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Sample records for weight weight change

  1. Weight changes during chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Megale Costa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer have a tendency to gain weight. This tendency has determining factors not completely defined and an unknown prognostic impact. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate weight change during chemotherapy for breast cancer in a defined population and to identify its predisposing factors and possible prognostic significance. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Private clinical oncology service. PARTICIPANTS: 106 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated between June 1994 and April 2000, who received neoadjuvant (n = 8, adjuvant (n = 74 or palliative (n = 24 chemotherapy. INTERVETION: Review of medical records and gathering of clinical information, including patients’ body weights before treatment and at follow-up reviews. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Body weight change, expressed as percentage of body weight per month in treatment; role of clinical data in weight change; and influence of weight change in overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: There was a mean increase of 0.50 ± 1.42% (p = 0.21 of body weight per month of treatment. We noted a negative correlation between metastatic disease and weight gain (r = -0.447, p < 0.0001. In the adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy groups there was a mean weight gain of 0.91 ± 1.19 % (p < 0.00001 per month, whereas in the metastatic (palliative group, we observed a mean loss of 0.52 ± 1.21% (p = 0.11 of body weight per month during the treatment. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between weight changes and disease-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy gain weight, whereas metastatic cancer patients will probably lose weight during palliative chemotherapy. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of weight changes during chemotherapy.

  2. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  3. Importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight management trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Theim, Kelly R; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2011-07-01

    Early weight change is associated with overall weight loss treatment response in adults but has been relatively unexplored in youth. We investigated the importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight control trial. Overweight children aged 7 to 12 years (n=204) participated in a randomized controlled trial of 2 weight maintenance treatments (MTs) after a 20-week family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT). Hierarchical regression was used to investigate the relation between children's percentage weight change at sessions 4, 6, and 8 of FBT and BMI z-score reductions after FBT and at the 2-year follow-up. Correlations and hierarchical regression were used to identify child and parent factors associated with children's early weight change. Children's percentage weight change by FBT session 8 was the best predictor of BMI z-score reductions after FBT and at 2-year follow-up. Percentage weight change in children at session 8 was associated with better FBT attendance and with greater percentage weight change in parents at FBT session 8. Early weight change seems to be related to treatment response through the end of treatment and 2-year follow-up. Future research should include investigation of strategies to promote early weight change in children and parents and identification of mechanisms through which early weight change is related to overall treatment response. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. The Statistical Mechanics of Human Weight Change

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, John C; Abrams, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, it is important to know who becomes obese and why. However, the processes that determine the changing shape of Body Mass Index (BMI) distributions in high-income societies are not well-understood. Here we establish the statistical mechanics of human weight change, providing a fundamental new understanding of human weight distributions. By compiling and analysing the largest data set so far of year-over-year BMI changes, we find, strikingly, that heavy people on average strongly decrease their weight year-over-year, and light people increase their weight. This drift towards the centre of the BMI distribution is balanced by diffusion resulting from random fluctuations in diet and physical activity that are, notably, proportional in size to BMI. We formulate a stochastic mathematical model for BMI dynamics, deriving a theoretical shape for the BMI distribution and offering a mechanism to explain the ongoing right-skewed broadening of BMI distributions over time. The...

  5. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aston Louise M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38 - 61 years; median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8 - 39.5 kg/m2. Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Results Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9 - -0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ≥5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8 - -3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ≥5% initial weight. Conclusions A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ≥5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

  6. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  7. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  8. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  9. Maternal weight change between 1 and 2 years postpartum: the importance of 1 year weight retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal BMI for some women. The objective of this study was to examine maternal body weight change 1y-2y postpartum, and to compare classifications of 2y weight retention with and without accounting for 1y-2y weight gain. Early pregnancy body weight (EPW, first trimester) was measured or imputed, and follow-up measures obtained before delivery, 1 year postpartum (1y) and 2 years postpartum (2y) in an observational cohort study of women seeking prenatal care in several counties in upstate New York (n = 413). Baseline height was measured; demographic and behavioral data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Associations of 1y-2y weight change (kg) and 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) with anthropometric, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were evaluated using linear and logistic regressions. While mean ± SE 1y-2y weight change was 0.009 ± 4.6 kg, 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) was common (n = 108, 26%). Odds of weight gain 1y-2y were higher for overweight (OR(adj) = 2.63, CI(95%) = 1.43-4.82) and obese (OR(adj) = 2.93, CI(95%) = 1.62-5.27) women than for women with BMI change (β(adj) ± SE = -0.28 ± 0.04, P change were attenuated for women with higher early pregnancy BMI. Weight change 1y-2y was predicted primarily by an inverse relation with 1y weight retention. The high frequency of weight gain has important implications for classification of postpartum weight retention.

  10. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....

  11. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  12. Weight Changes following the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The association between recent and more distant weight changes before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been little researched. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of patients’ weight history before diabetes diagnosis on the observed 6-year weight changes after...... diagnosis. Methods: A clinical cohort study combined with self-reported past weight history. In total 885 patients aged ≥40 years and newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes were included. Body weight was measured immediately after diabetes diagnosis and again at the 6-year follow up examination...... weight change after diagnosis. Conclusions: During the first on average 5.7 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, patients generally follow a course of declining average weight, and these weight developments are related primarily to recent weight changes, body mass index, and age, but not to the more...

  13. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT ...

  14. Weight Change Following US Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    greater prevalence of overweight and/or obesity than non-veterans of similar age and sex.4 - 7 This paradox suggests that the rate of weight gain...SylveSt~ Road . ... Stm Diego, Caljfomia 92106-3521 . . . International Journal of Obesity (20 1 2) 1 10 © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Umited All rights...Powell3 and TC Smith3 for the Millennium Cohort Study Team BACKGROUND: Although overweight and obesity are less prevalent among active-duty military

  15. Weight Change Trajectories After Incident Lower-Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D; Thompson, Mary Lou; Boyko, Edward J; Morgenroth, David C; Littman, Alyson J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize weight change after amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower-limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Administrative data. Veterans who were men (N=759), living in the Northwest United States, and who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter. Not applicable. Postamputation weight and body mass index change. The mean weight at baseline was 91.6±24 kg (202±53 lb), and average follow-up was 2.4 years. We identified 4 trajectory groups for weight change: weight loss (13%), stable weight (47%), slow weight gain (33%), and rapid weight gain (7%). Men with a toe or foot amputation most frequently were assigned to the stable weight group (58%), whereas men with transtibial or transfemoral amputations were most commonly assigned to the slow weight gain group (42% each). Men who died during follow-up were more likely to be assigned to the weight loss group (24%) than men who did not die (11%). We identified distinct weight change trajectories that represent heterogeneity in weight change after LLA. An improved understanding of factors predictive of weight gain or loss in people with LLA may help better target rehabilitation and prosthetic prescription. Additional research is needed to fully understand the relation between weight change and health status after amputation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( Angus cows and lower ( Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to 28.6 ± 9.4 kg for cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive ability of Romosinuano in temperate fescue regions may be favorable with respect to relative cow and calf weight but may be a consequence of

  17. Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The relationship between body size and breast cancer still remains controversial in considering menopausal status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of height, weight and weight changes with breast cancer in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. SAMPLE: 177 incident cases of invasive breast cancer admitted to the main hospital of INCA between May 1995 and February 1996, and 377 controls recruited from among female visitors to the same hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight were measured and information on maximum weight, weight at ages 18 and 30 years, and potential risk factors were ascertained by interview at the hospital. RESULTS: Height was not related to risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, women in this study were shorter than in studies that have found a positive association. Premenopausal women in the upper quartile of recent body mass index (BMI and maximum BMI showed a reduced risk of breast cancer (P for trend <= 0.03. Weight loss between ages 18 and 30 years and from 18 years to present was also associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may merely indicate the known association between leanness and breast cancer. Further studies should explore the role of weight loss on breast cancer risk.

  18. Longitudinal changes in blood pressure during weight loss and regain of weight in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Neland, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain.......To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain....

  19. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...

  20. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  1. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  2. Weight change following deep brain stimulation for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Cartwright, Michael S; Passmore, Leah V; Ellis, Thomas L; Tatter, Stephen B; Siddiqui, Mustafa S

    2010-08-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) tend to lose weight progressively over years. Weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treatment of PD has been documented in several studies that were limited by small sample size and exclusive focus on PD patients with STN stimulation. The current study was undertaken to examine weight change in a large sample of movement disorder patients following DBS. A retrospective review was undertaken of 182 patient charts following DBS of the STN, ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus (VIM), and globus pallidus internus (GPi). Weight was collected preoperatively and postoperatively up to 24 months following surgery. Data were adjusted for baseline weight and multivariate linear regression was performed with repeated measures to assess weight change. Statistically significant mean weight gain of 1.8 kg (2.8% increase from baseline, p = 0.0113) was observed at a rate of approximately 1 kg per year up to 24 months following surgery. This gain was not predicted by age, gender, diagnosis, or stimulation target in a multivariate model. Significant mean weight gain of 2.3 kg (p = 0.0124) or 4.2% was observed in our PD patients. Most patients with PD and ET gain weight following DBS, and this gain is not predicted by age, gender, diagnosis, or stimulation target.

  3. Weight Change and Risk of Hyperglycemia in Elderly Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    of hyperglycaemia to a level comparable to weight-stable normalweight women. Overweight and obese women with stable weight presented a two-fold increased risk of hyperglycaemia compared to normalweight weight-stable women. Conclusions Losing weight in late life had a positive effect on the risk of hyperglycaemia......Background Hyperglycaemia increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and is influenced by weight. However, the impact of preceding weight change on blood glycemia levels in late-life is less well understood. Aim We studied the interplay between weight change and risk...... of diabetes or impaired fasting glucose. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk of hyperglycaemia (FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 42 mmol/mol) in normalweight (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI = 25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) women who either lost weight, were weight-stable or had...

  4. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was co

  5. Body Weight changes and Economic Implications of Feeding Uda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Weight changes and Economic Implications of Feeding Uda Rams with ... Tullun Gwanki Grazing Reserve was purposively selected because of the ... result in terms of cost of feed/kg live weight gain (962.83N/kg) as compared to rams on ...

  6. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, die

  7. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  8. Weight changes in children in foster care for 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study of predominately racial/ethnic minority children in foster care (N=360, birth to 19 years old) in Los Angeles, CA were to examine the (1) prevalence of obesity (≥ 95 percentile) and overweight/obese (≥ 85 percentile) upon entrance to foster care (T1) and after 1 year in foster care (T2); (2) comparison of high weight categories to national statistics; (3) relationship of changes in weight status to age, reason for entry into foster care, and placement. Chi-square test and McNemar test comparing paired proportions were used to determine whether there were significant changes in the proportion of high weight categories between T1 and T2. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate the association between age, placement, and reason for foster care with the change in weight category. Changes in weight were categorized as (1) decreased in weight, (2) remained at overweight or obese, (3) increased in weight, or (4) remained normal. The proportion of obese and obese/overweight children between ages 2 and 5 were significantly lower at T2 than T1. There were no significant changes in the prevalence of obesity for the total population at T2. Children age 6 or older had a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight/obesity compared to national statistics. Of children at all ages, 64.7% of children of all ages entered foster care with a normal weight and stayed in the normal range during their first year in foster care, 12.2% decreased their weight, 15.4% remained overweight or obese, and 7.7% increased their weight. Age and parental substance use was related to change in weight category from T1 to T2. Children did not become more overweight or obese in foster care; however 28% of the children were obese or overweight upon entry into foster care. Children who are 6 years or older and obese upon entering foster care should be targeted for weight reduction. The pediatric community and child welfare system need to work together by

  9. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...... study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain....

  10. Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165987.html Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries Better diversity ... Specifically, the procedure leads to increased diversity of bacteria in the gut, and a microbial population distinct ...

  11. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  12. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Goodwin, James S

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03-1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02-1.89), after

  13. Impact of Caffeine on Weight Changes Due to Ketotifen Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlool Habibi Asl

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prescription of ketotifen as an effective antihistamine in asthma and allergic conditions is associated with side effect of weight gain. Caffeine is an agent which increases thermogenesis and improves energy expenditure and also effective in asthma. The aim of current study was to evaluate caffeine impact in reducing weight gain side effect of ketotifen. Methods: Male mice at the weight limit of 20-30 g in 8 groups were randomly chosen and injected following drug dosages for 45 days intraperitoneally: control group (normal saline 10 ml/kg, three groups of ketotifen (4, 8, 16 mg/kg, three groups of caffeine (4, 8, 16 mg/kg and one group of ketotifen (4 mg/kg in combination with caffeine (4 mg/kg. Weight changes have been recorded and assessed every 3 days for 45 days. Results: The results showed that in all dosages of the two drugs, significant weight loss occurred in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The effect of caffeine on weight loss according to our results, matches with human studies, while ketotifen contradictory to our assumption, resulted in weight loss which probably was related to the difference in metabolic pathways in mice and humans, or maybe the used doses of ketotifen in this study were insufficient to reduce TNF-α production or influence in serotonin release and be effective on appetite or weight gain.

  14. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  15. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  16. Stages of change for weight management in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Debra A; Semmens, Elizabeth; Boury, Janis; Gordon, Paul M; Larkin, Kevin T

    2004-07-01

    This study examined factors related to stages of change for weight-management behaviors in postpartum women. Cross-sectional data, collected at baseline, are reported from the Mothers' Overweight Management Study (MOMS), a randomized, controlled trial conducted in postpartum women who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).Subjects/Setting Subjects were a sample of WIC recipients (N=151) older than 18 years of age with a child younger than 2 years. Statistical analysis The dependent variables were the stages of change for weight-management behaviors (losing weight, avoiding high-fat foods, eating a high-fiber diet, and exercising). Demographic, health, and psychosocial variables were examined as independent variables. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare means, and chi(2) was used for proportions. Whereas 55% of women were in the action stage for weight loss, fewer women were in the action stage for the following weight management behaviors: avoiding high-fat foods (24%), increasing fiber (19%), and exercising three times per week (29%). Identifying pros for weight management was related to stages for losing weight, high-fat food avoidance, and exercise (F=13.4, Pfiber intake (chi(2)=16.4, P=.003; chi(2)=11.7, P=.02). Emphasizing the pros for weight-management behaviors, decreasing the cons for exercising, increasing confidence to select low-fat restaurant choices, and improving skills for using food labels are four strategies that nutrition professionals can use to help women become more ready to change behaviors for weight management.

  17. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  18. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  19. Predicting success: factors associated with weight change in obese youth undertaking a weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Kimberley A; Ware, Robert S; Batch, Jennifer A; Truby, Helen

    2013-01-01

    To explore which baseline physiological and psychosocial variables predict change in body mass index (BMI) z-score in obese youth after 12 weeks of a dietary weight management study. Participants were obese young people participating in a dietary intervention trial in Brisbane Australia. The outcome variable was change in BMI z-score. Potential predictors considered included demographic, physiological and psychosocial parameters of the young person, and demographic characteristics of their parents. A multivariable regression model was constructed to examine the effect of potential predictive variables. Participants (n = 88) were predominantly female (69.3%), and had a mean(standard deviation) age of 13.1(1.9) years and BMI z-score of 2.2(0.4) on presentation. Lower BMI z-score (p resistance (p = 0.04) at baseline, referral from a paediatrician (p = 0.02) and being more socially advantaged (p = 0.046) were significantly associated with weight loss. Macronutrient distribution of diet and physical activity level did not contribute. Early intervention in obesity treatment in young people improves likelihood of success. Other factors such as degree of insulin resistance, social advantage and referral source also appear to play a role. Assessing presenting characteristics and factors associated with treatment outcome may allow practicing clinicians to individualise a weight management program or determine the 'best-fit' treatment for an obese adolescent. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Keywords: Malawi, overweight, obesity, university, weight gain. Weight gain, physical ... The authors sought to assess weight gain, physical activity and ..... 47.1% of children under the age of five years (40.7% in urban, and.

  1. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; van Baak, Marleen A; Saris, Wim H M; McNicholas, Paul D; Mutch, David M

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.

  3. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  4. Desvenlafaxine and Weight Change in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurent, Claire; Graepel, Jay; Ninan, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To characterize weight change during short- and longer-term treatment with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) for major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Data from 9 short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and 1 longer-term relapse-prevention trial conducted between September 2002 and January 2007 were analyzed. Adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of MDD using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition received fixed- or flexible-dose desvenlafaxine or placebo for 8 weeks in the short-term studies. In the longer-term study, responders to 12 weeks of open-label desvenlafaxine treatment were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with desvenlafaxine or placebo for 6 months. Mean weight changes and incidence of potentially clinically important changes were evaluated. Results: In the short-term studies (desvenlafaxine: n = 1,834; placebo: n = 1,116), mean decreases in weight associated with desvenlafaxine were small but statistically significant compared with baseline (P desvenlafaxine vs + 0.05 kg placebo; P desvenlafaxine (n = 190) and placebo (n = 185) throughout the relapse-prevention phase, with no statistical difference between desvenlafaxine- and placebo-treated patients at the final evaluation. Less than 1% of desvenlafaxine-treated patients experienced a clinically meaningful weight change. Conclusions: Desvenlafaxine was not associated with clinically significant weight change during short- or longer-term treatment. PMID:20582292

  5. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  6. Changes of adiponectin oligomer composition by moderate weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Thomas; Rochlitz, Helmut; Wegewitz, Uta; Akpulat, Suzan; Mai, Knut; Weickert, Martin O; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    Adiponectin affects lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers that may also have distinct biological functions. We aimed to analyze the role of these oligomers in obesity and lipid metabolism after weight reduction. A total of 17 obese volunteers (15 women and 2 men) participated in a weight reduction program. Individuals were characterized before and after 6 months of a balanced diet. Adiponectin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and oligomers were detected by nondenaturating Western blot. BMI decreased (35.1 +/- 1.2 to 32.8 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2), P < 0.001), which was associated with an improved metabolite profile. Total adiponectin increased from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 6.1 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (P = 0.076). High (HMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin oligomers significantly increased during weight reduction (HMW: 0.37 +/- 0.07 to 0.4 +/- 0.08 microg/ml, P = 0.042; MMW: 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.3 microg/ml, P = 0.007), while low molecular weight (LMW) did not significantly change. Body weight inversely correlated with HMW (r = -0.695, P = 0.002) and positively with LMW (r = 0.579, P = 0.015). Interestingly, HDL cholesterol and HMW were strongly correlated (r = 0.665, P = 0.007). Indeed, HMW and free fatty acids before weight reduction predicted approximately 60% of HDL changes during intervention. In conclusion, weight reduction results in a relative increase of HMW/MMW adiponectin and a reduction of LMW adiponectin. Total adiponectin and especially HMW adiponectin are related to circulating HDL cholesterol.

  7. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  8. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  9. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  10. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P < 0.0001) and physical activity (P < 0.05) were associated with lower weight gain. Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P < 0.0001) and current smoking (P < 0.01) were associated with lower weight gain, and weight fluctuation (P < 0.01) and former smoking status (P < 0.0001) were associated with greater weight gain. Age was the strongest predictor of weight change in both women (partial R(2) = 11%) and men (partial R(2) = 8.6%). Normal- and overweight women gained more than obese women (P < 0.05) and younger adults gained more weight than older adults (P < 0.0001). Patterns and predictors of weight change differ by sex. Age in both sexes and physical activity among women as well as weight fluctuation and smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  11. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  12. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  13. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of

  14. Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum. METHODS: We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary...... activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum. RESULTS: Women's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure......-time exercise, less sedentary behavior, and longer duration of breastfeeding on average gained 1.66 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40; 1.91] with a significantly reduced odds [OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.64)] of gaining >5 kg from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum compared to women with none or one...

  15. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  16. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  17. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  18. Body weight, not insulin sensitivity or secretion, may predict spontaneous weight changes in nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects: the RISC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelos, Eleni; Muscelli, Elza; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley; Mingrone, Geltrude; Piatti, Piermarco; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19-44 kg/m(2), 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and β-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any β-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), Pweight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28-2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4

  20. Factors Associated With Weight Change in Online Weight Management Communities: A Case Study in the LoseIt Reddit Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Gisele Lobo; Cunha, Tiago Oliveira; Bicalho, Paulo Viana; Ribeiro, Antonio; Couto Silva, Ana Paula; Meira, Wagner; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende

    2017-01-16

    Recent research has shown that of the 72% of American Internet users who have looked for health information online, 22% have searched for help to lose or control weight. This demand for information has given rise to many online weight management communities, where users support one another throughout their weight loss process. Whether and how user engagement in online communities relates to weight change is not totally understood. We investigated the activity behavior and analyze the semantic content of the messages of active users in LoseIt (r/loseit), a weight management community of the online social network Reddit. We then explored whether these features are associated with weight loss in this online social network. A data collection tool was used to collect English posts, comments, and other public metadata of active users (ie, users with at least one post or comment) on LoseIt from August 2010 to November 2014. Analyses of frequency and intensity of user interaction in the community were performed together with a semantic analysis of the messages, done by a latent Dirichlet allocation method. The association between weight loss and online user activity patterns, the semantics of the messages, and real-world variables was found by a linear regression model using 30-day weight change as the dependent variable. We collected posts and comments of 107,886 unique users. Among these, 101,003 (93.62%) wrote at least one comment and 38,981 (36.13%) wrote at least one post. Median percentage of days online was 3.81 (IQR 9.51). The 10 most-discussed semantic topics on posts were related to healthy food, clothing, calorie counting, workouts, looks, habits, support, and unhealthy food. In the subset of 754 users who had gender, age, and 30-day weight change data available, women were predominant and 92.9% (701/754) lost weight. Female gender, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, high levels of online activity, the number of upvotes received per post, and topics discussed

  1. Factors Associated With Weight Change in Online Weight Management Communities: A Case Study in the LoseIt Reddit Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio; Couto Silva, Ana Paula; Meira Jr, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that of the 72% of American Internet users who have looked for health information online, 22% have searched for help to lose or control weight. This demand for information has given rise to many online weight management communities, where users support one another throughout their weight loss process. Whether and how user engagement in online communities relates to weight change is not totally understood. Objective We investigated the activity behavior and analyze the semantic content of the messages of active users in LoseIt (r/loseit), a weight management community of the online social network Reddit. We then explored whether these features are associated with weight loss in this online social network. Methods A data collection tool was used to collect English posts, comments, and other public metadata of active users (ie, users with at least one post or comment) on LoseIt from August 2010 to November 2014. Analyses of frequency and intensity of user interaction in the community were performed together with a semantic analysis of the messages, done by a latent Dirichlet allocation method. The association between weight loss and online user activity patterns, the semantics of the messages, and real-world variables was found by a linear regression model using 30-day weight change as the dependent variable. Results We collected posts and comments of 107,886 unique users. Among these, 101,003 (93.62%) wrote at least one comment and 38,981 (36.13%) wrote at least one post. Median percentage of days online was 3.81 (IQR 9.51). The 10 most-discussed semantic topics on posts were related to healthy food, clothing, calorie counting, workouts, looks, habits, support, and unhealthy food. In the subset of 754 users who had gender, age, and 30-day weight change data available, women were predominant and 92.9% (701/754) lost weight. Female gender, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, high levels of online activity, the number of upvotes

  2. Five-year weight changes associate with blood pressure alterations independent of changes in serum insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    ). METHODS: We assessed the glucose-insulin metabolism by a standard oral glucose tolerance test. We divided the antihypertensive and antidiabetic medication-free participants into three groups: weight loss (n = 515), weight stable (n = 1778), and weight gain (n = 1150). RESULTS: Losing on average 6.5 kg......OBJECTIVE: In overweight-related hypertension, the effect of weight changes on blood pressure (BP) is believed to be mediated by insulin. To test this hypothesis, we studied 5-year changes in weight, BP, and insulin in a general population of Danish adults (n = 3443; mean age 45.7 ± 7.6 years...... body weight, the weight loss group experienced a 28.2% reduction [(95% confidence interval [CI] -31 to -25); P weight gain group experienced a 12.5% increase [(95% CI 9...

  3. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  5. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  6. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW: T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS. Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815 with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  7. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cupeiro, Rocío; Wang, Guan; Amigo, Teresa; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Benito, Pedro J; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2016-01-01

    ...) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program...

  8. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.

  9. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  10. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  11. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  12. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  13. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  14. System Model Network for Adipose Tissue Signatures Related to Weight Changes in Response to Calorie Restriction and Subsequent Weight Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Hlavaty, Petr; Tvrzicka, Eva; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Kunesova, Marie; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial

  15. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    of breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study...

  16. Seniors' body weight dissatisfaction and longitudinal associations with weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity: results from the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Payette, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between weight dissatisfaction, weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity among 1,793 seniors followed over 4 years between 2003 and 2009. Obesity prevalence (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and prevalence/incidence of weight dissatisfaction, anorexia of aging (self-reported appetite loss), and weight changes ≥5% were assessed. Predictors of weight loss ≥5%, anorexia of aging, and weight dissatisfaction were examined using logistic regressions. Half of seniors experienced weight dissatisfaction (50.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [48.1, 53.1]). Anorexia of aging and obesity prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = [5.7, 8.3]) and 25.1% (95% CI = [22.9, 27.3]), whereas incidence of weight gain/loss ≥5% was 6.6% (95% CI = [1.3, 11.9]) and 8.8% (95% CI = [3.3, 14.3]). Weight gain ≥5% predicts men's subsequent weight dissatisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66, 95% CI = [2.06, 21.60]). No other association was observed. Weight dissatisfaction is frequent but not associated with subsequent eating disorders. In men, weight gain predicted weight dissatisfaction. Seniors' weight dissatisfaction does not necessarily equate weight changes. Due to its high prevalence, it is of public health interest to understand how seniors' weight dissatisfaction may impact health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    the two examinations was significantly associated with level of COPD, reaching approximately 30% in subjects with severe COPD. After adjusting for age, smoking habits, baseline BMI and lung function, weight loss was associated with higher mortality in both persons with and without COPD (rate ratio (RR...

  18. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  19. Freshman 15 in England: a longitudinal evaluation of first year university student's weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Claudia; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Weight change in first year university students, often referred to as 'Freshman 15', has been shown to be a common problem in North America. Studies have reported weight gain to be between 1 kg and 4 kg over the academic year and a recent meta-analysis found a mean gain of 1.34 kg and that 61 % of students gained weight. A limited number of studies have investigated weight change in England and large scale studies are needed to understand better weight change trends and to conduct subgroup analyses. This is important in the context of rising obesity prevalence, especially as behaviours and unhealthy weight in early adulthood often remains over the lifetime. We recruited students across 23 universities in England to complete a web-based survey at three time points in 2014-2015: beginning of academic year, December, end of academic year. Students were asked to self-report height and weight. We calculated weight change of each student between time points and conducted t-tests and pared analysis of variance to investigate the effect of time, sex and initial BMI. We also investigated weight change amongst weight gainers and in weight losers separately. We followed 215 students over three time points and found a mean weight change of 0.98 kg (95%CI 0.49-1.47) over a mean length of 34 weeks of follow-up. The weight change rate was not significantly different over different terms. Over 51 % of the sample gained more than 0.5 kg by the end of the academic year, with a mean gain of 3.46 kg. Female weight gainers had a significantly lower baseline weight than non-weight gaining females. Twenty-five percent of the sample lost more than 0.5 kg with a mean of -3.21 kg. Within weight losers, males lost significantly more weight than females. Our findings reinforce that the first year of university is a crucial time in the life of students during which the majority tend to gain weight. However, we also found that 25 % lost weight, indicating that 75 % of students

  20. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... at weeks 0 and 68 applying the BLOKS score. RESULTS: During the 52 weeks maintenance period the continuous dietary maintenance group support on average gained 1.1 kg (95% CI: -0.3:2.5) body mass, the exercise group gained 6.6 kg (95% CI 5.4:7.8) and the no-attention group gained 4.8 kg (95% CI: 2...

  1. Weight change and workplace absenteeism in the HealthWorks study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Linde, Jennifer A; Harnack, Lisa J; Stovitz, Steven D; Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. 'Thin people … they're healthy': young children's understanding of body weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, S L; Collins, S C; Hill, A J

    2016-10-01

    While research has investigated negative stereotyping of fat body shapes, little has focused on young children's understanding of the mechanisms, motivations and consequences of weight change. To investigate children's understanding of how weight change is achieved, people's motivation for weight change, and the consequences of weight loss or weight gain. One hundred children (mean age 5.2, 38 girls) read a book in which one of the main characters (male/female according to the child's sex) was either healthy weight or overweight. Afterwards, this character was described as gaining or losing weight, and drawings which depicted the child in the story as either healthy weight or overweight were presented to the child and discussed. An audio-recorded semi-structured interview followed and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Nearly all children described the weight/shape change and attributed this to food more frequently than exercise. Weight loss was viewed positively and both motivations and consequences grouped under two master themes (physical and social reasons). No clear gender differences were observed in these responses. Talking with 5-year-olds showed them to be observant and knowledgeable, especially about motivations for and consequences of weight change. For those working to improve children's health literacy, this suggests receptiveness to early and fact-based education. © 2015 World Obesity.

  3. Association of Self-Reported Weight Change and Quality of Life, and Exercise and Weight Management Behaviors Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The SHIELD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Grandy; Fox, Kathleen M; Debbra D. Bazata

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results...

  4. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  5. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  6. Prognostic importance of weight change on short-term functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yerim; Kim, Chi Kyung; Jung, Seunguk; Ko, Sang-Bae; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Controversy exists regarding the question of whether weight change decreases or increases the risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of weight change on short-term outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients. A total of 654 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled in this study from March 2010 to May 2013. We assessed the weight change of each participant between admission and discharge from the Department of Neurology. Weight change was defined as change ≥0·05 kg/baseline body mass index unit. We evaluated the short-term outcomes using a modified Rankin Scale at three-months after the onset of a stroke. Among the 654 patients, 35·2% were included in the weight-change group. Weight loss occurred in 24·6% of the participants during the hospital stay following the stroke, which lasted an average of nine-days. Compared with the weight-stable group, the pronounced weight-loss group had a higher risk of unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio 2·43; 95% confidence interval 1·12-5·25). Short-term weight loss after stroke appears to be more common than we expected, and our results suggest that it is associated with unfavorable functional outcomes. Therefore, clinical nutrition should be considered as a component of medical treatment and weight loss should be monitored as an indicator of malnutrition. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  7. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes...

  8. Retrospective Reports of Weight Change and Inflammation in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the association between weight change and inflammation in a nationally representative population of US adults aged 40 and older. Methods. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008, logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between high levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and infection (white blood cell count [WBC] with 1- and 10-year change in self-reported weight status. Results. Change in 1- and 10-year weight was associated with high CRP but not high WBC. Individuals who gained or lost ≥10 kg had an odds of having high CRP that was 1.96 (95% CI 1.11–3.50 and 1.61 (95% CI 1.02–2.46 as high, respectively, as those who maintained a stable weight (<4 kg change in the past year. The increased risk of elevated CRP among individuals who experienced at least 10 kg of weight loss or weight gain was also observed for weight change that occurred over the past 10 years; however, weight loss over the 10-year period was no longer associated with high inflammation. Conclusions. These results suggest that adult respondents who retrospectively self-reported weight loss or gain had higher levels of inflammation relative to their weight stable counterparts.

  9. Diet Quality, Physical Activity, Smoking Status, and Weight Fluctuation Are Associated with Weight Change in Women and Men1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Newby, P. K.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K.; Pencina, Michael J.; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Millen, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged ≥30 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P < 0.0001) and physical activity (P < 0.05) were associated with lower weight gain. Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P < 0.0001) and current smoking (P < 0.01) were associated with lower weight gain, and weight fluctuation (P < 0.01) and former smoking status (P < 0.0001) were associated with greater weight gain. Age was the strongest predictor of weight change in both women (partial R2 = 11%) and men (partial R2 = 8.6%). Normal- and overweight women gained more than obese women (P < 0.05) and younger adults gained more weight than older adults (P < 0.0001). Patterns and predictors of weight change differ by sex. Age in both sexes and physical activity among women as well as weight fluctuation and smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors. PMID:20484553

  10. Association of Weight Loss Maintenance and Weight Regain on 4-Year Changes in CVD Risk Factors: the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Short-term weight loss improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We sought to determine the longer-term effects of maintaining weight loss or, conversely, regaining weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD), a randomized trial of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared to a control condition in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ILI participants were grouped according to weight change patterns, as follows: 1) no weight loss (±3% at years 1 and 4); 2) moderate weight loss (3–8% at years 1 and 4); 3) large weight loss (8–20% at years 1 and 4); 4) moderate loss/full regain (3–8% at year 1/±3% at year 4); 5) large loss/full regain (8–20% at year 1/± 3% year 4); and 6) large loss/partial regain (8–20% at year 1/3–8% at year 4) and changes in CVD risk factors were compared. RESULTS Adjusting for baseline differences and medication use, larger weight losses produced greater improvements in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides at years 1 and 4 (all P ≤ 0.02). Despite maintenance of weight loss, HbA1c levels worsened between years 1 and 4, and remained below baseline only in those with large weight losses. We found no negative associations of losing and regaining weight relative to not having lost weight. Moreover, those who had large initial weight loss but full regain of weight had greater improvements in HbA1c levels at year 4 than those with smaller or no initial weight loss. CONCLUSIONS Larger initial weight loss should be encouraged in individuals with type 2 diabetes, despite the possibility of regain. PMID:27271190

  11. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R.; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L.; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C.

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case–control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease sever...

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Predicts Future Weight Change in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    weight changes in individuals with PTSD: (1) sleep deprivation caused by PTSD, as shorter sleep duration has been linked to higher obesity prevalence...provider with PTSD was also assessed at time 0. Behavioral factors that may be associated with weight change ( sleep , binge eating, and alcohol and tobacco...age, smoking status, previous mental health conditions, hours of sleep , or depression modified the rela tionship between PTSD status and weight

  13. Weight change trajectory in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and the effect of different regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ni; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Miaskowski, Christine; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Jeng, Chii; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the trajectory of weight change in Taiwanese women with breast cancer after starting chemotherapy and the impact of chemotherapy regimens on weight change while controlling for age, menopausal status, body mass index, lymph node involvement and changes in habits of dietary fat intake and exercise. Weight gain after adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer has negative impact on health outcomes. Longitudinal, clinical observational study. Weights were repeatedly measured in 147 women with breast cancer stages I-III. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse these longitudinal data. The overall pattern of weight change was a cubic form beginning with a mean of 56·9 kg before chemotherapy. It gradually increased to 59·4 kg at 8·5 months after the first chemotherapy followed by a decrease to 58·5 kg at 21·5 months. During the last 2·5 months, weight increased slightly and never returned to the initial level. After controlling for confounders, steeper weight change was observed among women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil. The highest weight gain in the cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil group was 2·9 kg (5%) vs. 0·9 kg (1%) in the anthracycline-based group. The trajectory of body weight change within two years after chemotherapy shows a trend of gradual ascent, followed by a small decline and a slight increase in the last 2·5 months. The chemotherapy regimen can predict the trend after controlling for other confounders; women on cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil have a steeper weight change. Nurses can inform women with breast cancer about the expected changes in body weight after chemotherapy to reduce their uncertainty. Future studies on effective interventions to minimise chemotherapy-induced weight gain are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  15. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n=11 and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n=9. Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  16. Healthy weight game!: Lose weight together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentelink, S.J.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Broens, T.; Broens, T.H.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity pose a serious and increasing problem worldwide. Current treatment methods can result in weight loss in the short term but often fail in the longer term. Increasing motivation and thereby improving adherence can be a key factor in achieving the needed behavioral change. One

  17. Weight-loss-associated changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after partial weight regain with or without aerobic exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, P S; Rector, R S; Linden, M A; Warner, S O; Dellsperger, K C; Chockalingam, A; Whaley-Connell, A T; Liu, Y; Thomas, T R

    2012-05-01

    Moderate, long-term weight loss results in the loss of bone mass in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, whether these changes persist during weight maintenance or regain remains to be determined. Overweight or obese (body mass index: 25.8-42.5 kg/m(2)) women (n=40) with at least two risk factors for the metabolic syndrome participated in this 12-month study that examined the effects of prescribed weight loss and regain, with or without exercise, on bone turnover and on bone mineral density (BMD) in a subset of participants (n=24). During the first 6 month, participants lost ≈ 10% of their initial body weight via energy restriction and supervised aerobic exercise. Following weight loss, participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a no exercise treatment for the regain (+50% of weight lost) phase. A one-way (time) repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance (RMANOVA) tested the effects of weight loss on BMD and bone turnover, and a two-way RMANOVA (time, exercise) was used to examine the effects of exercise during weight regain. Hip (P=0.007) and lumbar spine (P=0.05) BMD decreased with weight loss, and remained reduced after weight regain with or without exercise. Likewise, the weight-loss-associated increases in osteocalcin (Pweight regain, independent of exercise. The results of the present study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, suggest that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persist after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued.

  18. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  19. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C;

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied.......Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied....

  20. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  1. Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Moskal, Aurelie; Dahm, Christina C.; Vergnaud, Anne Claire; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Buijsse, Brian; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Camilla P.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José M.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J.; Romaguera, Dora; Lu, Yunxia; Lassale, Camille M.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Mattias; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje; Peeters, Petra H M; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults.Methods: This study includes 235,

  2. A prospective study of the association between weight changes and self-rated health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mette K; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Obesity and self-rated health (SRH) are strong predictors of morbidity and mortality but their interrelation is sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between weight changes and changes in SRH among women. We also examined if poor SRH at baseline was associated...... with later weight gain....

  3. Is the association of breastfeeding with child obesity explained by infant weight change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Rossem (Lenie); E.M. Taveras (Elsie M.); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.); K.P. Kleinman (Ken P.); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl L.); H. Raat (Hein); E. Oken (Emily)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective. Breastfeeding and infant weight change are both associated with adiposity. We examined the extent to which infant weight change mediates the association between breastfeeding and adiposity at age 3 years. Methods. We studied 884 children in a prospective cohort study. We deter

  4. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Wallace

    Full Text Available Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units, while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy.

  5. Post-partum weight change patterns in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie; Siyam, Amani; Borghi, Elaine; de Onis, Mercedes; Garza, Cutberto; Lartey, Anna; Baerug, Anne; Bhandari, Nita; Dewey, Kathryn G; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Mohamed, Ali Jaffer; Van den Broeck, Jan

    2011-07-01

    The interplay of factors that affect post-partum loss or retention of weight gained during pregnancy is not fully understood. The objective of this paper is to describe patterns of weight change in the six sites of the World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) and explore variables that explain variation in weight change within and between sites. Mothers of 1743 breastfed children enrolled in the MGRS had weights measured at days 7, 14, 28 and 42 post-partum, monthly from 2 to 12 months and bimonthly thereafter until 24 months post-partum. Height, maternal age, parity and employment status were recorded and breastfeeding was monitored throughout the follow-up. Weight change patterns varied significantly among sites. Ghanaian and Omani mothers lost little or gained weight post-partum. In Brazil, India, Norway and USA, mothers on average lost weight during the first year followed by stabilization in the second year. Lactation intensity and duration explained little of the variation in weight change patterns. In most sites, obese mothers tended to lose less weight than normal-weight mothers. In Brazil and Oman, primiparous mothers lost about 1 kg more than multiparous mothers in the first 6 months. In India and Ghana, multiparous mothers lost about 0.6 kg more than primiparas in the second 6 months. Culturally defined mother-care practices probably play a role in weight change patterns among lactating women. This hypothesis should stimulate investigation into gestational weight gain and post-partum losses in different ethnocultural contexts.

  6. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Reliable Change in Depression during Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment among Women with Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Jessica L Oleski; Sybil L. Crawford; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. We examined rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to beh...

  8. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Jull; Dawn Stacey; Sarah Beach; Alex Dumas; Irene Strychar; Lee-Anne Ufholz; Stephanie Prince; Joseph Abdulnour; Denis Prud’homme

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausa...

  9. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristics of Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, K J; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    2003-03-01

    positive and small. Estimated breeding values averaged by year of birth from both the single- and seven-trait analyses for the prolificacy and weight traits increased over time, whereas those for fleece weight decreased slightly and those for the other wool traits were unchanged. Estimated changes in breeding values over time did not differ substantially for the single-trait and seven-trait analyses, except for traits highly correlated with another trait that was responding to selection.

  10. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristics of Columbia sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, K J; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    2002-12-01

    breeding values averaged by year of birth from both the single-trait and multiple-trait analyses for the prolificacy and weight traits increased over time, but were unchanged for the wool traits. Estimated changes in breeding values over time did not differ substantially for single-trait and multiple-trait analyses, except for traits highly correlated with another trait that was responding to selection.

  11. Parent predictors of child weight change in family based behavioral obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J

    2012-07-01

    Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two sites were included in the study. Variables included those related to parent modeling (parent BMI), home food environment, parenting (parent and child report), and demographics. Results suggested that parent BMI change was a significant predictor of child weight, in that a reduction of 1 BMI unit in the parent was associated with a 0.255 reduction in child BMI. None of the other variables were significant in the final model. This study is consistent with other research showing that parent weight change is a key contributor to child weight change in behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Researchers and clinicians should focus on encouraging parents to lose weight to assist their overweight and obese child in weight management.

  12. Health-related quality of life changes and weight reduction after bariatric surgery vs. a weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Elizur, Yoel; Karni, Yair; Berry, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the outcome of bariatric surgery against a uniform high-level weightloss program which included vigorous physical exercises, behavior modification and nutritional advice. 44 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 47 subjects participating in a weight-loss program completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form- 36 (SF-36), the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, prior to surgery/diet and one year afterwards. Post-surgery subjects had a greater mean weight loss (34.70% ± 11.94) than subjects in the weight-loss program, even though their weight reduction was also clinically significant (9.23% ± 8.31). Post-surgery subjects showed significant improvements in SF-36, MHI, and selfesteem. The diet group improved in SF-36 total score, physical functioning, health perceptions, and vitality scales. Differences in background variables and short follow-up. Surgery outcomes were significantly better in terms of both weight reduction and psychological adjustment compared to highly motivated participants in a prestigious, cutting edge weight-loss program.

  13. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight change--a systematic review and critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, C E; McKinley, M C; Holmes, V A; Spence, D; Woodside, J V

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a time of increased vulnerability for retention of excess body fat in women. Breastfeeding (BF) has been shown to have many health benefits for both mother and baby; however, its role in postpartum weight management is unclear. Our aim was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature published to date in relation to the impact of BF on postpartum weight change, weight retention and maternal body composition. Electronic literature searches were carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS, CINAHL and British Nursing Index. The search covered publications up to 12 June 2012 and included observational studies (prospective and retrospective) carried out in BF mothers (either exclusively or as a subgroup), who were ≤ 2 years postpartum and with a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg m(-2), with an outcome measure of change in weight (including weight retention) and/or body composition. Thirty-seven prospective studies and eight retrospective studies were identified that met the selection criteria; studies were stratified according to study design and outcome measure. Overall, studies were heterogeneous, particularly in relation to sample size, measurement time points and in the classification of BF and postpartum weight change. The majority of studies reported little or no association between BF and weight change (n=27, 63%) or change in body composition (n=16, 89%), although this seemed to depend on the measurement time points and BF intensity. However, of the five studies that were considered to be of high methodological quality, four studies demonstrated a positive association between BF and weight change. This systematic review highlights the difficulties of examining the association between BF and weight management in observational research. Although the available evidence challenges the widely held belief that BF promotes weight loss, more robust studies are needed to reliably assess the

  14. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    ). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...... controls followed for 30 years after re-examination 220 and 232 died. HR of the weight stable obese was 2.32 (CI: 1.56-3.44) compared with the weight stable controls. In the obese cohort there was no association between weight loss, adjusted for initial BMI, and mortality (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.68-1.45) compared......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight...

  15. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  16. Association Between FTO Variant and Change in Body Weight and Its Interaction With Dietary Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Angquist, Lars; Hansen, Rikke D;

    2012-01-01

    of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak......Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6.......8 years follow-up in a large-scale prospective study and examined whether these associations were modified by dietary energy percentage from fat, protein, carbohydrate, or glycemic index (GI). This study comprised data from five countries of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition...

  17. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years ol...

  18. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2008-01-01

    year during follow-up from 1986 to 2004. Updated weight change between consecutive questionnaires during follow-up and recalled weight gain since age 21 was evaluated. All eligible men were cancer-free at baseline. Proportional hazard and restricted spline regression models were implemented. Over an 18...

  19. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weightweight), waist circumference (ΔWC...

  20. Parental perception of child's weight status and subsequent BMIz change: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Gubbels, J.S.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents often fail to correctly perceive their children's weight status, but no studies have examined the association between parental weight status perception and longitudinal BMIz change (BMI standardized to a reference population) at various ages. We investigated whether parents are a

  1. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  2. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  3. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  4. Outcome of gastric surgery for morbid obesity: weight changes and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, R H; Legorreta, G

    1991-01-01

    This controlled study explores weight change in relation to certain personality and behavioural characteristics in a population of morbidly obese individuals who have undergone a gastric procedure to lose weight. In particular, measures of alexithymia and symbolic function were used, and the results of the study indicate that these concepts are particularly helpful in understanding obese individuals, and aetiology and treatment of their condition.

  5. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  6. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  7. Weight change in older adults and mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-Y; Wilkens, L R; Maskarinec, G; Haiman, C A; Kolonel, L N; Marchand, L L

    2017-08-14

    To investigate the association between weight change in older adults and mortality in a multiethnic population. We performed a prospective analysis using data on weight change between the baseline (1993-1996) and the 10-year follow-up (2003-2007) surveys in relation to subsequent mortality among 63 040 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and California. The participants were African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino and white, aged 45-75 years at baseline, and did not report heart disease or cancer at either survey. During an average of 7.3 years of follow-up after the 10-year survey, 6623 deaths were identified. Compared with individuals whose weight remained stable (±2.5 kg), those who lost weight and those with the highest weight gain (>10 kg) were at increased risk of all-cause mortality, with the risks greater for the weight loss (hazard ratios (HR): 2.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.62-3.11 for >10 kg) than the weight-gain group (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.11-1.41 for >10 kg), thus resulting in a reverse J-shaped curve. Japanese Americans and Latinos had stronger associations of weight loss >10 kg with mortality than did African Americans, Native Hawaiians and whites. The increase in risk with weight gain >10 kg was greater for older (⩾55 years at baseline) than younger individuals, whereas the increase in mortality associated with weight loss was greater for the normal weight (weight change and a higher mortality in a healthy, multiethnic population, with higher risks for weight loss than weight gain. On the basis of these observations, public health recommendation should focus on the prevention of weight loss, as well as weight stability within the non-obese range, for middle-aged and older adults.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 5 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.188.

  8. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  9. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight...... is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self......-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight...

  10. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight) weight loss. As in the treatment with hyperthyroidism, treatment of the abnormal state of hypothyroidism with thyroid ... Goiter Graves’ Disease Graves’ Eye Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism ... & Weight Thyroiditis Thyroid ...

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  12. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  13. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  14. Association between Weight Change, Health Outcomes, and Mortality in Older Residents in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Pekmezaris, Renee; Lolis, James; Tommasulo, Barbara; Fishbein, Joanna; Wolf-Klein, Gisele

    2017-07-01

    Despite the numerous health risks associated with being overweight, the effect of weight loss on health and longevity remains controversial, particularly in older adults. We explored the association among weight changes, health outcomes, and mortality in older residents of a skilled nursing facility. A 6-year retrospective chart review of residents of a long-term care facility was conducted, collecting monthly weights in addition to the clinical and demographic data of all residents for at least 1 year. Weight changes of 5% from baseline month 1 through month 12 were classified as stable, loss, or gain. Demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, number of hospitalizations, and mortality were analyzed. The association between weight change (and other demographic and clinical variables) and mortality outcomes, as well as number of hospitalizations, was assessed using the χ(2) test, the Fisher exact test, Poisson regression, or negative binomial regression, as appropriate. A total of 116 residents fit inclusion criteria; the median age was 84 years, with 71.6% being women and 88.7% white. The median length of stay was 877.5 days. Median body weight at baseline was 137.3 lb with a BMI of 23.5. More than one-third (36.2%) of residents had stable weight, 37.9% gained weight, and 25.9% lost weight during their stay. Neither weight change category nor baseline BMI was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.056 and P = 0.518, respectively). Multivariable models showed that receiving supplementation (P = 0.04) and having hypertension (P = 0.04) were significant predictors of mortality after adjusting for the other factors. Losing >5% body weight (compared with maintaining stable weight; P = 0.0097), being a man (P = 0.0104), receiving a supplement (P = 0.0171), and being fed by tube (P = 0.0004) were associated with an increased number of hospitalizations after covariate adjustment. Weight fluctuation and baseline BMI do not appear to be associated with

  15. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinloth Alexandra N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Methods Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68, sibutramine (n = 42, or amantadine (n = 48. Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss ≥ 2 kg and weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Results Predictors/correlates of weight loss ≥ 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Conclusion The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. Trial Registration This analysis was not

  16. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  17. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R;

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  18. Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition in the Black Clam Villorita cyprinoides (Grey)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition are associated with reproduction, storage and utilization of reserves. The main period of increase in biochemical constituents corresponds to gametogenesis and maturation of gonads just...

  19. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  20. Kinematic Changes of Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis by Different Weight bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Lorena Alfonso-Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the differences in kinematic gait variables in women over sixty years of age with knee osteoarthritis by different weight bearings. Material and Methods: Phanel longitudinal research design with convenience sampling probabilistic n = 16 women, aged > 60 years, obesity and knee osteoarthritis, control weight bearing was performed by a locomotive rehabilitation platform that measured gait three times with weights of 100%, 90% and 80%. Results: The movement ranges in certain gait phases were different for bearings of used weight p < 0.05; for angular speed and acceleration no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: The different weight bearings for this research represented a variable that significantly change the kinematic gait variables.

  1. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Paluch Rocco A; Cavanaugh Meghan D; Roemmich James N; Epstein Leonard H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  2. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  3. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  4. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  5. Testing the integrated theory of health behaviour change for postpartum weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly; Weiss, Marianne; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael

    2011-09-01

    This is a report of a correlational study to test the Integrated Theory of Health Behaviour Change within the context of postpartum weight self-management including the impact of race/ethnicity and weight classification. Women experiencing childbirth face increasing challenges to manage their weight postpartum. Little is known about women's weight self-management during the complex physiological and psychosocial transition of the postpartum period. Data were collected during the birth hospitalization and 4 months postbirth during 2005 and 2006. A quota sample of 250 postpartum women using two strata, race/ethnicity and prepregnant weight classification, were enrolled; 179 women completed the follow-up survey. A survey questionnaire measured concepts from the Integrated Theory of Health Behaviour Change concepts, including knowledge and beliefs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and goal congruence), self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation (social support and social influence) and the proximal outcome of weight retention. Factor analysis identified 5 factors consistent with the theoretical concepts that accounted for 47·1% of total survey variance. Model testing using path analysis explored the relationship among factors. The final model explained 25·7% of the variance in self regulation at 4 months, but did not explain weight retention. The contribution of select concepts to total variance was different for Caucasian and African American women, but not by weight classification. Findings support use of theoretical concepts and relationships to understand postpartum weight self-management. The different relationships among concepts in Caucasian and African American women should be considered in planning targeted postpartum weight self-management interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR.

  7. Shared weight and dietary changes in parent-child dyads following family-based obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Mockus-Valenzuela, Danyte S; Stein, Richard I; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine whether children and their participating parents undergoing family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) for obesity show similar dietary changes following treatment, and if so, whether these shared dietary changes explain the similarity in weight change within the parent-child dyad. Data come from a randomized controlled trial of 148 parent-child dyads who completed FBT and were followed over a 2-year maintenance phase. Energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods ("RED" foods) and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed across time. Maintenance of lower RED food intake following FBT predicted weight maintenance in children and in parents (ps < .01), and dietary and weight changes were correlated within parent-child dyads (ps < .01). Most interesting, the similarity in long-term weight maintenance between children and their parents was predicted by the similarity in long-term changes in RED food intake between children and their parents (p < .001). These findings point to the important role of maintaining low energy-dense, nutrient-poor food intake for long-term weight maintenance in children and parents. Furthermore, these results suggest that the correlation between parent and child weight maintenance can be explained in part by similar long-term changes in energy-dense, nutrient-poor food intake. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body...... weight (BW). METHODS: Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential...... confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than...

  9. Response of Swimming Paramecia to in situ changes in their apparent weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ilyong; Mickalide, Harry; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    There is a class of marine micro-organisms that are small enough that low Reynold's number hydrodynamics dictates their swimming mechanics and large enough that the force of gravity exerts a noticeable influence on their motion. Experiments on populations of paramecia suggest that they exert a greater propulsion when swimming against gravity. This negative gravi-kinesis is surprising because it suggests that they sense their tiny apparent weight of about 80 pN. To understand this response in more detail, we are investigating how individual paramecia caudatum change their swimming speed and helical trajectories in response to changes in their apparent weight. We vary the apparent weight with the technique of Magnetic Force Buoyancy Variation employing a high field resistive magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. We will present analysis of the swimming for apparent weight changes as large as a factor of 8.

  10. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    ) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up...... for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty...... acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing...

  11. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  12. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  13. Expression levels of obesity-related genes are associated with weight change in kidney transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cashion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of gene expression profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue with weight change in kidney transplant recipients and to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of weight gain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A secondary data analysis was done on a subgroup (n = 26 of existing clinical and gene expression data from a larger prospective longitudinal study examining factors contributing to weight gain in transplant recipients. Measurements taken included adipose tissue gene expression profiles at time of transplant, baseline and six-month weight, and demographic data. Using multivariate linear regression analysis controlled for race and gender, expression levels of 1553 genes were significantly (p<0.05 associated with weight change. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes classifications identified metabolic pathways that were enriched in this dataset. Furthermore, GeneIndexer literature mining analysis identified a subset of genes that are highly associated with obesity in the literature and Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed several significant gene networks associated with metabolism and endocrine function. Polymorphisms in several of these genes have previously been linked to obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have successfully identified a set of molecular pathways that taken together may provide insights into the mechanisms of weight gain in kidney transplant recipients. Future work will be done to determine how these pathways may contribute to weight gain.

  14. Expression Levels of Obesity-Related Genes Are Associated with Weight Change in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Ann; Stanfill, Ansley; Thomas, Fridtjof; Xu, Lijing; Sutter, Thomas; Eason, James; Ensell, Mang; Homayouni, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of gene expression profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue with weight change in kidney transplant recipients and to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of weight gain. Methodology/Principal Findings A secondary data analysis was done on a subgroup (n = 26) of existing clinical and gene expression data from a larger prospective longitudinal study examining factors contributing to weight gain in transplant recipients. Measurements taken included adipose tissue gene expression profiles at time of transplant, baseline and six-month weight, and demographic data. Using multivariate linear regression analysis controlled for race and gender, expression levels of 1553 genes were significantly (p<0.05) associated with weight change. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes classifications identified metabolic pathways that were enriched in this dataset. Furthermore, GeneIndexer literature mining analysis identified a subset of genes that are highly associated with obesity in the literature and Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed several significant gene networks associated with metabolism and endocrine function. Polymorphisms in several of these genes have previously been linked to obesity. Conclusions/Significance We have successfully identified a set of molecular pathways that taken together may provide insights into the mechanisms of weight gain in kidney transplant recipients. Future work will be done to determine how these pathways may contribute to weight gain. PMID:23544116

  15. Adolescent obesity, change in weight status, and hypertension: racial/ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Clark, Cari J; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to determine whether change in weight status between adolescence and young adulthood was associated with the risk of developing hypertension among adolescents and whether sex and racial/ethnic group differences existed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample was restricted to participants who self-identified as black, Hispanic, or white non-Hispanic (n=8543). Height and weight were measured in adolescence (mean 16 years) and again in adulthood (mean 29 years). We categorized the weight of participants into 4 groups: stayed normal weight; gained weight (normal weight in adolescence and obese in adulthood); lost weight (overweight/obese in adolescence nonobese in adulthood); and chronically overweight/obese. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg measured in adulthood or use of antihypertensive medications. A higher risk of hypertension was noted for all sex and racial/ethnic groups who became obese in adulthood. Furthermore, those who were chronically overweight/obese were at higher risk of hypertension for all groups, with odds ratios ranging from 2.7 in Hispanic men to 6.5 in Hispanic women. Except for black men, those who lost weight during follow-up had no significant increased risk compared with those who maintained normal weight. Overall, there was an increased risk of hypertension for those who gained weight in adulthood and among those who remained obese from adolescence to young adulthood. These data give further evidence for prevention strategies that begin earlier in life to reduce or delay the onset of chronic disease in young adults.

  16. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  17. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  18. Postpartum behaviour as predictor of weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jacob C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum weight retention affects many women and increases the risk of becoming overweight. The research objective was to study modifiable factors contributing to weight change at one year postpartum. Methods In this prospective cohort, postpartum behavior, such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and intake of total energy, total fat and saturated fatty acids of 118 Dutch women were assessed in 2003/2004 by self-report at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Mean postpartum scores were computed for the behavioral measures. In linear regression models it was determined which factors were associated with average weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum. Furthermore, factors associated with substantial postpartum weight retention (≥ 5 kg were also studied in logistic regression models. Results At one year postpartum, the average weight of participants had increased by 0.9 kg (SD 4.4. Moreover, 20% of the women retained ≥ 5 kg. Women who perceived themselves more physically active than others were almost ten times less likely to retain ≥ 5 kg than women who perceived themselves equally active (OR = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.02 - 0.66. Exceeding the guideline for saturated fatty acid intake (OR = 3.40, 95%CI: 1.04 - 11.11, total gestational weight gain (OR = 1.14/kg, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.27, and not having completed post high school education (OR = 5.13, 95%CI: 1.66 - 15.90 increased the odds of retaining ≥ 5 kg. Conclusions Since one in five women had substantial weight retention postpartum, effective interventions for the prevention of weight retention are much needed. Future studies should evaluate whether interventions focusing on the identified modifiable postpartum factors are successful in reducing weight retention after childbirth.

  19. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  20. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Bo; Larsen, Sofus C.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001) and alcohol intake (p<0.001) and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife. PMID:28060830

  1. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Bo; Larsen, Sofus C; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (pcannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife.

  2. Brain structure alterations associated with weight changes in young females with anorexia nervosa: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglset, Tone Seim; Endestad, Tor; Landrø, Nils Inge; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Structural brain changes associated with starvation and clinical measurements were explored in four females with anorexia nervosa with different clinical course, at baseline and 1-year follow-up, after receiving intensive inpatient treatment at a specialized eating disorder unit. Global volume alterations were associated with weight changes. Regional volume alterations were also associated with weight changes, with the largest changes occurring in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, pallidum, and putamen. Largest changes in cortical thickness occurred in the frontal and temporal lobes. The results are preliminary; however, they show that fluctuations in weight are associated with brain volume alterations, especially gray matter. We suggest that these parts of the brain are vulnerable to starvation and malnutrition, and could be a part of the pathophysiology of AN.

  3. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya M. Aljadani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS, Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI, and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI. Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (. In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample ( kg (95% CI: −2.67 to −0.56, . In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI ( kg (95% CI: −2.4 to −0.3 . In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

  6. Diet quality, measured by fruit and vegetable intake, predicts weight change in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Jensen, Megan E; Collins, Clare E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.67 to -0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.4 to -0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

  7. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-08-01

    Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern (P food groups did not differ by group, except in the fish group (P = 0.036). This study observed considerable body weight adjustment during the settlement period in SK after initial weight gain, whereas food security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.

  8. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  9. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely...... persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  10. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim

    2013-01-28

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  11. Long-Term Weight Change after Initiating Second-Generation Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arterburn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: To examine the relationship between the choice of second-generation antidepressant drug treatment and long-term weight change; (2 Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between choice of antidepressant medication and weight change at two years among adult patients with a new antidepressant treatment episode between January, 2006 and October, 2009 in a large health system in Washington State. Medication use, encounters, diagnoses, height, and weight were collected from electronic databases. We modeled change in weight and BMI at two years after initiation of treatment using inverse probability weighted linear regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. Fluoxetine was the reference treatment; (3 Results: In intent-to-treat analyses, non-smokers who initiated bupropion treatment on average lost 7.1 lbs compared to fluoxetine users who were non-smokers (95% CI: −11.3, −2.8; p-value < 0.01; smokers who initiated bupropion treatment gained on average 2.2 lbs compared to fluoxetine users who were smokers (95% CI: −2.3, 6.8; p-value = 0.33. Changes in weight associated with all other antidepressant medications were not significantly different than fluoxetine, except for sertraline users, who gained an average of 5.9 lbs compared to fluoxetine users (95% CI: 0.8, 10.9; p-value = 0.02; (4 Conclusion: Antidepressant drug therapy is significantly associated with long-term weight change at two years. Bupropion may be considered as the first-line drug of choice for overweight and obese patients unless there are other existing contraindications.

  12. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  13. Impact of Weight Changes After the Diagnosis of Stage III Colon Cancer on Survival Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Joanna; Gresham, Gillian; Lim, Howard J; Renouf, Daniel J; Kennecke, Hagen F; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-03-01

    Weight modification after a diagnosis of colon cancer and its impact on outcomes remain unclear. Thus we aimed to examine the association of obesity and weight changes from baseline oncology consultation with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III colon cancer. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who were diagnosed with stage III colon cancer in British Columbia from 2008 to 2010 and who received adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to evaluate the impact of different body compositions and degree of weight changes from baseline assessment with outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding covariates, such as age and sex. A total of 539 patients with stage III colon cancer were included: median age was 69 years (range, 26-94 years), 52% were men, and 53% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1. Those with weight gains of ≥ 10% had a median RFS of 37 months compared with 49 months in those with weight gains of  .05). Weight losses of ≥ 10% from baseline evaluation bodes a worse prognosis among patients with stage III colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Subjects were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences. LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  16. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... and Sweden representing the breeds Danish Holstein, Norwegian Red and Swedish Red. We had access to individual data for feed intake and live weight changes (every second week) during the first 100 days after calving. The data was grouped into sub datasets according to parity; either primiparous...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  17. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  18. Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Virginia A; Frontera, Walter R; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Evans, William J; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2002-08-01

    Estimates of body-composition change in older adults are mostly derived from cross-sectional data. We examined the natural longitudinal patterns of change in fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in older adults and explored the effect of physical activity, weight change, and age on these changes. The body composition measured by hydrodensitometry and the level of sports and recreational activity (SRA) of 53 men and 78 women with a mean (+/-SD) initial age of 60.7 +/- 7.8 y were examined on 2 occasions separated by a mean (+/-SD) time of 9.4 +/- 1.4 y. FFM decreased in men (2.0% per decade) but not in women, whereas FM increased similarly in both sexes (7.5% per decade). Levels of SRA decreased more in men than in women over the follow-up period. Baseline age and level of SRA were inversely and independently associated with changes in FM in women only. Neither age nor level of SRA was associated with changes in FFM in men or women. Weight-stable subjects lost FFM. FFM accounted for 19% of body weight in those who gained weight, even in the presence of decreased levels of SRA. Loss of FFM (33% of body weight) was pronounced in those who lost weight, despite median SRA levels >4184 kJ/wk. On average, FM increased; however, the increase in women was attenuated with advancing age. The decrease in FFM over the follow-up period was small and masked the wide interindividual variation that was dependent on the magnitude of weight change. The contribution of weight stability, modest weight gains, or lifestyle changes that include regular resistance exercise in attenuating lean-tissue loss with age should be explored.

  19. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  20. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  1. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with change

  2. The impact of positive and negative income changes on the height and weight of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Oosterbeek, H.; Plug, E.; Ponce, J.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of changes in unearned income on the height and weight of young children in a developing country. As source of variation we use changes in the eligibility criteria for receipt of an unconditional cash transfer in Ecuador. Two years after families lost the transfer, which they

  3. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with change

  4. Measurement of brain oxygenation changes using dynamic T1-weighted imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddock, Bryan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven useful in evaluating oxygenation in several types of tissue and blood. This study evaluates brain tissue oxygenation changes between normoxia and hyperoxia in healthy subjects using dynamic T1 and T2*-weighted imaging sequences. The change in FiO2 induced...... in the brain with a potential to provide quantitative information on tissue oxygenation....

  5. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...

  6. Weight-loss medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  7. Food preferences and weight change during low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Smith, Valerie A.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Mayer, Stephanie; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding associations between food preferences and weight loss during various effective diets could inform efforts to personalize dietary recommendations and provide insight into weight loss mechanisms. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial in which participants were randomized to either a ‘choice’ arm, in which they were allowed to select between a low-fat diet (n=44) or low-carbohydrate diet (n=61), or to a ‘no choice’ arm, in which they were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet (n=49) or low-carbohydrate diet (n=53). All participants were provided 48 weeks of lifestyle counseling. Food preferences were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks thereafter with the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire. Participants were 73% male and 51% African American, with a mean age of 55. Baseline food preferences, including congruency of food preferences with diet, were not associated with weight outcomes. In the low-fat diet group, no associations were found between changes in food preferences and weight over time. In the low-carbohydrate diet group, increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with weight loss from 12 to 24 weeks. Additionally, weight loss from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from 12 to 24 weeks. Results suggest that basing selection of low-carbohydrate diet or low-fat diet on food preferences is unlikely to influence weight loss. Congruency of food preferences and weight loss may influence each other early during a low-carbohydrate diet but not low-fat diet, possibly due to different features of these diets. PMID:27133551

  8. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points: - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  9. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately.

  10. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  11. During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Murer, Stefanie B; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n=206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat loss in a standardized, multidisciplinary, 2-month, in-patient weight loss program. This was a prospective study that determined thyroid function, glucose and lipid parameters, leptin, anthropometric measures, and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, 52% of children had TSH concentrations in the high normal range (>2.5 mU/liter), but TSH was not correlated with body weight, body mass index sd scores, lean body mass, or body fat percentage. At baseline, independent of adiposity, TSH significantly correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013), fasting insulin (P=0.010), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (P=0.004), and leptin (P=0.006). During the intervention, mean body fat, TSH, HOMA, and fasting insulin decreased by 21, 11, 53, and 54%, respectively. Change (Δ) in TSH did not correlate with Δbody weight or Δbody composition, but ΔTSH significantly correlated with, Δfasting insulin and ΔHOMA, independent of Δbody weight or Δbody composition (Pweight or fat. During weight loss, independent of changes in body weight or composition, decreases in elevated serum TSH predict decreases in fasting insulin and HOMA. These findings suggest interventions that target high TSH concentrations during weight loss in obese subjects may improve insulin sensitivity.

  12. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2013-01-01

    weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over......- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has...

  13. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  14. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J. Zizzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise.

  15. Weight change in Parkinson and Alzheimer patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitburana, Oraporn; Rountree, Susan; Ondo, William G

    2008-09-15

    Atypical antipsychotics (AA) are generally associated with weight gain. We determined body mass index (BMI) change in Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after taking AA and compared against PD controls and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on AA. In 66 consecutive PD subjects started on AA who had accurate weights for more than 6 months before and after initiation of AA, we compared weight change before and after AA use, against a control group of sixty-one sex-matched PD subjects, and against twenty-eight AD subjects taking AA. A linear regression model was created to compare weight changes. Fifty-nine PD subjects had complete data, quetiapine (n=53) and clozapine (n=6). The mean BMI change in the period before starting AA was 0.00 kg/m(2)/month over 1.95+/-1.41 years. After starting AA, subjects lost 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (95% CI 0.62-1.21, P<0.0001), comparing PD before AA to the same PD patients after AA. In 61 PD controls, the mean BMI loss was 0.01 kg/m(2)/month (95% CI 0.15-0.94, P=0.007) comparing PD on AA vs. PD controls. The BMI for 28 AD subjects on AA increased 0.01 kg/m(2)/month (95% CI 0.26-0.83, P<0.0001), comparing PD on AA vs. AD on AA. The weight loss seen in the PD/AA group, compared to AD, suggest uniquely altered weight homeostasis in PD.

  16. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  17. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  18. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  19. Myocardial oxygen consumption change predicts left ventricular relaxation improvement in obese humans after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Huie; Kurup, Suraj; Herrero, Pilar; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; Stein, Richard I; Dorn, Gerald W; Gropler, Robert J; Waggoner, Alan D; Peterson, Linda R

    2011-09-01

    Obesity adversely affects myocardial metabolism, efficiency, and diastolic function. Our objective was to determine whether weight loss can ameliorate obesity-related myocardial metabolism and efficiency derangements and that these improvements directly relate to improved diastolic function in humans. We studied 30 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) subjects with positron emission tomography (PET) (myocardial metabolism, blood flow) and echocardiography (structure, function) before and after marked weight loss from gastric bypass surgery (N = 10) or moderate weight loss from diet (N = 20). Baseline BMI, insulin resistance, hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) mass, systolic function, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and fatty acid (FA) metabolism were similar between the groups. MVO2/g decreased after diet-induced weight loss (P = 0.009). Total MVO2 decreased after dietary (P = 0.02) and surgical weight loss (P = 0.0006) and was related to decreased BMI (P = 0.006). Total myocardial FA utilization decreased (P = 0.03), and FA oxidation trended lower (P = 0.06) only after surgery. FA esterification and LV efficiency were unchanged. After surgical weight loss, LV mass decreased by 23% (Doppler-derived) E/E' by 33%, and relaxation increased (improved) by 28%. Improved LV relaxation related significantly to decreased BMI, insulin resistance, total MVO2, and LV mass but not FA utilization. Decreased total MVO(2) predicted LV relaxation improvement independent of BMI change (P = 0.02). Weight loss can ameliorate the obesity-related derangements in myocardial metabolism and LV structure and diastolic function. Decreased total MVO2 independently predicted improved LV relaxation, suggesting that myocardial oxygen metabolism may be mechanistically important in determining cardiac relaxation.

  20. Mindless eating challenge: retention, weight outcomes, and barriers for changes in a public web-based healthy eating and weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Payne, Collin R; Wansink, Brian

    2012-12-17

    Most dietary programs fail to produce lasting outcomes because participants soon return to their old habits. Small behavioral and environmental changes based on simple heuristics may have the best chance to lead to sustainable habit changes over time. To evaluate participant retention, weight outcomes, and barriers for changes in a publicly available web-based healthy eating and weight loss program. The National Mindless Eating Challenge (NMEC) was a publicly available, online healthy eating and weight loss program with ongoing recruitment of participants. This volunteer sample consisted of 2053 participants (mean age 39.8 years, 89% female, 90% white/Caucasian, BMI mean 28.14). Participants completed an initial profiling survey and were assigned three targeted habit change suggestions (tips). After each month, participants were asked to complete a follow-up survey and then receive new suggestions for the subsequent month. In terms of overall attrition, 75% (1549/2053) of participants who completed the intake survey never returned to follow up. Overall mean weight loss among returning participants was 0.4% of initial weight (P=.019). Participants who stayed in the program at least three calendar months and completed at least two follow-up surveys (38%, 189/504) lost on average 1.8 lbs (1.0%) of their initial weight over the course of the program (P=.009). Furthermore, participants who reported consistent adherence (25+ days/month) to the suggested changes reported an average monthly weight loss of 2.0 lbs (Peating. Because the bulk of the free and commercially available online diet and nutritional tools conduct no evaluation research, it is difficult to determine which aspects of a program are successful and what are reasonable expectations of results. The results of this study suggest that online interventions based on small changes have the potential to gradually lead to clinically significant weight loss, but high attrition from publically available or "free

  1. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  2. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats : Changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. P.; Van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Hoffmann, K.; Novati, A.; Hulshof, H. J.; Fuchs, E.; Meerlo, P.; Desprez, Tifany

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed

  3. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Seco...

  4. Reversible changes in echo planar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI in status epilepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flacke, S.; Keller, E.; Urbach, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Wuellner, U.; Hamzei, F. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) demonstrated increased perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed high signal limited to the left temporoparietal cortex in a 68-year-old man with nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The EEG showed a slow delta-wave focus. The patient recovered and PI, DWI and EEG changes completely resolved. (orig.)

  5. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  7. Tumor microvascular changes in antiangiogenic treatment : Assessment by magnetic resonance contrast media of different molecular weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turetschek, K; Preda, A; Novikov, [No Value; Brasch, RC; Weinmann, HJ; Wunderbaldinger, P; Roberts, TPL

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To test magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media of different molecular weights (MWs) for their potential to characterize noninvasively microvascular changes in an experimental tumor treatment model. Materials and Methods: MD-MBA-435, a poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell line, was

  8. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient comp

  9. The Influence of Weight Change on Physical Fitness from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Housner, Lynn; Gao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore how weight changes from childhood to adolescence influenced the performances of physical fitness. The participants (N = 115) were pre-tested when they were in kindergarten, first, or second grades (mean age = 7.25). The same participants were post-tested again after 6 years. The President's Challenge test battery was…

  10. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  11. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  12. Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-15

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years.

  13. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P

    1993-01-01

    A non-invasive evaluation of bone metabolism was performed in 44 morbidly obese patients before and after a mean weight loss of 22.4 kg (range 7.9-43.4 kg) after 2 months and a further weight loss of 7.3 kg after 8 months (0.8-20.0 kg). This weight reduction was obtained by a nutritionally adequate...... After 2 months......, the bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p changes in the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs...

  14. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, E M; Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Heeley, P; Riley, M

    1996-09-01

    Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.

  15. The change in weight perception of weight status among the overweight: comparison of NHANES III (1988–1994 and 1999–2004 NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke-Reed Pamela

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.

  16. Changes of systemic microinflammation after weight loss and regain - a five-year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy; Szromek, Adam; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body mass changes on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in obese women after the initially obtained weight reduction in a five-year follow-up period. Thirty out of 42 women with simple obesity (age 41.8 ± 11.9 years; BMI 36.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who achieved a greater than 5% weight loss at the end of a three-month weight loss programme were re-examined after five years. In addition to anthropometric and body composition measurements, plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs and IL-6 were determined. The mean weight loss after the three-month weight loss programme was 7.9 ± 4.4 kg. After five years, body mass was still lower than initially in 14 women, while in 16 it was higher (the so-called 'yo-yo effect'). A significant decrease of plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 and increase of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels obtained after weight loss therapy were maintained after five years, including in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect. During the follow-up period, the increase of body fat mass was similar in the subgroup that maintained reduced weight (+4.4 ± 10.7 kg) and in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect (+4.1 ± 7.1 kg), while a significant difference was found in changes of body free fat mass (-7.1 ± 7.1 v. -0.7 ± 4.5 kg, respectively). The yo-yo effect has a modest influence on systemic microinflammation and seems not to abolish the benefit achieved via a weight loss programme. This may suggest that the persistence of changes in lifestyle implemented during the programme such as regular physical activity and diet composition may have a significant impact on the level of systemic microinflammation in the obese. (Endokrynol Pol 2012; 63 (6): 432-438).

  17. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T.; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R.; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss. PMID:26434764

  18. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-10-05

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss.

  19. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight gain, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems, and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH), and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). The objective of the present...... paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake...... early or late (strategy MR2-E and MR2-L). The early and late changes were defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum at 15 and 35 kg, respectively, for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg, respectively, for DJ. When MR energy concentration was changed, cows on the MR2 strategies were offered 3 kg per...

  20. Contextual factors and weight change over time: a comparison between U.S. Hispanics and other population sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, S Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing interest in understanding the role of social and physical contexts in influencing health behaviors and outcomes. This is especially true for weight, which is considered to be highly dependent on environmental factors. The evidence linking neighborhood characteristics to weight in the United States, however, is mixed. Many studies in this area are hampered by cross sectional designs and a limited scope, insofar as they investigate only one dimension of neighborhood context. It is also unclear to what extent neighborhood characteristics account for racial/ethnic disparities in weight. Using longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), we compare patterns of weight change between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups in order to evaluate whether we observe a pattern of unhealthy assimilation in weight among Hispanic immigrants and to identify differences in the rate at which different groups gain weight over time. We also explore the extent to which patterns of weight change are related to a wider range of community characteristics. We find that weight increases across all groups between the two study waves of L.A. FANS and that the increases are significant except for Asians/Pacific Islanders. With respect to differences in the pace of weight change, second and higher generation Hispanic women and black men gain weight more rapidly than their first generation Hispanic counterparts. Although the evidence presented indicates that first generation Hispanics gain weight, we do not find evidence for convergence in weight since the U.S.-born gain weight at a more rapid rate. The inclusion of community-level variables does not alter the relationships between the race, ethnicity, and immigrant generation categories and weight change. Of the six types of community characteristics considered, only collective efficacy is consistently and significantly associated with weight change

  1. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  2. Mechanisms of weight loss, diabetes control and changes in food choices after gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamargaritis, Dimitrios; Panteliou, Eleftheria; Miras, Alexander D; le Roux, Carel W

    2012-12-01

    The long-term effects of lifestyle changes, diet and medical therapy on obesity are limited. Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment with the greatest chances for amelioration of obesity-associated complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence in the literature that bariatric operations have a profound effect on human physiology, by reducing hunger, increasing satiety, paradoxically increasing energy expenditure, and even promoting healthy food preferences. Some of these operations improve glucose homeostasis in patients with T2DM independently of weight loss. Changes in the gut hormone levels of glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY and ghrelin have been proposed as some of the mediators implicated in changing physiology. The aim of this review is to critically explore the current knowledge on the putative mechanisms of the change in weight and improvement in T2DM glycaemic control after the most commonly performed bariatric operations.

  3. The body weight of the dairy cow. 1. Introductory study into the body weight changes in dairy cows as a management aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltz, E.; Devir, S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities to use the dairy cows' body weight (BW) and its changes for diagnostic and management purposes were studied. BW data of dairy cows were obtained during the day from visiting computer-controlled feeding stations. These data were analyzed on a daily and weekly basis in relation to ot

  4. Long-term influences of body-weight changes, independent of the attained weight, on risk of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, E; Holst, C; Astrup, A

    2005-01-01

    , but not by more recent weight gain in the later periods, probably because of the development of Type 2 diabetes leading to weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of attained level of body weight in middle-aged men, weight gain is associated with increased risk of IGT, and is greater in those not overweight......AIM: To investigate if weight gain during adulthood has effects on the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or Type 2 diabetes beyond effect of attained weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of two cohorts: one of juvenile-onset obese (n...... = 0.004), and weight gain during both the early and later ages contributed to the increased risk. Obese men, maintaining weight since age 20, had lower risk of IGT than non-obese men who became similarly obese by age 51. The risk of Type 2 diabetes increased by weight gain in early adult life...

  5. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat: 42.

  6. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat: 42.

  7. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  8. A weight's agglomerative method for detecting communities in weighted networks based on weight's similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the new definition of the community structure of the weighted networks that groups of nodes in which the edge's weights distribute uniformly but at random between them. It can describe the steady connections between nodes or some similarity between nodes' functions effectively.In order to detect the community structure efficiently,a threshold coefficient K to evaluate the equivalence of edges' weights and a new weighted modularity based on the weight's similarity are proposed. Then, constructing the weighted matrix and using the agglomerative mechanism,it presents a weight's agglomerative method based on optimizing the modularity to detect communities. For a network with n nodes, the algorithm can detect the community structure in time 0(n2 logn2).Simulations on networks show that the algorithm has higher accuracy and precision than the existing techniques. Furthermore, with the change of K the algorithm discovers a special hierarchical organization which can describe the various steady connections between nodes in groups.

  9. Applicability of the stages of change and Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire with natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C T

    2007-01-01

    There is an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Malaysia. Besides prevalence studies, not much is known about either overweight or obese individuals. The objective of this study was to determine the stages of change in losing weight and the self-efficacy in eating control of three indigenous groups of overweight and obese adults in Sarawak, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one rural region in Sarawak using a purposive sample. A structured questionnaire, which included two scales: (1) Weight: Stages of change (SOC) to assess readiness to change; and (2) Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) (both adopted from the transtheoretical model of change); and a set of pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic data, the presence of health problems and self-assessment of weight appropriateness, was used to interview respondents. The stage distribution for weight loss of these adults respondents (n = 271) showed that 60.5% (n = 164) were in the pre-contemplation stage, 20.7% (n = 56) were in the contemplation stage, 8.5% (n = 23) were in the preparation stage, and 8.9% (n = 24) were in the action stage, while only 1.5% (n = 4) were in the maintenance stage. Except for education, the stage differences were generally stable across age, sex, race, household income, presence or absence of health problem, self-perceived weight and presence of overweight or obesity. Respondents were least able to control their eating under social pressure and food availability, according to their WEL score. A large proportion of the overweight or obese adults was not intending to lose weight. The factor structure of the two WEL original subscales enabled partial differentiation between respondents who were able or unable to resist eating in situations where there were availability of food and experienced physical discomfort. The study results indicate the importance of assessing individuals' SOC score in order to implement stage-matched intervention

  10. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is on the rise worldwide. Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the associations between child-feeding practices and weight status changes over 1 year among a sample of school-aged children in Taiwan. In autumn 2008, a child-feeding questionnaire and parenting-style questionnaire were administered to parents of the second and fourth graders in an elementary school in Taiwan. The weight and height of the students were measured by a trained school nurse in 2008 and again in 2009. An elementary school in central Taiwan. A total of 465 parent-child pairs were included in the analysis. Using a gender- and age-adjusted BMI classification scheme issued by the Taiwan Department of Health, 29·2 % of the students were considered overweight at the 2009 measurement. Controlling for 2008 weight status revealed moderating effects of parenting style on the relationship between child-feeding practices and child weight status. Both authoritative and authoritarian mothers might monitor their children's dietary intake; however, the effectiveness of this practice was better, in terms of weight status control, among the authoritative mothers. Findings suggest that parenting styles have a moderating effect on specific parental child-feeding practices. Parenting styles and parent's feeding practices could be an important focus for future public health interventions addressing the rising childhood obesity epidemic.

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; Pvegetarian diets reduces mean body weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions.

  12. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraça, Eliana V; Silva, Marlene N; Markland, David; Vieira, Paulo N; Minderico, Cláudia S; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2011-07-18

    Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m²) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f² = .32 vs. f² = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p body image (p body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  13. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  14. Smartphone Interventions for Weight Treatment and Behavioral Change in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplais, Elodie; Naughton, Geraldine; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel; Greene, David

    2015-10-01

    Traditional approaches for treating or managing children and adolescents with overweight or obesity have limited effectiveness. Current advances in smartphone technology may improve the attractiveness and accessibility of weight management support for children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. This systematic review aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using smartphones in the multidisciplinary treatment of child and adolescent overweight or obesity, with a specific interest in behavior change. The databases of Medline complete, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies addressing behavioral change using smartphone technology, plus nutrition and/or physical activity, to treat or manage child and adolescent obesity. Only two RCTs have described the effectiveness of smartphone devices in pediatric overweight or obesity treatment. Within the limitation of the two studies, electronic contact (e-contact) appeared unsuccessful in achieving weight loss. However, smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates during important sustainability phases of these long-term interventions. Smartphone technologies allow users to accomplish tasks anywhere and anytime and, as such, provide researchers with additional and generationally appropriate capacities to deliver health promotion. E-contact should be used for its significant capacity to prolong engagement and decrease withdrawal during sustainability phases that follow intensive intervention for weight management in young populations. Despite increasing popularity in published protocols of weight management trials, the effectiveness of the impact of smartphone technology in pediatric programs remains equivocal.

  15. Walks on Weighted Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU An-Cai; XU Xin-Jian; WU Zhi-Xi; WANG Ying-Hai

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.

  16. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Alexander; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compression benchmark tests while never being significantly worse on any individual file.

  17. Changes in weight and health behaviors after pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Wendy L; Liu, Su-Hsun; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Nicholson, Wanda K; Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Clark, Jeanne M

    2013-06-01

    Prepregnancy to postpregnancy change in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diet, and physical activity in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were compared. Using the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, women with at least one pregnancy during 20 years of follow-up (n = 1,488 with 3,125 pregnancies) was identified. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare prepregnancy to postpregnancy changes in health behaviors and anthropometric measurements between 137 GDM pregnancies and 1,637 non-GDM pregnancies, adjusted for parity, age at delivery, outcome measure at the prepregnancy exam, race, education, mode of delivery, and interval between delivery and postpregnancy examination were used. When compared with women without GDM in pregnancy, women with GDM had higher prepregnancy mean weight (158.3 vs. 149.6 lb, P = 0.011) and BMI (26.7 vs. 25.1 kg/m(2) , P = 0.002), but nonsignificantly lower total daily caloric intake and similar levels of physical activity. Both GDM and non-GDM groups had higher average postpartum weight of 7-8 lbs and decreased physical activity on average 1.4 years after pregnancy. Both groups similarly increased total caloric intake but reduced fast food frequency. Prepregnancy to postpregnancy changes in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and diet did not differ between women with and without GDM in pregnancy. Following pregnancy, women with and without GDM increased caloric intake, BMI, and weight and decreased physical activity, but reduced their frequency of eating fast food. Given these trends, postpartum lifestyle interventions, particularly for women with GDM, are needed to reduce obesity and diabetes risk. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  19. Body and Testicular Weight Changes in Adult Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-hassan m. izunya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given 4mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  20. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  1. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  2. Behavior Change; Weight Loss, and Physiological Improvements in Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether behavior modification would improve short- and long-term results of weight control programs for obese patients (N=53) with Type II diabetes. The behavior modification group lost more weight than the nutrition education or standard-care condition during the 16-week treatment, but at 16-month follow-up, weight loss differences…

  3. Weight Changes, Exercise, and Dietary Patterns during Freshman and Sophomore Years of College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B.; Deusinger, Susan S.; Strube, Michael J.; Highstein, Gabrielle R.; Deusinger, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Weight gain and behavioral patterns during college may contribute to overweight and obesity in adulthood. The aims of this study were to assess weight, exercise, and dietary patterns of 764 college students (53% women, 47% men) during freshman and sophomore years. Students had their weight and height measured and completed questionnaires about…

  4. Weight Changes Among Male Navy Personnel Deployed to Iraq or Kuwait in 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Diagram outlining sample sizes used in analyses. 502 weight recommendations after deployment, but among the I 0,886 men who met weight...measurements. Mil Med 2008; 173( I): 67-73. 506 10. Gantt CJ. Neely JA, Villafana !A, Chun CS, Gharabaghli SM: Analysis of weight and associated health

  5. Secular changes in height, weight and body mass index in Hong Kong Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Youfa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large population growth surveys of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y were undertaken in Hong Kong in 1963 and 1993. The global epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. To monitor the impact of this epidemic in Hong Kong children and to identify secular changes in growth, a further growth survey was undertaken in 2005/6. Methods Cross-sectional height and weight measurements of 14,842 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y from Hong Kong's 18 districts were obtained during the 2005/6 school year. Percentile curves were constructed using LMS method and sex-specific percentile values of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were compared with those data from 1963 and 1993. Results Secular changes in height, weight and BMI were noted between 1963 and 1993 and between 1993 and 2005/6. In the latter period, greater changes were observed at younger ages, and particularly in boys. On an annual basis, the 1993–2005/6 changes were less than those during 1963–1993. Using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, 16.7% of children were overweight or obese in 2005/6, which was a 5.1% increase since 1993. Conclusion These data provide policy-makers with further evidence of the secular changes in child growth and the increasing obesity epidemic among Hong Kong children.

  6. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of obese children with and without their mothers: changes in weight and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, K D; Kelman, J H; Stunkard, A J

    1983-04-01

    Weight and blood pressure changes were evaluated in a 16-month controlled trial comparing three methods of involving mothers in the treatment of their obese adolescents (aged 12 to 16 years). The treatments were: (1) Mother-Child Separately--children and mothers attended separate groups; (2) Mother-Child Together--the children and mothers met together in the same group; and (3) Child Alone--the children met in groups and mothers were not involved. The program consisted of behavior modification, social support, nutrition, and exercise. The Mother-Child Separately group lost more weight (8.4 kg) during treatment than did the other two groups (5.3 and 3.3 kg). Differences between the groups increased at the 1-year follow-up: compared to pretreatment weight, the Mother-Child Separately group lost 7.7 kg compared with gains of approximately 3 kg in the other two groups. Blood pressures of children with the highest initial pressures decreased by 16/9 mm Hg at the end of treatment and by 16/5 mm Hg at the 1-year follow-up. These results suggest that a program of behavior modification and parent involvement can lead to significant weight losses in obese children, and that the nature of parent involvement may be important.

  8. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa;

    2009-01-01

    adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence...

  9. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  10. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  11. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg;

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  12. Assessing Your Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only. To assess the weight of children or teenagers, see the Child and Teen BMI Calculator . Top of Page Want to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain ...

  13. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight loss. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You or a family member loses more ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The ... be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: How much weight have ...

  14. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions for managing weight change following paediatric acquired brain injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Emily; Lodh, Rajib; Siddell, Poppy; Morrall, Matthew C H J

    2016-10-01

    To systematically review literature reporting interventions for weight change following paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). A systematic search of the literature was conducted using advanced search techniques. The retrieval identified 1562 papers, of which 30 were relevant. The total number of paediatric participants was 759. There is a paucity of higher quality evidence to support the use of weight change interventions following paediatric ABI. Substantial variation in screening, outcome measures, intervention, and reporting were demonstrated. Some support was found for the use of hypothalamic-sparing surgery as a method to prevent obesity following craniopharyngioma resection. There is a need for further study in this area to inform clinical and research practice; recommendations are given. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  17. Psychometric properties of a MOVE!23 subscale: Perceived Contributors to Weight Change in a national sample of veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Buta, Eugenia; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Heapy, Alicia A; Ruser, Christopher B; Goulet, Joseph L; Masheb, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    The MOVE!23, a questionnaire to assess weight-related domains in veterans, was examined. Factor analysis of Perceived Contributors to Weight Change revealed three factors (psychosocial, eating behavior, and medical) that were positively correlated with body mass index, and psychiatric and medical comorbidity (p's MOVE!23 Perceived Contributors to Weight Change subscale is a reliable and valid measure that is associated with body mass index and may assist in tailoring treatments according to gender and comorbidity.

  18. Changes in Organ Perfusion and Weight Ratios in Post-Simulated Microgravity Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Deever, Daniel; S. Young, Robert; Wang, Shengjun; A. Bradshaw, Beth; Miles, Jonathan; R. Pettis, Christopher; L. Witten, Mark

    2002-04-01

    Head-down tilt models have been used as ground-based simulations of microgravity. Our previous animal research has demonstrated that there are significant changes in fluid distribution within 2 h after placement in a 45° head-down tilt (45HDT) position and these changes in fluid distribution were still present after 14 days of 45HDT. Consequently, we investigated changes in fluid distribution during recovery from 16 days of 45HDT. Changes in radioactive tracer distribution and organ/body weight ratio were examined in rats randomly assigned to a 45HDT or prone control group. The 45HDT rats were suspended for 16 days and then allowed to recover at the prone position 0, 77, 101, or 125 h post-suspension. Animals were injected with technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTcDTPA, MW=492 amu, physical half-life of 6.02 h) and then killed 30 min post-injection. Lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain were harvested, weighed, and measured for radioactive counts. Statistical analyses included two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) that compared 45HDT versus controls at the four experimental time points. The organ weight divided by the body weight ratio for the brain, heart, kidneys and liver in the 45HDT rats was significantly different than the control rats, regardless of time (treatment). There was no difference between the different time points (time). The average 99mTcDTPA count divided by the organ weight ratio values for the heart, liver, and spleen were significantly higher in the 45HDT group than the control group. The average counts for the heart and spleen were significantly higher at 77, 101, and 125 h than at time zero. We conclude that the major organs have different recovery patterns after 45HDT for 16 days in the rat.

  19. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  20. Structural brain abnormalities in adolescent anorexia nervosa before and after weight recovery and associated hormonal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Verena; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Fink, Gereon R; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of structural brain abnormalities in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the changes in and the recovery of gray matter (GM) volumes after weight gain and the relation to hormonal normalization in adolescent patients with AN. Nineteen female patients aged 12 to 17 years were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at the time of admission to the hospital (T1) and after weight recovery (T2). Patients were compared with typically developing girls matched for age and intelligence quotient. Structural brain images were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometric approach. Circulating levels of cortisol and gonadotropins were assessed in blood samples. Compared with controls, patients with AN showed reduced GM in several brain regions along the cortical midline, reaching from the occipital cortex to the medial frontal areas. These GM reductions were mostly reversible at T1. Patients showed a GM increase from T1 to T2 along the cortical midline and in the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. GM increases at T2 correlated inversely with cortisol levels at T1 and positively with weight gain at T2. The strongest associations between regional GM increase and weight gain were found in the cerebellum. In addition, increases in GM volumes at T2 in the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala were associated with increases in follicle-stimulating hormone. Our data suggest that brain alterations in adolescents with acute AN are mostly reversible at T1 and that GM recovery in specific brain regions is associated with weight and hormonal normalization.

  1. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  2. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  3. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Object-oriented change detection based on weighted polarimetric scattering differences on POLSAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Lu, L.; Yang, S.; Huang, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    For wide application of change detection with SAR imagery, current processing technologies and methods are mostly based on pixels. It is difficult for pixel-based technologies to utilize spatial characteristics of images and topological relations of objects. Object-oriented technology takes objects as processing unit, which takes advantage of the shape and texture information of image. It can greatly improve the efficiency and reliability of change detection. Recently, with the development of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR), more backscattering features on different polarization state can be available for usage of object-oriented change detection study. In this paper, the object-oriented strategy will be employed. Considering the fact that the different target or target's state behaves different backscattering characteristics dependent on polarization state, an object-oriented change detection method that based on weighted polarimetric scattering difference of PolSAR images is proposed. The method operates on the objects generated by generalized statistical region merging (GSRM) segmentation processing. The merit of GSRM method is that image segmentation is executed on polarimetric coherence matrix, which takes full advantages of polarimetric backscattering features. And then, the measurement of polarimetric scattering difference is constructed by combining the correlation of covariance matrix and the difference of scattering power. Through analysing the effects of the covariance matrix correlation and the scattering echo power difference on the polarimetric scattering difference, the weighted method is used to balance the influences caused by the two parts, so that more reasonable weights can be chosen to decrease the false alarm rate. The effectiveness of the algorithm that proposed in this letter is tested by detection of the growth of crops with two different temporal radarsat-2 fully PolSAR data. First, objects are produced by GSRM algorithm

  5. Genetic variation for body weight change in mice in response to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot J Timothy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is beneficial in reducing the weight gain and associated health problems often experienced by individuals as they age, but the association of weight change with physical activity remains complex. We tested for a possible genetic basis for this association between 9-12-week body weight change (WTC and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 307 mice in an F2 population produced from an intercross of two inbred strains (C57L/J and C3H/HeJ that differed dramatically in their physical activity levels. Results In this population WTC did show the expected negative association with the physical activity traits, but only the phenotypic correlation of WTC with speed (-0.18 reached statistical significance. Using an interval mapping approach with single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, we discovered five (four suggestive and one significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting body weight change, only one of which appeared to show pleiotropic effects on the physical activity traits as well. Genome-wide epistasis scans also detected several pairwise interactions of QTLs with pleiotropic effects on WTC and the physical activity traits, but these effects made a significant contribution (51% only to the covariance of WTC with speed. Conclusion It was concluded that the genetic contribution to the phenotypic association between WTC and the physical activity traits in this population of mice was primarily epistatic in origin, restricted to one measure of physical activity, and could be quite variable among different populations depending on the genetic background, experimental design and traits assessed.

  6. Change Detection from differential airborne LiDAR using a weighted Anisotropic Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Kusari, A.; Glennie, C. L.; Oskin, M. E.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Borsa, A. A.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) from repeated surveys has recently emerged as an effective tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) change for applications such as quantifying slip and spatially distributed warping associated with earthquake ruptures, and examining the spatial distribution of beach erosion after hurricane impact. Currently, the primary method for determining 3D change is through the use of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and its variants. However, all current studies using ICP have assumed that all LiDAR points in the compared point clouds have uniform accuracy. This assumption is simplistic given that the error for each LiDAR point is variable, and dependent upon highly variable factors such as target range, angle of incidence, and aircraft trajectory accuracy. Therefore, to rigorously determine spatial change, it would be ideal to model the random error for every LiDAR observation in the differential point cloud, and use these error estimates as apriori weights in the ICP algorithm. To test this approach, we implemented a rigorous LiDAR observation error propagation method to generate estimated random error for each point in a LiDAR point cloud, and then determine 3D displacements between two point clouds using an anistropic weighted ICP algorithm. The algorithm was evaluated by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing post earthquake slip estimates from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake between a uniform weight and anistropically weighted ICP algorithm, using pre-event LiDAR collected in 2006 by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), and post-event LiDAR collected by The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).

  7. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  8. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  9. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Montastier

    Full Text Available AIM: Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN: Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. RESULTS: Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. CONCLUSION: The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis

  10. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  11. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  12. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    exposure to traffic noise was calculated for all participants' present and historical addresses using the Nordic prediction method. The associations between traffic noise and changes in adiposity measures after a mean follow-up of 5.3 years were analyzed by linear and logistic regression with adjustments...... circumference. For example, time-weighted mean exposure 5-years preceding follow-up was associated with a yearly weight gain of 15.4g (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14; 28.7) and a yearly increase in waist circumference of 0.22mm (95% CI: 0.018; 0.43) per 10dB. Similarly, in Poisson regression models we found......: We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential traffic noise and changes in adiposity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on 39,720 middle-aged Danish men and women from a cohort, with information on weight and waist circumference at two points in time. Residential...

  13. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G S; Stunkard, A J; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the habit of eating at night, and the 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight changes in a middle-aged population, with particular focus on the obese. DESIGN: Prospective study with initial examination of the cohort in 1982-83, re-examination in 1987......-88 and a third examination in 1992-93. SUBJECTS: The Danish MONICA cohort includes an age- and sex-stratified random sample of the population from the Western part of the Copenhagen County. Out of 2,987 subjects participating in 1987-88, a total of 1,050 women and 1,061 men had been examined in 1982-83, and 1993......-94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0...

  14. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  15. Long-Term Change in Diet Quality Is Associated with Body Weight Change in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Pan, An; Hou, Tao; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Tobias, Deidre K; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Little evidence exists on change in diet quality and weight change. We examined the association between change of diet quality indexes and concurrent weight change over 20 y. In this analysis we followed 50,603 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 22,973 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) between 1986 and 2006, and 72,495 younger women from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) between 1989 and 2007. Diet was measured every 4 y. We computed the Alternate Mediterranean Diet, the Alternate Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension adherence scores for each participant. All scores emphasize fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nuts, but they differ in score range and components such as dairy, sodium, and sweetened beverages. Regression models were used to examine 4-y changes in these scores and weight change within the same period, adjusting for lifestyle factors. Mean age at baseline was 49.4 y for NHS, 48.0 y for HPFS, and 36.3 y for NHS II. Baseline BMI (in kg/m(2)) was similar (23.7 for NHS, 24.7 for HPFS, and 23.0 for NHS II). We observed significantly less weight gain over 4-y periods with each SD increase of each diet quality score in both men and women. Results were significantly stronger in the younger cohort (NHS II) than in the older cohorts (e.g., -0.67 kg less weight gain in NHS II vs. -0.39 kg in NHS for each SD increase in AHEI-2010; P-heterogeneity: diet scores benefited overweight (-0.27 to -1.08 kg less weight gain for each SD increase in score) more than normal-weight individuals (-0.10 to -0.40 kg; P-interaction: diet quality is associated with less weight gain, especially in younger women or overweight individuals. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Association between FTO variant and change in body weight and its interaction with dietary factors; the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Angquist, L.; Hansen, R.D.; A, van der D.L.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Holst, C.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Meidtner, K.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wareham, N.J.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Loos, R.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6.8

  17. Motor actions and spatiotemporal changes by weight divisions of mixed martial arts: Applications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Brito, Ciro José; Bello, Fábio Dal; Amtmann, John

    2017-10-01

    This study compared motor actions and spatiotemporal changes between weight divisions from Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC™), conducting a practical application for mixed martial arts (MMA) training. For this, we analyzed 2814 rounds of all weight divisions by motor actions and spatiotemporal changes according actions and time of the Keeping distance, Clinch and Groundwork combat phases. We observed differences between weight divisions in the keeping distance on stand-up combat (p≤0.001; with lower time in Featherweight 131.4s and bantamweight 127.9s) clinch without attack (p≤0.001; with higher timer in Flyweight 11.4s and Half-middleweight 12.6s) and groundwork without attack (p≤0.001; with higher timer in Half-middleweight 0.9s). During keeping distance, half-middleweight presented a higher frequency of Head Strikes Landed (p=0.026; 7±8 times) and attempted (p=0.003; 24±22 times). In clinch actions heavyweight present a higher frequency (p≤0.023) of head strike landed (3±7 times) and attempted (4±9 times) and half-middleweight for body strikes (p≤0.023) landed (2±5 times) and attempted (3±5 times). At the last, during groundwork, Bantamweight present a higher frequency (p≤0.036) of head strikes landed (8±10 times) and attempted (10±13 times) body strikes landed (p≤0.044; 3±5 times) and attempted (3±6 times). This study reveals important point to training and provide a challenge applied referential to the conditioning plains. From the weight divisions differences should be aware of the increase in the frequency of distance actions, especially in light and middleweights. On the Ground, bantamweight can focus on striking and grappling actions than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  19. Changes in weight loss and lipid profiles after a dietary purification program: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Erica

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this case series was to describe immediate changes to weight and lipid profiles after a 21-day Standard Process whole food supplement and dietary modification program. Changes in weight and lipid profiles were measured for 7 participants (6 men and 1 woman) participating in a 21-day program. The dietary modifications throughout the Standard Process program were consumption of (1) unlimited fresh or frozen vegetables and fruits and preferably twice as many vegetables as fruits, (2) ½ to 1 cup of cooked lentils or brown rice each day, (3) 4 to 7 teaspoons of cold pressed oils per day, and (4) at least 64 oz of water a day. After day 10 of the program, participants were allowed to consume 1 to 2 servings of baked, broiled, or braised poultry or fish per day. Participants consumed a whey protein-based shake as meal replacement 2 times per day. Nutritional supplementation included a cleanse product on days 1 to 7, soluble fiber supplementation including oat bran concentrate and apple pectin on all days, and "green food" supplementation on days 8 to 21. Weight loss ranged between 5.2 (2.4 kg) and 19.9 lb (9.0 kg) (average, 11.7 lb; 5.3 kg). Total cholesterol levels decreased with ranges between 11 and 77 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in a range between 7 and 67 mg/dL. After participating in a dietary program, the 7 participants demonstrated short-term weight loss and improvements in their lipid profiles.

  20. Changes in breathing and the pharynx after weight loss in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C

    1987-10-01

    The effect of weight loss following dietary restriction on disordered breathing on the pharyngeal airway is controversial in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We therefore prospectively studied eight patients before and after dietary-induced weight loss. Mean weight loss was 20.6 kg +/- 12.8 SD. After weight loss there were significant improvements in PO2 and PCO2 measured during wakefulness, and in the number of desaturation episodes per hour of sleep, average desaturation per episode, and number of movement arousals. The number of apneas and hypopneas significantly decreased in six of eight patients. There was a significant correlation between body mass index and number of disordered breathing events. Nasopharyngeal collapsibility and pulse flow resistance decreased in awake patients after weight loss. We conclude that moderate weight loss in obese patients with OSA improves oxygenation during both sleep and wakefulness, decreases the number of disordered breathing events in many patients, decreases the collapsibility of the nasopharyngeal airway.

  1. Proprioceptive evoked potentials in man: cerebral responses to changing weight loads on the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S; He, Chen; Eder, D

    2000-01-01

    We studied cerebral evoked potentials on the scalp to the stimulation of the right hand from a change in weight of 400-480 g in ten subjects. Rise-time was 20g/10 ms, Inter Stimulus Interval 2s and stimulus duration was 100 ms. The cerebral activations were a double positive contralateral C3'/P70......, P190, and a single negative frontal Fz/N70 component. We conclude that a brisk change of a hand held load elicits a significant evoked potential (EP) unlike the electrical somato-sensory EP (SEP). The stimulus is perceived as applied force. For this reason we call it a proprioceptive EP (PEP...

  2. Changes on diffusion-weighted MRI with focal motor status epilepticus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, K.O. [Neuroradiology, Radiodiagnostic, Hopital Cantonal de Geneve HUG, Geneve (Switzerland); Senn, P.; Zutter, D.; Bassetti, C.; Donati, F. [Dept. of Neurology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland); Loevblad, K.O.; Zeller, O.; Schroth, G. [Div. of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland)

    2003-04-01

    Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in focal status epilepticus. The changes on DWI provide an insight into the pathophysiology. We report a 53-year-old man with focal motor status epilepticus involving the left hand, arm and face with focal slowing on EEG. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were higher in the affected hemisphere than on the other side. At 10 days and 6 weeks after the end of the seizures, we saw normal ADCs and atrophy of the affected hemisphere. We conclude that the MRI findings indicate both cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  3. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (8%, NN (+2%, and OO (0.1% (. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  4. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Ondrak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (r=0.39. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (−8%, NN (+2%, and OO (−0.1% (P<.05. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was r=0.49 when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simiao Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses, with consideration of body mass index (BMI at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”, ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women. For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan. A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF increased gradually; body fat (BF remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL and body lean (BL declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan.

  6. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  7. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some kids and teens are underweight because of eating disorders , like anorexia or bulimia, which ... weight. People from different races, ethnic groups, and nationalities tend to have different body fat ...

  8. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition ...

  10. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menichetti, Giulia; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of $N$ nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multipa...

  11. An Examination of Possible Explanations for Differential Weight Changes Associated with Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-21

    pregnancies. In the present study numbers of primiparous and multiparous women did not dif f er across the four Study Periods when compared with a 4 (4...consumption on pregnancy-induced body weight gain is subtle and cumulative over pregnancies. The animals in the present study were primiparous , ~nd any...in body weight. As previously mentioned~ the animals were primiparous , and any effects of food consumption on weight gains may be cumulative over

  12. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P;

    1993-01-01

    A non-invasive evaluation of bone metabolism was performed in 44 morbidly obese patients before and after a mean weight loss of 22.4 kg (range 7.9-43.4 kg) after 2 months and a further weight loss of 7.3 kg after 8 months (0.8-20.0 kg). This weight reduction was obtained by a nutritionally adequa...

  13. Influence of changing carbonate chemistry on morphology and weight of coccoliths formed by Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a marine phytoplankton species capable of forming small calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths which cover the organic part of the cell. Calcification rates of E. huxleyi are known to be sensitive to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. It is, however, not yet understood how these changes are reflected in the morphology of coccoliths. Here, we compare data on coccolith size, weight, and malformation from a~set of five experiments with a large diversity of carbonate chemistry conditions. This diversity allows distinguishing the influence of individual carbonate chemistry parameters such as carbon dioxide (CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3−, carbonate (CO32−, and protons (H+ on the measured parameters. Measurements of fine-scale morphological structures reveal an increase of coccolith malformation with decreasing pH suggesting that H+ is the major factor causing malformations. Coccolith distal shield area varies from about 5 to 11 μm2. Changes in size seem to be mainly induced by varying [HCO3−] and [H+] although influence of [CO32−] cannot be entirely ruled out. Changes in coccolith weight were proportional to changes in size. Increasing CaCO3 production rates are reflected in an increase in coccolith weight and an increase of the number of coccoliths formed per unit time. The combined investigation of morphological features and coccolith production rates presented in this study may help to interpret data derived from sediment cores, where coccolith morphology is used to reconstruct calcification rates in the water column.

  14. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption.

  15. Homotopy weighted colimits

    CERN Document Server

    Vokřínek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Let V be a cofibrantly generated closed symmetric monoidal model category and M a model V-category. We say that a weighted colimit W*D of a diagram D weighted by W is a homotopy weighted colimit if the diagram D is pointwise cofibrant and the weight W is cofibrant in the projective model structure on [C^op,V]. We then proceed to describe such homotopy weighted colimits through homotopy tensors and ordinary (conical) homotopy colimits. This is a homotopy version of the well known isomorphism W*D=\\int^C(W\\tensor D). After proving this homotopy decomposition in general we study in some detail a few special cases. For simplicial sets tensors may be replaced up to weak equivalence by conical homotopy colimits and thus the weighted homotopy colimits have no added value. The situation is completely different for model dg-categories where the desuspension cannot be constructed from conical homotopy colimits. In the last section we characterize those V-functors inducing a Quillen equivalence on the enriched presheaf c...

  16. Insulin resistance and inflammation predict kinetic body weight changes in response to dietary weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese subjects by using a Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Chun; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henri; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Gougis, Sophie; Fellahi, Soraya; Darakhshan, Froogh; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Doré, Joël; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa

    2013-12-01

    The ability to identify obese subjects who will lose weight in response to energy restriction is an important strategy in obesity treatment. We aimed to identify obese subjects who would lose weight and maintain weight loss through 6 wk of energy restriction and 6 wk of weight maintenance. Fifty obese or overweight subjects underwent a 6-wk energy-restricted, high-protein diet followed by another 6 wk of weight maintenance. Network modeling by using combined biological, gut microbiota, and environmental factors was performed to identify predictors of weight trajectories. On the basis of body weight trajectories, 3 subject clusters were identified. Clusters A and B lost more weight during energy restriction. During the stabilization phase, cluster A continued to lose weight, whereas cluster B remained stable. Cluster C lost less and rapidly regained weight during the stabilization period. At baseline, cluster C had the highest plasma insulin, interleukin (IL)-6, adipose tissue inflammation (HAM56+ cells), and Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococcus numbers in fecal samples. Weight regain after energy restriction correlated positively with insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: r = 0.5, P = 0.0002) and inflammatory markers (IL-6; r = 0.43, P = 0.002) at baseline. The Bayesian network identified plasma insulin, IL-6, leukocyte number, and adipose tissue (HAM56) at baseline as predictors that were sufficient to characterize the 3 clusters. The prediction accuracy reached 75.5%. The resistance to weight loss and proneness to weight regain could be predicted by the combination of high plasma insulin and inflammatory markers before dietary intervention.

  17. A comparison of weighted CUSUM procedures that account for monotone changes in population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lianjie; Jiang, Wei; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2011-03-30

    The CUSUM procedure has been popularly used for detecting a shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event. Many CUSUM methods are developed based on a Poisson model with a constant mean number of events. In practice, the expected number of events is likely to vary over time as the population size at risk is not constant but often grows over time. An increase in the baseline incidence rate tends to be masked by the population growth. To efficiently detect an increase in the baseline incidence rate, it is appealing to assign more weight to recent observations and less weight to older observations. This paper compares weighted CUSUM (WCUSUM) and conventional CUSUM procedures in the presence of monotone changes in population size. The simulation results show that the WCUSUM method may be more efficient than the conventional CUSUM methods in detecting increases in the incidence rate, especially for small shifts. An example based on mortality data from New Mexico is used to illustrate the implementation of the WCUSUM method.

  18. Changes in children's sleep duration on food intake, weight, and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Chantelle N; Carskadon, Mary A; Considine, Robert V; Fava, Joseph L; Lawton, Jessica; Raynor, Hollie A; Jelalian, Elissa; Owens, Judith; Wing, Rena

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of experimental changes in children's sleep duration on self-reported food intake, food reinforcement, appetite-regulating hormones, and measured weight. Using a within-subjects, counterbalanced, crossover design, 37 children, 8 to 11 years of age (27% overweight/obese) completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount at home for 1 week and were then randomized to either increase or decrease their time in bed by 1.5 hours per night for 1 week, completing the alternate schedule on the third week. Primary outcomes were dietary intake as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls, food reinforcement (ie, points earned for a food reward), and fasting leptin and ghrelin. The secondary outcome was child weight. Participants achieved a 2 hour, 21 minute difference in the actigraph defined sleep period time between the increase and decrease sleep conditions (P food reinforcement or in fasting ghrelin. Compared with decreased sleep, increased sleep duration in school-age children resulted in lower reported food intake, lower fasting leptin levels, and lower weight. The potential role of sleep duration in pediatric obesity prevention and treatment warrants further study.

  19. Protein, weight management, and satiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Westman, Eric; Mattes, Richard D; Wolfe, Robert R; Astrup, Arne; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet

    2008-01-01

    .... Although any dietary or lifestyle change must be personalized, controlled energy intake in association with a moderately elevated protein intake may represent an effective and practical weight-loss strategy...

  20. Association between change in body weight after midlife and risk of hip fracture—the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L.-W.; Yuan, J.-M.; Koh, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The relationship between change in body weight and risk of fractures is inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. In this cohort of middle-aged to elderly Chinese in Singapore, compared to stable weight, weight loss ≥10%over an average of 6 years is associated with nearly 40%increase in risk of hip fracture. Introduction Findings on the relationship between change in body weight and risk of hip fracture are inconsistent. In this study, we examined this association among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used prospective data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45–74 years at recruitment in 1993–1998. Body weight and height were self-reported at recruitment and reassessed during follow-up interview in 1999–2004. Percent in weight change was computed based on the weight difference over an average of 6 years, and categorized as loss ≥10 %, loss 5 to 65 years) and in those with baseline BMI ≥20 kg/m2. There was no significant association with weight gain. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that substantial weight loss is an important risk factor for osteoporotic hip fractures among the middle-aged to elderly Chinese. PMID:25868509

  1. Weight gain, behavioral and cortisol changes after orchiectomy with or without local anaesthesia in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Sturlini Barticciotto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intratesticular local anesthesia on weight gain and behavioral and cortisol changes in piglets submitted to castration. Study design was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-nine male Landrace crossbred piglets aged 3 to 6 days were used. The piglets were randomly divided into two groups: orchiectomy with anesthesia (A, n = 15 and orchiectomy without anesthesia (NOA, n = 14. Piglets in the A and NOA groups were treated with 0.5 mL of intratesticular 2% lidocaine with a vasoconstrictor in each testicle and 0.5 mL of intratesticular 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. Blood samples were collected from all animals immediately after surgery and at 3 and 6 days postoperatively for measurement of the serum cortisol concentration. Behavior was assessed daily for 6 days by two observers blinded to the treatment. Weight was measured at the same time as cortisol measurement. Analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to investigate differences in time within and between the two groups. Mean times of six evaluations done for 90 minutes during 6 days of each behavior were compared by Tukey t test. The level of statistical significance was 5%. The serum cortisol concentration was higher immediately after surgery than at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in both groups. Weight gain was greater at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in the A group than in the NOA group. Intratesticular local anesthesia before castration in piglets is technically practical, is in accordance with good welfare practice, and improves short-term weight gain in piglets submitted to castration.

  2. Bone Mineral Density and Weight Changes in Adolescents Randomized to 3 Doses of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Hannah L H; Manos, Brittny E; Gothard, M David; Rogers, Lynette K; Bonny, Andrea E

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association between medroxyprogesterone acetate exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) loss and weight change in adolescents. Forty-eight-week prospective, randomized trial conducted May 2012-April 2014. Recruitment occurred in the general community and outpatient clinics in central Ohio. Self-referred sample of 34 female adolescents aged 12-21 years initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Randomization to 1 of 3 DMPA doses (150, 104, or 75 mg) given intramuscularly every 12 weeks for 48 weeks. Absolute and percent change in BMD from 0-48 weeks at the L1-L4 lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck; absolute and percent change in weight at 48 weeks. DMPA dose was associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate exposure as evidenced by a direct relationship (P < .001) between dose group and area under the concentration time curve. At 48 weeks, no significant BMD decreases were seen in the 75 mg dose group. The 104 and 150 mg dose groups experienced significant (P < .01) decreases in L1-L4 lumbar spine BMD (3.1% and 4.0%, respectively). The 150 mg group also had significant (P < .05) decreases in total hip (3.0%) and femoral neck (4.0%) BMD. No group differences in weight change were observed. No pregnancies occurred in any DMPA dose group. Our data provide evidence of a dose-response relationship between DMPA and BMD loss. Intramuscular DMPA doses less than 150 mg can decrease risk of BMD loss in adolescents. The risk/benefit ratio of lower-dose DMPA should be further investigated in larger and more diverse adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  4. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  5. Weight change after initiation of oral hypoglycemic monotherapy for diabetes predicts 5-year mortality: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarnik, Beverly M; Moore, Kathryn P; Smith, Nicholas L; Boyko, Edward J

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether weight change in the first year after initiating an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) for type 2 diabetes treatment is associated with mortality in a national cohort. We prospectively followed Veterans Health Administration patients with type 2 diabetes initiating treatment with an OHA and not receiving any other diabetes pharmacotherapy for at least one year. Information on OHAs, weight, co-morbidities, other medications, demographics, and laboratory measurements was obtained from electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to estimate 5-year mortality odds by weight change during the first year after OHA treatment initiation. Patients (mean age 65years, 97% male, mean BMI 32.3kg/m(2)) initiating OHA monotherapy between 2003 and 2008 totaled 145,198 (metformin n=89,111, glipizide n=27,100, glyburide n=25,226, rosiglitazone n=3,761). Most patients (65%) maintained a stable weight (change ⩽5% from baseline) during the first year after OHA initiation. Those losing >5% of baseline weight had a significantly higher odds of death over the subsequent 5-years ranging from 1.64 to 2.13 depending on OHA type. In the metformin group, weight gain >5% of baseline was also associated with higher odds of 5-year mortality. The same results were obtained after conducting three sensitivity analyses that excluded patients for the following reasons: weight loss in the one year prior to OHA initiation, weight change >100lbs, or weight change >50lbs. Weight loss was associated with higher odds of 5-year mortality among patients initiating an OHA, as was weight gain for metformin only. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Impact of body composition during weight change on resting energy expenditure and homeostasis model assessment index in overweight nonsmoking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, Maryam; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Schautz, Britta; Braun, Wiebke; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J

    2014-04-01

    Weight change affects resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic risk factors. The impact of changes in individual body components on metabolism is unclear. We investigated changes in detailed body composition to assess their impacts on REE and insulin resistance. Eighty-three healthy subjects [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) range: 20.2-46.8; 50% obese] were investigated at 2 occasions with weight changes between -11.2 and +6.5 kg (follow-up periods between 23.5 and 43.5 mo). Detailed body composition was measured by using the 4-component model and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. REE, plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and insulin resistance were measured by using standard methods. Weight loss was associated with decreases in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by 72.0% and 28.0%, respectively. A total of 87.9% of weight gain was attributed to FM. With weight loss, sizes of skeletal muscle, kidneys, heart, and all fat depots decreased. With weight gain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney masses, and several adipose tissue depots increased except for visceral adipose tissue (VAT). After adjustments for FM and FFM, REE decreased with weight loss (by 0.22 MJ/d) and increased with weight gain (by 0.11 MJ/d). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, changes in skeletal muscle, plasma triiodothyronine, and kidney masses explained 34.9%, 5.3%, and 4.5%, respectively, of the variance in changes in REE. A reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue rather than VAT was associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity with weight loss. Weight gain had no effect on insulin resistance. Beyond a 2-compartment model, detailed changes in organ and tissue masses further add to explain changes in REE and insulin resistance.

  7. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  8. Relative blood flow changes measured using calibrated frequency-weighted Doppler power at different hematocrit levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sean; Logallo, Nicola; Faiz, Kashif W; Lund, Christian; Brucher, Rainer; Russell, David

    2014-04-01

    In theory, the power of a trans-cranial Doppler signal may be used to measure changes in blood flow and vessel diameter in addition to velocity. In this study, a flow index (FI) of relative changes in blood flow was derived from frequency-weighted Doppler power signals. The FI, plotted against velocity, was calibrated to the zero intercept with absent flow to reduce the effects of non-uniform vessel insonation. An area index was also calculated. FIs were compared with actual flow in four silicone tubes of different diameter at increasing flow rates and increasing hematocrit (Hct) in a closed-loop phantom model. FI values were strongly correlated with actual flow, at constant Hct, but varied substantially with changes in Hct. Percentage changes in area indexes, relative to the 4-mm tube, were strongly correlated with tube cross-sectional area. The implications of these results for in vivo use are discussed.

  9. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later......-order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. SETTING: Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Women and men (n 29 152......:protein ratio; the differences in 5-year waist circumference change were 0·26 cm (95 % CI -0·47, 0·98 cm) and -0·52 cm (95 % CI -1·19, 0·15 cm), respectively. Inclusion of the dietary glycaemic index did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: No consistent associations between the intake of n-6 PUFA and change...

  10. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739 b

  11. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739 b

  12. Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Norat, T.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; May, A.M.; Travier, N.; Luan, J.; Wareham, N.; Slimani, N.; Rinaldi, S.; Couto, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Cottet, V.; Palli, D.; Agnoli, C.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Agudo, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Huerta, J.M.; Key, T.J.; Spencer, E.A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Buchner, F.L.; Orfanos, P.; Naska, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Rohrmann, S.; Hermann, S.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Johansson, I.; Hellstrom, V.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Lund, E.; Braaten, T.; Engeset, D.; Odysseos, A.; Riboli, E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the assoc

  13. Weight change during the first year of peritoneal dialysis: Risk factors and prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Shin-Man Choy

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Weight gain is common among Chinese patients during the 1st year of PD but is not associated with any adverse clinical outcome. In contrast, weight loss during the 1st year of PD is common amongst PD patients who have peritonitis, and is associated with worse technique survival subsequently.

  14. Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, H; van der A, D L; van Bakel, M M E

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) were associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five European countries, which are Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands...... with subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference were heterogeneous across centres. Overall, with every 10-unit higher in GI, weight increased by 34 g per year (95% confidence interval (CI): -47, 115) and waist circumference increased by 0.19 cm per year (95% CI: 0.11, 0.27). With every 50-unit higher...... in GL, weight increased by 10 g per year (95% CI: -65, 85) and waist circumference increased by 0.06 cm per year (95% CI: -0.01, 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an effect of GI or GL on weight change. The positively significant association between GI, not GL, and subsequent gain in waist...

  15. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if dietary protein and degree of adiposity interacts in relation to change in body weight and waist circumference (WC) in the general population. METHODS: In total 22,433 middle-aged individuals with dietary assessment at baseline and anthropometry at baseline...... to changes in body weight (BW) and changes WC adjusted for change in BW. RESULTS: Baseline intake of protein was not significantly associated with changes in weight or waist circumference. Across the nine groups of baseline BMI and WCBMI there were no distinct trends in the associations between dietary...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION...

  16. Predictors of postpartum weight change among overweight and obese women: results from the Active Mothers Postpartum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Peterson, Bercedis L; Krause, Katrina M; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A

    2012-02-01

    The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to -24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy.

  17. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  18. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  19. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. HIV-infected (-0.2 kg CI: -1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (-0.5 kg; 95% CI: -2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: -2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: -3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  1. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  2. [Changes in homecare for preterm and low-birth-weight infants from 2002 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras Aloy, Josep; Esqué Ruiz, M Teresa; Arroyo Gili, Lourdes; Bella Rodriguez, Julia; Álvarez Miró, Roser; Carbonell Estrany, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Homecare (HC) is a service offering home medical and nursing care to the patient at home in equal quantity and quality as in the hospital. The aim of the article is to describe the changes in the HC of preterm and full-term low-birth-weight infants in our department from 2002-2014. The HC database is revised. The characteristics of the newborns and the social characteristics of the family in three consecutive time periods are analysed. A satisfaction survey of parents is also presented. The main changes in HC include a decrease in the weight at discharge (from 1880g in the 2002-2006 period to 1850g in the 2011-2014 period; P=.006) and at the end of HC (from 2187g to 2163g; P=.001), an increase in the duration of HC (from 10 to 11 days; P=.007) and a lower incidence of new hospitalization (from 3.4% to 1.3%; P=.019) The social characteristics of the family show a higher maternal age with more previous alive children, a family context better suited with a more appropriate housing, and an increase in exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge (from 25.5% to 49.0%; P<.001). The overall assessment of the program is ≥7/10 in 98.8% of responses. The results of the HC of preterm and low-birth-weight infants have improved over time, saving approximately 10-11 days of hospitalisation, and without compromising the quality of care or reducing family satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the relationship between changes in weight and utterances in an online weight loss forum: a content and correlational analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Dubey, Gaurav; McDonald, David W; Poole, Erika S; Li, Victor; Eikey, Elizabeth

    2014-12-08

    There is increasing interest in the use of online forums as a component of eHealth weight loss interventions. Although the research is mixed on the utility of online forums in general, results suggest that there is promise to this, particularly if the systems can be designed well to support healthful interactions that foster weight loss and continued engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the styles of utterances individuals make on an online weight loss forum and week-to-week fluctuations in weight. This analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses on possible strategies that could be used to improve the overall design of online support groups to facilitate more healthful interactions. A convenience sample of individuals using an online weight loss forum (N=4132) included data both on online forum use and weight check-in data. All interactions were coded utilizing the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) system. Mixed model analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between these LIWC variables and weight over time. Results suggested that increased use of past-tense verbs (P=.05) and motion (P=.02) were associated with lower weekly weights whereas increased use of conjunctions (eg, and, but, whereas; P=.001) and exclusion words (eg, but, without, exclude; P=.07) were both associated with higher weight during the weeks when these utterances were used more. These results provide some insights on the styles of interactions that appear to be associated with weight fluctuations. Future work should explore the stability of these findings and also explore possibilities for fostering these types of interactions more explicitly within online weight loss forums.

  4. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P M; Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wolff, Mary S; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been suggested to be linked to obesity. We have previously shown that less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to fat mass, while highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to obesity. The aim of the present evaluation is to investigate the relationship between retrospective assessed life-time change in body weight (20-70 years) with circulating POP levels measured at age 70 years. 1016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUSs) study. 16 PCBs and 3 OC pesticides were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. Current body weight was measured and participants self-reported their weight at age 20. The average estimated weight change over 50 years was 14.4 kg. Both the sum of OC pesticide concentrations (4.3 kg more weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p<0.0001) and the sum of the less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to the estimated weight change (3.7 kg more weight gain in quintile 2 vs. quintile 1, non-linear relationship p=0.0015). In contrast, the sum of concentrations of highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to estimated weight change (8.4 kg less weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p<0.0001). High levels of OC pesticides and the less-chlorinated PCBs at age 70 were associated with a pronounced estimated weight change over the previous 50 years. However, the opposite was seen for highly-chlorinated PCBs. Differences in mode of action, toxicokinetics, non-linear relationships and reverse causation might explain these discrepancies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  6. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  7. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther

    2016-01-01

    specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long-term....... It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...... and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...

  8. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-10-05

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  9. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  10. Exercise in weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, B M; Szymanski, L

    1997-11-01

    Exercise is integral to successful weight loss and maintenance. When talking to patients about exercise, consider their readiness, and address the barriers that prevent exercise. Physicians can help those patients who already exercise by encouraging them to continue and helping them anticipate, and recover from, lapses. Providing resource material to patients on behavioral strategies for exercise adoption and weight management can supplement the physician's efforts. Overall, patients need to hear that any regular exercise, be it step-aerobics, walking, or taking the stairs, will benefit them.

  11. Metabolic signatures of adiposity in young adults: Mendelian randomization analysis and effects of weight change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Würtz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood.We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16-39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24 ± 4 kg/m(2. Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures. Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%-183%. A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87% ± 3%; R(2= 0.89, suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures, including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic effects

  12. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  13. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help all kids maintain a healthy weight. For kids with diabetes, diet and exercise are even more important because ... weight is good for the entire family! When kids with diabetes reach and maintain a healthy weight, they feel ...

  14. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  15. Change in diffusion weighted MRI during liver cancer radiotherapy: Preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Haider, Ehsan A.; Haider, Masoom A.; Fung, Sharon; Lockwood, Gina; Dawson, Laura A. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    2009-10-15

    Purpose. To evaluate diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in liver and liver cancers during and following conformal radiotherapy (RT). To determine the feasibility of using changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) as a potential surrogate for tumour control or normal tissue injury. Materials and methods. Patients on a six-fraction conformal liver RT protocol underwent DW-MRI at the time of treatment planning, during RT (week one and two) and one month following RT. Diffusion weighted MR images were acquired in exhale breath hold, using b-values of 0 and 600. Regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to maximal tumour dose, high-dose peri-tumour liver, irradiated normal liver, non-irradiated liver, and spleen were analyzed on ADC maps. Results. Eleven patients (four hepatocellular carcinoma, five liver metastases, two cholangiocarcinoma) were evaluated. The baseline median tumour ADC of 1.56x10-3mm2/sec increased to 1.89x10-3mm2/sec at RT week one, to 1.91x10-3mm2/sec during week two and to 2.01x10-3mm2/sec at one month following treatment (p < 0.0001). Early increases in mean ADC were correlated with higher dose and sustained tumour response, whereas RECIST and volume changes on T2 images were not. Peri-tumour mean ADC also increased, from 1.40x10-3mm2/sec (baseline) to 1.55x10-3mm2/sec (RT week 2) and 1.64 x 10-3mm2/sec (follow-up). Small ADC changes were seen in the irradiated liver, and no significant changes were seen in the un-irradiated liver. Conclusions. Changes in tumour ADC were seen during RT. Larger increases were correlated with higher doses and increased likelihood of response

  16. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P

    1993-01-01

    A non-invasive evaluation of bone metabolism was performed in 44 morbidly obese patients before and after a mean weight loss of 22.4 kg (range 7.9-43.4 kg) after 2 months and a further weight loss of 7.3 kg after 8 months (0.8-20.0 kg). This weight reduction was obtained by a nutritionally adequate...... obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months...

  17. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...

  18. Weighted exponential polynomial approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冠铁

    2003-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for completeness of systems of exponentials with a weightin Lp is established and a quantitative relation between the weight and the system of exponential in Lp isobtained by using a generalization of Malliavin's uniqueness theorem about Watson's problem.

  19. Barrel Weight Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Process 16 Prototype Hardware Testing and Results 17 Barrel Weight 17 Functional Testing 17 Barrel Deflection 18 Drop Test 19 Thermal Test 20 References 23...measurements were compliant. 19 Thermal Test As discussed in the Transient Analysis Model Verification section of this report, the analytical results from the

  20. Season and Weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hayati

    Efficiency of growth is a function of metabolisable energy retained relative to that which is .... distribution of other sexes in certain housing, initial weight or season categories ..... Fox, D.G., Johnson, R.R., Preston, R.L. & Dockerty, T.R., 1972.

  1. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  2. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  3. Weight control (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight lifting builds muscle, which increases overall body strength, tone, and balance. Muscles also burn calories more efficiently than fat and other body tissues. So even at rest the more muscle tissue a person has the more calories a person is ...

  4. Losing Baby Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise is a key component of a healthy lifestyle before, during and after pregnancy. After pregnancy, most women can start exercising as ... the skinny jeans. Focus on living a healthy lifestyle, and the rest will fall into place. More tips ... or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ...

  5. Physical Activity, Obesity, Weight Change and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Lin Y.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Methods and Results Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14,219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987–2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. BMI and WC were positively associated with AF, as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal BMI, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129% and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Conclusions Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. PMID:24907285

  6. Secular Changes in Height, Weight, Body Mass Index and Daily Nutrition Preferences in Children During Soccer Recruitment Camps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessenia Hernández-Elizondo; José Moncada-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

      This study was conducted to compare secular changes in height, weight, and body mass index and to survey children's daily nutrition, hydration preferences and preferred beverages while exercising...

  7. Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent 5-year weight changes in adult men and women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5......-year changes in body weight (BW) were 1.2 +/- 3.9 and 1.3 +/- 4.6 kg for men and women, respectively. In general, neither ED nor any of the dietary components was associated with subsequent change in BW. In women, ED was positively associated with weight gain among the obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2...

  8. Body mass index, weight change, and clinical progression in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; Gill, Dawn P; Monsell, Sarah E; Brenowitz, Willa; Meranus, Dana H; Kukull, Walter; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2014-01-01

    The speed and severity of clinical progression after Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis varies and depends on multiple factors, most not well elucidated. We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) and 1-year weight change (WC) are associated with clinical progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and early-stage AD. Longitudinal data comprising 2268 aMCI and 1506 AD participants in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set were used to examine nuances of clinical progression by BMI and WC, as well as potential variations in associations by age, sex, BMI (WC model), or apolipoprotein E genotype. In aMCI, high BMI (vs. moderate BMI) was associated with slower progression; weight loss (vs. no WC) was associated with faster progression. In AD, no significant differences were observed in clinical progression by BMI or WC. The association between BMI and clinical progression varied significantly by apolipoprotein E genotype in AD, and the association between WC and clinical progression varied significantly by sex and BMI in aMCI. Baseline BMI and 1-year WC in late life may serve as early prognostic indicators in aMCI and early-stage AD. If replicated, these results may help in counseling patients on anticipated clinical progression and suggest windows of opportunity for intervention.

  9. Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Marleen J; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F

    2014-01-01

    diagnosed during a median follow-up of 7.5 years (from second weight assessment onward). High weight gain (Q5: 0.83-4.98 kg/year) was related to a slightly, but significantly higher breast cancer risk (HRQ5_versus_Q2/3 : 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). The association was more pronounced for breast cancer...... diagnosed before or at age 50 (HRQ5_versus_Q2/3 : 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.85). Weight loss was not associated with breast cancer risk. There was no evidence for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status. In conclusion, high weight gain in middle adulthood increases the risk of breast cancer. The association...

  10. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    .... Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles...

  11. Assessing dietary and exercise stage of change to optimize weight loss interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Karen; Logue, Everett; Jarjoura, David; Baughman, Kristin; Smucker, William; Capers, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    ...). This study describes a multi-item algorithm of SOC (M-SOC) for weight loss-related behaviors that attempts to overcome some of the conceptual and methodological difficulties encountered in previously SOC assessments...

  12. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  13. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  14. Shared written case formulations and weight change in outpatient therapy for anorexia nervosa: a naturalistic single case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Alice M; Evangeli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of written shared case formulations are underexplored and have not been examined in anorexia nervosa. This study explored the relationship between (a) the delivery (b) the quality of a shared written case formulation and weight in outpatient psychological therapy for anorexia nervosa. A naturalistic single case series approach was used to examine the case notes of women who had attended a specialist eating disorders service over a 2-year period. The case notes of 15 adult women who had undergone outpatient psychological therapy for anorexia nervosa with a shared written case formulation component were reviewed. The impact of the quality of the case formulation on weekly weight was examined for 14 of the clients where the case formulation was available. The nature of the relationship between the delivery of the written shared case formulation and weight was examined for all 15 clients. There was some evidence to support an association between delivery of the shared written case formulation and weight changes (both weight gain [five out of 15 clients] and weight loss [three out of 15 clients]) in individual cases. Higher case formulation quality was related to cases where weight change did not occur. The delivery of case formulations can be associated with important therapeutic change (both beneficial and potentially harmful) in anorexia nervosa. Future research into the causal mechanisms associated with sharing formulations will face the challenge of adopting strategies that allow for an in-depth exploration of complex therapy variables whilst overcoming methodological challenges.

  15. Behavioral correlates of post-breeding weight change in a captive flock of American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L; Raynes, Amber; Driscoll, Caroline; Babler, Jenna

    2013-03-01

    In a captive flock of American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pattern of weight loss after the breeding season was observed in the majority of individuals of both sexes, but weights eventually stabilized after several months. Social dominance (as determined by a 6-month behavioral study) was a highly significant predictor of early post-breeding weight loss, with dominant individuals undergoing less severe weight loss over this period; and behavioral observations supported the hypothesis that social dominance enhanced access to food in both males and females. Later in the study period, social dominance was no longer a significant predictor of weight changes, but rather individuals that had undergone previous large weight losses seemed to spend a greater amount of time feeding in an apparent effort to offset weight loss. Over the course of the study, there was a marked decline in both the proportion of agonistic encounters that were resolved and in the proportion of agonistic encounters that occurred at the feeder. These trends occurred even though there was no evidence of a decrease in overall use of the feeder. Thus, dominance-related differences with respect to food access and post-breeding weight loss appeared to be transitory phenomena, which corrected themselves as levels of aggression eventually declined. Intervention to increase the equality of food access in the post-breeding period may not be necessary in captive flamingo flocks, since low social rank in most cases appears not to have harmful long-term consequences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Fogelholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y, mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss were inconclusive.

  17. Overweight, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: focus on adipocytokines, insulin, weight changes and natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Ekim

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for hypertension. The mechanisms linking these two diseases are incompletely understood, but abnormalities in several different pathways including insulin and glucose metabolism, inflammation, the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been known for decades. Lately, the attention has shifted toward the endocrine function of adipose tissue, which among others secrete adiponectin, leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which stimulates liver CRP production. These substances have all been regarded as candidate intermediates between adiposity and the development of hypertension. Furthermore, the so-called "natriuretic handicap" which characterizes obesity, has also attracted a great deal of attention as a possible pathway.   Primary hypotheses: • The adipocytokines, adiponectin, leptin and CRP (used as a surrogate marker of IL-6) are independently associated with prevalent and incident hypertension.   • Five-year weight changes associate with BP alterations, even after adjustment for changes in lifestyle risk factors and serum insulin.   • NT-proBNP (used as a surrogate marker of active BNP) is positively associated with prevalent hypertension, but negatively associated with incident hypertension.   • The adipocytokines, adiponectin, leptin and CRP (used as a surrogate marker of IL-6), are independently associated with incident CVD.   The Inter99 study provided data for this thesis. In brief, Inter99 is a randomized, non-pharmacological intervention study for the prevention of ischemic heart disease. The study included approximately 6,700 participants from the background population, who were thoroughly examined at baseline. Various measurements, including blood samples, were done at baseline and five-year follow-up. Data about cardiovascular events were gathered from national registers.

  18. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  19. Closed circle DNA algorithm of change positive-weighted Hamilton circuit problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Kang; Tong Xiaojun; Xu Jin

    2009-01-01

    Chain length of closed circle DNA is equal. The same closed circle DNA's position corresponds to different recognition sequence, and the same recognition sequence corresponds to different foreign DNA segment, so closed circle DNA computing model is generalized. For change positive-weighted Hamilton circuit problem, closed circle DNA algorithm is put forward. First, three groups of DNA encoding are encoded for all arcs, and deck groups are designed for all vertices. All possible solutions axe composed. Then, the feasible solutions axe filtered out by using group detect experiment, and the optimization solutions are obtained by using group insert experiment and electrophoresis experiment. Finally, all optimization solutions are found by using detect experiment. Complexity of algorithm is concluded and validity of DNA algorithm is explained by an example. Three dominances of the closed circle DNA algorithm are analyzed, and characteristics and dominances of group delete experiment axe discussed.

  20. Variation in genes related to obesity, weight and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Knight, Julia A.; Mellemkjær, Lene; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Reiner, Anne S.; Lynch, Charles F.; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2012-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and altered levels of adipose derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight and weight change are associated with CBC risk. Methods Variants in twenty genes (182 single nucleotide polymorphisms) involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies of BMI and type II diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants (643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer) in the population-based Women’s Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression. Results After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor status did not alter these findings. Conclusion Among women with early onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC. Impact Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. PMID:23033454

  1. Variation in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jennifer D; Bernstein, Leslie; Teraoka, Sharon N; Knight, Julia A; Mellemkjær, Lene; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Lynch, Charles F; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2012-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered levels of adipose-derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change are associated with CBC risk. Variants in 20 genes [182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance, and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMI and type II-diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants [643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer (UBC)] in the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor (ER) status did not alter these findings. Among women with early-onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis, there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC. Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer.

  2. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) is often a point of emphasis during the rehabilitation of lower extremity pathologies. With the growing popularity of weight-bearing DROM assessments, several versions of the weight-bearing lunge (WBLT) test have been developed and numerous reliability studies have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the studies which examined the reliability and responsiveness of the WBLT to assess DROM. A systematic search of PubMed and EBSCO Host databases from inception to September 2014 was conducted to identify studies whose primary aim was assessing the reliability of the WBLT. The Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies assessment tool was utilized to determine the quality of included studies. Relative reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and responsiveness was evaluated through minimal detectable change (MDC). A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. Nine included studies assessed inter-clinician reliability and 12 included studies assessed intra-clinician reliability. There was strong evidence that inter-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.80-0.99) as well as intra-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.65-0.99) of the WBLT is good. Additionally, average MDC scores of 4.6° or 1.6 cm for inter-clinician and 4.7° or 1.9 cm for intra-clinician were found, indicating the minimal change in DROM needed to be outside the error of the WBLT. This systematic review determined that the WBLT, regardless of method, can be used clinically to assess DROM as it provides consistent results between one or more clinicians and demonstrates reasonable responsiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic pathway in relation to subsequent weight change--the DiOGenes study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects. AIM: We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with weight change during an average of 6.8 years of follow-up and to examine the potential effect modification by glycemic index (GI and protein intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants, aged 20-60 years at baseline, came from five European countries. Cases ('weight gainers' were selected from the total eligible cohort (n = 50,293 as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain (n = 5,584. A random subcohort (n = 6,566 was drawn with the intention to obtain an equal number of cases and noncases (n = 5,507. We genotyped 134 SNPs that captured all common genetic variation across the 15 candidate genes; 123 met the quality control criteria. Each SNP was tested for association with the risk of being a 'weight gainer' (logistic regression models in the case-noncase data and with weight gain (linear regression models in the random subcohort data. After accounting for multiple testing, none of the SNPs was significantly associated with weight change. Furthermore, we observed no significant effect modification by dietary factors, except for SNP rs7180849 in the neuromedin β gene (NMB. Carriers of the minor allele had a more pronounced weight gain at a higher GI (P = 2 x 10⁻⁷. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of association between SNPs in the studied hypothalamic genes with weight change. The interaction between GI and NMB SNP rs7180849 needs further confirmation.

  4. Rapid changes of body weight after a headstand: a metrological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acuña-Espinoza

    Full Text Available Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500 g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N. The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS and a normal (CON weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean ± s.d. (640.7 ± 62.8 N and 640.3 ± 62.7 N, respectively, p < 0.0001 under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.6 ± 62.8 N and 640.9 ± 62.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815. The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45 g (0.44 N difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (± 110 g or 1.08 N. In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community.

  5. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  6. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  7. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  8. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  9. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wilma S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1 vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7 kg. Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5. In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%. Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  10. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello . Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig...van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...34I find It a matter of some difficulty to arrange these cards In a manner suited to my needs.’ I glanced at the cards and noticed each was labelled

  11. Axiomatizations of symmetrically weighted solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, John; Reijnierse, Hans; Sudhölter, P.

    2013-01-01

    If the excesses of the coalitions in a transferable utility game are weighted, then we show that the arising weighted modifications of the well-known (pre)nucleolus and (pre)kernel satisfy the equal treatment property if and only if the weight system is symmetric in the sense that the weight of a su

  12. Online weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p motivation, low accountability, and the possibility that the self-reported workouts were not accurate. These results suggest that there is a limit to how much technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.

  13. Endocrine Changes and Their Relationships with Body weight of Growing Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永强

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin, thyroxin(T4 ) and 3,3 ' 5 '-tri-iodothyronine (T3)in blood samples of growing yak during different seasons were determined by radio-immunoassay.Changes in bodyweight of the growing yak and compositions of grass were also measured. The seasonal changes in hormones were significant (at least P<0.05). In the same season, variation in hormonal concentration was affected by the growth stage of the animal. The bodyweight gains varied in different seasons, with significant increase from May to September and decrease from January to May. Correlation analysis indicated that T4 had a significant positive correlation with bodyweight of the growing yak(r= 0.323,P<0.05) ,but other hormones did not have significant correlations with bodyweight. The results show that annual cycle of weight loss and gain is attributable to the seasonal changes in feed supply and that the seasonal changes in the concentrations of the assayed hormones were indirectly dependent on grass growth.

  14. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Annie Lambert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  15. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Gorjala, Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors) was accounted for by the behavioral model (R2adj = 0.23). Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity. PMID:20700411

  16. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  17. Long-term weight-change slope, weight fluctuation and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men and women: findings of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Yatsuya, H; Li, Y; Chiang, C; Hirakawa, Y; Kawazoe, N; Tamakoshi, K; Toyoshima, H; Aoyama, A

    2017-03-20

    This study aims to investigate the association of long-term weight-change slopes, weight fluctuation and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged Japanese men and women. A total of 4234 participants of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study who were aged 35-66 years and free of diabetes in 2002 were followed through 2014. Past body weights at the ages of 20, 25, 30, 40 years, and 5 years before baseline as well as measured body weight at baseline were regressed on the ages. Slope and root-mean-square-error of the regression line were obtained and used to represent the weight changes and the weight fluctuation, respectively. The associations of the weight-change slopes and the weight fluctuation with incident T2DM were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. During the median follow-up of 12.2 years, 400 incident cases of T2DM were documented. After adjustment for baseline overweight and other lifestyle covariates, the weight-change slopes were significantly associated with higher incidence of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR): 1.80, 95% confident interval (CI): 1.17-2.77 for men; and HR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.07-7.23 for women), while the weight fluctuation was not (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00-1.18 for men and HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.84-1.25 for women). Regardless of the presence of overweight, the long-term weight-change slopes were significantly associated with the increased risk of T2DM; however, the weight fluctuation was not associated with the risk of T2DM in middle-aged Japanese men and women.

  18. Bariatric surgery versus lifestyle interventions for morbid obesity--changes in body weight, risk factors and comorbidities at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Strømmen, Magnus; Stavne, Ola A; Nossum, Randi; Mårvik, Ronald; Kulseng, Bård

    2011-07-01

    Few studies have looked at non-surgical alternatives for morbid obese patients. This study aims to compare 1-year weight loss and changes in risk factors and comorbidities after bariatric surgery and three conservative treatments. Patients with morbid obesity (BMI > 40 or BMI > 35 kg/m(2) plus comorbidities) on waiting list for bariatric surgery, were non-randomly allocated to (A) bariatric surgery or to one of three conservative treatments; (B) residential intermittent program; (C) commercial weight loss camp and (D) hospital outpatient program. Body weight, risk factors and comorbidities were assessed at baseline and 1 year. Of 206 participants, 179 completed the study. All treatments resulted in significant weight loss, but bariatric surgery (40 ± 14 kg, 31 ± 9%) led to the largest weight loss (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in weight loss between B and C (22 ± 13 kg, 15 ± 8% vs. 18 ± 12 kg, 13 ± 8%), but these resulted in larger weight loss compared with D (7 ± 10 kg, 5 ± 8%). There were no differences in changes in total or LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols or glucose between groups; however, the increase in HDL cholesterol was significantly larger in groups A and C. There were no differences in comorbidities resolution between groups A and B, C and D combined (except hypertension, which was better in group A). In conclusion, although bariatric surgery leads to a greater weight loss at 1 year compared with conservative treatment, in patients with morbid obesity, clinical significant weight loss and similar improvements in risk factors and comorbidities resolution can also be achieved with lifestyle interventions.

  19. Weight Management | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear of gaining weight is a common reason people give for not quitting smoking. Learn healthy ways to avoid weight gain and shed unwanted pounds. These weight management strategies can help you feel better while quitting smoking and let you take control of your health for the rest of your life. Remember that losing weight can be challenging and takes time, but being a healthy weight reduces the risk of many diseases and helps you look and feel better.

  20. Different response of body weight change according to ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Sang-Man

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their body weight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of body weight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P weight reduction.

  1. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432 participants from five European countries with mean age 53 years (range: 20-78 years at baseline and were followed for an average of 6.5 years (range: 1.9-12.5 years. Participants were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at baseline. ED was calculated as the energy intake (kcal from foods divided by the weight (g of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of ED with annual weight and waist circumference change. Mean ED was 1.7 kcal/g and differed across study centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence interval (CI: -112, 28] and annual waist circumference change was 0.09 cm/year [95% CI: 0.01, 0.18]. In participants with baseline BMI<25 kg/m(2, 1 kcal/g ED was associated with a waist circumference change of 0.17 cm/year [95% CI: 0.09, 0.25]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lower ED diets do not prevent weight gain but have a weak yet potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference.

  2. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv......Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  3. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  4. Macronutrient composition of the diet and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Vergnaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial. METHODS: 373,803 subjects aged 25-70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992-2000 in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index. RESULTS: A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23-24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline. CONCLUSION: Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming

  5. Patterns of long-term weight changes in overweight developing Danish men and women aged between 30 and 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, B L; Garby, L

    1999-10-01

    To determine, in a retrospective semi-longitudinal study, the pattern of weight changes over 11 y in a population of subjects who developed their overweight as adults. A randomly selected population of 2436 subjects from the County of Copenhagen with ages 30-60 y was followed by body weight determinations on three occasions between the years 1982-83 and 1993-94. At the last examination, 660 subjects had attained a body mass index (BMI) of>/=28 kg/m2. Of these subjects, 341 had a self-reported BMI at 25 y of less than 25 kg/m2. In 1994, average yearly weight changes since 1983 ranged between 0.9 and 1.2 kg in the younger (30-40 y) 0.4 and 1.2 kg in the older (50-60 y) men and women during the preceding 11 y. These changes were similar over the two periods of 5 and 6 y. More than half of the subjects had weight gains between 6 and 21 kg, about equally distributed between the two periods. Women displayed larger and more frequent gains than men, as did the younger compared to the older subjects. The data show that weight changes to attain overweight are highly variable among subjects. However, in most subjects, the weight changes were so small and continuous that simple theories of control by means of fixed 'set points' cannot explain the results. In fact, the weight changes were generally so small that they are unlikely to be reflected in food consumption studies and in studies of macronutrient metabolism.

  6. The Effects of Ovarian Hormones and Emotional Eating on Changes in Weight Preoccupation Across the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Britny A.; Racine, Sarah E.; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown that fluctuations in ovarian hormones (i.e., estradiol and progesterone) predict changes in binge eating and emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, the extent to which other eating disorder symptoms fluctuate across the menstrual cycle and are influenced by ovarian hormones remains largely unknown. The current study sought to examine whether levels of weight preoccupation vary across the menstrual cycle and whether changes in ovarian hormones and/or other factors (i.e., emotional eating, negative affect) account for menstrual-cycle fluctuations in this eating disorder phenotype. Method For 45 consecutive days, 352 women ages 15–25 provided daily ratings of weight preoccupation, negative affect, and emotional eating. Daily saliva samples also were collected and assayed for estradiol and progesterone levels using enzyme-immunoassay techniques. Results Weight preoccupation varied significantly across the menstrual cycle, with the highest levels in the pre-menstrual and menstrual phases. However, ovarian hormones did not account for within-person changes in weight preoccupation across the menstrual cycle. Instead, the most significant predictor of menstrual-cycle changes in weight preoccupation was changes in emotional eating. Discussion Fluctuations in weight preoccupation across the menstrual cycle appear to be influenced primarily by emotional eating rather than ovarian hormones. Future research should continue to examine relationships among ovarian hormones, weight preoccupation, emotional eating, and other core eating disorder symptoms (e.g., body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviors) in an effort to more fully understand the role of these biological and behavioral factors for the full spectrum of eating pathology. PMID:24965609

  7. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Drumond Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006, were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL, and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages.

  8. Predictors of Changes in Weight Esteem among Mainland Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Weight and body image concerns are prevalent among adolescents across cultures and pose significant threats to well-being, yet there is a paucity of longitudinal research on samples living in non-Western and developing countries. This prospective study assessed the extent to which select sociocultural, psychological, and biological risk factors…

  9. Striatal Reward Activity and Antipsychotic-Associated Weight Change in Patients With Schizophrenia Undergoing Initial Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    .7] to 30.5 [7.7]), and total (78.5 [15.3] to 63.2 [13.9]) scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P putamen (0.20 [0.93]; F35,3 = 5.64; P = .003). After 6 weeks, weight gain was associated...

  10. Changes in behaviour and body weight following a single or double social defeat in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Daan, S.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the consequences of a single and double social conflict on various behaviours and body weight in rats were studied. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for one hour, either once, or twice at the same

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic pathway in relation to subsequent weight change - the DIOGenes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Angquist, L.; Hansen, R.D.; A, van der D.L.; Holst, C.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Uhre Jakobsen, M.; Boeing, H.; Meidtner, K.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Saris, W.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wareham, N.J.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Loos, R.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects. \\\\ Aim: We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with

  12. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max

    2016-01-01

    in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...

  13. Tracking Weight Change, Insulin Resistance, Stress, and Aerobic Fitness over 4 Years of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Moninger, Shana Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight gain is accompanied by development of insulin resistance (IR) during 4 years in college. Participants: Two cohorts of college students were enrolled in fall semesters 2009 and 2010 and tracked for 4 years. Methods: Following a 12-hour fast, subjects reported for measurement of body mass index (BMI), perceived…

  14. Tracking Weight Change, Insulin Resistance, Stress, and Aerobic Fitness over 4 Years of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Moninger, Shana Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight gain is accompanied by development of insulin resistance (IR) during 4 years in college. Participants: Two cohorts of college students were enrolled in fall semesters 2009 and 2010 and tracked for 4 years. Methods: Following a 12-hour fast, subjects reported for measurement of body mass index (BMI), perceived…

  15. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabither M Gitau

    Full Text Available Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26, body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001 and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.

  16. Food Environment and Weight Change: Does Residential Mobility Matter?: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A; Downing, Janelle M; Zhang, Y Tara; Dow, William H; Kelly, Maggi; Blanchard, Samuel D; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Moffet, Howard; Warton, E Margaret; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Associations between neighborhood food environment and adult body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) derived using cross-sectional or longitudinal random-effects models may be biased due to unmeasured confounding and measurement and methodological limitations. In this study, we assessed the within-individual association between change in food environment from 2006 to 2011 and change in BMI among adults with type 2 diabetes using clinical data from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry collected from 2007 to 2011. Healthy food environment was measured using the kernel density of healthful food venues. Fixed-effects models with a 1-year-lagged BMI were estimated. Separate models were fitted for persons who moved and those who did not. Sensitivity analysis using different lag times and kernel density bandwidths were tested to establish the consistency of findings. On average, patients lost 1 pound (0.45 kg) for each standard-deviation improvement in their food environment. This relationship held for persons who remained in the same location throughout the 5-year study period but not among persons who moved. Proximity to food venues that promote nutritious foods alone may not translate into clinically meaningful diet-related health changes. Community-level policies for improving the food environment need multifaceted strategies to invoke clinically meaningful change in BMI among adult patients with diabetes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The weight of stigma: Cortisol reactivity to manipulated weight stigma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Himmelstein, Mary S; Incollingo Belsky, Angela C; Tomiyama, A. Janet

    2015-01-01

    .... The psychological and physiological consequences of weight stigma remain understudied. This study examined the effects of experimentally manipulated weight stigma on the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA...

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight ... Key words: Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, obesity, metabolic ..... scientific Statement. .... The 86th Annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, New.

  19. Neuromodulation targeted to the prefrontal cortex induces changes in energy intake and weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Jumpertz-von Schwartzenberg, Reiner; Reinhardt, Martin; Wassermann, Eric M; Venti, Colleen A; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies cortical excitability and may facilitate improved control of eating. The energy intake (EI) and body weight in subjects who received cathodal versus sham (study 1) and subsequent anodal versus sham (study 2) tDCS aimed at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) were measured. Nine (3m, 6f) healthy volunteers with obesity (94 ± 15 kg [M ± SD]; 42 ± 8 y) were admitted as inpatients for 9 days to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover experiment. Study 1: following 5 days of a weight-maintaining diet, participants received cathodal or sham tDCS (2 mA, 40 min) on three consecutive mornings and then ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine, which recorded EI. Weight was measured daily. Study 2: participants repeated the study, maintaining original assignment to active (this time anodal) and sham. Participants tended to consume fewer kilocalories per day (P = 0.07), significantly fewer kilocalories from soda (P = 0.02) and fat (P = 0.03), and had a greater % weight loss (P = 0.009) during anodal versus cathodal tDCS. The results indicated a role for the LDLPFC in obesity and food intake. This proof of concept study suggested, for the first time, the potential application of anodal tDCS to facilitate weight loss. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Changes in body weight and psychotropic drugs: a systematic synthesis of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dent

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Psychotropic medication use is associated with weight gain. While there are studies and reviews comparing weight gain for psychotropics within some classes, clinicians frequently use drugs from different classes to treat psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review of all classes of psychotropics to provide an all encompassing evidence-based tool that would allow clinicians to determine the risks of weight gain in making both intra-class and interclass choices of psychotropics. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We developed a novel hierarchical search strategy that made use of systematic reviews that were already available. When such evidence was not available we went on to evaluate randomly controlled trials, followed by cohort and other clinical trials, narrative reviews, and, where necessary, clinical opinion and anecdotal evidence. The data from the publication with the highest level of evidence based on our hierarchical classification was presented. Recommendations from an expert panel supplemented the evidence used to rank these drugs within their respective classes. Approximately 9500 articles were identified in our literature search of which 666 citations were retrieved. We were able to rank most of the psychotropics based on the available evidence and recommendations from subject matter experts. There were few discrepancies between published evidence and the expert panel in ranking these drugs. CONCLUSION: Potential for weight gain is an important consideration in choice of any psychotropic. This tool will help clinicians select psychotropics on a case-by-case basis in order to minimize the impact of weight gain when making both intra-class and interclass choices.

  1. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  2. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  3. Weight Management: Obesity to Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marion J

    2017-08-01

    IN BRIEF Evidence supports the effectiveness of nutrition therapy across the continuum of diabetes management-obesity to prediabetes to diabetes. For people who are overweight/obese or diagnosed with prediabetes, modest weight loss is important. However, the goals of nutrition therapy for type 2 diabetes are improved glycemia, lipids, and blood pressure. To achieve these goals, a reduced energy intake is essential. For some, reducing energy intake may lead to weight loss, while for others, it may maintain weight loss or prevent weight gain. Weight loss medications and metabolic surgery have been shown to be effective weight loss therapies across the continuum.

  4. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes.

  5. The effect of GWAS identified BMI loci on changes in body weight among middle-aged danes during a five year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Toft, U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associating with BMI, however, it is un-clarified whether the same variants also influence body weight fluctuations. Design and Methods Among 3,982 adult individuals that attended both a baseline and a five year follow...... weight during the five years. Changes in lifestyle, including physical activity, diet and smoking habits associated strongly with body weight changes, however, no interactions with the GRS was observed. Conclusion The GRS associated with body weight cross-sectionally, but not with changes over a five...... year period. Body weight changes were influenced by lifestyle changes, however, independently the GRS....

  6. Keeping Weight Off: study protocol of an RCT to investigate brain changes associated with mindfulness-based stress reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Julia A; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros C; Brewer, Judson; King, Jean A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis Community-dwelling individuals (n=80) who intentionally lost ≥5% of their body weight in the past year will be recruited and randomised to an MBSR programme or educational control. FC using resting-state functional MRI will be measured at baseline and 8 weeks. Psychological factors, health behaviours, body mass index and waist circumference will be measured at baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months post intervention. A 12-month telephone follow-up will assess self-reported weight. Analyses will characterise FC changes in response to MBSR in comparison with a control condition, assess the relationship between baseline FC status and pre–post MBSR changes in FC and investigate the association of FC change with changes in psychological factors and weight loss maintenance. Ethics and dissemination The University of Massachusetts Medical School Institutional Review Board has approved this study, Declaration of Helsinki protocols are being followed, and patients will give written informed consent. The Independent Monitoring Committee will monitor protocol adherence. Results from the study will be disseminated to the medical community at conferences and submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals when the last patient included has been

  7. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notio...

  8. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  9. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  10. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  11. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers...... fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....

  12. Changes in Leptin and Peptide YY Do Not Explain the Greater-Than-Predicted Decreases in Resting Energy Expenditure After Weight Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNeil, Jessica; Schwartz, Alexander; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Brochu, Martin; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    ...) components during weight loss. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between leptin, PYY, and body composition with different EE components before and after weight loss and whether changes in leptin and PYY...

  13. Comparison of Changes in Body Composition during Puberty Development of Obese and Normal-weight Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN MA; NING FENG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; YONG-BO HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in body composition, including fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) during puberty development of obese and normal-weight children in China, and to explore the effect of age and gender on body composition. Methods A total of 356 children at the age of 7-15 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of 10 normal-weight and obese children in each age group was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFMI and FMI were calculated according to the following formula: FFMI (kg·mT~(-2))= FFM(kg) / height~2 (m~2) and FMI (kg· m~2)= FM (kg) / height~2 (m~2). Results The fat mass and fat free mass of obese children were significantly higher than those of normal-weight children (P<0.05). The FMI and FFMI of obese children increased significantly with age and were higher than those of the same sex, gender, and age normal-weight children (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of fat mass, fat free mass, FMI, and FFMI are different in obese and normal-weight children, and gender effects are significant in boys having higher levels of these indicators than in girls. FFMI and FMI can be used as monitoring indexes in weight control of obese children.

  14. [Impact and changes of maternal hemoglobin on birth weight in pregnant women of Zhuang Nationality, in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Guo, X F; Liu, S; Long, J H; Zhang, G Q; Huang, M C; Qiu, X Q

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the hemoglobin (Hb) levels during pregnancy and Hb changes from early pregnancy and association with birth weight on infants. Methods: Mothers of Zhuang Nationality who participated in the pregnancy care program and delivered at the Pingguo County Hospital from May 2013 to May 2015 were included in this study. Retrospective analysis was applied to collect data of health care and pregnancy outcomes. Multiple regression analysis and unconditional logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The mean birth weight appeared as (313 5.92±435.84) grams. The Hb levels at early pregnancy showed significantly positive association with birth weight. Results from our study demonstrated that when Hb levels increased + 1 g/dl at early pregnancy, birth weight would increase 17.61(95% CI: 0.60-34.67) grams, in the adjusted model. The Hb levels at late pregnancy were significantly inversely associated with birth weight. Our findings suggested that when Hb levels increased + 1 g/dl at late pregnancy, birth weight would reduce 19.61(95% CI: -37.53 --1.70) grams in the adjusted model. Changes in Hb from early pregnancy stages were significantly inversely associated with birth weight after adjusting for confounders and Hb levels in the early pregnancy stages. The results also indicated that when Hb levels increased a + 1 g/dl from early to late pregnancy, the birth weight would decrease 32.63 g(95% CI: -48.93--16.32). Compared to the non-anemia group, the anemia group showed significantly increase of small-for-gestational-age (SGA)(OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.32) in early pregnancy. Compared to women under the most reduction status, women with the least reduction had a significantly increase of SGA (OR= 1.87, 95% CI:1.24-2.81) among their infants. With the magnitude of reduction on Hb concentration during pregnancy, the risk of delivering babies with SGA showed a gradual trends of increase. Conclusion: Hb levels at early pregnancy were

  15. Addition of sulphonylurea to metformin does not relevantly change body weight: a prospective observational cohort study (ZODIAC-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijnders, Dennis; Wever, Raiza; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Bilo, Henk J G; Groenier, Klaas H; Landman, Gijs W D

    2016-10-01

    To investigate changes in body weight trajectories after the addition of individual sulphonylureas (SUs) to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study, in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. Patients aged ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes who were included in the ZODIAC cohort between 1998 and 2012 and who received metformin monotherapy at inclusion (n = 29 195), and had used metformin as monotherapy for at least 1 year before receiving dual therapy through the addition of an SU for at least 1 year were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was within-drug yearly change in body weight after receiving add-on therapy with individual SUs during 5 years of follow-up. The secondary outcome was within-drug yearly change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Annual changes in weight and HbA1c were estimated with linear mixed models, adjusted for age, gender and diabetes duration. A total of 2958 patients were included. No significant weight changes were observed within and between any of the individual SUs after treatment intensification (p = 0.24). In addition, no significant difference in weight between the add-on therapy combinations was observed (p = 0.26). The average HbA1c the year before intensification was 7.2% (55 mmol/mol) and dropped below 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) the year after. In patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care, strict glycaemic control can be maintained with SUs used as add-on therapy to metformin, without the offset of relevant weight changes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. During Rapid Weight Loss in Obese Children, Reductions in TSH Predict Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Changes in Body Weight or Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Murer, S.B.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Knopfli, B.H.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects: Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n = 206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat

  17. Use of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance ratio to elucidate changes due to amyloid β accumulation in cognitively normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yasuno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of signal intensity in T1-weighted (T1w and T2-weighted (T2w magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was recently proposed to enhance the sensitivity of detecting changes in disease-related signal intensity. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of T1w/T2w image ratios as an easily accessible biomarker for amyloid beta (Aβ accumulation. We performed the T1w/T2w analysis in cognitively normal elderly individuals. We applied [11C] Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB-PET to the same individuals, and Aβ deposition was quantified by its binding potential (PiB-BPND. The subjects were divided into low and high PiB-BPND groups, and group differences in regional T1w/T2w values were evaluated. In the regions where we found a significant group difference, we conducted a correlation analysis between regional T1w/T2w values and PiB-BPND. Subjects with high global cortical PiB-BPND showed a significantly higher regional T1w/T2w ratio in the frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We found a significant positive relationship between the regional T1w/T2w ratio and Aβ accumulation. Moreover, with a T1w/T2w ratio of 0.55 in the medial frontal regions, we correctly discriminated subjects with high PiB-BPND from the entire subject population with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 80.0%. Our results indicate that early Aβ-induced pathological changes can be detected using the T1w/T2w ratio on MRI. We believe that the T1w/T2w ratio is a prospective stable biological marker of early Aβ accumulation in cognitively normal individuals. The availability of such an accessible marker would improve the efficiency of clinical trials focusing on the initial disease stages by reducing the number of subjects who require screening by Aβ-PET scan or lumbar puncture.

  18. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on factors relating to reasons why the weight loss programmes had ... the increase according to a National Health and Nutrition .... classes after weight gain. 7. 14. 26 .... 'slow metabolism' (8%), and a chronic problem of premenstrual.

  19. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  20. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  1. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of resources . Alternate Language URL Weight-control Information Network (WIN) Page Content The Weight-control Information Network ( ... and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Health Information Center, Telephone: 1-800-860-8747 Contact the NIDDK Health ...

  2. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, A; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.......As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance....

  3. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  4. Geophysical weight loss diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  5. On Bounded Weight Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachoc, Christine; Cohen, Gerard; Sole, Patrick; Tchamkerten, Aslan

    2010-01-01

    The maximum size of a binary code is studied as a function of its length N, minimum distance D, and minimum codeword weight W. This function B(N,D,W) is first characterized in terms of its exponential growth rate in the limit as N tends to infinity for fixed d=D/N and w=W/N. The exponential growth rate of B(N,D,W) is shown to be equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D) for w <= 1/2, and equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D,W) for 1/2< w <= 1. Second, analytic and numerical upper bounds on B(N,D,W) are derived using the semidefinite programming (SDP) method. These bounds yield a non-asymptotic improvement of the second Johnson bound and are tight for certain values of the parameters.

  6. Astrophysical Weighted Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburov, Evghenii

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents applications of weighted meshless scheme for conservation laws to the Euler equations and the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The divergence constraint of the latter is maintained to the truncation error by a new meshless divergence cleaning procedure. The physics of the interaction between the particles is described by an one-dimensional Riemann problem in a moving frame. As a result, necessary diffusion which is required to treat dissipative processes is added automatically. As a result, our scheme has no free parameters that controls the physics of inter-particle interaction, with the exception of the number of the interacting neighbours which control the resolution and accuracy. The resulting equations have the form similar to SPH equations, and therefore existing SPH codes can be used to implement the weighed particle scheme. The scheme is validated in several hydrodynamic and MHD test cases. In particular, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of a meshless MHD schem...

  7. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-04-01

    While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85-0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66-0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30-90. BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors.

  8. Metabolic and transcriptional changes in cultured muscle stem cells from low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Broholm, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Developmental programming of human muscle stem cells could in part explain why individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We hypothesized that immature muscle stem cell functions including abnormal...... differentiation potential and metabolic function could link LBW with risk of developing T2D. Design/settings/participants: We recruited 23 young men with LBW and 16 age-matched control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis and muscle stem cells were isolated...... as well as decreased levels of glucose transporter-1 and -4 mRNA and of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa mRNA and protein in myotubes from LBW individuals compared with NBW individuals. The myogenic differentiation markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain 1 and 2, were decreased during late differentiation...

  9. Evaluation of the ability of three physical activity monitors to predict weight change and estimate energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, John B; Apolzan, John W; Shepard, Desti N; Heil, Daniel P; Rood, Jennifer C; Martin, Corby K

    2016-07-01

    Activity monitors such as the Actical accelerometer, the Sensewear armband, and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) are commonly validated against gold standards (e.g., doubly labeled water, or DLW) to determine whether they accurately measure total daily energy expenditure (TEE) or activity energy expenditure (AEE). However, little research has assessed whether these parameters or others (e.g., posture allocation) predict body weight change over time. The aims of this study were to (i) test whether estimated energy expenditure or posture allocation from the devices was associated with weight change during and following a low-calorie diet (LCD) and (ii) compare free-living TEE and AEE predictions from the devices against DLW before weight change. Eighty-seven participants from 2 clinical trials wore 2 of the 3 devices simultaneously for 1 week of a 2-week DLW period. Participants then completed an 8-week LCD and were weighed at the start and end of the LCD and 6 and 12 months after the LCD. More time spent walking at baseline, measured by the IDEEA, significantly predicted greater weight loss during the 8-week LCD. Measures of posture allocation demonstrated medium effect sizes in their relationships with weight change. Bland-Altman analyses indicated that the Sensewear and the IDEEA accurately estimated TEE, and the IDEEA accurately measured AEE. The results suggest that the ability of energy expenditure and posture allocation to predict weight change is limited, and the accuracy of TEE and AEE measurements varies across activity monitoring devices, with multi-sensor monitors demonstrating stronger validity.

  10. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  11. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We fit our diffusion...... model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each...

  12. Estimating the Effects of Obesity and Weight Change on Mortality Using a Dynamic Causal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bochen Cao

    2015-01-01

    Background A well-known challenge in estimating the mortality risks of obesity is reverse causality attributable to illness-associated and smoking-associated weight loss. Given that the likelihood of chronic and acute illnesses rises with age, reverse causality is most threatening to estimates derived from elderly populations. Methods I analyzed data from 12,523 respondents over 50 years old from a nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The effe...

  13. Behavioral change during weight loss program and one-year follow-up: Saku Control Obesity Program (SCOP) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Makiko; Aiba, Naomi; Suda, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shaw; SCOP Group

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of a behavioral approach which placed emphasis on tailored behavior counseling, diet, weight loss and weight maintenance. A one-year randomized controlled trial was conducted among 235 overweight/obese adults in Japan. The intervention group (n=119) received individual-based counseling using a behavioral approach and the changes made in the diet and physical activity were dependent on each participant as much as possible. One year later, the intervention group lost significantly more weight than the control group (-5.0 kg vs. 0.1 kg for men and -3.9 kg vs. -0.2 kg for women). Compared to the control group, the male intervention group reduced overall energy, cereals and dairy products consumption significantly, while increasing green and yellow vegetable intake, and the female intervention group significantly reduced intake of dairy products. Regarding behaviors, both male and female intervention groups increased the number of walking steps and women improved their irregular eating habits compared to those in the control groups. Behavior changes were related to weight loss; participants who maintained the action/maintenance stage or moved to later stages lost significantly more weight than participants who remained in the pre-contemplation/contemplation/preparation stages or regressed to earlier stages. After one-year follow-up, the intervention group maintained significantly lower weights, lower energy intakes and improvements in irregular eating habits. Our behavioral approach led to diet and behavior modification, weight loss and maintenance. Because modified variables differed between men and women, gender-specific approaches may be necessary.

  14. Link prediction in weighted networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Many complex networks feature relations with weight information. Some models utilize this information while other ignore the weight information when inferring the structure. In this paper we investigate if edge-weights when modeling real networks, carry important information about the network...

  15. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  16. Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoia, Monica L; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Cahill, Leah E; Hou, Tao; Ludwig, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-09-01

    Current dietary guidelines recommend eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. However, based on nutrient composition, some particular fruits and vegetables may be more or less beneficial for maintaining or achieving a healthy weight. We hypothesized that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables with a higher fiber content or lower glycemic load would be more strongly associated with a healthy weight. We examined the association between change in intake of specific fruits and vegetables and change in weight in three large, prospective cohorts of 133,468 United States men and women. From 1986 to 2010, these associations were examined within multiple 4-y time intervals, adjusting for simultaneous changes in other lifestyle factors, including other aspects of diet, smoking status, and physical activity. Results were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with 4-y weight change: total fruits -0.53 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.61, -0.44), berries -1.11 lb (95% CI -1.45, -0.78), and apples/pears -1.24 lb (95% CI -1.62, -0.86). Increased intake of several vegetables was also inversely associated with weight change: total vegetables -0.25 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.35, -0.14), tofu/soy -2.47 lb (95% CI, -3.09 to -1.85 lb) and cauliflower -1.37 lb (95% CI -2.27, -0.47). On the other hand, increased intake of starchy vegetables, including corn, peas, and potatoes, was associated with weight gain. Vegetables having both higher fiber and lower glycemic load were more strongly inversely associated with weight change compared with lower-fiber, higher-glycemic-load vegetables (p fruits and non-starchy vegetables is inversely associated with weight change, with important differences by type suggesting that other characteristics of these foods influence the magnitude of their association with weight change.

  17. Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; van Gils, Carla H; Emaus, Marleen J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. DESIGN: This was studied among 328......-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were...... used to study the association. RESULTS: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. BMI at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk...

  18. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  19. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  20. Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen; Gootman, Jason; Myrdal, Amy; Kline, Gregory; Rippe, James M

    2003-05-01

    Conflicting recommendations are prevalent regarding the appropriateness of red meat versus white meat consumption for individuals aiming to reduce body weight and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined changes in body weight and lipid profiles in a 12-wk, randomized, controlled trial, in which overweight women followed a hypocaloric diet with lean beef or chicken as the primary protein source, while participating in a fitness walking program. Sedentary non-smoking females (n = 61), age 43.4 +/- 7.8 years, with body mass indexes of 32.1 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) (means +/- standard deviation), followed calculated-deficit diets (-500 kcal daily) and were randomly assigned to the beef-consumption or chicken-consumption dietary group, while following a fitness walking program. Body weight, body composition (by hydrodensitometry), and blood lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 wk. Weight loss was significant within (P 0.05) the beef-consumption (5.6 +/- 0.6 kg, mean +/- standard error) and the chicken-consumption (6.0 +/- 0.5 kg) groups. Both groups showed significant reductions in body fat percentage (P < 0.05) and total (P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05) cholesterol, with no significant differences between groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change significantly in either group. These findings demonstrated that weight loss and improved lipid profile can be accomplished through diet and exercise, whether the dietary protein source is lean beef or chicken.

  1. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  2. Change in weight and waist circumference and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A; Baglietto, Laura; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2016-02-25

    Studies reporting the association between change in weight or body mass index during midlife and risk of colorectal cancer have found inconsistent results, and only one study to date has reported the association between change in waist circumference (a measure of central adiposity) and risk of colorectal cancer. We investigated the association between risk of colorectal cancer and changes in directly measured waist circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994) to wave 2 (2003-2007). Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for covariates selected from a causal model, was used to estimate the Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) for the change in waist circumference and weight in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 373 cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed during an average 9 years of follow-up of 20,605 participants. Increases in waist circumference and weight were not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (HR per 5 cm increase in waist circumference = 1.02; 95 % CI: 0.95, 1.10; HR per 5 kg increase in weight = 0.93; 0.85, 1.02). For individuals with a waist circumference at baseline that was less than the sex-specific mean value there was a slight increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with a 5 cm increase in waist circumference at wave 2 (HR = 1.08; 0.97, 1.21). Increases in waist circumference and weight during midlife do not appear to be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  4. Changes in skeletal integrity and marrow adiposity during high-fat diet and after weight-loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lynn Scheller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight-loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD and subsequent weight-loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND or 60% HFD at 6-weeks of age for 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12-weeks and then on ND for 8-weeks to mimic weight-loss. After these dietary challenges the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by microCT for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight-loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT volume in the tibia increased after 16-weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight-loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20-weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight-loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse model of diet

  5. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L; Chung, Jay H; Grøntved, Lars

    2017-01-10

    Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome.

  6. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  7. Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators ar...... finitely many iterations. To demonstrate the utility of our technique, we have implemented a prototype tool that computes the constraints on parameters for model checking problems.......This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators...... are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...

  8. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  9. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  10. Social contagions on weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity cannot only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinders social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  11. Social contagions on weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity can not only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that, the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinder social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  12. Edge Ideals of Weighted Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulsen, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    We study weighted graphs and their "edge ideals" which are ideals in polynomial rings that are defined in terms of the graphs. We provide combinatorial descriptions of m-irreducible decompositions for the edge ideal of a weighted graph in terms of the combinatorics of "weighted vertex covers". We use these, for instance, to say when these ideals are m-unmixed. We explicitly describe which weighted cycles and trees are unmixed and which ones are Cohen-Macaulay, and we prove that all weighted complete graphs are Cohen-Macaulay.

  13. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  14. Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and physical activity between women in Northern Sweden and Rural New York State- results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Kristina; Jenkins, Paul; Scribani, Melissa; Emmelin, Maria; Larsson, Christel; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars

    2015-08-29

    Previous research has focused exclusively on weight loss or weight maintenance following weight loss, i.e. secondary weight maintenance (SWM). The long-term results of SWM have been modest, suggesting that preventing initial weight gain among normal weight or overweight individuals, i.e. primary weight maintenance (PWM), may be more successful. The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of weight change between Swedish and US women and to contrast eating and physical activity between the two countries. A questionnaire of attitudes, strategies and behaviours regarding physical activity, food habits, body image and demands to maintain weight was mailed to 4021 Swedish and 3199 US individuals. Subjects had weight measurements taken 10 years apart in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in northern Sweden, and self-reported weight as part of the Upstate Health and Wellness Study in Upstate New York. The mean 10-year percent weight change, and weight change in kilograms, were calculated between the two countries for nine female age (30, 40, 50 years at baseline) by BMI (20-25, 25-30, 30-35) groups. For the Swedish/US pair showing the largest differences in these two endpoints, analysis of variance, correlations and chi-square tests identified likely contributors to the observed differences in weight change. For all subgroups combined, the mean percent weight changes for Swedish women and US women were 4.9% (SD = 5.8) and 9.1% (SD = 13.7) respectively (punhealthy response levels in the US, but not in Sweden. The prevalence of obesity among the Swedish women did not progress as rapidly as among the US. The greatest weight gain occurred predominantly among the 30 year old groups. The Swedish women tended to select healthier alternatives than their US counterparts, and women in the US appeared to be more vulnerable to the effects of unhealthy habits than women in Sweden.

  15. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Güttel, Stefan

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  16. Influence of low birth weight on minimal change nephrotic syndrome in children, including a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Teeninga (Nynke); M.F. Schreuder (Michiel); A. Bökenkamp (Arend); H.A.D.V.D. Waal; J.A.E.V. Wijk

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Low birth weight (LBW) has been shown to lead to a low nephron endowment with subsequent glomerular hyperfiltration. Additional renal disease can therefore be expected to have a more severe course. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a common chronic illness in childh

  17. Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein : The association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Sluijs, Ivonne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314072454; Nöthlings, Ute; Freisling, Heinz; Overvad, Kim; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A.; Mattiello, Amalia; Sonestedt, Emily; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Chamosa, Saioa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Tjønneland, Anne; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Beulens, Joline W J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815381

    2015-01-01

    Background: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause

  18. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  19. [Effects of pregnancy and changes in body weight on polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echiburú, Bárbara; Ladrón de Guevara, Amanda; Pereira, Cecilia; Pérez, Constanza; Michael, Pía; Crisosto, Nicolás; Sir-Petermann, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is tightly associated with insulin resistance and obesity and characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic oligo-anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology when fully expressed. The 2003 Rotterdam consensus proposed that two or three of these features were necessary to make the diagnosis, which generated four phenotypes. Several studies have suggested that these phenotypes could differ in their metabolic and endocrine characteristics and that they could vary in the same patient when analyzed throughout life. To determine if the initial classification of PCOS phenotypes is modified by different physiological conditions. We performed a non-concurrent prospective analysis of 88 women with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The effect of physiological conditions such as changes in body weight, pregnancy and ageing more than five years on PCOS phenotype expression was analyzed. Twenty four percent of women became pregnant, 37% decreased and 24% increased their body weight during follow up. These conditions modified significantly the proportion of the different phenotypes (c2 = 32.2, p change to a better phenotype (p = 0.047) and even a normalization of the PCOS condition in 27% of the patients. On the other hand, an increase in body weight modifying body mass index in one unit, conferred an 8% probability of changing to a worst phenotype. Pregnancy and changes in body weight significantly modify PCOS phenotypes.

  20. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  1. Longitudinal changes in weight in relation to smoking cessation in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travier, Noemie; Agudo, Antonio; May, Anne M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Luan, Jian'an; Wareham, Nick J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van den Berg, Saskia W.; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose M.; Key, Tim J.; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Jakobsen, Mariane U.; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking. Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) proje

  2. Addition of sulphonylurea to metformin does not relevantly change body weight : a prospective observational cohort study (ZODIAC-39)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijnders, Dennis; Wever, Raiza; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate changes in body weight trajectories after the addition of individual sulphonylureas (SUs) to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study, in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. Patients aged >=

  3. Framed, Interactive Theory-Driven Texting: Effects of Message Framing on Health Behavior Change for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anne; Perozich, Alyssa; Rajan, Radha; Persky, Susan; Parisi, Jeanine; Bowie, Janice; Fahle, Jenna; Cho, Jeremy; Krishnan, Aravind; Cohen, Zoe; Ezike, Adaora; Schulte, Cara; Taylor, Jarrett; Storey, Douglas; Ahmed, Rafay Syed; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    More approaches to support weight control are needed, especially among racial minorities who shoulder a disproportionate obesity burden. Using an approach influenced by regulatory fit theory, we conducted a 28-day, 4-arm experimental trial with 89 obese adults recruited from urban, predominantly African American churches to ascertain the efficacy of framed text messages to motivate behaviors conducive to weight loss. Participants were assigned to receive message framing that was matched versus mismatched to their motivational orientation. Results were mixed overall; however, matched texts elicited greater motivation to change eating and exercise behavior, suggesting promise in using motivational approaches to tailor messages.

  4. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  5. Heterotic Weight Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E_8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with ...

  6. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  7. Association between behavioral intention and actual change for physical activity, smoking, and body weight among an employed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chih-Wen; Edington, Dee W

    2008-09-01

    To examine the association of behavioral intention with subsequent behavioral change in a worksite setting for three health behaviors, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and losing weight. Two-year health risk appraisal data came from one multistate company. Behavioral intention was captured in the 2004 health risk appraisal, and behavioral change was measured by comparing health behaviors in 2004 and 2005. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the intention-behavior relationship. A positive association with intention for change was found in increasing physical activity level (P = 0.0002) and quitting smoking (P = 0.018). Nevertheless, a negative relationship was observed in reducing weight (P = 0.003). A positive intention-behavior change relationship was found in two of the three behaviors. Individuals may benefit from differential wellness programming based on their intention for change and health risks.

  8. Assessing motivation and readiness to change for weight management and control: an in-depth evaluation of three sets of instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eCeccarini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is highly recommended to promptly assess motivation and readiness to change in individuals who wish to achieve significant lifestyle behavior changes in order to improve their health, overall quality of life and well-being. In particular, motivation should be assessed for those who face the difficult task to maintain weight, which implies a double challenge: weight loss initially and its management subsequently. In fact, weight-control may be as problematic as smoking or drugs-taking cessation, since they all share the commonality of being highly refractory to change behaviors. This paper will examine three well-established tools following the Trans-theoretical Model (TTM, specifically assessing readiness to change in weight management: the URICA, the S-Weight and the P-Weight and the Decisional Balance Inventory. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be rather homogeneous and similar, the S-Weight and P-Weight are more efficient in assessing readiness to change in weight management and control. Assessing motivation and readiness to change may be a crucial step in promptly identifying psychological obstacles or resistance towards weight-management in overweight or obese hospitalised individuals, and it may contribute to provide a more effective weight-control treatment intervention.

  9. Metabolic changes during treatment with valproate in humans: implication for untoward weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Astrup, A; Gram, L

    1992-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate the mechanisms behind valproate-induced weight gain. Eight patients with epilepsy were studied with identical examination programs before and during the end of the first month of treatment with sodium valproate (VPA). The measurements included registration...... of food intake, indirect calorimetry, and determination of pancreatic and thyroid hormones, catecholamines, albumin, electrolytes, glycerol, and free fatty acids. Measurements were performed both at the basal condition and during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After the start of VPA...

  10. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  12. The Importance of Weight Change Experiences for Performance of Diabetes Self-Care: A Patient-Centered Approach to Evaluating Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Shana B; Slee, April; Woo, Sangsoon; Canovatchel, William

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight change experiences over time on motivation to perform diabetes self-care behaviors using data from a study of canagliflozin (an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2) versus glimepiride in dual therapy with metformin and background diet/exercise. Weight and motivation for performing healthy behaviors were collected at baseline and over time. The motivation questionnaire enabled categorization into two groups: those performing or not performing health behaviors. Four distinct patterns of weight change were determined: losing weight, gaining weight, and two patterns for fluctuating weight. The relationships between these patterns and motivation for weight loss, following a diet, and exercise were examined using logistic regression models. Of 1182 subjects, more than half were already performing behaviors to lose weight, diet, and exercise at baseline. Among those who were not, 52% (246/474) started taking action to lose weight after baseline, 54% (241/448) started following a diet, and 42% (232/556) started exercising. Weight change patterns were significantly related to performance of healthy behaviors at follow-up (week 36). Compared to the weight gain pattern, those who experienced a continuous weight loss pattern from baseline to week 36 were 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.49, 3.37) times more likely to perform the healthy behaviors. Baseline behavior and confidence were also predictive of performing healthy behaviors. The current work highlights the importance of weight change patterns for performance of diabetes self-care. Tracking weight patterns over time, assessing confidence for performance of healthy behaviors, and being aware of the relationship between weight changes and diabetes self-care behaviors are viable, concrete ways to practice patient-centered care. Janssen Global Services, LLC.

  13. Variations in weight stigma concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Cornick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South. Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States.

  14. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  15. Entropy of Weighted Graphs with Randi´c Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shannon entropies for networks have been widely introduced. However, entropies for weighted graphs have been little investigated. Inspired by the work due to Eagle et al., we introduce the concept of graph entropy for special weighted graphs. Furthermore, we prove extremal properties by using elementary methods of classes of weighted graphs, and in particular, the one due to Bollobás and Erdös, which is also called the Randi´c weight. As a result, we derived statements on dendrimers that have been proven useful for applications. Finally, some open problems are presented.

  16. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Naoimh E; Visram, Shelina; Connell, Louise A

    2016-05-10

    There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session). Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme), alumni support (face-to-face and online) and family attendance at exercise sessions. Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2) and focus groups with participants (n = 12). Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Clients' interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and obese to achieve a healthy weight and maintain this change. Third

  17. Changes in seed weight in response to different sources: sink ratio in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge exists about the degree of source, sink and source: sink limitations on mean seed weight in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. The objective of this work was to analyze the nature and magnitude on seed weight response to assimilate availability during the effective seed-filling period in oilseed rape. Three Argentinean varieties, Eclipse, Impulse, and Master, were grown under field conditions, and at the beginning of the effective seed filling period, a broad range of source: sink manipulation combinations were produced. Source manipulations consisted of two incoming radiation (R level reductions: 0% (Rn and ~50% (Rs combined with three different sources: sink treatments were applied: C, control; PR, ~50% pod removal, and D, 100% defoliation. Rs significantly reduced yield (15% and MSW (12% with respect to Rn, without significant effects on the rest of the sub yield components. Source:sink manipulation treatments significantly affected all yield components. PR diminished yield by 29%, reducing ca. 40% seeds pl-1 by reductions pods pl-1 (41% with respect to Rn, whereas PR increased MSW by 19%, counterbalancing the reduction in seeds pl-1 and thereby in yield. When considering different seed positions along the main raceme, Rs reduced MSW by 12% independently of seed positions onto the raceme. On the contrary, PR increased MSW in average 17% with respect to C. Results reported here suggest that oilseed rape has source: sink co-limitation during the effective seed filling period, which is apparently higher than wheat and lower than maize.

  18. AGE-RELATED CHANGES OF BONE MARROW OF NORMAL ADULT MAN ON DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Zhang; Rong Rong; Xiao-ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bone marrow of normal adult man on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and thirty-eight patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or normal prostate were enrolled in this study, with age range 28-82 years old (mean 55.26 ± 18.05 years). All people were examined with large field DWI on a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner, which ranges from the top of head to the lower limb. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the DWI and ADC of lumber vertebra at renal hilum level, left ilium and superior segment of left femur were measured. The measured SNR and ADC value of the above sites were compared by one way analysis of variance and their correlations with age were investigated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The SNR of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no significant difference (F = 0.271, P = 0.763). The SNR of lumber vertebra (r = 0.309, P = 0.024) and left ilium (r = 0.359, P = 0.008) showed positive correlation with age, while the SNR of left femur showed no correlation with age (r = -0.163, P = 0.283). The ADC of lumber vertebra [(0.617 ± 0.177) ×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of left ilium [(0.404 ± 0.112)×10-3 mm2/ P < 0.001] and left femur [(0.362 ± 0.092)×10-3mm2/s, P < 0.001], while the ADC of left ilium and left femur had no significant difference. The ADC of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no correlation with age. Conclusion Understanding of age-related changes of normal adult bone marrow on DWI is very important to differentiate the normal bone marrow and abnormal lesions.

  19. Body weight changes in child and adolescent athletes during a triathlon competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2013-01-01

    We examined young athletes during a triathlon performed in a hot climate. Complete or partial data were available for 95 athletes competing in the National Triathlon Championship in Costa Rica. Mean ± SD for age and body weight (BW) were 13.1 ± 2.5 years and 46.3 ± 11.5 kg, respectively. Race requirements included: 500 m swimming, 15 km cycling, 3.5 km running for juniors (9-13 years); 800 m swimming, 30 km cycling, 8 km running for seniors (14-17 years). WBGT on race day was >31 °C. BW recorded pre- and post-race was available for 92 athletes and performance data were available for 83 of these. Information regarding symptoms experienced during the race was available for 95 athletes. Change in BW (%ΔBW) was calculated and ranged from +0.6 to -2.4 % for junior boys (-1.2 ± 0.9 %), +0.7 to -2.5 % for junior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), 0 to -2.8 % for senior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), and +0.6 to -4.5 % for senior boys (-1.7 ± 1.1 %). Eighteen participants reported no medical symptoms. Of 77 participants who reported symptoms, 42.9 % reported exhaustion/fatigue, 36.4 % reported side stitch/cramp, and 23.4 % reported dizziness. Participants reporting no medical symptoms achieved almost identical (P = 0.99) %ΔBW as those reporting at least one symptom. %ΔBW was more negative (P = 0.005) in participants who reported dizziness (-1.9 %ΔBW) compared with those who did not (-1.4 %ΔBW). %ΔBW was associated with performance in junior girls (r = 0.47, P = 0.02) and senior boys (r = 0.51, P = 0.01), with a trend in junior boys (r = 0.41, P = 0.053) but not in senior girls (r = 0.004, P = 0.99). Young athletes participating in a triathlon in a hot climate can tolerate mild to moderate levels of dehydration, without detrimental effects to self-assessed health.

  20. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  1. Assessing motivation and readiness to change for weight management and control: an in-depth evaluation of three sets of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    It is highly recommended to promptly assess motivation and readiness to change (RTC) in individuals who wish to achieve significant lifestyle behavior changes in order to improve their health, overall quality of life, and well-being. In particular, motivation should be assessed for those who face the difficult task to maintain weight, which implies a double challenge: weight loss initially and its management subsequently. In fact, weight-control may be as problematic as smoking or drugs-taking cessation, since they all share the commonality of being highly refractory to change. This paper will examine three well-established tools following the Transtheoretical Model, specifically assessing RTC in weight management: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, the S-Weight and the P-Weight and the Decisional Balance Inventory. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be rather homogeneous and similar, the S-Weight and P-Weight are more efficient in assessing RTC in weight management and control. Assessing motivation and RTC may be a crucial step in promptly identifying psychological obstacles or resistance toward weight-management in overweight or obese hospitalized individuals, and it may contribute to provide a more effective weight-control treatment intervention.

  2. Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G.

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12 month digital health treatment aimed to prevent weight gain among overweight and class I obese black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. Over half (55%)of participants had low health literacy, which was more common for those with fewer years of educational attainment and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy. PMID:27043756

  3. Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy.

  4. Determinants of inadequate weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Alina Delia; Niţă, Otilia; Popescu, Raluca Maria; Gherasim, Andreea; Arhire, Lidia luliana; Mihalache, Laura; Graur, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the anthropometric maternal characteristics and prenatal care as determinants of pregnancy weight gain. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a total of 400 pregnant women admitted to Cuza-Vodă Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital, Iaşi. Information on demographic characteristics, number of prenatal visits, and education on nutrition and food changes occurring during pregnancy were recorded in a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric parameters analyzed were pregestational BMI (body mass index) and weight gain during pregnancy. Weight gain was associated with pregestational BMI category. An increase in weight more than recommended occured more frequently in overweight (53.1%) and obese women (66.7%) (p < 0.001). Weight gain during pregnancy was related to area of residence, age, APCU (adequate prenatal care utilization) index. The multivariate analysis identified the following variables as significant determinants of pregnancy weight gain: inadequate prenatal care, BMI and changes in diet. Pregestational BMI and changes in diet during pregnancy identified as determinants of weight gain suggests that overweight and underweight women must carefully be counseled regarding recommendations for weight gain in pregnancy. Tracking diet changes is important to ensure that a weight gain lies within the guidelines recommendations.

  5. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  6. Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Church, Timothy S.; Martin, Corby K.; Thompson, Angela M.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation) acro

  7. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  8. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  9. Weighted BMO Estimates for Toeplitz Operators on Weighted Lebesgue Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors establish the weighted BMO estimates for a class of Toeplitz operators related to strongly singular Calderón-Zygmund operators on weighted Lebesgue spaces. Moreover, the corresponding result for the Toeplitz operators related to classical Calderón-Zygmund operators can be deduced.

  10. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  11. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Norton, Layne E

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain...

  12. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....... of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers......, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were...

  13. Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Corneliu Henegar; Nathalie Viguerie; Soraya Taleb; Christine Poitou; Christine Rouault; Muriel Coupaye; Veronique Pelloux; Danielle Hugol; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Anne Bouloumié; Giorgio Barbatelli; Saverio Cinti; Per-Arne Svensson; Gregory S. Barsh; Jean-Daniel Zucker; Arnaud Basdevant; Dominique Langin; Karine Clément

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss Raffaella Cancello 1 , Corneliu...

  14. Hypothalamic obesity in patients with craniopharyngioma: Profound changes of several weight regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRoth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking examples of dysfunctional hypothalamic signaling of energy homeostasis is observed in patients with hypothalamic lesions leading to hypothalamic obesity (HO. This drastic condition is frequently seen in patients with craniopharyngioma (CP, an embryological tumor located in the hypothalamic and/or pituitary region, frequently causing not only hypopituitarism, but also leading to damage of medial hypothalamic nuclei due to the tumor and its treatment. HO syndrome in CP patients is characterized by fatigue, decreased physical activity, uncontrolled appetite, and morbid obesity, and is associated with insulin and leptin resistance. Mechanisms leading to the profoundly disturbed energy homeostasis are complex. This review summarizes different aspects of important clinical studies as well as data obtained in rodent studies. In addition a model is provided describing how medial hypothalamic lesion can interact simultaneously with several weight regulating circuitries.

  15. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used...... to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Follow-up started at the day of delivery. For the analysis regarding PPWR, follow-up started six months postpartum. RESULTS: Underweight, overweight and obesity were associated with depression and/or anxiety disorders when compared to normal......-weight, though the associations were attenuated after adjustments (HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.06-1.45], 1.05 [95% CI 0.96-1.15] and 1.07 [95% CI 0.95-1.21] for underweight, overweight and obese, respectively). Compared to mothers who had returned to their prepregnancy BMI, risk of depression/anxiety disorders...

  16. Psychological and Personality Predictors of Weight Loss and Comorbid Metabolic Changes After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; García-Ruiz-de-Gordejuela, Amador; Vilarrasa, Nuria; Sanchez, Isabel; Baño, Marta; Camacho, Lucía; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Virgili, Nuria; Lopez-Urdiales, Rafael; de Bernabe, Mónica Montserrat-Gil; Garrido, Pilar; Monasterio, Carmen; Steward, Trevor; Pujol-Gebelli, Jordi; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Menchón, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) has proven to be the most effective treatment for weight loss and for improving comorbidities in severe obesity. A comprehensive psychological assessment prior to surgery is proposed to prepare patients for a successful post-surgical outcome. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to assess psychological and personality predictors of BS outcome. The sample comprised 139 severely obese patients who underwent BS. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, the Symptom Checklist-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Our results show that favourable BS outcome, after 2 years follow up, was associated with younger age, less depression, moderate anxiety symptoms and high cooperativeness levels. Likewise, metabolic improvements were found to be linked to younger age and certain psychopathological factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that age, baseline body mass index, psychopathological indexes and personality traits predict successful BS outcome. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. SECULAR CHANGES IN BIRTH WEIGHTS AND WOMEN'S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Łukasz; Bilińska, Inez

    2016-06-22

    Changing socioeconomic conditions over the last century have left their mark on neonatal size and final body size of individuals born in those days. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the historical, political and economic changes occurring from the late 19th century to the 2000s have affected the birth weight of newborns. Additionally, changes in weight and body height in the case of young women (potential mothers) were analysed. Data were from two cities in Poland (Kraków and Poznań) covering 15,884 newborns and 3612 women aged 18 years, derived from 1900 to 2010. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significant increasing trends in all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities: in Kraków it increased by 184 g (males) and 206 g (females), and in Poznań by 216 g (males) and 120 g (females). Changes in women's body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on place of residence. In the last century, women's body height increased by 8.2 cm in Kraków and by 10.2 cm in Poznań, and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. The considered period covered the years of socioeconomic change that occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, periods of prosperity and other factors that determine standard of living and health care have influenced the development of the Polish population's physical features.

  18. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  19. WeightLifter: Visual Weight Space Exploration for Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Stephan; Streit, Marc; Torsney-Weir, Thomas; Spechtenhauser, Florian; Muller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria. Our technique enables users to better understand the sensitivity of a decision to changes of weights, to efficiently localize weight regions where a given solution ranks high, and to filter out solutions which do not rank high enough for any plausible combination of weights. We provide a comprehensive requirement analysis for weight-based MCDM and describe an interactive workflow that meets these requirements. For evaluation, we describe a usage scenario of WeightLifter in automotive engineering and report qualitative feedback from users of a deployed version as well as preliminary feedback from decision makers in multiple domains. This feedback confirms that WeightLifter increases both the efficiency of weight-based MCDM and the awareness of uncertainty in the ultimate decisions.

  20. Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Bray, George A; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat signi