weighted spatial average of the true displacement, with a weighting function W(z) that depends on the optical system and flow-gradients. The characteristic width of the weighting function W(z) is also referred to as depth of correlation (DOC) and is a measure up to which distance from the focal plane particles influence the measurement, which is crucial for the interpretation of measured flow fields. We present procedures to determine the W(z) from which the DOC can be derived and to directly determine the DOC from PIV double images, generated from experimentally recorded particle images. Both procedures provide comparable DOC results. Our approach allows determination of the DOC and W(z)as a function of out of plane gradients, optical setup parameters and PIV-analysis parameters. Experimental results for different objectives and particle sizes are discussed, revealing substantial deviations from theoretical predictions for high NA air-objectives. Moreover, using the determined weighting function W(z), the correction of measured flow profiles for errors introduced by the spatial averaging is demonstrated.

  1. Universal generating function based recursive algorithms for reliability evaluation of multi-state weighted k-out-of-n systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yan; Ding, Yi

    2012-01-01

    of the multi-state weighted k-out-of-n systems. The well known universal generating function (UGF) approach was also used as a counterpart to compare with the developed recursive algorithms, which is not very efficient. In this paper a transformation of the conventional UGF formula is proposed to develop a UGF......A multi-state k-out-of-n system model provides a flexible tool for evaluating vulnerability and reliability of critical infrastructures such as electric power systems. The multi-state weighted k-out-of-n system model is the generalization of the multi-state k-out-of-n system model, where...

  2. Matched weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass similarly improves metabolic function in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David; Magkos, Faidon; Eagon, J Christopher; Varela, J Esteban; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of marked weight loss, induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgeries, on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and the metabolic response to a mixed meal were evaluated. Fourteen nondiabetic insulin-resistant patients who were scheduled to undergo SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7) procedures completed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and a mixed-meal tolerance test before surgery and after losing ∼20% of their initial body weight. Insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during a clamp procedure), oral glucose tolerance (postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve), and β-cell function (insulin secretion in relationship to insulin sensitivity) improved after weight loss, and were not different between surgical groups. The metabolic response to meal ingestion was similar after RYGB or SG, manifested by rapid delivery of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation and a large early postprandial increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in both groups. When matched on weight loss, RYGB and SG surgeries result in similar improvements in the two major factors involved in regulating plasma glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese people without diabetes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  5. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885

  6. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  7. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  8. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flak, Jonathan N; Jankord, Ryan; Solomon, Matia B; Krause, Eric G; Herman, James P

    2011-08-03

    Chronic stress is associated with dysregulation of energy homeostasis, but the link between the two is largely unknown. For most rodents, periods of chronic stress reduce weight gain. We hypothesized that these reductions in weight are an additional homeostatic challenge, contributing to the chronic stress syndrome. Experiment #1 examined cardiovascular responsivity following exposure to prolonged intermittent stress. We used radio-telemetry to monitor mean arterial pressure and heart rate in freely moving, conscious rats. Three groups of animals were tested: chronic variable stress (CVS), weight-matched (WM), and controls. Using this design, we can distinguish between effects due to stress and effects due to the changing body weight. WM, but not CVS, markedly reduced basal heart rate. Although an acute stress challenge elicited similar peak heart rate, WM expedited the recovery to baseline heart rate. The data suggest that CVS prevents the weight-induced attenuation of cardiovascular stress reactivity. Experiment #2 investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and metabolic hormone reactivity to novel psychogenic stress. WM increased corticosterone area under the curve. CVS blunted plasma glucose, leptin, and insulin levels in response to restraint. Experiment #3 tested the effects of WM and CVS on PVN oxytocin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. CVS increased, while WM reduced PVN CRH mRNA expression, whereas both CVS and WM reduced dorsal parvocellular PVN oxytocin mRNA. Overall, the data suggest that weight loss is unlikely to account for the deleterious effects of chronic stress on the organism, but in fact produces beneficial effects that are effectively absent or indeed, reversed in the face of chronic stress exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AN EMPIRICAL COMPARISON OF WEIGHTING FUNCTIONS FOR MULTI-LABEL DISTANCEWEIGHTED K-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua Xu

    2011-01-01

    Multi-label classification is an extension of classical multi-class one, where any instance can be associated with several classes simultaneously and thus the classes are no longer mutually exclusive. It was experimentally shown that the distance-weighted k-nearest neighbour (DWkNN) algorithm is superior to the original kNN rule for multi-class learning. But, it has not been investigated whether the distance-weighted strategy is valid for multi-label learning and which weightin...

  10. Application of the method of data reconciliation for minimizing uncertainty of the weight function in the multicriteria optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecka Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The multicriteria decision process consists of five main steps: definition of the optimisation problem, determination of the weight structure of the decision criteria, design of the evaluation matrix, selection of the optimal evaluation method and ranking of solutions. It is often difficult to obtain the optimal solution to a multicriterion problem. The main reason is the subjective element of the model – the weight functions of the decision criteria. Expert opinions are usually taken into account in their determination. The aim of this article is to present a novel method of minimizing the uncertainty of the weights of the decision criteria using Monte Carlo simulation and method of data reconciliation. The proposed method is illustrated by the example of multicriterion social effectiveness evaluation for electric power supply to a building using renewable energy sources.

  11. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  12. Rheological properties of poly(vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of molecular weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Different grades of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were studied as dispersant for gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO) in ethanol-based colloidal dispersions. The average molecular weights Mw, Mn, and Mz were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then used in a numerical method...

  13. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    ,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity...

  14. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 weight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, whereas no changes were evident regarding any of the measured heart rate variability indices. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and improved (p<0.05 mental flexibility and shifting set, whereas no changes were observed in working memory, visuospatial discrimination, and spatial orientation ability. Fasting also increased (p<0.05 anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  15. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims.

  16. Functional evaluation of hydronephrosis by diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and split glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoshima, S.; Noguchi, K.; Seto, H.; Shimizu, M.; Watanabe, N. [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    To determine the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging and split renal function determined by renal scintigraphy in patients with hydronephrosis. Material and Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging on a 1.5 T MR unit and renal scintigraphy were performed in 36 patients with hydronephrosis (45 hydronephrotic kidneys, 21 non-hydronephrotic kidneys). ADC values of the individual kidneys were measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Split renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) was determined by renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. The relationship between ADC values and split GFR was examined in 66 kidneys. The hydronephrotic kidneys were further classified into three groups (severe renal dysfunction, GFR <10 ml/min, n=7; moderate renal dysfunction, GFR 10-25 ml/min, n=10; normal renal function, GFR >25 ml/min, n=28), and mean values for ADCs were calculated. Results: In hydronephrotic kidneys, there was a moderate positive correlation between ADC values and split GFR (R2=0.56). On the other hand, in non-hydronephrotic kidneys, poor correlation between ADC values and split GFR was observed (R2=0.08). The mean values for ADCs of the dysfunctioning hydronephrotic kidneys (severe renal dysfunction, 1.32x10{sup -3}{+-}0.18x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; moderate renal dysfunction, 1.38x10{sup -3}{+-}0.10x10{sup -3} mm2/s) were significantly lower than that of the normal functioning hydronephrotic kidneys (1.63x10{sup -3}{+-}0.12{+-}10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Conclusion: These results indicated that measurement of ADC values by diffusion-weighted MR imaging has a potential value in the evaluation of the functional status of hydronephrotic kidneys.

  17. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight-bearing (WB) status after hip fracture surgery on 1-yr functional outcome. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in a public acute hospital trauma service. The 194 patients (36 men and 158 women), with a mean...... (SD) age of 81.4 (6.1) yrs, were admitted with a hip fracture within 2009 and were followed for 1 yr thereafter. The influence of postoperative WB status on the 1-yr functional outcome was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure (18-126 points), adjusting for other known factors by multiple...... linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (39%) were not allowed WB for a period of 2-4 wks after surgery. Improved functional outcomes were associated positively with prefracture functional level and having a trochanteric fracture during the first year after fracture (P ≤ 0.01). Non-WB status...

  18. Weight Function Method for Stress Intensity Factor of Internal Surface Semi-elliptical Crack in Elliptical Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hatches for inspecting are usually designed with elliptical holes in airplane structures, so computation of the stress intensity factor of three dimensional crack at elliptical holes is pivotal for damage tolerance analysis of these structures. In this paper, weight function is derived for a two dimensional through cracks at elliptical holes by applying a compounding method. Stress intensity factor formulas for an internal surface semi-elliptical crack in elliptical holes are obtained using the three dimensional weight function method. Stress intensity factors for an internal surface semi-elliptical crack in elliptical holes under remote tension are computed. At the same time, research on how radius of curvature for elliptical holes affect stress intensity factors was conducted. Stress intensity factors decrease when radius of curvature increases. Some results and conclusions which are of practical value are given.

  19. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Fractions of Humic Substances on Their Reducing Capacities and Distribution of Redox Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Jiang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, initial HS were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF, molecular weight dialysis device were calculated for initial HA, retentate and LMWF in native and reduced state, and result suggests that releasing of LMWF leads to production and explosion of RFG. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for protein-like fluorophores and humic acids-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF. The 3,500 Da molecules (0.25 nm diameter) of HS are capable of stimulating transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex / Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in treated raw water sample.

  20. Quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical functional use and weight fractions in consumer articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical functional use -- the functional role a chemical plays in processes or products -- may be a useful heuristic for predicting human exposure potential in that it comprises information about the compound's likely physical properties and the product formulations or articles ...

  1. Early life height and weight production functions with endogenous energy and protein inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Esteban; Wang, Fan; Behrman, Jere R; Cunha, Flavio; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-09-01

    We examine effects of protein and energy intakes on height and weight growth for children between 6 and 24 months old in Guatemala and the Philippines. Using instrumental variables to control for endogeneity and estimating multiple specifications, we find that protein intake plays an important and positive role in height and weight growth in the 6-24 month period. Energy from other macronutrients, however, does not have a robust relation with these two anthropometric measures. Our estimates indicate that in contexts with substantial child undernutrition, increases in protein-rich food intake in the first 24 months can have important growth effects, which previous studies indicate are related significantly to a range of outcomes over the life cycle.

  2. Matrix convex functions with applications to weighted centers for semidefinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkhuis (Jan); Z-Q. Luo; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we develop various calculus rules for general smooth matrix-valued functions and for the class of matrix convex (or concave) functions first introduced by Loewner and Kraus in 1930s. Then we use these calculus rules and the matrix convex function -log X to study a new

  3. Visual function in very low birth weight adolescents : Fifteen-year follow-up of children in southeast Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hellgren, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) carries an increased risk of visual and cognitive deficits. Long term follow-up studies are sparse. The associations between neural structure and visual and cognitive outcome need to be more fully explored. Aims: To describe visual functions in adolescents with VLBW in comparison with a matched control group and to investigate associations with white matter damage of immaturity (WMDI), optic disc measurements and cognitive ...

  4. Impact of Orlistat-Induced Weight Loss on Diastolic Function and Heart Rate Variability in Severely Obese Subjects with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the impact of Orlistat-induced weight loss on metabolic profile and cardiovascular function in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Twenty-nine patients were randomized either to a nonplacebo control group or to a treatment group with Orlistat thrice a day. Metabolic profile, anthropometric parameters, heart rate variability indices, and echocardiographic variables were measured before and after a 12-week treatment period. Results. Treatment with Orlistat induced a modest but significant weight loss compared to controls (3.7 ± 3.0 versus 0.5 ± 2.2 kg, resp.; P=.003. There was significant decrease in fasting glycemia (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 6.7 ± 2.2 mmol/L; P=.03 and significant improvements in left ventricular diastolic function (P=.03 and in the sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio (P=.04 in the Orlistat group. Conclusion. These results suggest that a modest weight loss improves fasting glycemia, left ventricular diastolic function, and sympathovagal balance in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Exact Results on Potts Model Partition Functions in a Generalized External Field and Weighted-Set Graph Colorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu, Yan

    2010-12-01

    We present exact results on the partition function of the q-state Potts model on various families of graphs G in a generalized external magnetic field that favors or disfavors spin values in a subset I s ={1,…, s} of the total set of possible spin values, Z( G, q, s, v, w), where v and w are temperature- and field-dependent Boltzmann variables. We remark on differences in thermodynamic behavior between our model with a generalized external magnetic field and the Potts model with a conventional magnetic field that favors or disfavors a single spin value. Exact results are also given for the interesting special case of the zero-temperature Potts antiferromagnet, corresponding to a set-weighted chromatic polynomial Ph( G, q, s, w) that counts the number of colorings of the vertices of G subject to the condition that colors of adjacent vertices are different, with a weighting w that favors or disfavors colors in the interval I s . We derive powerful new upper and lower bounds on Z( G, q, s, v, w) for the ferromagnetic case in terms of zero-field Potts partition functions with certain transformed arguments. We also prove general inequalities for Z( G, q, s, v, w) on different families of tree graphs. As part of our analysis, we elucidate how the field-dependent Potts partition function and weighted-set chromatic polynomial distinguish, respectively, between Tutte-equivalent and chromatically equivalent pairs of graphs.

  6. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton SD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen D Anton1,2, Todd M Manini1, Vanessa A Milsom2, Pamela Dubyak2, Matteo Cesari3, Jing Cheng4, Michael J Daniels5, Michael Marsiske2, Marco Pahor1, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh1, Michael G Perri21Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Area di Geriatria, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.Methods: Participants (n = 34 were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5] or (ii educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]. In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i body weight, (ii walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test, (iii the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, and (iv knee extension isokinetic strength.Results: Participants randomized

  7. Application of Multi-Valued Weighting Logical Functions in the Analysis of a Degree of Importance of Construction Parameters on the Example of Hydraulic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the optimization process, changes in the construction parameters value influence the behaviour of functions depending on time. Weighting logical coefficients for the stabilisation time are taken into consideration here, i.e., a shorter (better stabilisation time has a more important (bigger value of the weighting coefficient. An example of applying weighting logical functions in the analysis of a degree of importance of construction parameters of a hydraulic valve is presented in the paper

  8. Concatenations of the Hidden Weighted Bit Function and Their Cryptographic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Mathematics of Communications doi:10.3934/ amc .2014.8.153 Volume 8, No. 2, 2014, 153–165 CONCATENATIONS OF THE HIDDEN WEIGHTED BIT...to be bent if it achieves this bound. Clearly, bent Advances in Mathematics of Communications Volume 8, No. 2 (2014), 153–165 HWBF concatenations and... Advances in Mathematics of Communications Volume 8, No. 2 (2014), 153–165 156 Qichun Wang, Chik How Tan and Pantelimon Stănică Proof. Let G = {1, 2

  9. Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Persson, Frederik; Svane, Maria S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that a large weight loss reduces muscle mass and pCr causing increase in e......GFR was assessed during four hours plasma (51)Cr-EDTA clearance. GFR was estimated by four equations (MDRD, CKD-EPI-pCr, CKD-EPI-cysC and CKD-EPI-pCr-cysC). DXA-scans were performed at baseline and six months post-surgery to measure changes in lean limb mass, as a surrogate for muscle mass. RESULTS: Patients were....../min (p = 0.024), but corrected for current body surface area (BSA) mGFR was unchanged by 2 (-5; 9) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.52). CKD-EPI-pCr increased by 12 (6; 17) and MDRD by 13 (8; 18) (p CKD-EPI-cysC was unchanged by 2 (-8; 4) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.51). Lean limb mass...

  10. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  11. Exact ensemble density functional theory for excited states in a model system: Investigating the weight dependence of the correlation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Killian; Mazouin, Laurent; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Ensemble density functional theory (eDFT) is an exact time-independent alternative to time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) for the calculation of excitation energies. Despite its formal simplicity and advantages in contrast to TD-DFT (multiple excitations, for example, can be easily taken into account in an ensemble), eDFT is not standard, which is essentially due to the lack of reliable approximate exchange-correlation (x c ) functionals for ensembles. Following Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245131 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245131], we propose in this work to construct an exact eDFT for the nontrivial asymmetric Hubbard dimer, thus providing more insight into the weight dependence of the ensemble x c energy in various correlation regimes. For that purpose, an exact analytical expression for the weight-dependent ensemble exchange energy has been derived. The complementary exact ensemble correlation energy has been computed by means of Legendre-Fenchel transforms. Interesting features like discontinuities in the ensemble x c potential in the strongly correlated limit have been rationalized by means of a generalized adiabatic connection formalism. Finally, functional-driven errors induced by ground-state density-functional approximations have been studied. In the strictly symmetric case or in the weakly correlated regime, combining ensemble exact exchange with ground-state correlation functionals gives better ensemble energies than when calculated with the ground-state exchange-correlation functional. However, when approaching the asymmetric equiensemble in the strongly correlated regime, the former approximation leads to highly curved ensemble energies with negative slope which is unphysical. Using both ground-state exchange and correlation functionals gives much better results in that case. In fact, exact ensemble energies are almost recovered in some density domains. The analysis of density-driven errors is left for future work.

  12. Functional multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Kessler, Thomas M; Roth, Beat; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2014-08-01

    Little data are available on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging based assessment of renal function during upper urinary tract obstruction. We determined whether functional multiparametric kidney magnetic resonance imaging could monitor the treatment response in cases of acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction. Between January 2008 and January 2010, 18 patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi were prospectively enrolled to undergo kidney magnetic resonance imaging with conventional, blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences upon emergency hospital admission and after release of obstruction. We assessed functional imaging parameters of obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys derived from blood oxygen level dependent (apparent spin relaxation rate) and diffusion-weighted (total apparent diffusion coefficient, pure diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction) sequences during acute upper urinary tract obstruction and after its release. During acute obstruction the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction were lower in the cortex (p=0.020 and 0.031) and medulla (p=0.012 and 0.190, respectively) of obstructed kidneys compared to contralateral unobstructed kidneys. After obstruction release the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction increased in the cortex (p=0.016 and 0.004) and medulla (p=0.071 and 0.044, respectively) of formerly obstructed kidneys to values similar to those in contralateral kidneys. Total apparent diffusion coefficient and pure diffusion coefficient values did not significantly differ between obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys during or after obstruction. In our patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi functional kidney magnetic resonance imaging using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences enabled us to monitor pathophysiological changes in obstructed kidneys during

  13. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Weighted-density functionals for cavity formation and dispersion energies in continuum solvation models

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Arias, T A

    2014-01-01

    Continuum solvation models enable efficient first principles calculations of chemical reactions in solution, but require extensive parametrization and fitting for each solvent and class of solute systems. Here, we examine the assumptions of continuum solvation models in detail and replace empirical terms with physical models in order to construct a minimally-empirical solvation model. Specifically, we derive solvent radii from the nonlocal dielectric response of the solvent from ab initio calculations, construct a closed-form and parameter-free weighted-density approximation for the free energy of the cavity formation, and employ a pair-potential approximation for the dispersion energy. We show that the resulting model with a single solvent-independent parameter: the electron density threshold ($n_c$), and a single solvent-dependent parameter: the dispersion scale factor ($s_6$), reproduces solvation energies of organic molecules in water, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride with RMS errors of 1.1, 0.6 and 0....

  15. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Fagundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extreme weight conditions (EWC groups along a continuum may share some biological risk factors and intermediate neurocognitive phenotypes. A core cognitive trait in EWC appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Differences between individuals in these areas are likely to contribute to the differences in vulnerability to EWC. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a common pattern of executive dysfunction in EWC while comparing anorexia nervosa patients (AN, obese subjects (OB and healthy eating/weight controls (HC. METHODS: Thirty five AN patients, fifty two OB and one hundred thirty seven HC were compared using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in IGT score (F(1.79; p<.001, with AN and OB groups showing the poorest performance compared to HC. On the WCST, AN and OB made significantly more errors than controls (F(25.73; p<.001, and had significantly fewer correct responses (F(2.71; p<.001. Post hoc analysis revealed that the two clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Finally, OB showed a significant reduced performance in the inhibition response measured with the Stroop test (F(5.11; p<.001 compared with both AN and HC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EWC subjects (namely AN and OB have similar dysfunctional executive profile that may play a role in the development and maintenance of such disorders.

  16. Relationship between weight loss and parameters of skeletal muscle function in patients with advanced cancer and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, P Cresta; Giorlando, A; Castro, M; Navigante, A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of significant weight loss on parameters of skeletal muscle function in a population of advanced cancer patients with fatigue. A cross-sectional and comparative study was designed between two arms of advanced cancer patients with fatigue (fatigue numeral scale (FNS) ≥4). A arm (n = 27) with ≥5 % weight loss in the last 6 months, and B arm (n = 22) without weight loss. Muscle strength was examined by hand grip technique and measurements of body composition by bioimpedance analysis (BIA), values of hemoglobin, albumin, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), c-reactive protein (CRP), urine creatinine, and FNS. These variables were compared between both groups and correlated within each group. here were no differences concerning parameters of muscle strength between both arms. A arm had values of CRP ≥10 ug/dl in 77 % compared with 38.5 % of B arm (p = 0.004). A arm showed a higher percentage of body cell mass (%BCM) than B arm (p = 0.005). The A arm also showed a lower percentage of fat mass (%FM) (p = 0.014) when compared to the B arm. FNS was higher in A arm (median 7 vs 5; p = 0.047). All the variables of muscle strength had a significant positive correlation. In A arm, BCM had a negative significant correlation with CRP (p = 0.021). In this study, significant weight loss and high CRP did not have influence on parameters of skeletal muscular function. We consider that further studies should be necessary, preferably with longitudinal designs to evaluate these findings.

  17. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  18. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  19. Fast Back-Propagation Learning Using Steep Activation Functions and Automatic Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, several back-propagation (BP) learning speed-up algorithms that employ the ãgainä parameter, i.e., steepness of the activation function, are examined. Simulations will show that increasing the gain seemingly increases the speed of convergence and that these algorithms can converge faster than the standard BP learning algorithm on some problems. However,...

  20. Estimation of relevant variables on high-dimensional biological patterns using iterated weighted kernel functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rojas-Galeano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of complex proteomic and genomic profiles involves the identification of significant markers within a set of hundreds or even thousands of variables that represent a high-dimensional problem space. The occurrence of noise, redundancy or combinatorial interactions in the profile makes the selection of relevant variables harder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we propose a method to select variables based on estimated relevance to hidden patterns. Our method combines a weighted-kernel discriminant with an iterative stochastic probability estimation algorithm to discover the relevance distribution over the set of variables. We verified the ability of our method to select predefined relevant variables in synthetic proteome-like data and then assessed its performance on biological high-dimensional problems. Experiments were run on serum proteomic datasets of infectious diseases. The resulting variable subsets achieved classification accuracies of 99% on Human African Trypanosomiasis, 91% on Tuberculosis, and 91% on Malaria serum proteomic profiles with fewer than 20% of variables selected. Our method scaled-up to dimensionalities of much higher orders of magnitude as shown with gene expression microarray datasets in which we obtained classification accuracies close to 90% with fewer than 1% of the total number of variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our method consistently found relevant variables attaining high classification accuracies across synthetic and biological datasets. Notably, it yielded very compact subsets compared to the original number of variables, which should simplify downstream biological experimentation.

  1. Optimizing weights of protein energy function to improve ab initio protein structure prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Haicang; Ling, Bin; Li, Shuai Cheng; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2013-01-01

    Predicting protein 3D structure from amino acid sequence remains as a challenge in the field of computational biology. If protein structure homologues are not found, one has to construct 3D structural conformations from the very beginning by the so-called ab initio approach, using some empirical energy functions. A successful algorithm in this category, Rosetta, creates an ensemble of decoy conformations by assembling selected best short fragments of known protein structures and then recognizes the native state as the highly populated one with a very low energy. Typically, an energy function is a combination of a variety of terms characterizing different structural features, say hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, etc. It is critical for an energy function to be capable to distinguish native-like conformations from non-native ones and to drive most initial conformations assembled from fragments to a native-like one in a conformation search process. In this paper we propose a linea...

  2. Relation between Weight, Height, Glycemic Status and Parasympathetic Functions in Nondiabetic Offspring of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Tuppad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: Diabetes Mellitus is a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a familial disease with a lifetime risk of 40% if one parent has Type 2 diabetes23 . Overweight is the second risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and as many as 80% of patients with Type 2 Diabetes are Obese. Till now, very few studies have shown early outcome of genetic transmission on cardiac autonomic activity among healthy offsprings with parental type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental Type 2 diabetes on autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and its association with glycemic status, weight and height. Method: The cross-sectional study of Height, Weight, Glycemic status and Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions was carried out in 30 healthy offsprings of Type 2 Diabetic Parents (Study group and 30 healthy offsprings of Nondiabetic Parents (Control group in the age range of 18 - 21 years randomly selected among 1st MBBS students. Statistical Analysis is done by and lsquo;Z' test. Results: There is insignificant decrease in parasympathetic functions and insignificant increase in Fasting and Postload Blood Glucose in Study Group compared to Control Group. There significant increase in weight, and height of subjects of Study Group compared to Control. Conclusion:Our observations indicate that subclinical autonomic dysfunction may develop without the presence of long-term hyperglycemia in family members of type 2 diabetic subjects; Thus, it is not simply a complication of the hyperglycemia in these patients. An explanation could be that it is possible to inherit susceptibility genes for autonomic neuropathy, and that these genes could be expressed before or maybe even without the subjects developing diabetes. Insulin resistance is a function of fat mass and because increasing body weight in the

  3. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  4. Excessive Skin and Sexual Function: Relationship with Psychological Variables and Weight Regain in Women After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Sofia; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Silva, Cátia; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Machado, Paulo P P; Conceição, Eva

    2015-07-01

    After bariatric surgery, the majority of patients develop a problem with excessive hanging skin. This can negatively influence the psychological benefits associated with bariatric surgery. The present study aims to explore the relationship between overall impairment related to the presence of excessive skin, body image, depressive symptomatology, sexual functioning, and weight regain in a sample of women after bariatric surgery. Sixty-one women (body mass index (BMI) = 30.45 ± 5.35 kg/m(2)) with excessive skin who had undergone bariatric surgery 19.02 ± 9.98 months before were evaluated as part of a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured clinical interview and completed a set of self-report measures. A path analysis, an extension of multiple regression analysis, using IBM® SPSS® Amos™ was conducted to explore simultaneously the associations between the variables under study. The model tested with path analysis showed a good fit to the data (χ (2) = 1.241, df = 4, p = 0.871; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 1.000, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 1.138, Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 1.049, Root-Mean-Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.000) and suggests that sexual functioning and overall impairment caused by excessive skin were associated with concerns regarding body image and depressive symptomatology, which in turn relate to a greater percentage of total weight regain. These data stress the importance of considering sexual intimacy and body image in order to optimize psychological and weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.

  5. Exact ensemble density functional theory for excited states in a model system: investigating the weight dependence of the correlation energy

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, Killian; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble density functional theory (eDFT) is an exact time-independent alternative to time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) for the calculation of excitation energies. Despite its formal simplicity and advantages in contrast to TD-DFT (multiple excitations, for example, can be easily taken into account in an ensemble), eDFT is not standard which is essentially due to the lack of reliable approximate exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for ensembles. Following Burke and coworkers [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245131 (2016)], we propose in this work to construct an exact eDFT for the nontrivial asymmetric Hubbard dimer, thus providing more insight into the weight dependence of the ensemble xc energy in various correlation regimes. For that purpose, an exact analytical expression for the weight-dependent ensemble exchange energy has been derived. The complementary exact ensemble correlation energy has been computed by means of Legendre-Fenchel transforms. Interesting features like discontinuities in the ensemble xc potential in the...

  6. Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, E H; Kawachi, I; Manson, J E; Speizer, F E; Willet, W C; Colditz, G A

    1998-10-01

    To compare levels of physical function, across levels of body mass index (BMI), among middle- to older-aged women. Cross-sectional study. Physical function, body weight and other covariates were measured in 1992. 56510 women aged 45-71 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, participating in the Nurses' Health Study. The four physical function scores on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form-36 (SF36) Health Survey: physical functioning, vitality, bodily pain and role limitations. After adjusting for age, race, smoking status, menopausal status, physical activity and alcohol consumption, there was a significant dose-response gradient between increasing levels of BMI in 1992 and reduced function. For example, women with a BMI between 30-34.9 kg/m2 averaged: 9.0 point lower physical functioning score (95% Confidence interval (CI) -9.5, -8.5), 5.6 point lower vitality score (95% CI: -6.1, -5.1), and 7.0 point lower freedom from pain score (95% CI: -7.6, -6.4). These declines represent an approximate 10% loss of function compared to the reference category of women with BMIs ranging from 22.0-23.9 kg/m2. For the same BMI comparison, heavier women were at 66% increased risk of limitations in ability to work or perform other roles (RR = 1.66; 95% odds ratio (OR) CI: 1.56, 1.76). These findings were replicated when the sample was restricted to women who had maintained their BMI over a ten year period. In addition to increasing risk of chronic health conditions, greater adiposity is associated with lower every day physical functioning, such as climbing stairs or other moderate activities, as well as lower feelings of well-being and greater burden of pain.

  7. Executive function training with game elements for obese children: A novel treatment to enhance self-regulatory abilities for weight-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeken, S.; Braet, C.; Goossens, L.; van der Oord, S.

    2013-01-01

    For obese children behavioral treatment results in only small changes in relative weight and frequent relapse. The current study investigated the effects of an Executive Functioning (EF) training with game-elements on weight loss maintenance in obese children, over and above the care as usual in an

  8. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.

    2016-10-01

    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  9. Preoperative assessment of motor cortex and pyramidal tracts in central cavernoma employing functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Hartmann, Walter; Krings, Timo; Coenen, Volker A; Mayfrank, Lothar; Weidemann, Jürgen; Kränzlein, Heidi; Thron, Armin

    2002-11-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) combines anatomic with functional information and has therefore been widely used for preoperative planning of patients with mass lesions affecting functionally important brain regions. However, the courses of functionally important fiber tracts are not visualized. We therefore propose to combine fMRI with diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) that allows visualization of large fiber tracts and to implement this data in a neuronavigation system. DWI was successfully performed at a field strength of 1.5 Tesla, employing a spin-echo sequence with gradient sensitivity in six noncollinear directions to visualize the course of the pyramidal tracts, and was combined with echo-planar T2* fMRI during a hand motor task in a patient with central cavernoma. Fusion of both data sets allowed visualization of the displacement of both the primary sensorimotor area (M1) and its large descending fiber tracts. Intraoperatively, these data were used to aid in neuronavigation. Confirmation was obtained by intraoperative electrical stimulation. Postoperative MRI revealed an undisrupted pyramidal tract in the neurologically intact patient. The combination of fMRI with DWI allows for assessment of functionally important cortical areas and additional visualization of large fiber tracts. Information about the orientation of fiber tracts in normal appearing white matter in patients with tumors within the cortical motor system cannot be obtained by other functional or conventional imaging methods and is vital for reducing operative morbidity as the information about functional cortex. This technique might, therefore, have the prospect of guiding neurosurgical interventions, especially when linked to a neuronavigation system.

  10. Aberrant resting-state corticostriatal functional connectivity in cirrhotic patients with hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available Neurobiological and neuroimaging studies have emphasized the structural and functional alterations in the striatum of cirrhotic patients, but alterations in the functional connections between the striatum and other brain regions have not yet been explored. Of note, manganese accumulation in the nervous system, frequently reflected by hyperintensity at the bilateral globus pallidus (GP on T1-weighted imaging, has been considered a factor affecting the striatal and cortical functions in hepatic decompensation. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the temporal correlation between the striatum and the remaining brain regions using seed-based correlation analyses. The two-sample t-test was conducted to detect the differences in corticostriatal connectivity between 44 cirrhotic patients with hyperintensity at the bilateral GP and 20 healthy controls. Decreased connectivity of the caudate was detected in the anterior/middle cingulate gyrus, and increased connectivity of the caudate was found in the left motor cortex. A reduction in functional connectivity was found between the putamen and several regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, right insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior lobe of the right cerebellum; increased connectivity was detected between the putamen and right middle temporal gyrus. There were significant correlations between the corticostriatal connectivity and neuropsychological performances in the patient group, but not between the striatal connectivity and GP signal intensity. These alterations in the corticostriatal functional connectivity suggested the abnormalities in the intrinsic brain functional organiztion among the cirrhotic patients with manganese deposition, and may be associated with development of metabolic encephalopathy. The manganese deposition in nervous system, however, can not be an independent factor predicting the resting

  11. The vascular lesions in vascular and mixed dementia: the weight of functional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekry, Dina; Duyckaerts, Charles; Belmin, Joël; Geoffre, Caroline; Herrmann, François; Moulias, Robert; Hauw, Jean-Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Vascular dementia appears rarer than previously thought, but the contribution of vascular lesions to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) affected patients (mixed dementias) is now recognized as frequent. The role of strategic areas of the brain involved in the cognitive decline induced by vascular lesions and their relative contributions to the severity of the dementing process remain poorly understood. We determined the relationship between the severity of clinical dementia and the volume of different brain areas affected by infarcts in a prospective clinicopathological study in elderly patients. A volumetric study of the functional zones of Mesulam's human brain map affected by vascular lesions was made and correlations between quantified neuropathological data and the severity of dementia were performed in cases with large vascular lesions only, pure AD, and both lesions. The severity of cognitive impairment was significantly correlated with the total volume of infarcts but in a multi-variate model the volume destroyed in the limbic and heteromodal association areas, including the frontal cortex and in the white matter explained 50% of the variability in MMSE and GDS. The total volume of ischemic lesions explained only 0.1-5% of the variability in MMSE and GDS. Age only explained an extra of 0.1-1.6%. This study confirms that infarcts located in strategic areas have a role in the mechanism of cognitive impairment and brings a key for their quantification. It may be useful for developing neuropathological criteria in multi-infarct and mixed dementias.

  12. Robust Template Decomposition without Weight Restriction for Cellular Neural Networks Implementing Arbitrary Boolean Functions Using Support Vector Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Lon Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.

  13. Dunkl’s Theory and Best Approximation by Entire Functions of Exponential Type in L2-metric with Power Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ping LIU; Chun Yuan SONG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the sharp Jackson inequality for the best approximation of f ∈L2,κ(Rd) by a subspace E2κ(σ) (SE2κ(σ)), which is a subspace of entire functions of exponential type (spherical exponential type) at most σ. Here L2,κ(Rd) denotes the space of all d-variate functions f endowed with the L2-norm with the weight vκ(x)=? ξ∈R+|(ξ, x)|2κ (ξ), which is defined by a positive subsystem R+ of a finite root system R ⊂ Rd and a function κ(ξ) : R → R+ invariant under the reflection group G(R) generated by R. In the case G(R)=Zd2 , we get some exact results. Moreover, the deviation of best approximation by the subspace E2κ(σ) (SE2κ(σ)) of some class of the smooth functions in the space L2,κ(Rd) is obtained.

  14. Functional MRI of transplanted kidneys using diffusion-weighted imaging; Funktionelle MRT der Transplantatnieren. Klinische Wertigkeit der Diffusionsbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, Dirk; Lanzman, R.S.; Mathys, C.; Moedder, U.; Wittsack, H.J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Grotemeyer, D.; Sandmann, W. [Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie und Nierentransplantation, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Voiculescu, A.; Rump, L.C. [Klinik fuer Nephrologie, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: contrast-enhanced MRI is considered problematic in renal allograft recipients due to the association of gadolinium administration and the development of NSF. Therefore, we assessed the clinical value of mono- and biexponential analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: a total of 32 patients were divided into four groups: (a) patients with stable function of renal allograft for at least 6 months, (b) patients with acute deterioration of allograft function, patients who recently underwent transplantation (< 14 days) with good (c) or decreased (d) renal function. T2w ax. and T1w cor. and a diffusion-weighted sequence with 16 b-values (b = 0 - 750 s/mm{sup 2}) were performed on a 1.5 T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions). ROI-based analysis of the renal cortex was analyzed using the software ''Table Curve 2D''. Results: monoexponential analysis showed an ADC{sup mono} of 1961 {+-} 104 1801 {+-} 150, 2053 {+-} 169 and 1720 {+-} 191 10{sup -6}mm{sup 2}/sec for patient group a, b, c and d respectively. The difference in ADC{sup mono} between group (a) and (b) (p < 0.006) and between group (c) and (d) (p < 0.04) was statistically significant. Biexponential analysis revealed a mean perfusion fraction of 0.21, 0.23, 0.32 and 0.24 for group (a), (b), (c) and (d) respectively. Biexponential ADC showed a higher numerical accuracy. There were no statistically significant inter-group differences in diffusion (ADC{sub D}) and perfusion (ADC{sub p}). (orig.)

  15. Sensitivity analysis, calibration, and testing of a distributed hydrological model using error-based weighting and one objective function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Hill, Mary C.; Mehl, Steffen W.; Burlando, P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the utility of three interrelated means of using data to calibrate the fully distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI as applied to the Maggia Valley drainage area in Switzerland. The use of error-based weighting of observation and prior information data, local sensitivity analysis, and single-objective function nonlinear regression provides quantitative evaluation of sensitivity of the 35 model parameters to the data, identification of data types most important to the calibration, and identification of correlations among parameters that contribute to nonuniqueness. Sensitivity analysis required only 71 model runs, and regression required about 50 model runs. The approach presented appears to be ideal for evaluation of models with long run times or as a preliminary step to more computationally demanding methods. The statistics used include composite scaled sensitivities, parameter correlation coefficients, leverage, Cook's D, and DFBETAS. Tests suggest predictive ability of the calibrated model typical of hydrologic models.

  16. Measurement of physical parameters with a weight function method and its application to the Higgs boson mass reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, S; Sumino, Y; Yokoya, H

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure various physical parameters, using characteristic weight functions. This method needs only lepton energy distribution and ideally does not depend on the velocity of the parent particle. We demonstrate an application of this method by simulating a reconstruction of the Higgs boson mass in the H-> WW -> lnu lnu decay mode at the LHC. We show that systematic errors are suppressed compared to statistical errors. In the vector boson fusion channel, the statistical accuracy of the mass determination is estimated to be +12% and -14% at an integrated luminosity of 100fb^{-1}, assuming the Higgs mass to be 125GeV and root{s}=14TeV.

  17. Weighted Phase Lag Index and Graph Analysis: Preliminary Investigation of Functional Connectivity during Resting State in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Erick; Stingl, Krunoslav; Münßinger, Jana; Braun, Christoph; Preissl, Hubert; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity of MEG data was studied in 29 children (9-10 years old). The weighted phase lag index (WPLI) was employed for estimating connectivity and compared to coherence. To further evaluate the network structure, a graph analysis based on WPLI was used to determine clustering coefficient (C) and betweenness centrality (BC) as local coefficients as well as the characteristic path length (L) as a parameter for global interconnectedness. The network's modular structure was also calculated to estimate functional segregation. A seed region was identified in the central occipital area based on the power distribution at the sensor level in the alpha band. WPLI reveals a specific connectivity map different from power and coherence. BC and modularity show a strong level of connectedness in the occipital area between lateral and central sensors. C shows different isolated areas of occipital sensors. Globally, a network with the shortest L is detected in the alpha band, consistently with the local results. Our results are in agreement with findings in adults, indicating a similar functional network in children at this age in the alpha band. The integrated use of WPLI and graph analysis can help to gain a better description of resting state networks. PMID:23049617

  18. The effect of natural organic matter polarity and molecular weight on NDMA formation from two antibiotics containing dimethylamine functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-12-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection byproduct preferentially formed in chloraminated water. NDMA may be formed from certain chemicals containing dimethylamine (DMA) functional groups. This reaction may be slowed by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, NOM fractionated by size or polarity was tested for its ability to slow or impede the formation of NDMA from two DMA-containing precursors, the antibiotics tetracycline and spiramycin. The high molecular weight NOM fractions (>10KDa) were shown to be the most effective in reducing the amount of NDMA formed from the precursor chemicals. The filtrate of a C-18 non-polar cartridge was also effective at reducing NDMA formation from tetracycline (spyramycin not tested). Therefore, polar and charged NOM components may be responsible for the reduction in NDMA formation. A possible mechanism for the reduction of NDMA formation from tetracycline is complexation due to the hydrogen bonding of the DMA functional group on tetracycline to polar phenolic functional groups in the NOM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cuckoo search with Lévy flights for weighted Bayesian energy functional optimization in global-support curve data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  20. Executive functions in extremely low birth weight and late-preterm preschoolers: effects on working memory and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to fundamental capacities that underlie more complex cognition and have ecological relevance across the individual's lifespan. However, emerging executive functions have rarely been studied in young preterm children (age 3) whose critical final stages of fetal development are interrupted by their early birth. We administered four novel touch-screen computerized measures of working memory and inhibition to 369 participants born between 2004 and 2006 (52 Extremely Low Birth Weight [ELBW]; 196 late preterm; 121 term-born). ELBW performed worse than term-born on simple and complex working memory and inhibition tasks and had the highest percentage of incomplete performance on a continuous performance test. The latter finding indicates developmental immaturity and the ELBW group's most at-risk preterm status. Additionally, late-preterm participants performed worse compared with term-born on measures of complex working memory but did not differ from those term-born on response inhibition measures. These results are consistent with a recent literature that identifies often subtle but detectable neurocognitive deficits in late-preterm children. Our results support the development and standardization of computerized touch-screen measures to assess EF subcomponent abilities during the formative preschool period. Such measures may be useful to monitor the developmental trajectory of critical executive function abilities in preterm children, and their use is necessary for timely recognition of deficit and application of appropriate interventional strategies.

  1. On Equalities Involving Integrals of the Logarithm of the Riemann ς-Function with Exponential Weight Which Are Equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey K. Sekatskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral equalities involving integrals of the logarithm of the Riemann ς-function with exponential weight functions are introduced, and it is shown that an infinite number of them are equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis. Some of these equalities are tested numerically. The possible contribution of the Riemann function zeroes nonlying on the critical line is rigorously estimated and shown to be extremely small, in particular, smaller than nine milliards of decimals for the maximal possible weight function exp(−2πt. We also show how certain Fourier transforms of the logarithm of the Riemann zeta-function taken along the real (demiaxis are expressible via elementary functions plus logarithm of the gamma-function and definite integrals thereof, as well as certain sums over trivial and nontrivial Riemann function zeroes.

  2. Impact of Severe Obesity and Weight Loss on Systolic Left Ventricular Function and Morphology: Assessment by 2-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Little is known about the impact of dietary changes on the cardiac sequelae in obese patients. Twenty-one obese subjects underwent a 12-week low calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Transthoracic two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed to obtain systolic left ventricular strain before and after weight loss. Body mass index decreased significantly from 38.6±6.2 to 31.5±5.3 kg/m2, and the total percentage fat loss was 19%. Weight reduction was associated with a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Left ventricular longitudinal global peak systolic strain was in the lower normal range (−18.7±3.2% before weight loss and was unchanged (−18.8±2.4% after 12 weeks on diet with substantial weight loss. Also, no significant change in global radial strain after weight loss was noted (41.1±22.0 versus 43.9±23.3, p=0.09. Left atrial and ventricular dimensions were in normal range before fasting and remained unchanged after weight loss. In our study obesity was associated with normal systolic left ventricular function. A 12-week low calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure and heart rate. Systolic left ventricular function and morphology were not affected by rapid weight reduction.

  3. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT ...

  4. Persistent current and Drude weight of one-dimensional interacting fermions on imperfect ring from current lattice density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Akinlolu; Sanvito, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    We perform a numerical study of interacting one-dimensional Hubbard rings with a single impurity potential and pierced by a magnetic flux. Our calculations are carried out at the level of current lattice density functional theory (CLDFT) for the Hubbard model and compared to known results obtained in the thermodynamical limit from the Bethe ansatz. In particular, we investigate the effects of disorder and Coulomb interaction on the persistent current (PC) and the Drude weight. It is found that CLDFT is able to accurately describe qualitative and quantitative features of these ground state properties in the presence of disorder and electronic interaction. When the impurity potential is switched off, the CLDFT approach describes well the velocity of the Luttinger liquid excitations as a function of both interaction strength and electron filling. Then, when the impurity scattering potential is finite, we find the PC to vanish as {{L}-{{α\\text{B}}-1}} for large L and independent on the strength of the scattering potential, in good agreement with Luttinger liquid theory.

  5. Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Collagen Hydrolysates from Spanish Mackerel Skin as Influenced by Average Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ≤ AMW ≤ 47.82 kDa from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.

  6. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  7. Influence of low molecular weight fractions of humic substances on reducing capacities and distribution of redox functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on their molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, bulk humic acids (HA) were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate. LMWF account for only 2% of the total organic carbon content of HA molecules, however, their reducing capacities are up to 33 times greater than either those of the bulk HA or retentate. Furthermore, the total reducing capacity of the bulk HA accounts for less than 15% of the total reducing capacity of bulk HA, retentate and LMWF combined, suggesting that releasing of LMWF cannot reduce the number of RFG. RFG are neither in fixed amounts nor in uniformly distributed in bulk HA. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for humic-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF, and protein-like fluorophores. The 3,500 Da molecules (1.25 nm diameter) of HS could stimulate transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex/Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in environmental samples.

  8. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  9. Association of the relative change in weight and body mass index with lung function in teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis: Influence of gender and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; González Albarrán, Olga; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor in cystic fibrosis. Prevention of nutritional impairment and weigh loss are major clinical objectives because they are associated with worsening of lung function and increased mortality. To identify a potential relationship of clinical nutrition parameters, and their relative changes, with lung function (FEV1%) in a cohort of adolescent and adult patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of 64 patients older than 14years. Weight, height, BMI, and lung function data were collected at a period of disease stability, both in the year of the first abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in the previous year. Relative changes in weight and BMI, and their relationship with FEV1%, were determined by linear regression and ANOVA tests; influence of gender and diabetes was also assessed. Mean age of the series (28 females and 36 males) was 26.8years. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was found in 26.7%, while 18.3% had diabetes without impaired fasting glucose (CFRD without FPG). Mean BMI was 20.32, with a mean weight of 53.53kg; 32.8% had BMI<18.5, and only 4.7% were overweight. Overall, a positive relative change in weight (≥6%) was associated with an increase in FEV1% (9.31%), as compared to those with a greater weight loss (at least 2%), who had a 12.09% fall in FEV1. Patients with CFRD without FPG had poorer lung function if they had a negative relative change in weight by at least 2% as compared to NGT. In patients with CF, a relative weight gain is positively associated to FEV1%, while a relative weight loss of at least 2% has a significant negative impact on lung function. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The adjuvant effects of high-molecule-weight polysaccharides purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on dendritic cell function and DNA vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants.

  11. α, ω-Cholesterol-functionalized low molecular weight polyethylene glycol as a novel modifier of cationic liposomes for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cui-Cui; He, Zhi-Yao; Xia, Shan; Ren, Ke; Hui, Li-Wei; Qin, Han-Xiao; Tang, Ming-Hai; Zeng, Jun; Song, Xiang-Rong

    2014-11-06

    Here, three novel cholesterol (Ch)/low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates, termed α, ω-cholesterol-functionalized PEG (Ch2-PEGn), were successfully synthesized using three kinds of PEG with different average molecular weight (PEG600, PEG1000 and PEG2000). The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential application of novel cationic liposomes (Ch2-PEGn-CLs) containing Ch2-PEGn in gene delivery. The introduction of Ch2-PEGn affected both the particle size and zeta potential of cationic liposomes. Ch2-PEG2000 effectively compressed liposomal particles and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs were of the smallest size. Ch2-PEG1000 and Ch2-PEG2000 significantly decreased zeta potentials of Ch2-PEGn-CLs, while Ch2-PEG600 did not alter the zeta potential due to the short PEG chain. Moreover, the in vitro gene transfection efficiencies mediated by different Ch2-PEGn-CLs also differed, in which Ch2-PEG600-CLs achieved the strongest GFP expression than Ch2-PEG1000-CLs and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs in SKOV-3 cells. The gene delivery efficacy of Ch2-PEGn-CLs was further examined by addition of a targeting moiety (folate ligand) in both folate-receptor (FR) overexpressing SKOV-3 cells and A549 cells with low expression of FR. For Ch2-PEG1000-CLs and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs, higher molar ratios of folate ligand resulted in enhanced transfection efficacies, but Ch2-PEG600-CLs had no similar in contrast. Additionally, MTT assay proved the reduced cytotoxicities of cationic liposomes after modification by Ch2-PEGn. These findings provide important insights into the effects of Ch2-PEGn on cationic liposomes for delivering genes, which would be beneficial for the development of Ch2-PEGn-CLs-based gene delivery system.

  12. UV effects on the primary productivity of picophytoplankton: biological weighting functions and exposure response curves of Synechococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, P. J.; Pritchard, A. L.; Ihnacik, R.

    2014-05-01

    A model that predicts UV effects on marine primary productivity using a biological weighting function (BWF) coupled to the photosynthesis-irradiance response (BWF/P-E model) has been implemented for two strains of the picoplanktonic cyanobacteria Synechococcus, WH7803 and WH8102, which were grown at two irradiances (77 and 174 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically available radiation (PAR)) and two temperatures (20 and 26 °C). The model was fit using photosynthesis measured in a polychromatic incubator with 12 long-pass filter configurations with 50% wavelength cutoffs ranging from 291 to 408 nm, giving an effective wavelength range of 280-400 nm. Examination of photosynthetic response vs. weighted exposure revealed that repair rate progressively increases at low exposure but reaches a maximum rate above a threshold exposure ("Emax"). Adding Emax as a parameter to the BWF/P-E model provided a significantly better fit to Synechococcus data than the existing "E" or "T" models. Sensitivity to UV inhibition varied with growth conditions for both strains, but this was mediated mainly by variations in Emax for WH8102 while both the BWF and Emax changed for WH7803. Higher growth temperature was associated with a considerable reduction in sensitivity, consistent with an important role of repair in regulating sensitivity to UV. Based on nominal water column conditions (noon, solstice, 23° latitude, "blue" water), the BWFEmax/P-E model estimates that UV + PAR exposure inhibits Synechococcus photosynthesis from 78 to 91% at 1 m, and integrated productivity to 150 m 17-29% relative to predicted rates in the absence of inhibition.

  13. Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling

    OpenAIRE

    McMillen, T S; Minami, E. [UNIFESP; LeBoeuf, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called ‘yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the cont...

  14. Functional confirmation of PLAG1 as the candidate causative gene underlying major pleiotropic effects on body weight and milk characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Tania; Tiplady, Kathryn; Lopdell, Thomas; Johnson, Thomas; Snell, Russell G.; Spelman, Richard J.; Davis, Stephen R.; Littlejohn, Mathew D.

    2017-01-01

    A major pleiotropic quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at ~25 Mbp on bovine chromosome 14 affects a myriad of growth and developmental traits in Bos taurus and indicus breeds. These QTL have been attributed to two functional variants in the bidirectional promoter of PLAG1 and CHCHD7. Although PLAG1 is a good candidate for mediating these effects, its role remains uncertain given that these variants are also associated with expression of five additional genes at the broader locus. In the current study, we conducted expression QTL (eQTL) mapping of this region using a large, high depth mammary RNAseq dataset representing 375 lactating cows. Here we show that of the seven previously implicated genes, only PLAG1 and LYN are differentially expressed by QTL genotype, and only PLAG1 bears the same association signature of the growth and body weight QTLs. For the first time, we also report significant association of PLAG1 genotype with milk production traits, including milk fat, volume, and protein yield. Collectively, these data strongly suggest PLAG1 as the causative gene underlying this diverse range of traits, and demonstrate new effects for the locus on lactation phenotypes. PMID:28322319

  15. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV1/FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Interrelations of muscle functional MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and (31) P-MRS in exercised lower back muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiepe, Patrick; Gussew, Alexander; Rzanny, Reinhard; Anders, Christoph; Walther, Mario; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-08-01

    Exercise-induced changes of transverse proton relaxation time (T2 ), tissue perfusion and metabolic turnover were investigated in the lower back muscles of volunteers by applying muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before and after as well as dynamic (31) P-MRS during the exercise. Inner (M. multifidus, MF) and outer lower back muscles (M. erector spinae, ES) were examined in 14 healthy young men performing a sustained isometric trunk-extension. Significant phosphocreatine (PCr) depletions ranging from 30% (ES) to 34% (MF) and Pi accumulations between 95% (left ES) and 120%-140% (MF muscles and right ES) were observed during the exercise, which were accompanied by significantly decreased pH values in all muscles (∆pH ≈ -0.05). Baseline T2 values were similar across all investigated muscles (approximately 27 ms at 3 T), but revealed right-left asymmetric increases (T2 ,inc ) after the exercise (right ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 11.8/9.7%; left ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 4.6/8.9%). Analyzed muscles also showed load-induced increases in molecular diffusion D (p = .007) and perfusion fraction f (p = .002). The latter parameter was significantly higher in the MF than in the ES muscles both at rest and post exercise. Changes in PCr (p = .03), diffusion (p muscles.

  17. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  18. Thyroid function and body weight programming by neonatal hyperthyroidism in rats - the role of leptin and deiodinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E G; Santos, R S; Lisboa, P C; Alves, S B; Bonomo, I T; Fagundes, A T S; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have shown that secondary hypothyroidism was programed by neonatal thyroxine (T4) treatment. However, the associated changes of body weight (BW) were less studied, especially those related to the body fat proportion. Here, we have evaluated the effect of neonatal thyroxine treatment on BW, fat proportion, serum leptin, and thyroid function of 60-day-old rats. Wistar rats were treated with thyroxine (50 microg/100 g BW, ip) (T) or saline (S), during the first 10 days of life. BW, nose-rump length (NRL), and food consumption were monitored for 60 days, when the animals were sacrificed. Thyroid function was evaluated by thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU), serum T3, T4, TSH, and liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) and type 1 and 2 deiodinases (D1 and D2) activities, which are thyroid hormone-dependent enzymes. T animals showed lower food intake, BW and NRL, but higher total fat mass (+33%) and serum leptin (+46%). They also showed lower serum T3 (-23%), T4 (-32%), TSH (-36%), RAIU (-29%) and mGPD activity (-22%). Hypothalamic and pituitary D2 activities were higher (+24% and 1.4 fold, respectively), while brown adipose tissue (BAT) D2 and skeletal muscle D1 activities were lower (-30% and -62%, respectively). Thus, neonatal hyperthyroidism programs for a higher fat proportion and hyperleptinemia, which can explain the lower food intake. The TH-dependent enzymes activities changed accordingly, except for the decrease in BAT D2, which may be due the role played by the hyperleptinemia. Finally, the decrease in peripheral deiodination may contribute to a lower me-tabolic rate that may increase the adiposity.

  19. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    ) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions...... with these measures. There was a strong negative linear relation between current BMI and lung function among those currently overweight and obese (BMI 25 kg/m(2)), whereas no association was seen in the non-obese (BMI 25 kg/m(2)). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the detrimental effect of high current BMI on adult...

  20. Weighing the Evidence: Likability and Trait Attributions of a Peer as a Function of Behavioral Characteristics, Body Weight, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used vignettes to investigate children's integration of information on behavior, body weight, and sex when forming peer impressions. Found that positively behaving peers were liked more and attributed more positive traits than negatively behaving peers. Also found that boys, but not girls, believed that peers would evaluate average weight,…

  1. Functional MRI using Fourier decomposition of lung signal: Reproducibility of ventilation- and perfusion-weighted imaging in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Av de Magellan, 33600 Pessac (France); Bauman, Grzegorz, E-mail: g.bauman@dkfz.de [Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika, E-mail: m.eichinger@dkfz.de [Division of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dinkel, Julien, E-mail: julien.dinkel@googlemail.com [Division of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Brault, Mathilde, E-mail: mathilde.brault@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr [Methodological Unit of Support for Research (USMR), University Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux (France); Biederer, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael, E-mail: m.puderbach@dkfz.de [Division of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinics at the University of Heidelberg, Clinics for Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of Fourier decomposition (FD) based ventilation- and perfusion-weighted lung MRI. Methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body MR-scanner with 4–6 sets of coronal slices over the chest volume with a non-contrast enhanced steady-state free precession sequence. The identical protocol was repeated after 24 h. Reconstructed perfusion- and ventilation-weighted images were obtained through non-rigid registration and FD post-processing of images. Analysis of signal in segmented regions of interest was performed for both native and post-processed data. Two blinded chest radiologists rated image quality of perfusion- and ventilation-weighted images using a 3-point scale. Results: Reproducibility of signal between the two time points was very good with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.98, 0.94 and 0.86 for native, perfusion- and ventilation-weighted images, respectively. Perfusion- and ventilation-weighted images were of overall good quality with proportions of diagnostic images of 87–95% and 69–75%, respectively. Lung signal decreased from posterior to anterior slices with image quality of ventilation-weighted images in anterior areas rated worse than in posterior or perfusion-weighted images. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of image quality was good for perfusion and ventilation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates high reproducibility of ventilation- and perfusion-weighted FD lung MRI.

  2. Preclinical changes in weight of scrapie-infected mice as a function of scrapie agent-mouse strain combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, R I; Callahan, S M; Sersen, E A; Moretz, R C

    1984-01-01

    Several inbred strains of mice were injected with different scrapie agents and their total body weight was monitored throughout the incubation period. As a control, mice were injected with normal mouse brain homogenate. For most combinations of scrapie agent and mouse strain, weights during the preclinical phase were similar to or lower than the average weight of controls. For some combinations there was a significant increase in weight (compared to controls) during the latter part of the preclinical phase of disease. The effect was dependent on both agent and mouse strain, i.e., in some cases a mouse strain showed the increase with one scrapie agent but not another and some scrapie agents caused the increase in one inbred strain of mouse but not in another strain. The increase in weight was due to accumulations of fat rather than a generalized increase in weight of various organs. With one mouse strain (SJL), there was increased vacuolation seen in the hypothalamus of mice injected with scrapie agents that showed the increase in weight compared to the lesion intensity with an agent which did not cause the weight increase.

  3. MODIFICATION OF THE METHOD OF WEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES BY USING THE OBSERVATIONS OF THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION IN THE ARGUMENT OF THE VALUE FUNCTION AS WEIGHTS (ALGORITHM AND SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of ordinary least squares (OLS is widely known and deservedly popular. However, some attempts to improve this method. The result of one of such attempts is the weighted least squares (WMNC, the essence of which is to give the observation a weight which is inversely proportional to the errors of their approximation. Thereby, in fact, monitoring is ignored the more the difficult to approximate it. The result of this approach, formally, is the approximation error decreasing, but in fact, this occurs by partial refusal to consider the "problem" of observations, making a big mistake. If the idea underlying WMNC to bring to the extreme (and absurd, then in the limit, this approach will lead to the fact that from the entire set of observations there will be only those that lie almost exactly on the trend obtained by the method of least squares, and the rest will simply be ignored. However, according to the author, it's not a problem, and the failure of its decision, though it might look like a solution. In the work we have proposed a solution, based on the theory of information: to consider the weight of observations, the number of the argument of the value function. This approach was validated in the framework of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: methods for automated system-cognitive analysis (ASA-analysis and implemented 30 years ago in its software toolkit, which is "Eidos" intelligent system in the form of so-called "cognitive functions". This article presents an algorithm and software implementation of this approach, illustrated in detailed numerical example. In the future it is planned to give a detailed mathematical basis of the method of weighted least squares, which is modified by the application of information theory to calculate the weights of the observations, and investigate its properties

  4. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on the functional properties of chitosan-maltose Maillard reaction products and their application to fresh-cut Typha latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Lin; Lin, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2014-02-15

    The objective was to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant and copper-chelating activities of Maillard reaction products (MRP) prepared from maltose and different molecular weight chitosan, and their effects on preservation of fresh-cut Typha latifolia L. (TLL). LMRP (maltose and low molecular weight chitosan MRP) showed the highest browning and UV absorbance as well as fluorescence intensity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and copper-chelating activity of chitosan-maltose MRP varied depending on the chitosan molecular weight. HMRP (maltose-high molecular weight chitosan MRP) exhibited better effects on inhibiting PPO activity and discoloration, alleviating declines of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of fresh-cut TLL. LMRP and MMRP (maltose-medium molecular weight chitosan MRP) effectively decreased weight loss and maintained firmness of TLL, respectively. These results indicated that molecular weight of chitosan had a great impact on the functional properties of chitosan-maltose MRP and their application to be used as a preservative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of lighting and air-conditioning systems on growth weight and functional composition of frill-lettuce produced in plant factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Okamura, Nobuya; Furukawa, Hajime; Myojin, Chiho; Moriuchi, Koji; Kinoshita, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop optimal air-conditioning systems for plant factories. To verify the effect of particular air-conditioning and lighting systems, cultivation experiments were performed with frill-lettuce for two weeks. In the present study, the relationship between the cultivation condition, the yield (i.e., increase in edible portion weight), and the functional components were discussed. Based on the measured data, increased photosynthetic photon flux density increased antioxidative activity and edible portion weight, possibly because high light intensities are stressful for frill lettuce. Antioxidative activity also increased under conditions of low CO2 concentration, weak and strong winds, and high air temperature because these conditions became stresses for the plants. However, a decrease in edible portion weight was observed under these conditions, implying there is a negative correlation between antioxidative activity and edible portion weight.

  6. Effects of low-dose paroxetine 7.5 mg on weight and sexual function during treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Kazempour, Kazem; Mekonnen, Hana; Bhaskar, Sailaja; Lippman, Joel

    2014-10-01

    Two phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that low-dose paroxetine 7.5 mg reduced the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) associated with menopause and had a favorable tolerability profile. The impact of paroxetine 7.5 mg on body weight and sexual function was evaluated in a pooled analysis. Postmenopausal women aged 40 years or older who had moderate to severe VMS were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine 7.5 mg or placebo once daily for 12 or 24 weeks. Assessments included changes in body mass index (BMI) and weight, Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale score, Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale sexuality subscore, and adverse events related to weight or sexual dysfunction. Pooled efficacy and safety populations comprised 1,174 and 1,175 participants, respectively. Baseline values were similar for median weight (∼75 kg), median BMI (∼28 kg/m), and the proportion of women with sexual dysfunction (∼58%). No clinically meaningful or statistically significant changes from baseline in weight or sexual function assessments occurred in the paroxetine 7.5 mg group. Small but statistically significant increases in weight and BMI were observed in the placebo group only on week 4. No significant difference between treatment groups was observed in the proportion of participants who had 7% or higher gain in body weight on week 4, 12, or 24. Rates of adverse events suggestive of sexual dysfunction were low and similar in both treatment groups. Paroxetine 7.5 mg does not cause weight gain or negative changes in libido when used to treat menopause-associated VMS in postmenopausal women.

  7. An adaptive method with weight matrix as a function of the state to design the rotatory flexible system control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiz C. G.; Bigot, P.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most well-known techniques of optimal control is the theory of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). This method was originally applied only to linear systems but has been generalized for non-linear systems: the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique. One of the advantages of SDRE is that the weight matrix selection is the same as in LQR. The difference is that weights are not necessarily constant: they can be state dependent. Then, it gives an additional flexibility to design the control law. Many are applications of SDRE for simulation or real time control but generally SDRE weights are chosen constant so no advantage of this flexibility is taken. This work serves to show through simulation that state dependent weights matrix can improve SDRE control performance. The system is a non-linear flexible rotatory beam. In a brief first part SDRE theory will be explained and the non-linear model detailed. Then, influence of SDRE weight matrix associated with the state Q will be analyzed to get some insight in order to assume a state dependent law. Finally, these laws are tested and compared to constant weight matrix Q. Based on simulation results; one concludes showing the benefits of using an adaptive weight Q rather than a constant one.

  8. Whole-brain three-dimensional T2-weighted BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jun; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pekar, James J; Jones, Craig K

    2014-12-01

    A new acquisition scheme for T2-weighted spin-echo BOLD fMRI is introduced. It uses a T2-preparation module to induce blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, followed by a single-shot three-dimensional (3D) fast gradient-echo readout with short echo time (TE). It differs from most spin-echo BOLD sequences in that BOLD contrast is generated before the readout, which eliminates the "dead time" due to long TE required for T2 contrast, and substantially improves acquisition efficiency. This approach, termed "3D T2prep-GRE," was implemented at 7 Tesla (T) with a typical spatial (2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm(3) ) and temporal (TR = 2.3 s) resolution for functional MRI (fMRI) and whole-brain coverage (55 slices), and compared with the widely used 2D spin-echo EPI sequence. In fMRI experiments of simultaneous visual/motor activities, 3D T2prep-GRE showed minimal distortion and little signal dropout across the whole brain. Its lower power deposition allowed greater spatial coverage (55 versus 17 slices with identical TR, resolution and power level), temporal SNR (60% higher) and CNR (35% higher) efficiency than 2D spin-echo EPI. It also showed smaller T2* contamination. This approach is expected to be useful for ultra-high field fMRI, especially for regions near air cavities. The concept of using T2-preparation to generate BOLD contrast can be combined with many other sequences at any field strength. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiqing Wang; Wenping Li; Yanli Yanli Wu; Yabing Pei; Maolin Xing; Dongdong Yang

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (DaguanCounty, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model tocompare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly basedon earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70%(136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validationpurpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, generalcurvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distancefrom faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI),stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently,landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validationof landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. Thesuccess rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map usingEBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results ofthis study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be usefulfor regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  10. Household expenditures on dietary supplements sold for weight loss, muscle building, and sexual function: Disproportionate burden by gender and income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements sold for weight loss (WL, muscle building (MB, and sexual function (SF are not medically recommended. They have been shown to be ineffective in many cases and pose serious health risks to consumers due to adulteration with banned substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, and other dangerous chemicals. Yet no prior research has investigated how these products may disproportionately burden individuals and families by gender and socioeconomic position across households. We investigated household (HH cost burden of dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF in a cross-sectional study using data from 60,538 U.S. households (HH in 2012 Nielsen/IRi National Consumer Panel, calculating annual HH expenditures on WL, MB, and SF supplements and expenditures as proportions of total annual HH income. We examined sociodemographic patterns in HH expenditures using Wald tests of mean differences across subgroups. Among HH with any expenditures on WL, MB, or SF supplements, annual HH first and ninth expenditure deciles were, respectively: WL $5.99, $145.36; MB $6.99, $141.93; and SF $4.98, $88.52. Conditional on any purchases of the products, female-male-headed HH spent more on WL supplements and male-headed HH spend more on MB and SF supplements compared to other HH types (p-values < 0.01. High-income ($30,000 < annual income < $100,000, compared to low-income (annual income < $30,000 HH, spent more on all three supplements types (p-values < 0.01; however, proportional to income, low-income HH spent 2–4 times more than high-income HH on WL and MB supplements (p-values < 0.01. Dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF disproportionately burden HH by income and gender.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging assessment of brain function reconstruction in elderly hemiplegia patients by body weight support treadmill training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqing Wang; Yongping Liu; Diqing Wang; Yanshuang Li; Jinglai Hao; Hongwei Zhang; Sheng Bi; Changshui Weng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism underlying body weight support treadmill training in elderly hemiplegic stroke patients is largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the changes of cortical blood flow in seven elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia before and after body weight support treadmill training by semi-quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography. Body weight support treadmill training for 6 months was effective in improving cerebral blood flow and promoting the walking speed and balance recovery in elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

  12. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-03-24

    Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement related to increased weight loss preoccupation varied by bullying role: in bullies the effect was direct, in victims the effect was indirect (via reduced psychological functioning) and in bully-victims the effect was both direct and indirect. Sex significantly moderated the relationship in bullies: weight loss preoccupation was only statistically significant in bullies who were

  13. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  14. On the 2k-th Power Mean of Inversion of L-functions with the Weight of the Gauss Sum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan YI; Wen Peng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to use the estimate for character sums and the method of trigonometric sums to study the 2k-th power mean of the inversion of Dirichlet L-functions with the weight of the Gauss sums, and give a sharper asymptotic formula.

  15. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  16. Carnpt群上的r-凸函数与广义加权平均值%Generalized Weighted Mean Values and r-Convex Functions in Carnots Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明保; 杨孝平

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the relationship between generalized weighted mean values and r-convex functions on Carnot group G, which is a generalization of the classical Hadamard's inequality for convex functions.%该文建立了Carnot群上的r-凸函数与广义加权平均值间的关系,它们是经典凸函数的Hadamard不等式的推广.

  17. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    's age at birth, parity, prematurity, multiple pregnancy, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and lung symptoms as covariates. RESULTS: Birth weight was positively associated with spirometric variables. For a 1 kg increase in birth weight, FEV1 increased by 86 ml (CI95%: 34-139) and FVC by 88 ml (CI95...

  18. 运动员减控体重及机能恢复研究%Research about athletes control weight and recovery function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑

    2015-01-01

    Weight lifting, boxing, such as heavy sports project, the athletes are divided into different levels by weight, some athletes in order to avoid the strong opponent, or give full play to their strengths, often require before the game to reduce and control weight. Through exploring the sportsman's weight control general situation, and put forward the feasible plan, studies after reducing weight control fast recovery methods of nutrition, promote the rapid recovery of athletes body function, make the athletes in good form and body function, and finally achieve good results of the competition.%举重、拳击等重竞技项目的举行将运动员按体重划分为不同级别,有些运动员为了避开强大的对手或者充分发挥自身优势往往需要在比赛前减控体重。通过探索运动员减控体重的普遍现状并提出可行的计划、研究减控体重后快速恢复的营养学方法促进运动员身体机能的快速恢复,使运动员以良好的竞技状态和身体机能进行比赛并最终取得优异的比赛成绩。

  19. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  20. Lowering body weight in obese mice with diastolic heart failure improves cardiac insulin sensitivity and function: implications for the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Abo Alrob, Osama; Zhang, Liyan; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Wagg, Cory S; Fukushima, Arata; Padwal, Raj S; Johnstone, David E; Sharma, Arya M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest improved outcomes and survival in obese heart failure patients (i.e., the obesity paradox), although obesity and heart failure unfavorably alter cardiac function and metabolism. We investigated the effects of weight loss on cardiac function and metabolism in obese heart failure mice. Obesity and heart failure were induced by feeding mice a high-fat (HF) diet (60% kcal from fat) for 4 weeks, following which an abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) was produced. Four weeks post-AAC, mice were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (12% kcal from fat; HF AAC LF) or maintained on an HF (HF AAC HF) for a further 10 weeks. After 18 weeks, HF AAC LF mice weighed less than HF AAC HF mice. Diastolic function was improved in HF AAC LF mice, while cardiac hypertrophy was decreased and accompanied by decreased SIRT1 expression, increased FOXO1 acetylation, and increased atrogin-1 expression compared with HF AAC HF mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was increased in hearts from HF AAC LF mice, compared with HF AAC HF mice. Thus lowering body weight by switching to LF diet in obese mice with heart failure is associated with decreased cardiac hypertrophy and improvements in both cardiac insulin sensitivity and diastolic function, suggesting that weight loss does not negatively impact heart function in the setting of obesity.

  1. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  2. Pancreatic beta cell function following liraglutide-augmented weight loss in individuals with prediabetes: analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alice; Ariel, Danit; Abbasi, Fahim; Lamendola, Cindy; Grove, Kaylene; Tomasso, Vanessa; Reaven, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Liraglutide can modulate insulin secretion by directly stimulating beta cells or indirectly through weight loss and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Recently, we showed that liraglutide treatment in overweight individuals with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) led to greater weight loss (−7.7% vs −3.9%) and improvement in insulin resistance compared with placebo. The current study evaluates the effects on beta cell function of weight loss augmented by liraglutide compared with weight loss alone. Methods This was a parallel, randomised study conducted in a single academic centre. Both participants and study administrators were blinded to treatment assignment. Individuals who were 40–70 years old, overweight (BMI 27–40 kg/m2) and with prediabetes were randomised (via a computerised system) to receive liraglutide (n = 35) or matching placebo (n = 33), and 49 participants were analysed. All were instructed to follow an energy-restricted diet. Primary outcome was insulin secretory function, which was evaluated in response to graded infusions of glucose and day-long mixed meals. Results Liraglutide treatment (n = 24) significantly (p ≤0.03) increased the insulin secretion rate (% mean change [95% CI]; 21% [12, 31] vs −4% [−11, 3]) and pancreatic beta cell sensitivity to intravenous glucose (229% [161, 276] vs −0.5% (−15, 14]), and decreased insulin clearance rate (−3.5% [−11, 4] vs 8.2 [0.2, 16]) as compared with placebo (n = 25). The liraglutide-treated group also had significantly (p ≤0.03) lower day-long glucose (−8.2% [−11, −6] vs −0.1 [−3, 2]) and NEFA concentrations (−14 [−20, −8] vs −2.1 [−10, 6]) following mixed meals, whereas day-long insulin concentrations did not significantly differ as compared with placebo. In a multivariate regression analysis, weight loss was associated with a decrease in insulin secretion rate and day-long glucose and insulin concentrations in

  3. Direct calculation of depth of correlation and weighting function in μPIV from experimental particle images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, M.; Wieneke, B.; Seemann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Micro-PIV (μPIV) uses volume-illumination and imaging of fluorescent tracer particles through a single microscope objective. Displacement fields measured by image correlation depend on all imaged particles, including defocused particles. The measured in-plane displacement is a weighted average of th

  4. Airway morphology and function of rats following dermal sensitization and respiratory challenge with low molecular weight chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Spoor, S.M.; Bloksma, N.

    1998-01-01

    Local lymph node activation and increased total serum IgE levels are suggested to be predictive parameters of airway hypersensitivity caused by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals. Whether increases of total serum IgE are indicative of actual induction of specific airway reactions (morphological an

  5. Executive function training with game elements for obese children: a novel treatment to enhance self-regulatory abilities for weight-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, Sandra; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien; van der Oord, Saskia

    2013-06-01

    For obese children behavioral treatment results in only small changes in relative weight and frequent relapse. The current study investigated the effects of an Executive Functioning (EF) training with game-elements on weight loss maintenance in obese children, over and above the care as usual in an inpatient treatment program. Forty-four children (aged 8-14 years) who were in the final months of a 10-months inpatient treatment program in a medical paediatric centre were randomized to either the 6 week EF-training condition or to a care as usual only control group. The EF-training consisted of a 25-session training of inhibition and working memory. Treatment outcomes were child performances on cognitive tasks of inhibition and working memory and childcare worker ratings on EF-symptoms as well as weight loss maintenance after leaving the clinic. Children in the EF-training condition showed significantly more improvement than the children in the care as usual only group on the working memory task as well as on the childcare worker reports of working memory and meta-cognition. They were also more capable to maintain their weight loss until 8 weeks post-training. This study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of an EF-training as weight stabilization intervention in obese children.

  6. The 60-dB rule for birds: An example of the application of a weighting function in environmental impact mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.; Wisdom, Sheyna

    2005-09-01

    Over the last decade U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managers in California have required millions of dollars in added expenditure for NEPA consultation, mitigation barriers, and project delays to reduce the effects of noise from construction activities on endangered passerine birds when the hourly A-weighted Leq is expected to exceed 60 dB. The rule was originally intended to prevent masking of species-typical songs of endangered birds such as the Coastal California Gnatcatcher. However, no research is available to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rule for any noise-related impact. Although A-weighting is probably a conservative estimator of bird exposure in the range from 125 Hz to 8 kHz, it may underestimate exposure at very low frequencies. Its utility as a weighting function has not been tested against other possible weighting procedures, such as use of the species-typical auditory threshold function. Additionally, where sources are intense but intermittent, Leq is unlikely to be a useful metric. These issues should receive more technical scrutiny before the 60-dB rule becomes entrenched in law. It is in widespread use for NEPA consultations, and is already being extended to other species, including large mammals.

  7. Effects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczke, A; Szulińska, M; Hansdorfer-Korzon, R; Kręgielska-Narożna, M; Suliburska, J; Walkowiak, J; Bogdański, P

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima) consumption on glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina maxima on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled to receive daily either 2.0 g Hawaiian spirulina or placebo for three months. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and stiffness index (SI) using digital plethysmography were measured before and after the intervention. After three months, there was no change in body mass index (BMI) or weight in either the spirulina or the placebo group. However, a significant reduction in SBP and SI was observed. The patients in the spirulina group showed significant reductions in BMI (26.9 ± 3.1 vs. 25.0 ± 2.7 kg/m(2), p = 0.0032), weight (75.5 ± 11.8 vs. 70.5 ± 10.3 kg, p Spirulina maxima not only improves BMI and weight but also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function spirulina in overweight patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  9. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also...... characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. RESULTS: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class...

  10. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is normal and unrelated to insulin action in young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW) is an independent risk factor of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin...... mitochondrial dysfunction per se is the underlying key metabolic defect that explains or precedes whole body insulin resistance in LBW subjects at risk for developing type 2 diabetes....

  11. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function in the small intestine of piglets alters with age.

  12. Renal function declines more in tenofovir- than abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy in low-body weight treatment-naive patients with HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of decline of renal function in tenofovir- and abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART in low-body weight treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of 503 Japanese patients who commenced on either tenofovir- or abacavir-based initial ART. METHODS: The incidence of renal dysfunction, defined as more than 25% fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR from the baseline, was determined in each group. The effect of tenofovir on renal dysfunction was estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models as the primary exposure. Changes in eGFR until 96 weeks were estimated in both groups with a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS: The median body weight of the cohort was 64 kg. The estimated incidence of renal dysfunction in the tenofovir and the abacavir arm was 9.84 per 100 and 4.55 per 100 person-years, respectively. Tenofovir was significantly associated with renal dysfunction by univariate and multivariate analysis (HR = 1.747; 95% CI, 1.152-2.648; p = 0.009 (adjusted HR = 2.080; 95% CI, 1.339-3.232; p68 kg: adjusted HR = 0.997; 95%CI, 0.318-3.121; p = 0.995. The fall in eGFR was significantly greater in the tenofovir arm than the abacavir arm after starting ART (p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: The incidence of renal dysfunction in low body weight patients treated with tenofovir was twice as high as those treated with abacavir. Close monitoring of renal function is recommended for patients with small body weight especially those with baseline body weight <60 kg treated with tenofovir.

  13. Effects of Functional Limb Overloading on Symmetrical Weight Bearing, Walking Speed, Perceived Mobility, and Community Participation among Patients with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulwahab, Sami S; Ahmad, Fuzail; Singh, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke is a leading cause for long-term disability that often compromises the sensorimotor and gait function accompanied by spasticity. Gait abnormalities persist through the chronic stages of the condition and only a small percentage of these persons are able to walk functionally in the community. Material and Method. Patients with chronic stroke were recruited from outpatient rehabilitation unit at Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, having a history of first stroke at least six months before recruitment, with unilateral motor deficits affecting gait. The patients were randomly assigned to either the functional limb overloading (FLO) or Limb Overloading Resistance Training (LORT) group and provided four weeks of training. Result. We found that there was an improvement in gait performance, weight bearing on affected limb, and perceived mobility and community participation. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the effects of functional limb overloading training on symmetric weight bearing, walking ability, and perceived mobility and participation in chronic hemiplegic population. The study demonstrated a beneficial effect of training on all the outcomes, suggesting that the functional limb overloading training can be a useful tool in the management of gait problems in chronic stroke patients.

  14. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  15. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  16. Weight gain, body image and sexual function in young patients treated with contraceptive vaginal ring. A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Elena; Casadio, Paolo; Guasina, Francesca; Battaglia, Bruno; Mattioli, Mara; Battaglia, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Oral contraceptives could induce mood changes. As far as our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that have examined the role of vaginal contraception in self-perceived body image. To evaluate the effects of intravaginal contraception on weight gain and perceived body image in relation with the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI) and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ). Twenty-one adult (18-35 years old) eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of 25-35 days), lean (body mass index - BMI - of 19-25 kg/m(2)) women who were referred for hormonal contraception were administered the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), BDI and MFSQ. Subjects were studied in basal condition and after 6 months of therapy with vaginal contraception (NuvaRing®; Organon-Schering-Plough Italia, Milan, Italy). BMI, FRS, MFSQ and BDI. After 6 months of therapy with NuvaRing®, both body weight (60.0 ± 8.3; p = 0.050) and BMI (22.1 ± 3.1; p = 0.028) slightly, but statistically, increased. FRS and BDI showed no differences after the vaginal contraception. Hormonal contraception was associated with a significant decrease in the two-factor Italian MFSQ score. Vaginal ring seems a good alternative to other hormonal contraceptive not significantly altering the female sexuality and not influencing the FRS and BDI.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of ciclosporin in Chinese children with aplastic anemia: effects of weight, renal function and stanozolol administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-qing NI; Wei ZHAO; Jue WANG; Su ZENG; Shu-qing CHEN; Evelyne JACQZ-AIGRAIN; Zheng-yan ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for the immunosuppressant ciclosporin in Chinese children with aplastic anemia and to identify covariates influencing ciclosporin pharmacokinetics.Methods:A total of 102 children with either acquired or congenital aplastic anemia aged 8.8±3.6 years (range 0.9-17.6 years) were included.Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data for ciclosporin were collected.The population pharmacokinetic model of ciclosporin was described using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) Vl software.The final model was validated using bootstrap and normalized prediction distribution errors.Results:A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was developed.The estimated CL/F was 15.1,which was lower than those of children receiving stem cell or kidney transplant reported in the West (16.9-29.3).The weight normalized CL/F was 0.45 (range:0.27-0.70) L.h-1·kg-1.The covariate analysis identified body weight,serum creatinine and concomitant administration of the anabolic steroid stanozolol as individual factors influencing the CL/F of ciclosporin.Conclusion:Our model could be used to optimize the ciclosporin dosing regimen in Chinese children with aplastic anemia.

  18. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  19. Direct calculation of the weighting function and depth of correlation in Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry (Micro-PIV) from particle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Wieneke, Bernhard; Seemann, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Micro-PIV has become the most popular tool to measure flow profiles in microfluidics. When measuring in-plane velocities in a three dimensional flow the measured velocity depends on all particles in the images, even on defocused particles, and is given by a weighted average of the true velocity dx(z) with a weighting function W(z). W(z) depends on the optical setup as well as on the particle diameter and gradients of the flow-profile. The width of W(z) determines the height-extension of the plane in which particles can influence the measurement (Depth of Correlation, DOC). Thus the knowledge of the system dependent W(z) is crucial and can be used to reduce the errors introduced by depth-averaging the velocity field. We determine W(z) and thus the DOC using artificial double images for any given flow profile generated from particle images taken with the same optical setup as used for the PIV measurements. Experimental results for objectives with different numerical apertures (NA), different particle sizes and various out-of-plane gradients will be discussed. The resulting weighting function turns out to be quite asymmetric for air-objectives with high NAs, differing significantly in shape and width (DOC) from existing theoretical predictions.

  20. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  1. Effect of aquatic and land-based exercise programs on the pain and motor function of weight lifters with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Babakhani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral Syndrome (PFPS is one of the most common knee joint problems among the athletes. The present study was aimed to compare the effect of aquatic and land-based exercise methods on the pain level and motor function of the weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome. Methods: A total of twenty weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome participated in this quasi-experimental study. They were randomly divided to two groups of aquatic exercise and land-based exercise. Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Kujala Scale were used before and after the exercise period to measure the pain and motor function, respectively. To compare the pre-test and post-test scores of the participating groups, dependent t-test was used and to compare the differences between groups, ANOVA was applied. Results: The results of post-test showed a significant difference in both groups in terms of pain level and motor function compared to pre-test after eight weeks of strength exercise. However, the comparison of data indicated no significant difference between groups with regard to pain level and motor function. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, exercise in water and on land can reduce the pain and improve the performance of the patients with patellofemoral syndrome.

  2. Generalizations on Some Hermite-Hadamard Type Inequalities for Differentiable Convex Functions with Applications to Weighted Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banyat Sroysang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for differentiable convex functions were presented by Xi and Qi. In this paper, we present new generalizations on the Xi-Qi inequalities.

  3. Leptin and prolactin, but not corticosterone, modulate body weight and thyroid function in protein-malnourished lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, P C; Passos, M C; Dutra, S C; Bonomo, I T; Denolato, A T; Reis, A M; Moura, E G

    2006-05-01

    To understand the role of hormonal changes in the lower food ingestion and body weight in protein-restricted lactating rats as well as the higher serum T (3), higher deiodination, iodide and T (3) milk transfer, we measured maternal serum prolactin, leptin, TSH and corticosterone, which are hormones that could influence those parameters. After birth, dams were separated into: control-fed with a 23 % protein diet (n = 12) and PR (protein-restricted)-fed with an 8 % protein diet (n = 12). At the 4 (th) and 21 (st) day of lactation, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed. PR dams presented hyperleptinemia (day 4: + 20 %; day 21: + 19 %; p thyroid hormone changes observed in protein-malnourished lactating rats.

  4. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of low-calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahmanabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD is defined as a spectrum of clinical scenarios which is pathological deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients who have no history of alcohol use. This study compared the effect of low calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function in patients with NAFLD. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted in 2010 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, on 40 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of intervention and control groups. Group one received 15 mg daily sibutramine capsules half an hour before lunch and a weight loss diet based on ideal body weight. The other group only had diet control for weight reduction. Before and after 3 months of intervention, weight changes, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, levels of liver enzymes and ultrasound evaluation was repeated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired T test, Mann-Whitney and McNemar test. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 38.90 ± 7.00 in the sibutramine group and 36.55 ±7.87 for the control group. After three months, the average weight loss in sibutramine group was significantly more than the control group (sibutramine group13 kg and control group 4 kg (p<0.05. Improvement in liver echogenicity in sibutramine patients was 90% and 50% of diet group patients. ALT changes in the sibutramine group and control group was 7.50 ± 15.11 and 6.15 ± 28.23 respectively, which was statistically significant in the sibutramine group. AST changes were 4.38 ± 13.37 and 1.70 ± 18.37 in sibutramine and control group respectively. The changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, findings of this study suggest that sibutramine is effective in liver function improvement and treatment of NAFLD patients.

  6. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  7. Functional outcomes in self-care, mobility, communication, and learning in extremely low-birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    2000-06-01

    Gaps have existed in specifying degrees of severity of cerebral palsy assessment of self-care and communicative competencies, and specifying age-appropriate preschool educational and behavioral competencies. Imbedded in the concept of measuring functional status is the interaction between health and neurologic impairments, developmental challenges and competencies, family resources and disadvantages, and the child's current status. In reviewing historic outcomes of severe ROP over the past 40 years, it was noted that severe ROP caused blindness in 2% to 11% of survivors. There was a constant observation that approximately 50% of severe ROP survivors with blindness had multiple functional and developmental challenges beyond blindness alone. Similarly, in reviewing outcomes of cerebral palsy, it is imperative to describe the severity of cerebral palsy and functional consequences in motor, selfcare, communication, and learning. The reason to measure the functional status of children with neurodevelopmental impairments before first grade is that the degrees of severity of these disorders can be specified before attending school with peers. Subtler aspects of neurodevelopmental impairments need to assess impact on literacy, information learning, written language, social competencies with peers, and recreational and community participation. In this way, we can understand the vulnerabilities and resiliences of children and families of VLBW and ELBW status. This is a critical step in understanding long-term quality of life and independent living issues. In addition, our efforts can address those factors and pathways whereby multiple disabilities and multiple functional limitations cluster. Our biomedical intervention can prioritize strategies that lessen severe multiple disabilities and simultaneously support families, when despite our best efforts functional challenges are life long.

  8. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  9. Community-weighted mean traits but not functional diversity determine the changes in soil properties during wetland drying on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Epstein, Howard E.; Wen, Zhongming; Zhao, Jie; Jin, Jingwei; Jing, Guanghua; Cheng, Jimin; Du, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Climate change and human activities have caused a shift in vegetation composition and soil biogeochemical cycles of alpine wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau. The primary goal of this study was to test for associations between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits, functional diversity, and soil properties during wetland drying. We collected soil samples and investigated the aboveground vegetation in swamp, swamp meadow, and typical meadow environments. Four CWM trait values (specific leaf area is SLA, leaf dry matter content is LDMC, leaf area is LA, and mature plant height is MPH) for 42 common species were measured across the three habitats; three components of functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) were also quantified at these sites. Our results showed that the drying of the wetland dramatically altered plant community and soil properties. There was a significant correlation between CWM of traits and soil properties, but not a significant correlation between functional diversity and soil properties. Our results further showed that CWM-LA, CWM-SLA, and CWM-LDMC had positive correlations with soil readily available nutrients (available nitrogen, AN; available phosphorus, AP), but negative correlations with total soil nutrients (soil organic carbon is SOC, total nitrogen is TN, and total phosphorus is TP). Our study demonstrated that simple, quantitative plant functional traits, but not functional diversity, are directly related to soil C and N properties, and they likely play an important role in plant-soil interactions. Our results also suggest that functional identity of species may be more important than functional diversity in influencing ecosystem processes during wetland drying.

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes in Aegilops markgrafii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XUYE DU; XIAOCUN ZHANG

    2017-09-01

    The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in bread wheat are major determinants of the viscoelastic properties of dough and the end-use quality of wheat flour. Two novel HMW-GSs, 1Cx1.1 and 1Cy9.1, from the diploid speciesAegilops markgrafii (CC) were identified in the present study. The corresponding open-reading frames of the genes of 1Cx1.1 and 1Cy9.1 were isolated and sequenced using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Sequence comparison demonstrated that the HMW-GSs from Ae. markgrafii possess a similar primary structure to the homologous proteins in wheat and related species. A tandem tripeptide exists in the central repetitive domain of 1Cx1.1, and this unique structure is very rare in the HMW-GSs of other genomes. To confirm the authenticity of these isolated endogenous HMW-GS, the heterologous proteins produced by removing the signal peptides expressed by E. coli exhibited the same electrophoretic mobility as the native proteins. Subsequently, the singleprotein was purified at a sufficient scale for incorporation into flour to performsodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation testing. Notably, the SDS sedimentation volume was less with the addition of 1Cx1.1 than it was with 1Cy9.1.

  11. Higher molecular weight polyethylene glycol increases cell proliferation while improving barrier function in an in vitro colon cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shruthi; Vishnubhotla, Ramana; Shan, Sun; Chauhan, Chinmay; Cho, Michael; Glover, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been previously shown to protect against enteric pathogens and prevent colon cancer invasion. To determine if PEG could indeed protect against previously observed pro-invasive effects of commensal E. coli and EPEC, Caco-2 cells grown in an in vitro model of colon cancer were infected with strains of human commensal E. coli or EPEC and treated with 10% PEG 3350, PEG 8000, and PEG 20,000, respectively. At 24 hours after infection, MMP-1 and MMP-13 activities, cell cluster thickness, depth of invasion, and proliferation were determined using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. We found that higher molecular weight PEG, especially PEG 8000 and 20,000, regardless of bacterial infection, increased proliferation and depth of invasion although a decrease in cellular density and MMP-1 activity was also noted. Maximum proliferation and depth of invasion of Caco-2 cells was observed in scaffolds treated with a combination of commensal E. coli strain, HS4 and PEG 8000. In conclusion, we found that PEG 8000 increased cell proliferation and led to the preservation of cell density in cells treated with commensal bacteria. This is important, because the preservation of a proliferative response in colon cancer results in a more chemo-responsive tumor.

  12. Higher Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol Increases Cell Proliferation While Improving Barrier Function in an In Vitro Colon Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been previously shown to protect against enteric pathogens and prevent colon cancer invasion. To determine if PEG could indeed protect against previously observed pro-invasive effects of commensal E. coli and EPEC, Caco-2 cells grown in an in vitro model of colon cancer were infected with strains of human commensal E. coli or EPEC and treated with 10% PEG 3350, PEG 8000, and PEG 20,000, respectively. At 24 hours after infection, MMP-1 and MMP-13 activities, cell cluster thickness, depth of invasion, and proliferation were determined using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. We found that higher molecular weight PEG, especially PEG 8000 and 20,000, regardless of bacterial infection, increased proliferation and depth of invasion although a decrease in cellular density and MMP-1 activity was also noted. Maximum proliferation and depth of invasion of Caco-2 cells was observed in scaffolds treated with a combination of commensal E. coli strain, HS4 and PEG 8000. In conclusion, we found that PEG 8000 increased cell proliferation and led to the preservation of cell density in cells treated with commensal bacteria. This is important, because the preservation of a proliferative response in colon cancer results in a more chemo-responsive tumor.

  13. MORPHOLOGY EVOLUTION IN PTFE AS A FUNCTION OF MELT TIME AND TEMPERATURE Ⅰ. HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT SINGLE- AND MULTI-MOLECULE FOLDED CHAIN SINGLE CRYSTALS AND BAND STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Yang; K.L.Petersen; R.A.Williams; P.H.Geil; T.C.Long; P.Xu

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sintering dispersed dispersion and nano-emulsion particles of high molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on a substrate as a function of "melt" time and temperature is described. Folded chain single crystals parallel to the substrate and as ribbons on-edge (with double striations), as well as bands, are produced for longer sintering times; particle merger and diffusion of individual molecules, crystallizing as folded chain, single (or few) molecule,single crystals when "trapped" on the substrate by cooling occur for shorter sintering times. It is suggested the observed structures develop with sintering time, in a mesomorphic melt. The structure of the nascent particles is also discussed.

  14. 数据拟合函数的加权最小二乘积分法%The Weighted Least Squares Integral Method of Data Fitting Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程毛林

    2012-01-01

    数据拟合的方法很多,每种方法各有特点.探讨了积分准则下的数据加权拟合函数的方法,称为加权最小二乘积分法,并给出了三个常用拟合函数具体形式.%The data fitting has a good many methods, each method has itself characteristic. This paper discuss the the method of dada fitting in intergral rule, that is intituled the weighted least squares integral method, and gives three format of fitting function in common use.

  15. Maternal Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Fetal Markers of Metabolic Function and Birth Weight: The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Bouchard, Maryse F; Fisher, Mandy; Morriset, Anne-Sophie; Monnier, Patricia; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William; Platt, Robert W

    2017-01-09

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures. Further, the association between PFAS exposures and indicators of metabolic function (i.e., leptin and adiponectin) has received limited attention. We examined associations between first-trimester maternal plasma PFAS concentrations and birth weight and cord blood concentrations of leptin and adiponectin using data on 1,705 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada birth cohort study that recruited women between 2008 and 2011. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify associations and calculate credible intervals. Maternal perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight z score, though the null value was included in all credible intervals (log10 β = -0.10, 95% credible interval: -0.34, 0.13). All associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were of small magnitude and centered around the null value. Follow-up in a cohort of children is required to determine how the observed associations manifest in childhood.

  16. Updates on the relation of weight excess and reproductive function in men: sleep apnea as a new area of interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad O Hammoud; Douglas T Carrell; Mark Gibson; C Matthew Peterson; A Wayne Meikle

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on male reproductive function.It is associated with low testosterone levels and alteration in gonadotropin secretion.Male obesity has been linked to reduced male fertility.Data regarding the relation of obesity to sperm parameters are conflicting in terms of the nature and magnitude of the effect.New areas of interest are emerging that can help explain the variation in study results,such as genetic polymorphism and sleep apnea.Sleep disorders have been linked to altered testosterone production and hypogonadism in men.It was also correlated to erectile dysfunction.The relation of sleep disorders to male fertility and sperm parameters remains to be investigated.Men with hypogonadism and infertility should be screened for sleep apnea.Treatment of obesity and sleep apnea improves testosterone levels and erectile function.

  17. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Ribeiro Parisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. Objectives: This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. Results: No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05. Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005. Conclusion: The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  18. EFFICACY OF WEIGHT BEARING DISTAL TIBIOFIBULAR JOINT MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT (MWM IN IMPROVING PAIN, DORSIFLEXION RANGE AND FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Nisha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various treatments in physiotherapy are available for ankle sprain with no consensus like taping, bracing, splinting, cryotherapy, electrotherapy modality like ultrasound, laser therapy, interferential therapy and HVGS, joint mobilization. Mulligan’s mobilizations-with movement (MWM have been proposed as novel manual therapy technique to improve joint ROM by combining physiological and accessory joint movements. He developed a suite of treatment techniques on the basis of his theory of positional faults and altered joint kinematics following injuries affecting spinal and peripheral joints. Objective: To find out the efficacy of distal tibiofibular joint MWM in conjunction with conventional treatment over conventional treatment alone for improving pain , dorsiflexion range and lower extremity function in patients with post acute lateral ankle sprain. Subject and methods: 30 lateral ankle sprain subjects were randomized into 2 groups:- Group 1(n=15 were received distal tibiofibular joint MWM along with conventional treatment and Group 2 (n=15 subjects were received conventional treatment only. Treatment consist of 3 sessions spread over 1 week, each session 48 hours apart and data is recorded at beginning and end of treatment regimen. Results: Independent t-test showed statistical significant improvement in only weight bearing lunge measure for dorsiflexion (p=0.008 in group 1 over group 2 and paired t-test was used for within group analysis which showed significant improvement in both the groups in all the outcome variables (p=0.000 Discussion and conclusion: Both the groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain, range and lower extremity function in lateral ankle sprain and distal tibiofibular joint mobilization with movement in conjunction with conventional treatment will be significantly more effective than conventional treatment alone in improving weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range (Weight bearing lunge measure in

  19. Evaluating g-ratio weighted changes in the corpus callosum as a function of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Shai; West, Kathryn L; Does, Mark D; Yeatman, Jason D; Mezer, Aviv A

    2017-06-30

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in relating MRI measurements to the structural-biophysical properties of white matter fibers. The fiber g-ratio, defined as the ratio between the inner and outer radii of the axon myelin sheath, is an important structural property of white matter, affecting signal conduction. Recently proposed modeling methods that use a combination of quantitative-MRI signals, enable a measurement of the fiber g-ratio in vivo. Here we use an MRI-based g-ratio estimation to observe the variance of the g-ratio within the corpus callosum, and evaluate sex and age related differences. To estimate the g-ratio we used a model (Stikov et al., 2011; Duval et al., 2017) based on two different WM microstructure parameters: the relative amounts of myelin (myelin volume fraction, MVF) and fibers (fiber volume fraction, FVF) in a voxel. We derived the FVF from the fractional anisotropy (FA), and estimated the MVF by using the lipid and macromolecular tissue volume (MTV), calculated from the proton density (Mezer et al., 2013). In comparison to other methods of estimating the MVF, MTV represents a stable parameter with a straightforward route of acquisition. To establish our model, we first compared histological MVF measurements (West et al., 2016) with the MRI derived MTV. We then implemented our model on a large database of 92 subjects (44 males), aged 7 to 81, in order to evaluate age and sex related changes within the corpus callosum. Our results show that the MTV provides a good estimation of MVF for calculating g-ratio, and produced values from the corpus callosum that correspond to those found in animals ex vivo and are close to the theoretical optimum, as well as to published in vivo data. Our results demonstrate that the MTV derived g-ratio provides a simple and reliable in vivo g-ratio-weighted (GR*) measurement in humans. In agreement with theoretical predictions, and unlike other tissue parameters measured with MRI, the g

  20. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  1. Intensive practical lifestyle intervention improves endothelial function in metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Beatriz G S; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Santos, Angela S B; Foppa, Murilo; Junges, Mauricio; Bonzanini, Laisa; Nicolaidis, Gabriela; Camey, Suzi; Lopes, André L; Sehl, Paulo; Duncan, Bruce B; Clausell, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the metabolic and vascular effects of lifestyle interventions involving a healthy diet and either a moderate- or a high-intensity exercise regimen in nondiabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome. The effects of these interventions on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and risk profiles were compared with a standard low-fat diet and engaging in daily walking (standard of care). Seventy-five healthy adults with metabolic syndrome (30-55 years old) were randomized to a 10,000-steps-a-day exercise program, a 3-times-a-week fitness (>75% peak VO(2)) program, or a 1-hour-walking-a-day program for 12 weeks. The first 2 interventions were combined with an accessible healthy, no-sugar diet; and the third was combined with a tailored low-fat diet. The outcomes, including FMD and risk factors, were examined at 12 weeks and at 1-year reassessment. Significant increase in FMD (mean difference = 1.51%, 95% confidence interval = 1.05%-3.017%, P = .0007) and decrease in arterial pressure (mean difference = 19.3 ± 2.3/-12.6 ± 1.8 mm Hg, P = .0001) were observed in all groups. However, the FMD changed most favorably in the high-intensity, low-sugar group (mean difference = 1.56%, 95% confidence interval = 0.1%-3.02%, P = .036). Significant improvements in body mass index, waist, insulin-like growth factor-1, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, glucose, urinary albumin excretion, and lipid profiles occurred in all groups. Metabolic syndrome was resolved in 64%. One year later, weight loss (-9.1 ± 2.3 kg, P = .0001) and arterial pressure decrease (-18.5 ± 2.3/-12.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg, P = .0001) were maintained. Practical, health-centered diet combined with high-intensity exercise is associated with enhanced vascular protection. These data suggest that more intense exercise combined with a low-sugar diet modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of dynamic ankle-foot orthoses on functional ambulation activities, weight bearing and spatio-temporal characteristics of hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suat, Erel; Fatma, Uygur; Nilgün, Bek

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (DAFOs) on functional ambulation activities, weight bearing and spatio-temporal characteristics of hemiparetic gait and to inquire whether wearing a DAFO for 3 months has a carryover effect. Fourteen chronic hemiparetic patients who could walk independently with or without a cane were the subjects of the study. Patients were assessed initially with tennis shoes and were given custom fabricated DAFOs which they wore for three months and were retested under two conditions: with tennis shoes only and with DAFOs worn in these shoes. All patients were assessed for weight bearing percentage of the affected side, cadence, step length of the involved and uninvolved sides, step width, functional reach, timed up and go, timed down stairs, timed up stairs, physiologic cost index and velocity. Comparison of initial and third month assessments with shoes only condition showed that there was no significant improvement for the measured parameters. When comparison was made at the third month while patients were wearing tennis shoes only and when they were wearing DAFO's in their shoes there was a significant difference in favour of the condition where patients were wearing DAFOs. The benefits of using DAFOs in chronic hemiparetic patients are lost when the patients are not wearing their orthoses.

  3. 2D and 3D T2-weighted MR sequences for the assessment of neurovascular bundle changes after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy with erectile function correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Osimani, Marcello; Lisi, Danilo; Passariello, Roberto [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' -Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Sciarra, Alessandro; Ciccariello, Mauro; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Di Silverio, Franco [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' -Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the capability of a 3D isotropic MRI T2-weighted sequence (3D T2 ISO) in the depiction of changes of neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, our aim was also to introduce a new MRI classification score of the NVB alteration patterns using the International Index Erectile Function Five-Item (IIEF-5) score as standard of reference. Fifty-three consecutive patients were postoperatively submitted to two MR examinations, including both 2D TSE T2-weighted (2D T2) and 3D T2 ISO sequences. Image findings were scored using a relative five-point classification and correlated with the postoperative IIEF-5 score. Radiologists attributed 13.2% of patients to class 0, 11.3% to class I, 34% to class II, 24.5% to class III, and 16.9% to class IV. With 3D T2 ISO images, the same radiologists determined 43.3% class 0, 32% class I, 11.4% class II, 7.5% class III, and 5.7% class IV. In all cases, the correlation and regression analysis between the 3D T2 ISO and IIEF-5 score resulted in higher coefficients values. The 3D sequence correlated most closely with patients' grading of erectile function. (orig.)

  4. 2D and 3D T2-weighted MR sequences for the assessment of neurovascular bundle changes after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy with erectile function correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Osimani, Marcello; Lisi, Danilo; Ciccariello, Mauro; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Di Silverio, Franco; Passariello, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the capability of a 3D isotropic MRI T2-weighted sequence (3D T2 ISO) in the depiction of changes of neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, our aim was also to introduce a new MRI classification score of the NVB alteration patterns using the International Index Erectile Function Five-Item (IIEF-5) score as standard of reference. Fifty-three consecutive patients were postoperatively submitted to two MR examinations, including both 2D TSE T2-weighted (2D T2) and 3D T2 ISO sequences. Image findings were scored using a relative five-point classification and correlated with the postoperative IIEF-5 score. Radiologists attributed 13.2% of patients to class 0, 11.3% to class I, 34% to class II, 24.5% to class III, and 16.9% to class IV. With 3D T2 ISO images, the same radiologists determined 43.3% class 0, 32% class I, 11.4% class II, 7.5% class III, and 5.7% class IV. In all cases, the correlation and regression analysis between the 3D T2 ISO and IIEF-5 score resulted in higher coefficients values. The 3D sequence correlated most closely with patients' grading of erectile function.

  5. Multimodal Discrimination of Schizophrenia Using Hybrid Weighted Feature Concatenation of Brain Functional Connectivity and Anatomical Features with an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal features of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the human brain can assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We performed a classification study on age, sex, and handedness-matched subjects. The dataset we used is publicly available from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE and it consists of two groups: patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We performed an independent component analysis and calculated global averaged functional connectivity-based features from the resting-state functional MRI data for all the cortical and subcortical anatomical parcellation. Cortical thickness along with standard deviation, surface area, volume, curvature, white matter volume, and intensity measures from the cortical parcellation, as well as volume and intensity from sub-cortical parcellation and overall volume of cortex features were extracted from the structural MRI data. A novel hybrid weighted feature concatenation method was used to acquire maximal 99.29% (P < 0.0001 accuracy which preserves high discriminatory power through the weight of the individual feature type. The classification was performed by an extreme learning machine, and its efficiency was compared to linear and non-linear (radial basis function support vector machines, linear discriminant analysis, and random forest bagged tree ensemble algorithms. This article reports the predictive accuracy of both unimodal and multimodal features after 10-by-10-fold nested cross-validation. A permutation test followed the classification experiment to assess the statistical significance of the classification results. It was concluded that, from a clinical perspective, this feature concatenation approach may assist the clinicians in schizophrenia diagnosis.

  6. A novel weighted density functional theory for adsorption, fluid-solid interfacial tension, and disjoining properties of simple liquid films on planar solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-07-14

    A novel weighted density functional theory (WDFT) for an inhomogeneous 12-6 Lennard-Jones fluid is proposed based on the modified fundamental measure theory for repulsive contribution, the mean-field approximation for attractive contribution, and the first-order mean-spherical approximation with a weighted density for correlation contribution. Extensive comparisons of the theoretical results with molecular simulation and experimental data indicate that the new WDFT yields accurate density profiles, adsorption isotherms, fluid-solid interfacial tensions, as well as disjoining potentials and pressures of simple gases such as argon, nitrogen, methane, ethane, and neon confined in slitlike pores or near graphitic solid surfaces. The present WDFT performs better than the nonlocal density functional theory, which is frequently used in the study of adsorption on porous materials. Since the proposed theory possesses a good dimensional crossover and is able to correctly reduce to two-dimensional case, it performs very well even in very narrow pores. In addition, the present WDFT reproduces very well the supercritical fluid-solid interfacial tensions, whereas the theory of Sweatman underestimates them at high bulk densities. The present WDFT predicts that the increase in the fluid-wall attraction may change the sign of the interfacial tension and hence may make the wall from "phobic" to "philic" with respect to the fluid. The new WDFT is computationally as simple and efficient as the mean-field theory and avoids the second-order direct correlation function as an input. It provides a universal way to construct the excess Helmholtz free-energy functional for inhomogeneous fluids such as Yukawa, square-well, and Sutherland fluids.

  7. Cuckoo Search with Lévy Flights for Weighted Bayesian Energy Functional Optimization in Global-Support Curve Data Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2014-01-01

    for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  8. Unsupervised learning of generative and discriminative weights encoding elementary image components in a predictive coding model of cortical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M W

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for learning the reciprocal feedforward and feedback connections required by the predictive coding model of cortical function. When this method is used, feedforward and feedback connections are learned simultaneously and independently in a biologically plausible manner. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it to learning the elementary components of artificial and natural images. For artificial images, the bars problem is employed, and the proposed algorithm is shown to produce state-of-the-art performance on this task. For natural images, components resembling Gabor functions are learned in the first processing stage, and neurons responsive to corners are learned in the second processing stage. The properties of these learned representations are in good agreement with neurophysiological data from V1 and V2. The proposed algorithm demonstrates for the first time that a single computational theory can explain the formation of cortical RFs and also the response properties of cortical neurons once those RFs have been learned.

  9. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  10. Nehari manifold for non-local elliptic operator with concave–convex nonlinearities and sign-changing weight functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarika Goyal; K Sreenadh

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of non-negative solutions of the following p-fractional equation: \\begin{equation*} \\left\\{ \\begin{matrix} -2 {\\displaystyle\\int}_{\\mathbb{R}^n} \\frac{|u(y) - u (x)|^{p-2} (u(y)-u(x))}{|x-y|^{n+p}} dy = h (x) |u|^{q-1} u + b (x)|u|^{r-1} u \\text{ in } ,\\\\ u = 0 \\quad \\text{ in } \\mathbb{R}^n \\setminus , \\quad u \\in W^{,p} (\\mathbb{R}^n) \\end{matrix} \\right. \\end{equation*} where is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ with continuous boundary, $p ≥ 2$, $n > p $, $ \\in (0,1)$, $0 < q < p -1 < r < p^* - 1$ with $p^* = np (n -p)^{-1}$, $ > 0$ and $h, b$ are signchanging continuous functions. We show the existence and multiplicity of solutions by minimization on the suitable subset of Nehari manifold using the fibering maps. We find that there exists 0 such that for $ \\in (0, _0)$, it has at least two non-negative solutions.

  11. Reduction of Mitochondrial Function by FCCP During Mouse Cleavage Stage Embryo Culture Reduces Birth Weight and Impairs the Metabolic Health of Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander-Fox, Deirdre L; Fullston, Tod; McPherson, Nicole O; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Good, Suzanne B; Spillane, Marni; Lane, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    The periconceptual environment represents a critical window for programming fetal growth trajectories and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for programming remains elusive. This study demonstrates a causal link between reduction of precompaction embryonic mitochondrial function and perturbed offspring growth trajectories and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. Incubation of embryos with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in 8-cell embryos and the number of inner cell mass cells within blastocysts; however, blastocyst development was unchanged. This perturbed embryonic mitochondrial function was concomitant with reduced birth weight in female offspring following embryo transfer, which persisted until weaning. FCCP-treated females also exhibited increased adiposity at 4 wk, increased adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk, glucose intolerance at 8 wk, and insulin resistance at 14 wk. Although FCCP-treated males also exhibited reduced glucose tolerance, but their insulin sensitivity and adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk was unchanged. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that reducing mitochondrial function and, thus, decreasing ATP output in the precompacting embryo can influence offspring phenotype. This is of great significance as a large proportion of patients requiring assisted reproductive technologies are of advanced maternal age or have a high body mass index, both of which have been independently linked with perturbed early embryonic mitochondrial function.

  12. Estimating Age Distributions of Base Flow in Watersheds Underlain by Single and Dual Porosity Formations Using Groundwater Transport Simulation and Weighted Weibull Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Age distributions of base flow to streams are important to estimate for predicting the timing of water-quality responses to changes in distributed inputs of nutrients or pollutants at the land surface. Simple models of shallow aquifers will predict exponential age distributions, but more realistic 3-D stream-aquifer geometries will cause deviations from an exponential curve. In addition, in fractured rock terrains the dual nature of the effective and total porosity of the system complicates the age distribution further. In this study shallow groundwater flow and advective transport were simulated in two regions in the Eastern United States—the Delmarva Peninsula and the upper Potomac River basin. The former is underlain by layers of unconsolidated sediment, while the latter consists of folded and fractured sedimentary rocks. Transport of groundwater to streams was simulated using the USGS code MODPATH within 175 and 275 watersheds, respectively. For the fractured rock terrain, calculations were also performed along flow pathlines to account for exchange between mobile and immobile flow zones. Porosities at both sites were calibrated using environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFCs and SF6) in wells and springs, and with a 30-year tritium record from the Potomac River. Carbonate and siliciclastic rocks were calibrated to have mobile porosity values of one and six percent, and immobile porosity values of 18 and 12 percent, respectively. The age distributions were fitted to Weibull functions. Whereas an exponential function has one parameter that controls the median age of the distribution, a Weibull function has an extra parameter that controls the slope of the curve. A weighted Weibull function was also developed that potentially allows for four parameters, two that control the median age and two that control the slope, one of each weighted toward early or late arrival times. For both systems the two-parameter Weibull function nearly always produced a substantially

  13. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation; Diffusionsgewichtete MRT zur Funktionsdiagnostik der Glandula submandibularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R. [Zentrum fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Intervention, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions (Germany); Petersen, K. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Kopf und Hautzentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm{sup 2}, 500 sec/mm{sup 2} and 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10{sup -3

  14. Density functional theory for the description of spherical non-associating monomers in confined media using the SAFT-VR equation of state and weighted density approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Carine; Mendiboure, Bruno; Plantier, Frédéric; Blas, Felipe J; Miqueu, Christelle

    2014-04-07

    As a first step of an ongoing study of thermodynamic properties and adsorption of complex fluids in confined media, we present a new theoretical description for spherical monomers using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for potential of Variable Range (SAFT-VR) and a Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) with Weighted Density Approximations (WDA). The well-known Modified Fundamental Measure Theory is used to describe the inhomogeneous hard-sphere contribution as a reference for the monomer and two WDA approaches are developed for the dispersive terms from the high-temperature Barker and Henderson perturbation expansion. The first approach extends the dispersive contributions using the scalar and vector weighted densities introduced in the Fundamental Measure Theory (FMT) and the second one uses a coarse-grained (CG) approach with a unique weighted density. To test the accuracy of this new NLDFT/SAFT-VR coupling, the two versions of the theoretical model are compared with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) molecular simulations using the same molecular model. Only the version with the "CG" approach for the dispersive terms provides results in excellent agreement with GCMC calculations in a wide range of conditions while the "FMT" extension version gives a good representation solely at low pressures. Hence, the "CG" version of the theoretical model is used to reproduce methane adsorption isotherms in a Carbon Molecular Sieve and compared with experimental data after a characterization of the material. The whole results show an excellent agreement between modeling and experiments. Thus, through a complete and consistent comparison both with molecular simulations and with experimental data, the NLDFT/SAFT-VR theory has been validated for the description of monomers.

  15. Density functional theory for the description of spherical non-associating monomers in confined media using the SAFT-VR equation of state and weighted density approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Carine; Mendiboure, Bruno; Plantier, Frédéric; Blas, Felipe J.; Miqueu, Christelle

    2014-04-01

    As a first step of an ongoing study of thermodynamic properties and adsorption of complex fluids in confined media, we present a new theoretical description for spherical monomers using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for potential of Variable Range (SAFT-VR) and a Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) with Weighted Density Approximations (WDA). The well-known Modified Fundamental Measure Theory is used to describe the inhomogeneous hard-sphere contribution as a reference for the monomer and two WDA approaches are developed for the dispersive terms from the high-temperature Barker and Henderson perturbation expansion. The first approach extends the dispersive contributions using the scalar and vector weighted densities introduced in the Fundamental Measure Theory (FMT) and the second one uses a coarse-grained (CG) approach with a unique weighted density. To test the accuracy of this new NLDFT/SAFT-VR coupling, the two versions of the theoretical model are compared with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) molecular simulations using the same molecular model. Only the version with the "CG" approach for the dispersive terms provides results in excellent agreement with GCMC calculations in a wide range of conditions while the "FMT" extension version gives a good representation solely at low pressures. Hence, the "CG" version of the theoretical model is used to reproduce methane adsorption isotherms in a Carbon Molecular Sieve and compared with experimental data after a characterization of the material. The whole results show an excellent agreement between modeling and experiments. Thus, through a complete and consistent comparison both with molecular simulations and with experimental data, the NLDFT/SAFT-VR theory has been validated for the description of monomers.

  16. ABCC8 R1420H Loss-of-Function Variant in a Southwest American Indian Community: Association With Increased Birth Weight and Doubled Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Leslie J; Muller, Yunhua Li; Remedi, Maria Sara; Traurig, Michael; Piaggi, Paolo; Wiessner, Gregory; Huang, Ke; Stacy, Alyssa; Kobes, Sayuko; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nichols, Colin G; Bogardus, Clifton

    2015-12-01

    Missense variants in KCNJ11 and ABCC8, which encode the KIR6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the β-cell KATP channel, have previously been implicated in type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HHI). To determine whether variation in these genes affects risk for type 2 diabetes or increased birth weight as a consequence of fetal hyperinsulinemia in Pima Indians, missense and common noncoding variants were analyzed in individuals living in the Gila River Indian Community. A R1420H variant in SUR1 (ABCC8) was identified in 3.3% of the population (N = 7,710). R1420H carriers had higher mean birth weights and a twofold increased risk for type 2 diabetes with a 7-year earlier onset age despite being leaner than noncarriers. One individual homozygous for R1420H was identified; retrospective review of his medical records was consistent with HHI and a diagnosis of diabetes at age 3.5 years. In vitro studies showed that the R1420H substitution decreases KATP channel activity. Identification of this loss-of-function variant in ABCC8 with a carrier frequency of 3.3% affects clinical care as homozygous inheritance and potential HHI will occur in 1/3,600 births in this American Indian population.

  17. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (pacrylamide.

  18. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  19. Electromyographic preactivation pattern of the gluteus medius during weight-bearing functional tasks in women with and without anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Muniz, Thiago B; Baldon, Rodrigo M; Maciel, Carlos D; Amorim, César F; Serrão, Fábio V

    2011-01-01

    Proximal factors have been proposed to influence the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. A delayed or diminished gluteus medius (GM) activation, before the foot contact on the ground during functional activities could lead to excessive femur adduction and internal rotation and be associated with anterior knee pain (AKP). There are few studies on this topic and the results were inconclusive, therefore, it is necessary to investigate the GM preactivation pattern during functional activities. To compare the GM electromyographic (EMG) preactivation pattern during walking, descending stairs and in single leg jump task in women with and without AKP. Nine women clinically diagnosed with AKP and ten control subjects with no history of knee injury participated in this study. We evaluated GM EMG linear envelope before the foot contact on the ground during walking and GM onset time and EMG linear envelope during descending stairs as well as in a single leg vertical jump. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine the between-group differences in GM EMG preactivation pattern. No between-group differences were observed in GM linear envelope during walking (P=0.41), GM onset time and linear envelope during descending stairs (P=0.17 and P=0.15) and single leg jump (P=0.81 and P=0.33). Women with AKP did not demonstrated altered GM preactivation pattern during functional weight bearing activities. Our results did not support the hypothesis that poor GM preactivation pattern could be associated with AKP.

  20. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution for accurate residue function estimation via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization: a preclinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong; Gong, Changfei; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Zhang; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for quick diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of dynamic MPCT imaging is the heavy radiation dose to patients due to its dynamic image acquisition protocol. In this work, to address this issue, we present a robust dynamic MPCT deconvolution algorithm via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation (AwTTV) regularization for accurate residue function estimation with low-mA s data acquisitions. For simplicity, the presented method is termed ‘MPD-AwTTV’. More specifically, the gains of the AwTTV regularization over the original tensor total variation regularization are from the anisotropic edge property of the sequential MPCT images. To minimize the associative objective function we propose an efficient iterative optimization strategy with fast convergence rate in the framework of an iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. We validate and evaluate the presented algorithm using both digital XCAT phantom and preclinical porcine data. The preliminary experimental results have demonstrated that the presented MPD-AwTTV deconvolution algorithm can achieve remarkable gains in noise-induced artifact suppression, edge detail preservation, and accurate flow-scaled residue function and MPHM estimation as compared with the other existing deconvolution algorithms in digital phantom studies, and similar gains can be obtained in the porcine data experiment.

  1. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05 and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47 than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79. FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  2. Automated development of linguistic-fuzzy classifier membership functions and weights for use in disparate sensor integration visible and infrared imaging sensor classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce N.; Birenzvige, Amnon

    2004-04-01

    In support of the Disparate Sensor Integration (DSI) Program a number of imaging sensors were fielded to determine the feasibility of using information from these systems to discriminate between chemical and conventional munitions. The camera systems recorded video from 160 training and 100 blind munitions detonation events. Two types of munitions were used; 155 mm conventional rounds and 155 mm chemical simulant rounds. In addition two different modes of detonation were used with these two classes of munitions; detonation on impact (point detonation) and detonation in the air (airblasts). The cameras fielded included two visible wavelength cameras, a near infrared camera (peak responsivity of approximately 1μm), a mid wavelength infrared camera system (3 μm to 5 μm) and a long wavelength infrared camera system (7.5 μm to 13 μm). Our recent work has involved developing Linguistic-Fuzzy Classifiers for performing munitions detonation classification with the DSI visible and infrared imaging sensors data sets. In this initial work, the classifiers were heuristically developed based on analyses of the training data features distributions. In these initial classification systems both the membership functions and the feature weights were hand developed and tuned. We have recently developed new methodologies to automatically generate membership functions and weights in Linguistic-Fuzzy Classifiers. This paper will describe this new methodology and provide an example of its efficacy for separating munitions detonation events into either air or point detonation. This is a critical initial step in achieving the overall goal of DSI; the classification of detonation events as either chemical or conventional. Further, the detonation mode is important as it significantly effects the dispersion of agents. The results presented in this paper clearly demonstrate that the automatically developed classifiers perform as well in this classification task as the previously developed

  3. Design of apodized weighting SAW temperature sensor based on Hamming function%基于Hamming函数变迹加权SAW温度传感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢小荣; 刘文; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    A 431.5 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensor was preprared with selecting a special tangential piezoelectric crystal, and processing the electrode length of the interdigital transducer (IDT) by apodized weighting using Hamming function. The impact of Hamming function on restraining the frequency response sidelobe of IDT was researched. The temperature-frequency characteristic test was done in order to study the performance of the prepared SAW temperature sensor such as the sensitivity, accuracy and so on. The simulation and measurement results show that the apodized weighting method based on Hamming function can restrain the out-of-band response of IDT more than 50 dB, and the impact of Hamming function on restraining sidelobe is obvious. The measurement error of the prepared SAW temperature sensor is less than 0.5 ℃, and the sensitivity of it is up to 7.79 kHz/℃, the temperature-frequency characteristic is linear in the temperature range of-20-+120 ℃.%选取特定切向的压电晶体,用Hamming函数对叉指换能器的电极长度进行变迹加权,制作了一个谐振频率为431.5 MHz的声表面波温度传感器,研究了Hamming加权函数对叉指换能器频率响应旁瓣的抑制效果,并进行了温度-频率特性测试实验,研究了传感器的灵敏度、精度等性能.仿真和测试结果表明:基于Hamming函数变迹加权的叉指换能器带外抑制大于50 dB,旁瓣抑制效果显著.其声表面波温度传感器的测量误差小于0.5℃,灵敏度( 7.79 kHz/℃)较好,在-20~+120℃范围内,频率-温度特性呈现出良好的线性特征.

  4. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  5. A compendium of human genes regulating feeding behavior and body weight, its functional characterization and identification of GWAS genes involved in brain-specific PPI network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, Elena V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Saik, Olga V; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2016-12-22

    Obesity is heritable. It predisposes to many diseases. The objectives of this study were to create a compendium of genes relevant to feeding behavior (FB) and/or body weight (BW) regulation; to construct and to analyze networks formed by associations between genes/proteins; and to identify the most significant genes, biological processes/pathways, and tissues/organs involved in BW regulation. The compendium of genes controlling FB or BW includes 578 human genes. Candidate genes were identified from various sources, including previously published original research and review articles, GWAS meta-analyses, and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). All genes were ranked according to knowledge about their biological role in body weight regulation and classified according to expression patterns or functional characteristics. Substantial and overrepresented numbers of genes from the compendium encoded cell surface receptors, signaling molecules (hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines), transcription factors, signal transduction proteins, cilium and BBSome components, and lipid binding proteins or were present in the brain-specific list of tissue-enriched genes identified with TSEA tool. We identified 27 pathways from KEGG, REACTOME and BIOCARTA whose genes were overrepresented in the compendium. Networks formed by physical interactions or homological relationships between proteins or interactions between proteins involved in biochemical/signaling pathways were reconstructed and analyzed. Subnetworks and clusters identified by the MCODE tool included genes/proteins associated with cilium morphogenesis, signal transduction proteins (particularly, G protein-coupled receptors, kinases or proteins involved in response to insulin stimulus) and transcription regulation (particularly nuclear receptors). We ranked GWAS genes according to the number of neighbors in three networks and revealed 22 GWAS genes involved in the brain-specific PPI network. On the base of the most

  6. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  7. Reliability and validity of the sequential weight-shifting test: a new functional approach to the assessment of the sitting balance of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken Y T; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The evaluation of sitting balance is important for the prevention of falls in older adults, especially those who have a disability involving the lower extremities. However, no studies have been designed to assess a patient's dynamic sitting balance using a sequential protocol. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the sequential weight-shifting (SWS) test. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three older adults who were physically dependent with regard to ambulation were recruited by convenience sampling. In study 1, 10 participants performed the SWS test and repeated the procedure 1 week later. In study 2, 23 participants were assessed using the SWS test, forward and lateral reach tests in a sitting position, tests of shoulder flexor and hand grip strength, an eye-hand coordination test, mobility tests, and pulmonary function tests. The test-retest reliability of the SWS test and its correlations with the different physical dimensions were examined. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient (3,1) of the SWS test was 0.67. The results of the SWS test correlated significantly with forward reach in the sitting position, arm muscle strength, eye-hand coordination, mobility, and pulmonary function (all pbalance.

  8. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  9. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T{sub 1}-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T{sub 1} W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186{+-}0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987{+-}0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p<0.001), while T{sub 2}-weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239{+-}0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174{+-}0.097) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and deterioration of ICG R{sub 15} (r=0.501, p<0.005), prolongation of prothrombine time (r=-0.392, p<0.05) and decrease of choline esterase (r=-0.336, p<0.05). There was, however, little correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and ammonia and Fisher ratio. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between high intensity of globus pallidus on T{sub 1}-WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author).

  10. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.

  11. Correlations between functional imaging markers derived from PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchen Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlations between functional imaging markers derived from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and follicular lymphoma (FL. Further to compare the usefulness of these tumor markers in differentiating diagnosis of the two common types of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive pre-therapy adult patients with proven NHL (23 DLBCL and 11 FL underwent PET/CT and MRI examinations and laboratory tests. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max, metabolic tumor volume (MTV, and metabolic tumor burden (MTB were determined from the PET/CT images. DWI was performed in addition to conventional MRI sequences using two b values (0 and 800 s/mm(2. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC(min and ADC(mean were measured on the parametric ADC maps. RESULTS: The SUV(max correlated inversely with the ADC(min (r =  -0.35, p<0.05. The ADC(min, ADC(mean, serum thymidine kinase (TK, Beta 2-microglobulin (B2m, lactate dehydrogenase (LD, and C-reactive protein (CRP correlated with both whole-body MTV and whole-body MTB (p<0.05 or 0.01. The SUV(max, TK, LD, and CRP were significantly higher in the DLBCL group than in the FL group. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that they were reasonable predictors in differentiating DLBCL from FL. CONCLUSIONS: The functional imaging markers determined from PET/CT and DWI are associated, and the SUV(max is superior to the ADC(min in differentiating DLBCL from FL. All the measured serum markers are associated with functional imaging markers. Serum LD, TK, and CRP are useful in differentiating DLBCL from FL.

  12. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in Locoregional Therapy Outcome Prediction and Response Assessment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC: The New Era of Functional Imaging Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M. Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable response criteria are critical for the evaluation of therapeutic response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Current response assessment is mainly based on: (1 changes in size, which is at times unreliable and lag behind the result of therapy; and (2 contrast enhancement, which can be difficult to quantify in the presence of benign post-procedural changes and in tumors presenting with a heterogeneous pattern of enhancement. Given these challenges, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI have been recently investigated, aiding specificity to locoregional therapy response assessment and outcome prediction. Briefly, DWI quantifies diffusion of water occurring naturally at a cellular level (Brownian movement, which is restricted in multiple neoplasms because of high cellularity. Disruption of cellular integrity secondary to therapy results in increased water diffusion across the injured membranes. This review will provide an overview of the current literature on DWI therapy response assessment and outcome prediction in HCC following treatment with locoregional therapies.

  13. Adaptive smoothing of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging data by generalized cross-validation improves Q-ball orientation distribution function reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, Nader S; Hu, Xiaoping P; Carew, John D

    2010-09-01

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) is a high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) technique for reconstructing the orientation distribution function (ODF). Some form of smoothing or regularization is typically required in the ODF reconstruction from low signal-to-noise ratio HARDI data. The amount of smoothing or regularization is usually set a priori at the discretion of the investigator. In this article, we apply an adaptive and objective means of smoothing the raw HARDI data using the smoothing splines on the sphere method with generalized cross-validation (GCV) to estimate the diffusivity profile in each voxel. Subsequently, we reconstruct the ODF, from the smoothed data, based on the Funk-Radon transform (FRT) used in QBI. The spline method was applied to both simulated data and in vivo human brain data. Simulated data show that the smoothing splines on the sphere method with GCV smoothing reduces the mean squared error in estimates of the ODF as compared with the standard analytical QBI approach. The human data demonstrate the utility of the method for estimating smooth ODFs.

  14. The use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nigel D; Jacobson, Rob J; Taylor, Anna; Wargent, Jason J; Moore, Jason P

    2005-01-01

    Plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. This can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. We have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of UV compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of UV or (c) increased the ratio of red (R) : far-red (FR) radiation. Both the UV-transparent and R : FR increasing films reduced leaf area and biomass, offering potential alternatives to chemical growth regulators. The UV-opaque film increased growth, but while this may be useful in some crops, there were trade-offs with elements of quality, such as pigmentation and taste. UV manipulation may also influence disease control. Increasing UV inhibited not only the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea but also the disease biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Unlike B. cinerea, T. harzianum was highly sensitive to UV-A radiation. These fungal responses and those for plant growth in the growth room and the field under different plastics are analyzed in terms of alternative biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF). The role of BSWF in assessing general patterns of response to UV modification in horticulture is also discussed.

  15. Barrel Weight Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Process 16 Prototype Hardware Testing and Results 17 Barrel Weight 17 Functional Testing 17 Barrel Deflection 18 Drop Test 19 Thermal Test 20 References 23...measurements were compliant. 19 Thermal Test As discussed in the Transient Analysis Model Verification section of this report, the analytical results from the

  16. Season and Weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hayati

    Efficiency of growth is a function of metabolisable energy retained relative to that which is .... distribution of other sexes in certain housing, initial weight or season categories ..... Fox, D.G., Johnson, R.R., Preston, R.L. & Dockerty, T.R., 1972.

  17. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  18. Normal insulin-stimulated endothelial function and impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in young adults with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, T S; Rask-Madsen, C; Ihlemann, N

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked to insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that insulin sensitivity of both muscle and vascular tissues were impaired in young men with low birth weight. Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography during dose-response studies...... infusion increased glucose uptake significantly in the normal birth weight group, compared with the low birth weight group: 0.40 +/- 0.09 to 1.00 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.09 to 0.59 +/- 0.1 [ micro mol glucose x (100 ml forearm)(-1) x min(-1)], P = 0.04. Young men with low birth weight have normal insulin...

  19. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  20. On the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function belonging to weighted $ W(L^p,\\xi(t$ class by matrix summability means of conjugate series of a Fourier series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new theorem on the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function belonging to weighted $ W(L^p,\\xi(t$ class by Matrix summability means of conjugate series of a Fourier series has been established. The main theorem is a generalization of serveral known and unknown results.

  1. Treadmill training with partial body weight support compared with conventional gait training for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy: a two-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chung, Kenny K Y; Chow, Daniel H K

    2013-12-01

    Partial body weight-supported treadmill training has been shown to be effective in gait training for patients with neurological disorders such as spinal cord injuries and stroke. Recent applications on children with cerebral palsy were reported, mostly on spastic cerebral palsy with single subject design. There is lack of evidence on the effectiveness of such training for nonspastic cerebral palsy, particularly those who are low functioning with limited intellectual capacity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of partial body weight-supported treadmill training for improving gross motor skills among these clients. A two-period randomized crossover design with repeated measures. A crossover design following an A-B versus a B-A pattern was adopted. The two training periods consisted of 12-week partial body weight-supported treadmill training (Training A) and 12-week conventional gait training (Training B) with a 10-week washout in between. Ten school-age participants with nonspastic cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation were recruited. The Gross Motor Function Measure-66 was administered immediately before and after each training period. Significant improvements in dimensions D and E of the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and the Gross Motor Ability Estimator were obtained. Our findings revealed that the partial body weight-supported treadmill training was effective in improving gross motor skills for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy. .

  2. On the degree of approximation of the conjugate of a function belonging to the weighted $ W(L^p, \\xi(t$ class by matrix means of the conjugate series of a Fourier series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Rhoades

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper Lal [1] obtained a theorem on the degree of approximation of the conjugate of a function belonging to the weighted $ W(L^p, \\xi(t$ class using a triangular matrix transform of the conjugate series of the Fourier series representation of the function. The matrix involved was assumed to have monotone increasing rows. We establish the same result by removing the monotonicity conditon.

  3. A weight's agglomerative method for detecting communities in weighted networks based on weight's similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the new definition of the community structure of the weighted networks that groups of nodes in which the edge's weights distribute uniformly but at random between them. It can describe the steady connections between nodes or some similarity between nodes' functions effectively.In order to detect the community structure efficiently,a threshold coefficient K to evaluate the equivalence of edges' weights and a new weighted modularity based on the weight's similarity are proposed. Then, constructing the weighted matrix and using the agglomerative mechanism,it presents a weight's agglomerative method based on optimizing the modularity to detect communities. For a network with n nodes, the algorithm can detect the community structure in time 0(n2 logn2).Simulations on networks show that the algorithm has higher accuracy and precision than the existing techniques. Furthermore, with the change of K the algorithm discovers a special hierarchical organization which can describe the various steady connections between nodes in groups.

  4. Effect of body weight loss on cardiopulmonary function assessed by 6-minute walk test and arterial blood gas analysis in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manens, J; Ricci, R; Damoiseaux, C; Gault, S; Contiero, B; Diez, M; Clercx, C

    2014-01-01

    Few studies show the detrimental effect of canine obesity on cardiopulmonary function (CPF). The 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is a noninvasive exercise test easy to perform in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity and body weight loss (BWL) on CPF assessed by the 6MWT and arterial blood gas analysis. Six experimental Beagles and 9 privately owned obese dogs were enrolled in a diet-induced BWL program. Arterial blood gas analysis and 6MWT were repeated in obese subjects (BCS 8-9/9), in the middle of BWL (overweight, BCS 6-7/9), and in lean dogs (BCS 5/9). Heart rate (HRp) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) were measured by pulse oximetry before the 6MWT, at midtest, and during a 5-minute recovery period. Twelve dogs completed the BWL program (initial BW, 27.3 ± 2.9 kg; final BW, 20.85 ± 2.9, lsmeans ± SE, P ≤ .001). BWL caused a significant increase in 6MWT walked distance (WD; obese: 509 ± 35 m; overweight: 575 ± 36 m; lean: 589 ± 36 m; P ≤ .05). Resting arterial blood gas results were not influenced by BWL. Including all time points, obese dogs showed higher HRp and lower SpO2 compared to overweight and lean dogs. SpO2 at the end of the walk was significantly lower in obese dogs. Obesity negatively affects 6MWT performances in dogs. The 6MWT may be used to demonstrate the efficacy of BWL to improve CPF and quality of life in obese dogs. Although BWL induced significant improvement of cardiopulmonary parameters before ideal BW, WD improved until the end of the BWL program. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. 出生体重、孕周对学龄儿童肺功能的影响%The effects of low birth weight, gestational age on lung function in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭星宇; 何权瀛; 丁东杰

    2001-01-01

    目的研究出生体重、孕周与学龄儿童肺功能测定指标之间的关系。方法测定35名6~9岁低出生体重儿的身高、体重、肺功能,调查孕周以及被动吸烟情况,并与年龄、性别配对的正常出生体重儿童进行比较。结果 (1)低出生体重组儿童的用力肺活量(FVC)、一秒钟用力呼气容积(FEV1)、FEV1占预计值%、75%肺活量最大呼气流量(75)、50%肺活量最大呼气流量(50)、50占预计值%、25%肺活量最大呼气流量(25)、25占预计值%显著低于正常对照组(P0.05)。结论低出生体重学龄儿童大多数肺功能指标显著低于正常出生体重儿童。%Objective To evaluate the effects of low birth weight, gestational age on lung function in later childhood. Methods Height, body weight and lung function were measured in a cohort of 35 children with low birth weight (aged 6~9 y) and 35 healthy controls matched for sex and age with normal birth weight. At the same time, we inquired their gestational age and passive smoking history. The correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between lung function in these children and birth weight and gestational age. Results FVC,FEV1,FEV1% pred,75,50,50% Pred,(25% Pred in children with low birth weight were significantly lower than those in children with normal birth weight(P0.05). Conclusion Low birth weight was positively correlated with most lung function parameters in childhood.

  6. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Hilsted, Jannik

    2001-01-01

    that with an individualized weight-management program, most obese patients can achieve metabolically significant weight loss, and this loss can be sustained in most patients who continue therapy for 2 years. New analyses reveal that those patients who maintain a higher level of physical activity do better, and the prediction...... that blood pressure responses might be hazardous is counteracted by predictive analyses of multiple sibutramine trials, which suggest a likely absolute reduction in cardiovascular risk in sibutramine-treated patients. Additional evidence suggests a reduced cardiovascular load as a result of this new...

  7. Impact of Disordered Eating and Psychological Functioning on Overweight Adolescents Participating in a Placebo-Controlled Medication and Behavioral Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    other domains 6 were unrelated to weight status (Franklin, Denyer, Steinbeck , Caterson, & Hill, 2006). In this study, overall self-esteem...419-429. Franklin, J., Denyer, G., Steinbeck , K. S., Caterson, I. D., & Hill, A. J. (2006). Obesity and risk of low self-esteem: a statewide survey

  8. Taste Perception: An Examination of Fat Preference, Sensory Specific Satiety, and the Function of Eating Among Moderately Obese and Normal Weight Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to lose and maintain body weight without “depriving” themselves. This approach capitalizes on the thermic effect of food and the differences in...women indicate a possible floor effect. The obese did not exhibit a clear pattern of habituation though the ratings did appear to decrease after the

  9. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  10. 明渠网络中基于带权Lyapunov函数的边界反馈控制稳定性%Stability of Boundary Feedback Control Based on Weighted Lyapunov Function in Networks of Open Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑丽辉; 席裕庚

    2009-01-01

    A Lyapunov function is constructed based on the weighted sum of entropies for the case of two open channels in cascade, which is described by the Saint-Venant equations. A class of boundary feedback controllers is presented to guaran-tee the local closed-loop asymptotic stability in a neighborhood of the equilibrium point by means of the Lyapunov design ap-proach.

  11. Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, and Cancellation: Some Preliminary Hypotheses on the Functional and Neural Substrates of These Three New WAIS-IV Subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M; Robinson, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five consecutive patients with focal strokes and/or cortical excisions were examined with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Editions along with a comprehensive battery of other neuropsychological tasks. All five of the lesions were large and typically involved frontal, temporal, and/or parietal lobes and were lateralized to one hemisphere. The clinical case method was used to determine the cognitive neuropsychological correlates of mental rotation (Visual Puzzles), Piagetian balance beam (Figure Weights), and visual search (Cancellation) tasks. The pattern of results on Visual Puzzles and Figure Weights suggested that both subtests involve predominately right frontoparietal networks involved in visual working memory. It appeared that Visual Puzzles could also critically rely on the integrity of the left temporoparietal junction. The left temporoparietal junction could be involved in temporal ordering and integration of local elements into a nonverbal gestalt. In contrast, the Figure Weights task appears to critically involve the right temporoparietal junction involved in numerical magnitude estimation. Cancellation was sensitive to left frontotemporal lesions and not right posterior parietal lesions typical of other visual search tasks. In addition, the Cancellation subtest was sensitive to verbal search strategies and perhaps object-based attention demands, thereby constituting a unique task in comparison with previous visual search tasks.

  12. An Empirical Study on the lnfluence of Weight Lifting Training on Children’s Cardio-Pulmonary Function%举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙玉萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of weight lifting training on children’s cardio-pulmonary function, this study tests cardio-pulmonary function index of newly-recruited male athletes from 10 to 12 before and after the experiment. The result shows that after a period of weight lifting training, teenagers demonstrate no difference in physical index such as heart rate or blood pressure, which suggests that weight lifting can improve teenagers’ pulmonary function and enhance their vital capacity.%为了解举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响。文章在实验前后对10-12岁新招进的男性运动员进行心肺功能指标测试,结果显示:经过一段时间举重运动训练后,少年身体机能心率、血压等指标未表现出差异,肺活量方面有着显著提高,表明举重运动能有效改善少年肺功能,提高肺活量。

  13. IFN-γ secretion in gut of Ob/Ob mice after vertical sleeve gastrectomy and its function in weight loss mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Peng; Wang, Geng; Hu, Chao-Jie; Wang, Qing-Bo; Li, Hui-Qing; Xia, Wen-Fang; Shuai, Xiao-Ming; Tao, Kai-Xiong; Wang, Guo-Bin; Xia, Ze-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is becoming more and more popular among the world. Despite its dramatic efficacy, however, the mechanism of VSG remains largely undetermined. This study aimed to test interferon (IFN)-γ secretion n of mesenteric lymph nodes in obese mice (ob/ob mice), a model of VSG, and its relationship with farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expression in the liver and small intestine, and to investigate the weight loss mechanism of VSG. The wild type (WT) mice and ob/ob mice were divided into four groups: A (WT+Sham), B (WT+VSG), C (ob/ob+Sham), and D (ob/ob+VSG). Body weight values were monitored. The IFN-γ expression in mesenteric lymph nodes of ob/ob mice pre- and post-operation was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The FXR expression in the liver and small intestine was detected by Western blotting. The mouse AML-12 liver cells were stimulated with IFN-γ at different concentrations in vitro. The changes of FXR expression were also examined. The results showed that the body weight of ob/ob mice was significantly declined from (40.6±2.7) g to (27.5±3.8) g on the 30th day after VSG (Psecretion of IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes of ob/ob mice than that pre-operation (Psmall intestine after VSG were respectively 0.97±0.07 and 0.84±0.07 fold of GAPDH, which were significantly higher than pre-operative levels of 0.50±0.06 and 0.48±0.06 respectively (Psecretion of mesenteric lymph nodes, which then increases the FXR expression of the liver and small intestine.

  14. No effect of unfractioned or low molecular weight heparin treatment on markers of vascular wall and hemostatic function in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Jensen, T.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The high risk for cardiovascular disease in IDDM patients with nephropathy may be mediated by abnormal function of the vascular wall. We investigated whether heparin was able to modulate markers of vascular wall and hemostatic function in patients with incipient nephropathy. RESEARCH DES

  15. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene H. L. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1; immediately after training (T2; and at a 3-week follow-up (T3 by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone.

  16. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Irene H. L.; Chan, Dora Y. L.; Wang, Apple Q. L.; Cheng, Eddy K. N.; Chau, Pinky H. Y.; Chow, Kathy K. Y.; Cheung, Hobby K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone. PMID:27517053

  17. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight) weight loss. As in the treatment with hyperthyroidism, treatment of the abnormal state of hypothyroidism with thyroid ... Goiter Graves’ Disease Graves’ Eye Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism ... & Weight Thyroiditis Thyroid ...

  18. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  19. Concepts of relative sample outlier (RSO) and weighted sample similarity (WSS) for improving performance of clustering genes: co-function and co-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Chowdhury, Nirmalya; De, Rajat K

    2015-01-01

    Performance of clustering algorithms is largely dependent on selected similarity measure. Efficiency in handling outliers is a major contributor to the success of a similarity measure. Better the ability of similarity measure in measuring similarity between genes in the presence of outliers, better will be the performance of the clustering algorithm in forming biologically relevant groups of genes. In the present article, we discuss the problem of handling outliers with different existing similarity measures and introduce the concepts of Relative Sample Outlier (RSO). We formulate new similarity, called Weighted Sample Similarity (WSS), incorporated in Euclidean distance and Pearson correlation coefficient and then use them in various clustering and biclustering algorithms to group different gene expression profiles. Our results suggest that WSS improves performance, in terms of finding biologically relevant groups of genes, of all the considered clustering algorithms.

  20. MORPHOLOGY EVOLUTION IN PTFE AS A FUNCTION OF MELT TIME AND TEMPERATURE Ⅱ. LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT FOLDED CHAIN SINGLE CRYSTALS AND BAND STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Yang; P.H. Geil; T. C. Long; P. Xu

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sintering dispersed and bulk, low molecular weight (Mn = 50,000 Da), nano-emulsion polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles near their melting point is described. With the nascent particles consisting of ca.75 nm diameter, hexagonal, single crystals, sintering at, e.g., 350℃, results, initially, in merger of neighboring particles,followed by individual molecular motion on the substrate and the formation of folded chain, lamellar single crystals and spherulites, and on-edge ribbons. It is suggested these structures develop, with time, in the mesomorphic "melt". Sintering of the bulk resin yields extended chain, band structures, as well as folded chain lamellae; end-surface to end-surface merger,possibly by end-to-end polymerization, occurs with increasing time.

  1. On Bounded Weight Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachoc, Christine; Cohen, Gerard; Sole, Patrick; Tchamkerten, Aslan

    2010-01-01

    The maximum size of a binary code is studied as a function of its length N, minimum distance D, and minimum codeword weight W. This function B(N,D,W) is first characterized in terms of its exponential growth rate in the limit as N tends to infinity for fixed d=D/N and w=W/N. The exponential growth rate of B(N,D,W) is shown to be equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D) for w <= 1/2, and equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D,W) for 1/2< w <= 1. Second, analytic and numerical upper bounds on B(N,D,W) are derived using the semidefinite programming (SDP) method. These bounds yield a non-asymptotic improvement of the second Johnson bound and are tight for certain values of the parameters.

  2. Anatomical and functional volume concordance between FDG PET, and T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI for cervical cancer: a hybrid PET/MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongzan; Xin, Jun; Zhang, Shaomin; Guo, Qiyong; Lu, Yueyue; Zhai, Wei; Zhao, Long [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Peng, Weiai [NM Marketing, Great China, Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Baijun [Philips China Investment Co. Ltd. Shenyang Office, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the concordance among {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging, MR T2-weighted (T2-W) imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in cervical cancer using hybrid whole-body PET/MR. This study prospectively included 35 patients with cervical cancer who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and MR images were fused using standard software. The percent of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) was used to contour tumours on PET images, and volumes were calculated automatically. Tumour volumes measured on T2-W and DW images were calculated with standard techniques of tumour area multiplied by the slice profile. Parametric statistics were used for data analysis. FDG PET tumour volumes calculated using SUV{sub max} (14.30 ± 4.70) and T2-W imaging volume (33.81 ± 27.32 cm{sup 3}) were similar (P > 0.05) at 35 % and 40 % of SUV{sub max} (32.91 ± 18.90 cm{sup 3} and 27.56 ± 17.19 cm{sup 3} respectively) and significantly correlated (P < 0.001; r = 0.735 and 0.766). The mean DW volume was 30.48 ± 22.41 cm{sup 3}. DW volumes were not significantly different from FDG PET volumes at either 35 % SUV{sub max} or 40 % SUV{sub max} or from T2-W imaging volumes (P > 0.05). PET subvolumes with increasing SUV{sub max} cut-off percentage showed an inverse change in mean ADC values on DW imaging (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Hybrid PET/MR showed strong volume concordance between FDG PET, and T2-W and DW imaging in cervical cancer. Cut-off at 35 % or 40 % of SUV{sub max} is recommended for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR SUV-based tumour volume estimation. The linear tumour subvolume concordance between FDG PET and DW imaging demonstrates individual regional concordance of metabolic activity and cell density. (orig.)

  3. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  4. Improved pancreatic beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients after lifestyle-induced weight loss is related to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R;

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of insulin secretion is critical for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exercise and diet can alter glucose-induced insulin responses, but whether this is due to changes in beta-cell function per se is not clear. The mechanisms by which lifestyle intervention may modify insulin secreti...

  5. Standardization of methods of calculating the weighting functions on the basis of the parameters of the fine structure of the absorption bands of atmospheric gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Point 7 of a list of works conducted by the USSR in accordance with the Joint Soviet-American Research Program on improving methods of heat probes from satellites is discussed. Numerous calculations of transmission functions, along with tables are enclosed.

  6. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan and High Stability Fucoxanthin on Glucose Homeostasis, Lipid Metabolism, and Liver Function in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF and fucoxanthin (Fx in terms of antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective activities were investigated in a mouse model of type II diabetes. The intake of LMF, Fx, and LMF + Fx lowered the blood sugar and fasting blood sugar levels, and increased serum adiponectin levels. The significant decrease in urinary sugar was only observed in LMF + Fx supplementation. LMF and Fx had ameliorating effects on the hepatic tissue of db/db mice by increasing hepatic glycogen and antioxidative enzymes, and LMF was more effective than Fx at improving hepatic glucose metabolism. As for glucose and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue, the expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, glucose transporter (GLUT, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, and uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNAs in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice was significantly upregulated by Fx and LMF + Fx, and levels of inflammatory adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, were significantly modulated only by LMF + Fx supplementation. The efficacy of LMF + Fx supplementation on the decrease in urinary sugar and on glucose and lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of db/db mice was better than that of Fx or LMF alone, indicating the occurrence of a synergistic effect of LMF and Fx.

  7. Novel light-weight, high-performance anode-supported microtubular solid oxide fuel cells with an active anode functional layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Yao; Ren, Cong; Fang, Shumin; Mao, Yating; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-10-01

    Influence of the air-gap, the distance from the tube-in-orifice spinneret to the upper surface of the external coagulant bath during the extrusion/phase-inversion process, on the microstructure of nickel - yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) hollow fibers has been systematically studied. When the air-gap is 0 cm, the obtained Ni-YSZ hollow fiber has a sandwich microstructure. However, when the air-gap is increased to 15 cm, a bi-layer Ni-YSZ hollow fiber consisting of a thin layer with small pores and a thick support with highly porous fingerlike macrovoids has been achieved. The output power density of microtubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) with a cell configuration of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/YSZ-LSM increases from 594 mW cm-2 for the cells with the Ni-YSZ anode of sandwich microstructure to 832 mW cm-2 for the cells with the Ni-YSZ anode of bi-layer microstructure at 750 °C, implying that to achieve the same output power density, the weight of the cells with the bi-layer anode support can be reduced to 41.5% compared with that of the cells with the sandwich anode support. Thermal-cycling test shows no obvious degradation on the open-circuit-voltage (OCV), indicating that the MT-SOFCs have robust resistance to thermal cycling.

  8. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.

  9. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  10. Short-term re-feeding of previously energy-restricted C57BL/6 male mice restores body weight and body fat and attenuates the decline in natural killer cell function after primary influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinthorne, Jonathan F; Adams, Douglas J; Fenton, Jenifer I; Ritz, Barry W; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2010-08-01

    A hallmark of energy restriction (ER) is a decrease in total body fat, which is thought to increase lifespan and maintain immune function. However, we have shown that during primary influenza infection, ER induces rapid weight loss, impairs natural killer (NK) cell function, and increases mortality in young and aged mice. To determine whether influenza-induced NK cell function could be restored in ER mice, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice were fed an ER diet or re-fed (RF) control diet ad libitum for 2 wk before infection with PR8 influenza A. An initial hyperphagic response was observed in RF mice, characterized by increased food intake, rapid weight gain, and restoration of body fat and fat depots by 5-7 d of re-feeding to levels comparable to control ad libitum (AL) mice. Re-feeding improved survival and attenuated the decline in NK cell function during infection, evidenced by increased numbers, percentages, and CD69 expression by d 3 postinfection in RF mice. Interestingly, an altered metabolic phenotype was observed during infection of RF mice, with plasma leptin concentrations greater than in ER mice but less than in AL mice. In contrast, adiponectin concentrations of RF mice were lower than those of both ER and AL mice. These data suggest that re-feeding for a defined period before, and perhaps throughout, influenza season may provide the energy needed to counter the deleterious effects of ER on NK cell function, especially during exposure to newly emerging strains of influenza, for which vaccines are limited or unavailable.

  11. A CLASS OF WEIGHTED WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shahbaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The weighted Weibull model is proposed following the method of Azzalini (1985. Basic properties of the distribution; including moments, generating function, hazard rate function and estimation of parameters; have been studied. The weighted Weibull model is proposed following the method of Azzalini (1985. Basic properties of the distribution; including moments, generating function, hazard rate function and estimation of parameters; have been studied.

  12. Combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid and low molecular weight heparin based on self-assembled multi-functional polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Hui; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Sun, Li; Li, Yuanke; Yao, Li; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Based on the complementary effects of doxorubicin (DOX), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the combination therapy of DOX, ATRA and LMWH was expected to exert the enhanced anti-tumor effects and reduce the side effects. In this study, amphiphilic LMWH-ATRA conjugate was synthesized for encapsulating the DOX. In this way, DOX, ATRA and LMWH were assembled into a single nano-system by both chemical and physical modes to obtain a novel anti-tumor targeting drug delivery system that can realize the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs with different properties to the tumor. LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles exhibited good loading capacities for DOX with excellent physico-chemical properties, good biocompatibility, and good differentiation-inducing activity and antiangiogenic activity. The drug-loading capacity was up to 18.7% with an entrapment efficiency of 78.8%. It was also found that DOX-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles (DHR nanoparticles) could be efficiently taken up by tumor cells via endocytic pathway, and mainly distributed in cytoplasm at first, then transferred into cell nucleus. Cell viability assays suggested that DHR nanoparticles maintained the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the in vivo imaging analysis indicated that DiR-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles could target the tumor more effectively as compared to free DiR. Furthermore, DHR nanoparticles possessed much higher anticancer activity and reduced side effects compared to free drugs solution. These results suggested that DHR nanoparticles could be considered as a promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy with lower adverse effects.

  13. Effects of a Multicomponent Life-Style Intervention on Weight, Glycemic Control, Depressive Symptoms, and Renal Function in Low-Income, Minority Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Community Approach to Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E.; Llabre, Maria M.; McCalla, Judith Rey; Gutt, Miriam; Mendez, Armando J.; Gellman, Marc D.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Few interventions have combined life-style and psychosocial approaches in the context of Type 2 diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on weight, glycemic control, renal function, and depressive symptoms in a sample of overweight/obese adults with Type 2 diabetes and marked depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 111 adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a 1-year intervention (n = 57) or usual care (n = 54) in a parallel groups design. Primary outcomes included weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, and Beck Depression Inventory II score. Estimated glomerular filtration rate served as a secondary outcome. All measures were assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after randomization by assessors blind to randomization. Latent growth modeling was used to examine intervention effects on each outcome. Results The intervention resulted in decreased weight (mean [M] = 0.322 kg, standard error [SE] = 0.124 kg, p = .010) and glycosylated hemoglobin (M = 0.066%, SE = 0.028%, p = .017), and Beck Depression Inventory II scores (M = 1.009, SE = 0.226, p < .001), and improved estimated glomerular filtration rate (M = 0.742 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, SE = 0.318 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, p = .020) each month during the first 6 months relative to usual care. Conclusions Multicomponent behavioral interventions targeting weight loss and depressive symptoms as well as diet and physical activity are efficacious in the management of Type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration: This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01739205. PMID:27359176

  14. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Kristin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2 with clinically diagnosed knee OA participated in a 14-week exercise and weight loss program. Participants followed an isoenergenic low fat higher carbohydrate (HC or higher protein (HP diet while participating in a supervised 30-minute circuit resistance-training program three times per week for 14-weeks. In a randomized and double blind manner, participants ingested supplements containing 1,500 mg/d of glucosamine (as d-glucosamine HCL, 1,200 mg/d of chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium, and 900 mg/d of methylsulfonylmethane or a placebo. At 0, 10, and 14-weeks, participants completed a battery of assessments. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results Participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in body mass (-2.4 ± 3%, fat mass (-6.0 ± 6%, and body fat (-3.5 ± 4% with no significant changes in fat free mass or resting energy expenditure. Perception of knee pain (-49 ± 39% and knee stiffness (-42 ± 37% was decreased while maximal strength (12%, muscular endurance (20%, balance indices (7% to 20%, lipid levels (-8% to -12%, homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (-17%, leptin (-30%, and measures of physical functioning (59%, vitality (120%, and social function (66% were improved in both groups with no differences among groups. Functional aerobic capacity was increased to a greater degree for those in the HP and GCM groups while there were some trends suggesting that supplementation affected

  15. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  16. Functional imaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: correlation of PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Weber, Michael; Fruehwald, Laura; Herneth, Andreas M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Halpern, Benjamin S. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Harvard Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Eder-Czembirek, Christina [Medical University of Vienna, University Hospital for Cranio, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Brunner, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Schuetz, Matthias [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to prospectively assess the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); and (b) to assess ADC and SUVmax values in relation to different tumour grades and stages in our patient population. The study group comprised 31 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were examined using a 3T MRI scanner with a 16-channel head and neck coil. In addition to routine sequences, axial (DWIBS) and sagittal (DW-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequences were obtained using b-values of 0 mm{sup 2}/s and 800 mm{sup 2}/s. The ADC maps were calculated automatically. The ADC values of the tumours were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) of standard size, and an ROI covering the entire tumour. In all patients, contrast-enhanced, whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed within 2 weeks of the MRI examination. SUVmax was measured for every tumour using a 3-D freehand ROI that covered the entire tumour. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for group comparisons. The Spearman rank correlation test was performed for ADC values. Mean ADC values in the 31 SCC were 0.902 ({+-}0.134) with a ROI of standard size, and 0.928 ({+-}0.160) with the large ROI measurements on the axial DWIBS sequence. The ADC values of the tumours were significantly higher when measured with the sagittal DW-EPI sequence: 1.051 ({+-}0.211) and 1.082 ({+-}0.208). We observed no significant differences in ADC values and SUVmax between the various T stages or histological grades of the tumours. SUVmax values (26.5{+-}12) did not correlate with ADC values on DWIBS or EPI. There is no correlation between the FDG uptake and the ADC value in head and neck SCC. The three different tumour grades and four tumour stages present in our study population could not be differentiated based on ADC values or SUV. (orig.)

  17. Multimodality Functional Imaging in Radiation Therapy Planning: Relationships between Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Diffusion-Weighted MRI, and 18F-FDG PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Mera Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Biologically guided radiotherapy needs an understanding of how different functional imaging techniques interact and link together. We analyse three functional imaging techniques that can be useful tools for achieving this objective. Materials and Methods. The three different imaging modalities from one selected patient are ADC maps, DCE-MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT, because they are widely used and give a great amount of complementary information. We show the relationship between these three datasets and evaluate them as markers for tumour response or hypoxia marker. Thus, vascularization measured using DCE-MRI parameters can determine tumour hypoxia, and ADC maps can be used for evaluating tumour response. Results. ADC and DCE-MRI include information from 18F-FDG, as glucose metabolism is associated with hypoxia and tumour cell density, although 18F-FDG includes more information about the malignancy of the tumour. The main disadvantage of ADC maps is the distortion, and we used only low distorted regions, and extracellular volume calculated from DCE-MRI can be considered equivalent to ADC in well-vascularized areas. Conclusion. A dataset for achieving the biologically guided radiotherapy must include a tumour density study and a hypoxia marker. This information can be achieved using only MRI data or only PET/CT studies or mixing both datasets.

  18. Multimodality Functional Imaging in Radiation Therapy Planning: Relationships between Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Diffusion-Weighted MRI, and 18F-FDG PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera Iglesias, Moisés; Aramburu Núñez, David; del Olmo Claudio, José Luis; Salvador Gómez, Francisco; Driscoll, Brandon; Coolens, Catherine; Alba Castro, José L.; Muñoz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Biologically guided radiotherapy needs an understanding of how different functional imaging techniques interact and link together. We analyse three functional imaging techniques that can be useful tools for achieving this objective. Materials and Methods. The three different imaging modalities from one selected patient are ADC maps, DCE-MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT, because they are widely used and give a great amount of complementary information. We show the relationship between these three datasets and evaluate them as markers for tumour response or hypoxia marker. Thus, vascularization measured using DCE-MRI parameters can determine tumour hypoxia, and ADC maps can be used for evaluating tumour response. Results. ADC and DCE-MRI include information from 18F-FDG, as glucose metabolism is associated with hypoxia and tumour cell density, although 18F-FDG includes more information about the malignancy of the tumour. The main disadvantage of ADC maps is the distortion, and we used only low distorted regions, and extracellular volume calculated from DCE-MRI can be considered equivalent to ADC in well-vascularized areas. Conclusion. A dataset for achieving the biologically guided radiotherapy must include a tumour density study and a hypoxia marker. This information can be achieved using only MRI data or only PET/CT studies or mixing both datasets. PMID:25788972

  19. Evolving Networks with Nonlinear Assignment of Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Chao; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    We propose a weighted evolving network model in which the underlying topological structure is still driven by the degree according to the preferential attachment rule while the weight assigned to the newly established edges is dependent on the degree in a nonlinear form. By varying the parameter α that controls the function determining the assignment of weight, a wide variety of power-law behaviours of the total weight distributions as well as the diversity of the weight distributions of edges are displayed. Variation of correlation and heterogeneity in the network is illustrated as well.

  20. Adaptive Weighting in Radio Interferometric Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2014-01-01

    Radio interferometers observe the Fourier space of the sky, at locations determined by the array geometry. Before a real space image is constructed by a Fourier transform, the data is weighted to improve the quality of reconstruction. Two criteria for calculation of weights are maximizing sensitivity and minimizing point spread function (PSF) sidelobe levels. In this paper, we propose a novel weighting scheme suitable for ultra deep imaging experiments. The proposed weighting scheme is used to maximize sensitivity while minimizing PSF sidelobe variation across frequency and multiple epochs. We give simulation results that show the superiority of the proposed scheme compared with commonly used weighting schemes in achieving these objectives.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Barrenechea, Lurdes; Alcorta, Pilar; Larrarte, Eider; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2014-04-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on changes in body composition, energy and substrate metabolism, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function enzymes after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women. In the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eighty-three obese (30 kg/m² > BMI EGCG or placebo (lactose). We measured body weight and adiposity (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), energy expenditure and fat oxidation rates (indirect calorimetry), blood lipid levels (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol), insulin resistance, C-reactive protein and liver function markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, urea, bilirubin and 2-keto[1-¹³C]isocaproate oxidation) before and after the intervention in the EGCG and control groups. We did not find any significant difference in the changes in body weight (-0.3 kg, 95% CI -5.0, 4.3), fat mass (-0.7 kg, 95% CI -3.5, 2.1), energy (0.3 kJ/kg per d, 95% CI -3.1, 2.7) and fat (-0.1 g/min, 95% CI -0.03, 0.01) metabolism, homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (0.2, 95% CI -0.2, 0.7), total cholesterol (-0.21 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.55, 0.13), LDL-cholesterol (-0.15 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.50, 0.20), TAG (-0.4 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.56, 0.29) and liver function markers between the EGCG and control groups. In conclusion, the present results suggest that dietary supplementation with 300 mg/d of EGCG for 12 weeks did not enhance energy-restricted diet-induced adiposity reductions, and did not improve weight-loss-induced changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Caucasian women. The intake of 300 mg/d of EGCG for 12 weeks did not cause any adverse effect on liver function biomarkers.

  2. Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoe; Calhoun, Vince D; Shim, Eunsoo; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was

  3. Correlação entre simetria corporal na descarga de peso e alcance funcional em hemiparéticos crônicos Relationships between body symmetry during weight-bearing and functional reach among chronic hemiparetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O controle postural está frequentemente prejudicado nas condições de hemiparesias. Quando na posição em pé, sujeitos hemiparéticos oscilam mais do que sujeitos sem hemicorpo afetado, adotando posturas assimétricas com maior descarga de peso na perna não afetada. OBJETIVO: Analisar o alcance funcional e a dependência por dispositivo de apoio em hemiparéticos crônicos, verificando correlações entre deslocamentos de alcance funcional e valores de simetria de descarga de peso durante a posição em pé. MÉTODOS: Quatorze hemiparéticos classificados em dependentes ou independentes de dispositivo de apoio foram incluídos nos procedimentos experimentais para registro de deslocamento de alcance funcional e valores de simetria. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença significativa foi obtida entre os dependentes e os independentes de dispositivo de apoio para todas as variáveis. Porém, quando a descarga de peso ocorreu no lado não afetado, os mais altos deslocamentos foram significativamente correlacionados com os hemiparéticos mais assimétricos. CONCLUSÃO: A simetria não favorece o alcance funcional nem a independência de dispositivo de apoio em hemiparéticos.BACKGROUND: Postural control is often impaired in hemiparetic patients. During upright stance, hemiparetic subjects sway more than subjects with an unaffected hemibody, and they assume asymmetrical postures to place less weight on the affected side. OBJECTIVE: To analyze functional reach and dependence on support devices among people with chronic hemiparesis and to investigate the relationships between displacements of functional reach and weight-bearing symmetry during upright stance. METHODS: Fourteen participants with hemiparesis, classified as dependent on support devices or independent from them, were included in experimental procedures to record functional reach displacements and symmetry values. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the

  4. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  5. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  6. The effect of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lemon) peels on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Kargar, Maryam; Ghannadi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a global problem and its incidence is increasing. The role of dietary intervention with fruits containing vitamin C and flavonoid to control obesity consequences in childhood has not been yet defined. Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) peels contain flavonoid, pectin and vitamin C. We aimed to compare the effects of lemon peels and placebo on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function among adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this triple-masked, randomized controlled trial, 60 overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled in a 4-week trial. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon powder or placebo. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared between the two groups before and after administration of medication and placebo. Results: Of the total 60 enrolled patients, 30 and 29 patients in the lemon and control groups completed the study, respectively. The results of within-group analysis demonstrated a slight reduction in body mass index, LDL-C and systolic blood pressure in the lemon group, but no between group differences existed in the studied variables. Conclusion: This study revealed that consumption of lemon peel extract has some beneficial effects for childhood obesity; however, no considerable effect was documented on anthropometric measures and biochemical factors. Future studies with longer follow up are highly recommended.

  7. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  8. Polyurethane modified with an antithrombin-heparin complex via polyethylene oxide linker/spacers: influence of PEO molecular weight and PEO-ATH bond on catalytic and direct anticoagulant functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sask, Kyla N; Berry, Leslie R; Chan, Anthony K C; Brash, John L

    2012-10-01

    A segmented polyurethane (PU) was modified with polyethylene oxides (PEO) of varying molecular weight and end group. The PEO served as linker/spacers to immobilize an antithrombin-heparin (ATH) anticoagulant complex on the PU. Isocyanate groups were introduced into the PU to enable attachment of either "conventional" homo-bifunctional dihydroxy-PEO (PEO-OH surface) or a hetero-bifunctional amino-carboxy-PEO (PEO-COOH surface). The PEO surfaces were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) groups using appropriate chemistries, and ATH was attached to the distal NHS end of the PEO (PEO-OH-ATH and PEO-COOH-ATH surfaces). Water contact angle and fibrinogen adsorption measurements showed increased hydrophilicity and reduced fibrinogen adsorption from buffer on all PEO surfaces compared to unmodified PU. ATH uptake on NHS-functionalized PEO was quantified by radiolabeling. Despite the different PEO molecular weights and end groups, and NHS-functionalization chemistries, the surface densities of ATH were similar. The adsorption of fibrinogen and antithrombin (AT) from plasma was measured in a single experiment using dual radiolabeling. On PEO-ATH surfaces fibrinogen adsorption was minimal while AT adsorption was high showing the selectivity of the heparin moiety of ATH for AT. The PEO-COOH-ATH surfaces showed slightly greater AT adsorption than the PEO-OH-ATH surfaces. Thrombin adsorption on all of the PEO-ATH surfaces was greater than on the corresponding PEO surfaces without ATH, and was highest on the PEO-OH-ATH, suggesting potential anticoagulant properties for this surface via direct thrombin inhibition by the AT portion of ATH.

  9. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...

  10. Weight-loss medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  11. Feasibility of 3.0 T diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a sensitive way to reflect axonal necrosis and degeneration, glial cell regeneration and demyelination following spinal cord injury, and to display microstructure changes in the spinal cord in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging technology is a sensitive method to diagnose spinal cord injury fiber tractography visualizes the white matter fibers, and directly displays the structural integrity and resultant damage of the fiber bundle. At present, diffusion tensor imaging is restricted to brain examinations, and is rarely applied in the evaluation of spinal cord injury. This study aimed to explore the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and the feasibility of diffusion tensor tractography in the evaluation of complete spinal cord injury in rats. The results showed that the average combined scores were obviously decreased after spinal cord transection in rats, and then began to increase over time. The fractional anisotropy scores after spinal cord transection in rats were significantly lower than those in normal rats (P <0.05 the apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly increased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05. Following spinal cord transection, fractional anisotropy scores were negatively correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient values (r = -0.856, P < 0.01, and positively correlated with the average combined scores (r = 0.943, P < 0.01, while apparent diffusion coefficient values had a negative correlation with the average combined scores (r = -0.949, P < 0.01. Experimental findings suggest that, as a non-invasive examination, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging can provide qualitative and quantitative information about spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy score and apparent diffusion coefficient have a good correlation with the average combined scores, which reflect functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

  12. Feasibility of 3.0 T diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo Zhang; Xiao-hui Li; Xu Zhai; Xi-jing He

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is a sensitive way to reflect axonal necrosis and degeneration, glial cell regeneration and demyelination following spinal cord injury, and to display microstructure changes in the spinal cordin vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging technology is a sensitive method to diagnose spinal cord injury; ifber tractography visualizes the white matter ifbers, and directly displays the structural integrity and resultant damage of the ifber bundle. At present, diffusion tensor imaging is restricted to brain examinations, and is rarely applied in the evaluation of spinal cord injury. This study aimed to explore the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefifcient of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and the feasibility of diffusion tensor tractography in the evaluation of complete spinal cord injury in rats. The results showed that the average combined scores were obviously decreased after spinal cord transection in rats, and then began to increase over time. The fractional anisotropy scores after spinal cord transection in rats were signiifcantly lower than those in normal rats (P < 0.05); the apparent diffusion coefifcient was signiifcantly increased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Following spinal cord transection, fractional anisotropy scores were negatively correlated with apparent diffusion coefifcient values (r = –0.856,P < 0.01), and positively correlated with the average combined scores (r= 0.943,P < 0.01), while apparent diffusion coefifcient values had a negative correlation with the average combined scores (r = –0.949,P < 0.01). Experimental ifndings suggest that, as a non-invasive examination, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging can provide qualita-tive and quantitative information about spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy score and apparent diffusion coefifcient have a good correlation with the average combined scores, which relfect functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

  13. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points: - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  14. 香蕉粉毒理学安全评价及减肥功效研究%Study on safety toxicology evaluation of banana powder and function in reducing weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永亮; 徐勇; 黄志强; 陈庆发; 杨永国; 杨公明

    2012-01-01

    Acute oral toxicity test of banana powder was studied. And according to the testing assessment of weight-losing function of health food published by Ministry of Health,the effect of banana powder on weight losing of SPF grade SD male rats with nutritional obesity was studied. Through continuous observation for 14d after the administration of banana powder,the activity of mice was normal with bright fur,no abnormal secretions,normal weight gain and no mouse dead. Visual inspection after gross anatomy of all surviving mice revealed no changes in organ volume,color and texture. The treatment of banana powder could significantly decrease body weight,fat tissue weight around the testicle and kidney, body fat percentage and Lee's index of the rats (p〈0.05). Moreover,the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC),total triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) were markedly decreased by banana powder while high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) was significantly increased(p〈0.05). Altogether,the result indicated that banana powder had an effective function of weight losing.%摘要:通过急性经口毒性实验研究了小鼠灌胃香蕉粉后所产生的毒性反应和死亡情况,并以卫生部保健食品减肥功能学评价程序与检验方法为依据。以SPF级雄性SD大鼠为研究对象.采用大鼠肥胖模型法,研究了香蕉粉的减肥功效。结果表明:给药后连续观察14d,小鼠活动正常、皮毛光亮,无异常分泌物,体重正常增长,无一小鼠死亡。全部存活小鼠大体解剖,肉眼观察未发现组织脏器体积、颜色、质地等出现改变;香蕉粉可使高脂饲料引起的营养性肥胖模型大鼠的体重明显减轻,并能显著降低大鼠Lee’s指数和脂肪指数,降低血清总胆固醇(TC)、血清甘油5-酯(TG)以及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL—C)含量(p〈0.05),而高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL—C)明显升高。因

  15. Rendimento do processamento de linhagens de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em função do peso corporal Process yield of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus strains in function of body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Bruno dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os rendimentos do processamento de linhagens de tilápias em função dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G. - Brasil. Foram utilizados 93 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme, pesando entre 150 e 790 g. Os peixes foram cultivados em dois tanques de alvenaria de 40 m², sendo alimentados com ração comercial fornecida de acordo com a biomassa e a temperatura da água. A temperatura e o oxigênio da água foram tomados diariamente, no início do dia e no final da tarde, e o pH aferido semanalmente. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatórias foram tomadas. Nas amostragens, os peixes foram abatidos após terem passado por um jejum de 24 horas e insensibilização por choque térmico. Em seguida, foram pesados e dissecados. A análise de regressão indicou que em pesos mais elevados, a linhagem Chitralada apresenta maior porcentagem de cabeça e rendimento de pele. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maior peso de carcaça, filé e resíduos, sendo mais expressivos em pesos superiores a 500 g e menor valor à maturidade para a % de vísceras. Conclui-se que as duas linhagens possuem crescimento das partes componentes proporcional ao aumento do peso corporal, e este aumento não altera o rendimento desses constituintes. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maiores rendimentos de carcaça e filé do que a Chitralada, sendo a mais indicada para a produção e comercialização de filés mais pesados.With the objective of evaluating the yield processing of tilapia strains in function of body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil. A total 93 fish of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme strain, weighting between 150 and 790 g were used. The fish were cultivated in two tanks of 40 m², fed with commercial ration supplied according to the biomass

  16. 急性减体重影响青少年运动员认知功能的实验研究%Effects of Acute Weight Loss on Cognitive Function in Adolescent Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世成; 揭光泽; 巴特; 朱华

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the effects of rapid weight loss on cognitive function in adolescent athletes.Method:Eight adolescent male subjects in free sparring(N=4)and boxing(N=4).During rapid weight loss,subjects intake diet in energy-restricted and water restriction and exercise as usual.The cog-nitive performance were tested by the software for basic perceptibility test(version 2.0)(Psychological Re-search Institute of CAS).Result:Compared with the experiment before,Mental efficiency decreased 11. 27%(P <0.05),when body weight reduced 2.16%BW(body weight).And when body weight reduced 5. 25%BW,Digital identification decreased 14.14% (P < 0.05),mental arithmetic efficiency decreased 15. 49% (P <0.05),Chinese characters rotation decreased 11.90% (P < 0.05),digit working memory de-creased 19.06% (P <0.05).Conclusion:Mental efficiency decreased significantly in adolescent male free sparring and boxing,when body weight reduced 2.16%BW.And when body weight reduced 5.25%BW, Digital identification,mental arithmetic efficiency,Chinese characters rotation and digit working memory decreased significantly.%目的:为了探讨快速减体重对青少年运动员认知功能的影响.方法:以少年体校8名散打(N=4)和拳击(N=4)项目男性运动员为受试对象,采取限制饮食、桑拿浴和适当运动的方法快速减体重,采用“基本认知能力测验(2.0版)”计算机软件(中科院心理所研制)测试受试者的基本认知能力.结果:受试者体重减至2.16%BW 时,认知能力测试值与实验前比较,仅发现心算效率明显减低11.27%(P <0.05);而体重减至5.25%BW 时认知能力测试值与实验前比较,数字识别减低14.14%(P <0.05)、心算效率减低15.49%(P <0.05)、汉字旋转降低11.90%(P <0.05)、数字工作记忆减低19.06%(P <0.05)、图形再认降低6.91%(P >0.05).结论:少年体校散打

  17. Scaling of Average Weighted Receiving Time on Double-Weighted Koch Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan; Hou, Jie; Li, Xingyi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of the double-weighted Koch networks based on actual road networks depending on the two weight factors w,r ∈ (0, 1]. The double weights represent the capacity-flowing weight and the cost-traveling weight, respectively. Denote by wFij the capacity-flowing weight connecting the nodes i and j, and denote by wCij the cost-traveling weight connecting the nodes i and j. Let wFij be related to the weight factor w, and let wCij be related to the weight factor r. This paper assumes that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the capacity-flowing weight of edge linking them. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the cost-traveling weight connecting the two nodes. We define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) on the double-weighted Koch networks. The obtained result displays that in the large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(w,r) = ½ log2(1 + 3wr). We show that the AWRT exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the double-weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information.

  18. Study of the relationship between APOA-II -265T>C polymorphism and HDL function in response to weight loss in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoumeh; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Zahirihashemi, Roxana; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-04-09

    It has been reported that people may respond differently to the same environmental changes because of genome variations. The main purpose of the present study is to determine gene-diet interactions between -265T>C apolipoprotein A-II polymorphisms and evaluate the effect of weight loss on parameters related to HDL function. In the present study, 56 overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients were chosen from 697 genotype-specified subjects. After matching for gender, age and BMI, an equal number of patients were chosen for each genotype of APOA-II (TT/TC and CC group). After six-week calorie restriction programme, 44 patients completed the study. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), paraoxonase-3 (PON3), pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and PTX3 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared between two genotypes and also before and after the intervention separated in each genotype. The mean differences of PON enzymes and PTX3 between groups were not significant at the baseline. After weight loss, the mean weight, BMI and serum concentration of PON1 and PON3 decreased significantly and PTX3 increased in total population. Although, the mean differences of PON enzymes and PTX3 between two groups were not significant. However, in comparison of mean differences within the groups, decreased PON3 and increased PTX3 have been observed only in TT group. A comparison of the mean differences in PON3 and PTX3 within two genotype groups showed that T allele carriers are more sensitive to lifestyle modification, and serum PON3 and PTX3 levels significantly changed only in the TT/TC group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of weight relieving ambulator on walking function of hemiplegic patients with cerebral stroke%减重步态机器人对脑卒中偏瘫患者步行功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明; 崔微; 王雪梅; 余茜

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究步态机器人训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者运动功能的影响.方法 将50例偏瘫患者分为2组,综合康复组行常规康复及减重步态机器人治疗,普通康复组行单纯康复治疗,疗程均为一个月,采用Carr-Shepherd运动功能评定(MAS)中的步行评定法对两组步行能力及临床疗效进行评定并且比较.结果 综合康复组患者步行能力较普通康复组改善明显,总有效率明显高于普通康复组(P<0.05).结论 减重步态机器人对偏瘫患者的恢复步行能力及改善异常步态有积极的作用.%Objective To study the effects of weight relieving ambulator on walking function of hemiplegic patients suffered from cerebral stroke. Methods Fifty hemiplegic patients were randomly divided into two groups: the comprehensive rehabilitation group and the general rehabilitation group. The comprehensive rehabilitation group was treated in the conventional method combined with weight relieving ambulator, while the general rehabilitation group was treated with the conventional method only. The period of treatment was one month. After treatment, the Carr-Shepherd assessment of motor function ( MAS ) was used to compare the walking function between the two groups. Results Patients of the comprehensive rehabilitation group had more improvements in walking ability than those of the general rehabilitation group did. Conclusion It is concluded that the weight relieving ambulator has a positive effect on the improvement of walking ability and abnormal gait of hemiplegic patients.

  20. Characteristics of a Lorentzian to Gaussian transformation function as a weighting function in processing the two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of a drug-phosphatidylcholine vesicles solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    黒田, 義弘; 藤原, 靖弘; 斉藤, 雅子; 新宮, 徹朗

    1988-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of a Lorentzian to Gaussian trans formation function, which has been commonly employed in enhancing the resolution of two-timensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR...

  1. Experimental Study of How Jazz Affect College Girls Body Weight and Lung Function%爵士舞对大学女生体重及肺功能影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华玲

    2012-01-01

    Through literature, experimental method and statistical method and 38 college girls' 15 weeks of jazz dance training, the author tries to find the influence of jazz on college girls weight and lung function. Results : After experiments the girls' lean weight gain;weights loss; body fat and body fat percentage decrease; Significantly improve the vital capacity and maximal oxygen uptake indicators; lower respiratory rate, maximum voluntary ventilation and tidal volume significantly improve. Conclusion: Jazz dance can promote the fuel consumption of excess body fat, increase muscle flexibility, lose weight, reduce body fat and body fat per- centage, the development of upper body strength, waist and abdominal strength and leg strength, and enhance human joints, liga- ments, muscle elasticity and flexibility, improve physical coordination, flexibility and balance, exercise the funetions of the re- spiratory organs, improve the working ability of the heart and lungs, can make the body and mind relaxed, minds become more so- ber. It' s beneficial to the operation of the brain.%运用文献法、实验法以及统计法,对38名大学女生进行15周的爵士舞训练,研究爵士舞对大学女生体重及肺功能的影响。结果显示:实验后女生的瘦体重增加,体重减轻,体脂肪及体脂百分率减少;肺活量和最大吸氧量指标显著提高,呼吸频率降低,最大通气量和潮气量明显改善。结论:爵士舞能促进体内多余脂肪的燃耗、增加肌肉弹性、减轻体重、减少体脂肪及体脂百分率、发展上肢力量、腰腹部力量以及腿部力量、增强人体关节、韧带、肌肉弹性以及灵活性、提高身体协调性、柔韧性和平衡性、锻炼呼吸器官的功能、提高心肺的工作能力,能使练习者身心放松,头脑变得更加清醒,有益于练习者脑部的运作。

  2. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  3. 基于加权损失函数下广义指数预报因子模型的汇率预测%Foreign Exchange Rates Prediction Based on Generalized Exponential Predictor Models with Weighted Loss Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹伟; 严威; 缪柏其

    2012-01-01

    The genenralized exponential predictor models for exchange rate forecasting based on weighted loss function is proposed.This method construct some exponential predictors through different smoothing parameters firstly, and then the weighted loss function based on absolute loss and square loss was proposed to select vaxiable,under which we combine exponential predictors to construct genneralized predictor model.At last compare with some existing methods,the models we proposed improves forecast precision.%本文提出在加权损失函数下构建汇率预测的广义指数预报因子模型。该方法首先选取有限个不同滑动参数构造指数预报因子,同时基于绝对值损失和平方损失的提出加权损失函数作为变量筛选的准则,然后在该准则下将指数预报因子进行线性组合,建立汇率预报的广义指数预报因子模型。本文最后用英镑/美元单周汇率数据与文献中的一些已有方法做比较,实证分析表明本文提出的方法在汇率预测效果上有较大改进。

  4. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las cargas en el abdomen con el objeto de producir entrenamiento del diafragma, no han sido suficientemente evaluados. Estudiamos la función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen y con cambios en el patrón respiratorio. Se estudiaron 6 voluntarios normales. Se obtuvo flujo en la boca, presión gástrica (Pga, presión esofágica (Pes, movimiento torácico (TX y abdominal (AB, presión inspiratoria máxima (PImax y presión transdiafragmática media (Pdi y máxima (Pdimax. Se calculó la relación Pdi/Pdimax y el índice tensión-tiempo del diafragma (TTdi. Etapas: patrón normal (PN, patrón abdominal (PA y carga de 1, 2, 4 y 6 kg con PN y PA. El PA fue facilitado por las cargas sobre el abdomen. Solo con 6 kg (PN y PA la Pga a capacidad residual funcional aumentó significativamente (p 0.001. La Pdi siguió a las variaciones de la Pga y aumentó con todos los PA (p The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga, esophageal pressure (Pes, thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max. Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP, abdominal pattern (AP and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1 The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2 Only with 6 kg (NP and AP the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001, 3 the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p < 0.001, 4 The index TTdi load reached a value of 0.05 ± 0.02 (p < 0.001. The charges did not

  5. Healthy weight game!: Lose weight together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentelink, S.J.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Broens, T.; Broens, T.H.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity pose a serious and increasing problem worldwide. Current treatment methods can result in weight loss in the short term but often fail in the longer term. Increasing motivation and thereby improving adherence can be a key factor in achieving the needed behavioral change. One

  6. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat: 42.

  7. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat: 42.

  8. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  9. Walks on Weighted Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU An-Cai; XU Xin-Jian; WU Zhi-Xi; WANG Ying-Hai

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.

  10. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Alexander; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compression benchmark tests while never being significantly worse on any individual file.

  11. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  13. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meifeng Dai; Jie Liu; Feng Zhu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge’s weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, chooses one of its neighbours with a probability proportional to the weight of the edge. We focus on a particular case with the immobile trap positioned at the hub node which has the largest degree in the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a method based on generating functions, we determine explicitly the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for the trapping issue. Let parameter (0 < < 1) be the weight factor. We show that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the parameter a; the smaller the value of a, the more efficient is the trapping process.

  14. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg;

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  15. Assessing Your Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only. To assess the weight of children or teenagers, see the Child and Teen BMI Calculator . Top of Page Want to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain ...

  16. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight loss. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You or a family member loses more ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The ... be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: How much weight have ...

  17. Gaussian integration with rescaling of abscissas and weights

    CERN Document Server

    Odrzywolek, A

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for integration of polynomial functions with variable weight is considered. It provides extension of the Gaussian integration, with appropriate scaling of the abscissas and weights. Method is a good alternative to usually adopted interval splitting.

  18. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  20. Inverse-S Shaped Weighting Function in a Two Stage Supply Chain%反S型权重风险偏好对一类两级供应链的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊霖; 赵晓波

    2013-01-01

      大量实证研究表明,人们在不确定条件下,总是倾向于高估小概率事件并低估大概率事件,呈现反型权重风险偏好的特点。本文针对一类常见的由单供应商和单零售商组成的两级供应链,其中供应商有随机产出风险,分别考察了供应商与零售商的风险态度对其决策的影响。通过构建斯坦伯格博弈模型分析了供需双方的最优订购量和最优计划生产量。结果表明,供需双方或一方有反型风险态度时,保证供需双方均有激励动机签订契约的前提下,分散决策供应链的效率可达到集中决策的效果,也即供应链有可能达到协调。%Studies of behavioral economics show that people are not perfectly rational but always behave with risk attitudes, one of which is that they possibly overweigh low -probability events and underweigh high -probability e-vents.This risk attitude is generally expressed by an inverse S -shaped weighting function.This paper considers a two stage supply chain with a retailer who faces a constant demand , and a supplier who is subject to random yield risk.The retailer decides order quantities from the supplier , with which the supplier decides production quanti -ties.We use Stackelberg game to model the problem and obtain the optimal decisions for both retailer and suppli -er.We incorporate an inverse S-shaped weighting function into the model construct and discuss risk attitudes of the retailer and the supplier respectively .By comparing risk-averse models with the risk-neutral model, we ob-serve that the supplier chain is conditionally coordinated in risk -averse models, while it cannot be coordinated in risk-neutral model.We also present numerical examples to clearly illustrate this observation .

  1. 早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用%Study on the Prediction Function of Gestational Age and Body Weight of Premature Infants on Diabetes in C hildren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈召金; 黎见乐; 姚慧梅; 兰红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究并分析早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用。方法回顾性分析200例早产儿的临床资料。按照早产儿的胎龄分为A1、A2、A3、A4组,根据出生体重分为B1、B2、B3、B4组,根据喂养方式分为C1、C2、C3组。跟踪随访15年后,记录早产儿儿童糖尿病的发病率。结果28~30周胎龄组早产儿儿童糖尿病发病率为80.0%,明显高于其他胎龄组;出生体重≤999 g早产儿发病率为80.0%,较其他组早产儿高;人工喂养组早产儿发病率为60.8%,明显高于其余两组(P均<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论儿童糖尿病的发病率与早产儿胎龄和出生体重密切相关。%Objective To explore and analyze the prediction function of gestational age and body weight of premature infants on diabetes in children .Methods The retrospective analysis of clinical data was taken ,in-cluding 200 cases of premature infants .According to their gestational age ,they were divided into A1,A2,A3, A4 four groups,with B1 ,B2,B3,B4 four groups according to their birth weight ,C1,C2,C3 three groups accord-ing to the feeding patterns .After a follow-up visit for 15 years,records were written down on the incidences of diabetes in these children .Re sults The incidence of diabetes was 80%in group of premature infants with 28~30 weeks'gestational age ,significantly higher than other age groups .So was the morbidity rate of those with birth weight ≤999g,which accounted for 80.0%.The morbidity rate of premature infants ,who were treated with arti-ficial feeding was 60.8%,significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05).Besides,the morbidity rate in group of infants with non-nutritive sucking accounted for 50 .9%.Conclusion The incidence of diabetes in children is closely related to the gestational age and birth weight of these premature infants .

  2. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  3. Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoua Gandia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inhaled Mg alone and associated with F in the treatment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. 43 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to inhaled NaCl 0.9%, MeCh, MgSO4 and MgF2. Pulmonary changes were assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative histological examination of lungs and trachea. Results revealed that delivery of inhaled Mg associated with F led to a significant decrease of total lung resistance better than inhaled Mg alone (p < 0.05. Histological examinations illustrated that inhaled Mg associated with F markedly suppressed muscular hypertrophy (p = 0.034 and bronchoconstriction (p = 0.006 in MeCh treated rats better than inhaled Mg alone. No histological changes were found in the trachea. This study showed that inhaled Mg associated with F attenuated the main principle of the central components of changes in MeCh provoked experimental asthma better than inhaled Mg alone, potentially providing a new therapeutic approach against asthma.

  4. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  5. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some kids and teens are underweight because of eating disorders , like anorexia or bulimia, which ... weight. People from different races, ethnic groups, and nationalities tend to have different body fat ...

  6. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition ...

  8. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menichetti, Giulia; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of $N$ nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multipa...

  9. Homotopy weighted colimits

    CERN Document Server

    Vokřínek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Let V be a cofibrantly generated closed symmetric monoidal model category and M a model V-category. We say that a weighted colimit W*D of a diagram D weighted by W is a homotopy weighted colimit if the diagram D is pointwise cofibrant and the weight W is cofibrant in the projective model structure on [C^op,V]. We then proceed to describe such homotopy weighted colimits through homotopy tensors and ordinary (conical) homotopy colimits. This is a homotopy version of the well known isomorphism W*D=\\int^C(W\\tensor D). After proving this homotopy decomposition in general we study in some detail a few special cases. For simplicial sets tensors may be replaced up to weak equivalence by conical homotopy colimits and thus the weighted homotopy colimits have no added value. The situation is completely different for model dg-categories where the desuspension cannot be constructed from conical homotopy colimits. In the last section we characterize those V-functors inducing a Quillen equivalence on the enriched presheaf c...

  10. 低分子量壳聚糖对长江华溪蟹免疫功能的影响%Effects of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan on Immune Function of Sinopotamon yangtsekiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰; 王茜; 吉晋芳; 安锐锋

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of low molecular weight chitosan(LMWC) (0. 5 mg/L, 1.0 rag/L,2.0 rag/L,4. 0 mg/L and 8.0 mg/L) on the freshwater crab's non-specific immune function by soa-king was studied in this paper. The indicators were measured in the crab's blood including blood corpuscle density, lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkalinity phosphatase (AKP) ac-tivity,acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and the phenol oxidase (PO) activity separately on the 10th day, 20th day and 30th day. The result showed that LMWC can enhance the activities of LSZ, SOD, AKP, ACP and PO in freshwater crab,but had no significant effect on the blood corpuscle density. LMWC of different doses and duration showed different immunity enzyme activity promoter action. Low molecular weight chi-tosan could significantly increase the freshwater crab's immunity,when treated by 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L of LMWC for 30 days. According to these results,it was concluded that LMWC could be used as non-specific immune enhancer of the freshwater crab.%运用浸浴法,研究了低分子量壳聚糖(LMWC)对长江华溪蟹(Sinopotamon yangtsekiense)免疫功能的影响.实验设置五个浓度(0.5、1.0、2.0、4.0和8.0 mg/L),分别在第10天、20天和30天取血清进行血细胞记数、溶菌酶(LSZ)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)和酚氧化酶(PO)活性的测定.结果显示,LMWC可提高华溪蟹LSZ、PO、SOD、AKP和ACP活性,其作用和效果具有浓度及时间效应,但是对血细胞密度无显著影响.LMWC在4 mg/L和8 mg/L浓度下作用30 d,可显著提高华溪蟹的免疫力,说明LMWC可作为非特异性免疫增强剂提高华溪蟹的免疫力.

  11. Topology dependent epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Quax, Rick; Lees, Michael; Qiu, Xiaogang; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many diffusive processes occur on structured networks with weighted links, such as disease spread by airplane transport or information diffusion in social networks or blogs. Understanding the impact of weight-connectivity correlations on epidemic spreading in weighted networks is crucial to support decision-making on disease control and other diffusive processes. However, a real understanding of epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks is still lacking. Here we conduct a numerical study of the velocity of a Reed-Frost epidemic spreading process in various weighted network topologies as a function of the correlations between edge weights and node degrees. We find that a positive weight-connectivity correlation leads to a faster epidemic spreading compared to an unweighted network. In contrast, we find that both uncorrelated and negatively correlated weight distributions lead to slower spreading processes. In the case of positive weight-connectivity correlations, the acceleration of spreading velocity is weak when the heterogeneity of weight distribution increases.

  12. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunesova, M.; Hlavaty, P.; Tvrzicka, E.; Stankova, B.; Kalouskova, P.; Viguerie, N.; Larsen, T.M.; van Baak, M.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Kafatos, A.; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hill, M.; Langin, D.; Zak, A.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. To assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES

  13. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  14. WEIGHTED HOLOMORPHIC BESOV SPACES AND THEIR BOUNDARY VALUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. S. Guliyev; Zhijian Wu

    2005-01-01

    We study weighted holomorphic Besov spaces and their boundary values. Under certain restrictions on the weighted function and parameters, we establish the equivalent norms for holomorphic functions in terms of their boundary functions. Some results about embedding and interpolation are also included.

  15. Epidemics and vaccination on weighted graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Deijfen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A Reed-Frost epidemic with inhomogeneous infection probabilities on a graph with prescribed degree distribution is studied. Each edge $(u,v)$ in the graph is equipped with two weights $W_{(u,v)}$ and $W_{(v,u)}$ that represent the (subjective) strength of the connection and determine the probability that $u$ infects $v$ in case $u$ is infected and vice versa. Expressions for the epidemic threshold are derived for i.i.d.\\ weights and for weights that are functions of the degrees. For i.i.d.\\ weights, a variation of the so called acquaintance vaccination strategy is analyzed where vertices are chosen randomly and neighbors of these vertices with large edge weights are vaccinated. This strategy is shown to outperform the strategy where the neighbors are chosen randomly in the sense that the basic reproduction number is smaller for a given vaccination coverage.

  16. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  17. Increasing the weight of minimum spanning trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederickson, G.N.; Solis-Oba, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Given an undirected connected graph G and a cost function for increasing edge weights, the problem of determining the maximum increase in the weight of the minimum spanning trees of G subject to a budget constraint is investigated. Two versions of the problem are considered. In the first, each edge has a cost function that is linear in the weight increase. An algorithm is presented that solves this problem in strongly polynomial time. In the second version, the edge weights are fixed but an edge can be removed from G at a unit cost. This version is shown to be NP-hard. An {Omega}(1/ log k)-approximation algorithm is presented for it, where k is the number of edges to be removed.

  18. Experimental Realization of Braunstein's Weight-Decision Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shi-Yao; CUI Jing-Xin; LI Jun-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Braunstein proposed an Algorithm to distinguish the Boolean functions of two different weights. Here we implement the algorithm in a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The experiment shows that the algorithm could distinguish the Boolean functions of two different weights efficiently.%@@ Braunstein proposed an algorithm to distinguish the Boolean functions of two different weights.Here we imple-ment the algorithm in a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor.The experiment shows that the algorithm could distinguish the Boolean functions of two different weights efficiently.

  19. Nucleosome positioning identification and functional analysis on the position weight matrix%基于位置权重矩阵的核小体识别及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岁品品; 邢旭东; 王宏; 崔颖

    2016-01-01

    This study was based on high throughout nucleosome positioning data of CD4+T cell in human genome to investigate the model of nucleosome positioning and category the nucleosomes. We constructed three the models by using position weight matrix, including stable nucleosome model, dynamic nucleosome model and linker sequences model respectively. Ten⁃fold cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of the three models, and the assessment results were compared with Segal model and curvature profile method. It was found that the position weight matrix method was superior to the other two methods in terms of sensitivity, precision and accuracy. At the same time the sliding window method is adopted to select candidate sequences in the genome to identify the nucleosomes. Furthermore we mined the related genes of nucleosome positioning and completed enrichment analysis of gene functions and found that different nucleosome positioning modes involved in both a certain similarity and difference in regulation function in biological processes.Whereas there are some biological processes are co⁃regulated by different nucleosome positioning modes,such as regulation of macromolecule.%为研究高通量的人类CD4+T细胞的核小体定位模式,使用迭代算法对核小体定位模式进行分类,并利用位置权重矩阵方法分别构建稳定核小体定位序列、动态核小体定位序列和连接区序列模型,通过十倍交叉验证评估模型性能,并与Segal方法与弯曲度方法进行比较,发现位置权重矩阵方法在敏感性、精度和准确性方面都具有一定优越性。同时采用滑窗法在全基因组选取候选序列进行核小体识别,挖掘核小体定位相关基因,并进行基因生物学进程功能富集分析,发现稳定与动态核小体、真实与潜在核小体对应的基因所参与调控的生物学过程各有不同,但也有一些生物学过程为不同类别核小体所共有,例

  20. Geometric Spanners for Weighted Point Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Farshi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Let (S,d) be a finite metric space, where each element p ∈ S has a non-negative weight w(p). We study spanners for the set S with respect to weighted distance function d w , where d w (p,q) is w(p) + d(p,q) + wq if p ≠ q and 0 otherwise. We present a general method for turning spanners with respe...

  1. Evaluation of Food Security Based on Center-point Triangular Whitenization Weight Function in Henan Province%基于中心点三角白化权函数的河南省粮食安全评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 孟凡琳; 李炳军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,eleven indexes were selected to reveal the comprehensive evaluation of food security from the food supply,demand and market circulation. A quantitative evaluation model based on center⁃point triangular whitenization weight function is adopted to evaluate the status of food security in Henan Province from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that the food security situation stable in a safe gray class. To ensure long⁃term food security,we must improve the level of food production,adhere to the scientific technology,increase farmers′ incomes and grain enthusiasm,promote agricultural industrial structure adjustment and so on.%选取能够反映粮食安全的11个评价指标,建立基于中心点三角白化权函数的灰色聚类评价模型,从粮食供给、需求和市场流通3个方面,对河南省2000—2012年的粮食安全状况进行评价。结果表明:评价阶段河南省粮食安全状况整体稳定,总体处于安全灰类。但要确保河南省粮食长期安全,还必须不断提高粮食生产水平,坚持科技兴农,增加农民收入和种粮积极性,促进农业产业结构调整等。

  2. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  3. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  4. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther

    2016-01-01

    specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long-term....... It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...... and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...

  5. Exercise in weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, B M; Szymanski, L

    1997-11-01

    Exercise is integral to successful weight loss and maintenance. When talking to patients about exercise, consider their readiness, and address the barriers that prevent exercise. Physicians can help those patients who already exercise by encouraging them to continue and helping them anticipate, and recover from, lapses. Providing resource material to patients on behavioral strategies for exercise adoption and weight management can supplement the physician's efforts. Overall, patients need to hear that any regular exercise, be it step-aerobics, walking, or taking the stairs, will benefit them.

  6. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    function when compared to CON and CLA groups. These data suggest that a maternal HF diet causes a developmental programming of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring which can be partially improved by maternal CLA supplementation, independent of offspring body weight.

  7. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    EDHF function when compared to CON and CLA groups. These data suggest that a maternal HF diet causes a developmental programming of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring which can be partially improved by maternal CLA supplementation, independent of offspring body weight.

  8. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP......Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  9. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help all kids maintain a healthy weight. For kids with diabetes, diet and exercise are even more important because ... weight is good for the entire family! When kids with diabetes reach and maintain a healthy weight, they feel ...

  10. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  11. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  12. Weighted exponential polynomial approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冠铁

    2003-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for completeness of systems of exponentials with a weightin Lp is established and a quantitative relation between the weight and the system of exponential in Lp isobtained by using a generalization of Malliavin's uniqueness theorem about Watson's problem.

  13. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  14. Weight control (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight lifting builds muscle, which increases overall body strength, tone, and balance. Muscles also burn calories more efficiently than fat and other body tissues. So even at rest the more muscle tissue a person has the more calories a person is ...

  15. Losing Baby Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise is a key component of a healthy lifestyle before, during and after pregnancy. After pregnancy, most women can start exercising as ... the skinny jeans. Focus on living a healthy lifestyle, and the rest will fall into place. More tips ... or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ...

  16. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  17. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weighted Youden index and its two-independent-sample comparison based on weighted sensitivity and specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-ling; SHEN Frank; YIN Yue; PENG Jun-xiang; CHEN Ping-yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Most indices for evaluating a diagnostic test can be expressed as functions of sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE).Practically,all existing methods suffer from the inability to weight sensitivity and specificity relative to their importance.In this paper,we developed a novel index,the weighted Youden index,that allows Youden index to be a combination of sensitivity and specificity with user-defined weights.Methods The weighted Youden index Jw is defined as Jw=2(w×SEN+(1-w)SPE)-1 (0 ≤w ≤1).It has three properties:(1) the sum of the weights which are attached to sensitivity and specificity should be equal to 1; (2) the range of Jw should be within [-1,1],which is the range of the Youden index J; (3) Jv should be equal to J when sensitivity and specificity have equal weights.According to the central limit theorem,we obtain the standard error of Jw,and propose a statistical inference method to compare two weighted Youden indices.The monotonicity of the test statistic was discussed.Results An example of comparing two diagnostic tests for pheochromocytoma was used to demonstrate the weighted Youden index method.Weighted Youden index,the confidence interval for each test and the hypothesis test of comparing two independent diagnostic tests were presented.Assigning the weights is essential to the weighted Youden index approach.Conclusion The weighted Youden index can broaden its applications in diagnostic test development and motivate further research in weighting sensitivity and specificity explicitly.

  19. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  20. Weighted monotonicity inequalities for unbounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, Dinh Trung

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\tau$ be a faithful normal semifinite trace on a von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{M}$. For a continuous nonnegative convex monotone nondecreasing function $f$ on convex subset $\\Omega$ of $\\mathbb{R}$ and weight nonnegative Borel function $w$ we consider weighted monotonicity inequalities of the form {equation*} \\tau(w(A)^{1/2}f(A)w(A)^{1/2}) \\le \\tau (w(A)^{1/2}f(B)w(A)^{1/2}), {equation*} where $A$ and $B$ are unbounded operators affiliated with respect to algebra $\\mathcal{M}$.