WorldWideScience

Sample records for weight policies final

  1. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  2. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  3. Final Exam Weighting as Part of Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The weighting of a final exam or a final assignment is an essential part of course design that is rarely discussed in pedagogical literature. Depending on the weighting, a final exam or assignment may provide unequal benefits to students depending on their prior performance in the class. Consequently, uncritical grade weighting can discount…

  4. Final Exam Weighting as Part of Course Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The weighting of a final exam or a final assignment is an essential part of course design that is rarely discussed in pedagogical literature. Depending on the weighting, a final exam or assignment may provide unequal benefits to students depending on their prior performance in the class. Consequently, uncritical grade weighting can discount student learning, by ensuring that improved mastery of material at the semester’s end is not reflected in the course grade. Problems related to several common final exam weights are explored, as are potential solutions to unequal student outcomes made possible by uncritical grade weighting. Ultimately, this essay argues that choosing a weight for a final exam or a final assignment determines what types of student success ought to be possible in the class; therefore, instructors should assign exam weights intentionally, being fully aware of the potential benefits and problems of the weights that they choose.

  5. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...... was removed and its parameters correlated with carcass weight. Results suggest that both femur length and femur weight act as good predictors of final carcass weight in lambs. However, no effect of paternal genetics, on the femur to carcass correlations, was noted....

  7. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  8. EXPOsOMICS: final policy workshop and stakeholder consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Vineis, Paolo; Seleiro, Eduardo; Dijmarescu, Michaela; Balshaw, David; Bertollini, Roberto; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Gant, Timothy; Gulliver, John; Jeong, Ayoung; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Martuzzi, Marco; Miller, Gary W; Nawrot, Timothy; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Phillips, David H; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Samet, Jonathan; Vermeulen, Roel; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vrijheid, Martine; Wild, Christopher; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2018-02-15

    The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project "Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation" took place 28-29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they may shape the future of research on environmental exposure assessment; and finally the broader implications of exposome research for risk assessment and policy development on environmental exposures. The main results of EXPOsOMICS in relation to studies of the external exposome and internal exposome in relation to both air pollution and water contaminants were presented as well as new technologies for environmental health research (adductomics) and advances in statistical methods. Although exposome research strengthens the scientific basis for policy development, there is a need in terms of showing added value for public health to: improve communication of research results to non-scientific audiences; target research to the broader landscape of societal challenges; and draw applicable conclusions. Priorities for future work include the development and standardization of methodologies and technologies for assessing the external and internal exposome, improved data sharing and integration, and the demonstration of the added value of exposome science over conventional approaches in answering priority policy questions.

  9. Weight enforcement and evasion : Oregon case study: final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    This study examines the incidence of overweight trucks and its relation to regulatory enforcement activity. Addressed are questions of scale operations in relation to weight violations and the effectiveness of enforcement levels, automated preclearan...

  10. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  11. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  12. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  13. Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World : final technical report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World .... integrating politics, policy, economics and other social science research perspectives, this ..... The primary, successful output of this overall project is the viable MA program.

  14. EPA's Final Financial Assistance Conflict of Interest Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has established the following revised interim policy governing disclosure of actual and potential conflicts of interest (COI Policy) by applicants for, and recipients of, federal financial assistance awards from EPA.

  15. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  16. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  18. NPL deletion policy for RCRA-regulated TSD facilities finalized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Under a new policy published by EPA on March 20, 1995, certain sites may be deleted from the National Priorities List (NPL) and deferred to RCRA corrective action. To be deleted from the NPL, a site must (1) be regulated under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility and (2) meet the four criteria specified by EPA. The new NPL deletion policy, which does not pertain to federal TSD facilities, became effective on April 19, 1995. 1 tab

  19. The Final Beneficiaries are Actors Active Little and Influential in Decisions on Public Policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diolina Rodrigues Santiago Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are government programs that directly influence the citizens' lives. In the formulation and implementation of these policies, there is the presence of political and private actors. The final beneficiaries are between different types of private actors. Some laws require the government listen to society at the time of decision-making in public policy and in national conferences and public consultations. The final beneficiaries, actual users of these public policies have to reach some mechanisms of direct participation in the formulation of these policies, but the number of participants is smaller and doesn't influence in making government decisions.

  20. Dutch general practitioners’ weight management policy for overweight and obese patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, C.J.J.; Tol, J.; Veenhof, C.; Wulp, I. van der; Swinkels, I.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) can play an important role in both the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Current general practice guidelines in the Netherlands allow room for GPs to execute their own weight management policy. Objective: To examine GPs’ current weight

  1. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  2. A Policy Representation Using Weighted Multiple Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hajime; Aramaki, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    In this paper, we challenge to solve a reinforcement learning problem for a 5-linked ring robot within a real-time so that the real-robot can stand up to the trial and error. On this robot, incomplete perception problems are caused from noisy sensors and cheap position-control motor systems. This incomplete perception also causes varying optimum actions with the progress of the learning. To cope with this problem, we adopt an actor-critic method, and we propose a new hierarchical policy representation scheme, that consists of discrete action selection on the top level and continuous action selection on the low level of the hierarchy. The proposed hierarchical scheme accelerates learning on continuous action space, and it can pursue the optimum actions varying with the progress of learning on our robotics problem. This paper compares and discusses several learning algorithms through simulations, and demonstrates the proposed method showing application for the real robot.

  3. 76 FR 1437 - Issuance of Final Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... assisting low-income families out of poverty. The program assists individuals and families to save earned...: Members of a household that is eligible for assistance under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Issuance of Final...

  4. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  5. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion

  6. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  7. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  8. 75 FR 78198 - Proposed Final Policy on Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I [EPA-HQ-OA-2010-0992 FRL-9239-4] Proposed Final Policy on Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of document for public comment. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is...

  9. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  10. Policy revision in health enterprise information security: P3WG final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2003-05-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG) examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using an interdisciplinary and interservice QA approach they compared existing military policies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule to identify gaps and discrepancies. The final report, including a plain English explanation of the individual standards and relevance to the Department of Defense (DoD), a comparative analysis and recommendations, will feed in to the security management process and HIPAA implementation efforts at multiple levels within the DoD. In light of High Reliability Theory, this process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains, building consensus on key policy reforms among military stakeholders across different disciplines, levels of command hierarchy and services.

  11. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  12. Medicare program; clarification of Medicare's accrual basis of accounting policy--HCFA. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-27

    This final rule revises the Medicare regulations to clarify the concept of "accrual basis of accounting" to indicate that expenses must be incurred by a provider of health care services before Medicare will pay its share of those expenses. This rule does not signify a change in policy but, rather, incorporates into the regulations Medicare's longstanding policy regarding the circumstances under which we recognize, for the purposes of program payment, a provider's claim for costs for which it has not actually expended funds during the current cost reporting period.

  13. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC's history structure, and operations; CIRRPC's most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies

  14. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

  15. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Charge for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The United States Government policy relating to nuclear fuel reprocessing, which was announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977, provides for an indefinite deferral of reprocessing, and thus commits light water reactor (LWR) plants to a once-through fuel cycle during that indefinite period. In a subsequent action implementing that policy, the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977 announced a spent fuel policy which would enable domestic, and on a selective basis, foreign utilities to deliver spent fuel to the US Government for interim storage and final geologic disposal, and pay the Government a fee for such services. This volume addresses itself to whether the fee charged for these services, by its level or its structure, would have any effect on the environmental impacts of implementing the Spent Fuel Policy itself. This volume thus analyzes the fee and various alternatives to determine the interaction between the fee and the degree of participation by domestic utilities and foreign countries in the proposed spent fuel program for implementing the Spent Fuel Policy. It also analyzes the effect, if any, of the fee on the growth of nuclear power

  16. Effects of competing news media frames of weight on antifat stigma, beliefs about weight and support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, D A; Saguy, A C; Sandhu, G; Mann, T

    2016-03-01

    In the popular news media, public health officials routinely emphasize the health risks of obesity and portray weight as under personal control. These messages may increase support for policies designed to reduce rates of obesity, but can also increase antifat stigma. Less often, the media cover 'Health at Every Size' or 'Fat Rights' perspectives that may have the opposite effects. We investigated how exposure to different 'fat frames' shifts attitudes about weight and support for obesity policies. Across four experiments (n=2187), people read constructed news articles framing fatness as negative (unhealthy, controllable, acceptable to stigmatize) or positive (healthy, uncontrollable, unacceptable to stigmatize). Compared with people who read fat-positive frames, people who read fat-negative frames expressed more: belief in the health risks of being fat (d=0.95-1.22), belief weight is controllable (d=0.38-0.55), support for charging obese people more for health insurance (d=0.26-0.77), antifat prejudice (in three out of four experiments, d=0.28-0.39), willingness to discriminate against fat people (d=0.39-0.71) and less willingness to celebrate body size diversity (d=0.37-0.64). They were also less willing to say that women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy at their weights. Effects on support for public policies, however, were generally small and/or nonsignificant. Compared with a control condition, exposure to fat-positive frames generally shifted attitudes more than fat-negative frames. In experiment 4, adding a message about the unacceptability of weight-based discrimination to unhealthy/controllable news articles only reduced antifat stigma on one of three measures compared with articles adding a discrimination-acceptable message. Exposure to different news frames of fat can shift beliefs about weight-related health risks and weight-based stigma. Shifting policy attitudes, however, is more challenging.

  17. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    the programme (p difference in weight-for-age at discharge (p = 0.15), but infants in the early discharge group were more frequently fully or partly breastfed (88% versus 80%, p ... comparability of the two groups, weight-for-age at discharge was similar, but the programme appeared to allow better breastfeeding success at the expense of a later final discharge......., and during the programme, they received home visits by neonatal nurses. We evaluated the programme, focusing on the infants' well-being, using weight gain, breastfeeding rates and total duration of hospitalisation as outcomes. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 500 infants participated in the programme...

  18. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  20. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in Dilepton Final States with the Neutrino Weighting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilchenko, Yuriy [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The top quark is the heaviest fundamental particle observed to date. The mass of the top quark is a free parameter in the Standard Model (SM). A precise measurement of its mass is particularly important as it sets an indirect constraint on the mass of the Higgs boson. It is also a useful constraint on contributions from physics beyond the SM and may play a fundamental role in the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. I present a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel using the Neutrino Weighting Method. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at Tevatron with √s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the DØ detector. Kinematically under-constrained dilepton events are analyzed by integrating over neutrino rapidity. Weight distributions of t$\\bar{t}$ signal and background are produced as a function of the top quark mass for different top quark mass hypotheses. The measurement is performed by constructing templates from the moments of the weight distributions and input top quark mass, followed by a subsequent likelihood t to data. The dominant systematic uncertainties from jet energy calibration is reduced by using a correction from `+jets channel. To replicate the quark avor dependence of the jet response in data, jets in the simulated events are additionally corrected. The result is combined with our preceding measurement on 1 fb-1 and yields mt = 174.0± 2.4 (stat.) ±1.4 (syst.) GeV.

  1. Political past weight: factors that affect the development of policies of memory in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario SOLÍS DELGADILLO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why the Argentine and Chilean presidents believe important to face the political past of their countries; or in other words, why no president resists the temptation to interfere in the issue of public policies of the memory through different strategies with different political costs. In that sense, we try to explain what factors mainly affect the decision of the Argentine and Chilean presidents when they adopting public policies of memory. Following the analysis made by means of logistic regressions, it is estimated that the ideology of the leaders, affect on the repair policies. In justice policies, the analysis shows that these are particularly conducive in times of critical juncture. And in the symbolic policies, anniversaries are not so decisive as might be expected.

  2. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  3. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-12-27

    Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary

  4. Organ procurement and transplantation: implementation of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-08

    This final rule amends the regulations implementing the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, as amended, (NOTA) pursuant to statutory requirements of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (HOPE Act), enacted in 2013. In accordance with the mandates of the HOPE Act, this regulation removes the current regulatory provision that requires the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) to adopt and use standards for preventing the acquisition of organs from individuals known to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In its place, this regulation includes new requirements that organs from individuals infected with HIV may be transplanted only into individuals who are infected with HIV before receiving such organs and who are participating in clinical research approved by an institutional review board, as provided by regulation. The only exception to this requirement of participation in such clinical research is if the Secretary publishes a determination in the future that participation in such clinical research, as a requirement for transplants of organs from individuals infected with HIV, is no longer warranted. In addition, this regulatory change establishes that OPTN standards must ensure that any HIV-infected transplant recipients are participating in clinical research in accordance with the research criteria to be published by the Secretary. Alternately, if and when the Secretary determines that participation in such clinical research should no longer be a requirement for transplants with organs from donors infected with HIV to individuals infected with HIV, the regulation mandates that the OPTN adopt and use standards of quality, as directed by the Secretary, consistent with the law and in a way that ensures the changes will not reduce the safety of organ transplantation.

  5. A review of national health policies and professional guidelines on maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, N L; Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity creates an additional demand for health-care services, as the routine obstetric care pathway requires alterations to ensure the most optimal care for obese women of childbearing age. This review examines the extent to which relevant national health documents reflect and respond to the health implications of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. A targeted search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted for each country to identify national health documents, which were subsequently content analyzed according to an adapted framework. A total of 37 documents were identified, including one policy, 10 strategies and 26 guidelines, published within the last 10 years. Out of the 31 countries investigated, only 13 countries address maternal obesity while none address excessive gestational weight gain. We found inconsistencies and gaps in the recommendations to health-care service providers for the management of maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy. The findings show that only limited guidance on maternal obesity and gestational weight gain exists. The authors recommend that international, evidence-based guidelines on the management of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain should be developed to reduce the associated health-care and economic costs. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Database of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives and Policies Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Brian

    2018-03-28

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) is an online resource that provides summaries of all financial incentives and regulatory policies that support the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency across all 50 states. This project involved making enhancements to the database and website, and the ongoing research and maintenance of the policy and incentive summaries.

  7. Roll-your-own cigarettes in Europe: use, weight and implications for fiscal policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Ghislandi, Simone; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    Excise duties on roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, which are generally based on RYO cigarettes containing 1 g of tobacco, are lower than duties on factory-made (FM) cigarettes. This provides a price incentive for smokers to switch to RYO, the use of which is increasing across Europe. To effectively approximate duties on the two types of products, accurate data on the weight of RYO cigarettes are required. We provide updated information on RYO use and RYO cigarette weight across Europe. From a representative face-to-face survey conducted in 2010 in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden), we considered data from 5158 current smokers aged 15 years or above, with available information on daily consumption of FM and RYO cigarettes separately. In Europe, 10.4% of current smokers (12.9% of men and 7.5% of women) were 'predominant' RYO users (i.e. >50% of cigarettes smoked). This proportion was highest in England (27.3%), France (16.5%) and Finland (13.6%). The median weight of one RYO cigarette is 0.75 g (based on 192 smokers consuming exclusively RYO cigarettes). The proportion of RYO smokers is substantial in several European countries. Our finding on the weight of RYO cigarettes is consistent with the scientific literature and industry documents showing that the weight of RYO cigarettes is substantially lower than that of FM ones. Basing excise duties on RYO on an average cigarette weight of 0.75 g rather than 1 g would help increase the excise levels to those on FM cigarettes.

  8. Incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ex ante evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions. Development of a Multi Criteria Analysis weighting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafakos, S.; Zevgolis, D.; Oikonomou, V.

    2008-03-01

    Evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions is a complex issue which has not been addressed systematically. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) evaluation processes have been applied widely to different policy and decision cases as they have the ability to cope with high complexity, by structuring and analyzing the policy problem in a transparent and systematic way. Criteria weights elicitation techniques are developed within the framework of MCDA to integrate stakeholders' preferential information in the decision making and evaluation process. There are variant methods to determine criteria weights which can be used in various ways for different policy evaluation purposes. During decision making, policy makers and relevant stakeholders implicitly or explicitly express their relative importance between the evaluation criteria by assigning weighting factors to them. More particular, climate change policy problems lack a simple, transparent and structured way to incorporate stakeholders' views and values. In order to incorporate stakeholders' weighting preferences into an ex ante evaluation of climate change and energy policy instruments interaction, an integrative constructive weighting methodology has been developed. This paper presents the main characteristics of evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions, the reasoning behind the development of the weighting tool, its main theoretical and functional characteristics and the results of its application to obtain and incorporate stakeholders' preferences on energy and climate change policy evaluation criteria. The weighting method that has been elaborated and applied to derive stakeholders' preferences for criteria weights is a combination of pair wise comparisons and ratio importance weighting methods. Initially introduces the stakeholders to the evaluation process through a warming up holistic approach for ranking the criteria and then requires them to express their ratio relative importance

  9. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  10. Final study summary and policy recommendations: participatory citizenship in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Bryony; Kerr, David

    2012-01-01

    The findings from the Participatory Citizenship in the European Union study suggest a number of key recommendations concerning policies, practices and effective approaches towards overcoming barriers to Participatory Citizenship in Europe. These keyrecommendations are summarised below and are explained in more detail in this report

  11. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), ACC, BCS, and CLA and the Endocrine Policy Forum (EPF)) indicated... chemicals and drinking water contaminants. G. Other Topics 1. Cost sharing. ACC, CLA, EPF, and CPDA stated... should strictly disallow CBI claims. The ACC, CLA, and EPF commented that FFDCA authorized, and EPA...

  12. White Flight from School Desegregation: Magnitude, Sources, and Policy Options. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Christine H.; Hawley, Willis D.

    Discussed in this report are the extent and causes of white flight from school desegregation and policy options for controlling it. After an introductory section, the report considers the extent of white flight from desegregating schools, taking into account the effects of suburbanization, interregional migration, and differentials in…

  13. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  14. Powerplant productivity improvement study: policy analysis and incentive assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Policy options that the Illinois Commerce Commission might adopt in order to promote improved power plant productivity for existing units in Illinois are identified and analyzed. These policy options would generally involve either removing existing disincentives and/or adding direct incentives through the regulatory process. The following activities are reported: in-depth review of existing theoretical and empirical literature in the areas of power plant reliability, regulatory utility efficiency and performance incentives, and impacts of various regulatory mechanisms such as the Fuel Adjustment Clauses on productivity; contacts with other state public utility commissions known to be investigating or implementing productivity improvement incentive mechanisms; documentation and analysis of incentive mechanisms adopted or under consideration in other states; analysis of current regulatory practice in Illinois as it relates to power plant productivity incentives and disincentives; identification of candidate incentive mechanisms for consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission; and analysis and evaluation of these candidates. 72 references, 8 figures.

  15. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  16. Key drivers of 'good' corporate governance and the appropriateness of UK policy responses : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Filatotchev, Igor; Jackson, Gregory; Gospel, Howard; Allcock, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The DTI’s Corporate Law and Governance strategy aims to promote and deliver an effective\\ud framework for corporate governance in the UK, giving confidence to investors, business, and\\ud other stakeholders to underpin the relationship between an organisation and those who hold\\ud future financial claims against that organisation. However, corporate governance involves\\ud various problems of asymmetric information and incomplete contracts that generate a need for\\ud public policy responses to ...

  17. Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2018-07-01

    I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain than income. The paper's finding shows that a program that is not designed for health purposes, such as earned income tax credit, can have unintended effects on health outcomes. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  20. An Analysis of the Content, Policies and Assessment of ICT Curricula in the Final Years of Secondary Schooling in Australia and Vietnam: A Comparative Educational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thang Manh; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores and analyses similarities and differences in ICT curricula, policies, and assessment between the Vietnamese and Australian educational systems for the final years of secondary educational level. It was found that while having a common core set of tendencies, the Australian ICT curricula, policies, and assessments differ…

  1. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  2. Strategy of the Polish policy in the final phase of the Second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shvab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of strategy formation of the Polish government, which was in emigration, during the Second World War in the period of the eastern front approaching to the Polish borders, are found out in the article. The author confirms that the success of the Red Army made London government to rise a question about the Polish eastern border and legitimacy of London government on the liberated territories. Both questions did not have the solution in the way of traditional Polish policy. Joseph Stalin expected concession in the issue of the eastern border instead of loyalty to the London government. But Polish government did not accept accomplished facts. The ambassadors Stanislav Kot, later Tadeush Romer negotiated and insisted on returning of the western Ukrainian and Byelorussian lands. They proposed military cooperation with the Polish Home Army, which supposed to be strong enough for diversionary acts. After the battle of Stalingrad victory and that resonance, which it had made in the world, Stalin refused from such cooperation, he thought that Poland was too weak partner. Stalin continued the escalation of the relations, he consciously stopped all diplomatic relations, flatly refused to continue discussion about borders and changed the way of discussion about the legitimacy of the authentic authority in Poland.

  3. Scenarios for a robust policy mix: the final report of the German study commission on sustainable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    2004-01-01

    In February 2000, the German Bundestag established a Study Commission on 'Sustainable Energy Supplies in View of Globalisation and Liberalisation' (cf. Final Report, 2002). The Commission's Final Report is a contribution made by Germany toward implementing the sustainable development objectives defined in 1992 at the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Agenda 21). Despite minority votes of several members of the Study Commission, the main outcomes of the Final Report are worthwhile discussing in other industrial countries. The Commission had been given the mandate to identify 'robust, sustainable development paths' for the energy sector for the period up to 2050, which represent a scientific basis for the German parliament's further decision-making in the field of long-term energy policy. The applied backcasting approach showed that an ambitious climate-protection goal--reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 - is technically and economically feasible. The main strategies and instruments for protecting the climate while ensuring a sustainable energy supply are summarised

  4. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This project has prepared a study of the framework for energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes and improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The report provides then recommendations to the Commission and to the European Union. First it is vital that more emphasis is put on energy monitoring as an essential first stage in raising finance to improve energy performance. Secondly the existing energy laws seem to generally provide the potential basis for effective energy planning (they simply need to have sufficient support to ensure that they are implemented with reasonable speed). There are problems however in coordinating the actions of competing networks, aggravated by the fact that the coordinators themselves are usually proprietors of one of the networks and so have an interest. It is therefore important that sufficient weight is given to the demand side and consideration could helpfully be given by government as to how this could best be achieved. Thirdly there is need to promote renewable energy with more vigor. Fourthly, the Agenda 21 process will only take off very slowly in the absence of a lead from government. This is confirmed by action in the European Union. (A.L.B.)

  5. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule, clinical laboratory fee schedule & other revisions to Part B for CY 2014. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    This major final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule, clinical laboratory fee schedule, and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. This final rule with comment period also includes a discussion in the Supplementary Information regarding various programs. (See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in the final rule with comment period.)

  6. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact the regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period.

  7. Effects of School Quality, School Citizenship Policy, and Student Body Composition on the Acquisition of Citizenship Competences in the Final Year of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anne Bert; Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; van der Veen, Ineke; ten Dam, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of general educational quality of schools, school citizenship policy, and ethnic homogeneity of the student body on the acquisition of citizenship competences in the final year of primary education. The theoretical framework is based on developmental, psychological, and sociological studies into effects of social…

  8. EmployRES. The impact of renewable energy policy on economic growth and employment in the European Union. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragwitz, M.; Schade, W.; Breitschopf, B.; Walz, R.; Helfrich, N.; Rathmann, M.; Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Faber, T.; Haas, R.; Nathani, C.; Holzhey, M.; Konstantinaviciute, I.; Zagame, P.; Fougeyrollas, A.; Le Hir, B.

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to meet the need for scientifically robust information on the gross effects (direct and indirect) as well as on the net effects (including both conventional replacement and budget effects) of renewable energy policies in Europe. Furthermore, the future development of RES in Europe will take place against the background of a global market for RES technology. This global market and the potential share of European industries in it will play a critical role in the potentials for growth and employment. This study aims to provide a sound scientific analysis of these issues. This report is divided into four main parts, A, B, C and D. While the first three covers the introduction, the theoretical approach, the modelling steps and structure of the report, the fourth part, part D, discusses in detail the models and results of the projects. It begins with chapter D 1 which describes past RES deployment and its costs. Then follows the past macroeconomic impacts presented by gross effects on employment and value added (D 2). Thereafter, the future potential (D 3) and future deployment (D 4) of renewable energy sources (RES) are discussed. Before the presentation of the future gross and net effects, the five scenarios used in the macro-economic models (D 5) are explained in detail. Finally we depict the future gross and net impacts on employment and GDP in D 6 and D 7, respectively. The comparison between the results of the two models and our conclusion for the study follows in chapter D 8 and 9

  9. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  10. Género policial, ilusión cómica y teatralidad narrativa en Triste, solitario y final de Osvaldo Soriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bastidas Zambrano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre la literatura policial argentina de la década de los setenta. Se centra específicamente en el estudio de las particularidades narrativas y el análisis del género policial en la novela Triste, solitario y final, de Osvaldo Soriano. El artículo trabaja la novela de Soriano desde la problemática de la apropiación y reescritura de las fórmulas y convenciones del hard-boiled y estudia la forma como en esta obra el género policial se convierte en un escenario de ficción, teatralidad y autorreferencialidad literaria.

  11. Review of interactions between climate policy and energy safety in Europe (ELIPSE project) - Final report, December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, Celine; Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Monjon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The ELIPSE project is a better understanding of the consequences of ambitious energy policies for a secure energy in Europe. It is based on a choice of indicators for a secure energy which are related to availability and diversification, energy dependence and efficiency, energy cost for the society, and acceptability. Four RCP (representative concentration pathways) scenarios are selected. Their results are discussed, notably in terms of evolution of emissions, of evolution of the carbon tax, of carbon-tax variability, of GDP growth according to scenarios with or without climate policy, of primary energy supply with or without climate policy, of oil supply in Europe and oil prices with or without climate policy. The authors discuss the perspectives of evolution of energy security in Europe on the short, medium or long term, and the influence of different factors. They discuss the development and spreading of low carbon technologies (renewable energies, carbon capture and storage, electric vehicles)

  12. Policy Actions to Address Weight-Based Bullying and Eating Disorders in Schools: Views of Teachers and School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bryn Austin, S.; Suh, Young; Wakefield, Dorothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight-related bullying is prevalent among youth and associated with adverse health consequences, including increased risk for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, which are risk factors for eating disorders. Although concerns about these problems have stimulated calls for broader intervention efforts in schools,…

  13. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  14. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight before and after Policy Change to IPTp-SP in Two Selected Hospitals in Southern Nigeria: Eleven-Year Retrospective Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneka U. Igboeli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2005, Nigeria changed its policy on prevention of malaria in pregnancy to intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. Indicators of impact of effective prevention and control of malaria on pregnancy (MIP are low birth weight (LBW and maternal anaemia by parity. This study determined the prevalence of LBW for different gravidity groups during periods of pre- and postpolicy change to IPTp-SP. Methods. Eleven-year data were abstracted from the delivery registers of two hospitals. Study outcomes calculated for both pre- (2000–2004 and post-IPTp-SP-policy (2005–2010 years were prevalence of LBW for different gravidity groups and risk of LBW in primigravidae compared to multigravidae. Results. Out of the 11,496 singleton deliveries recorded within the 11-year period, the prevalence of LBW was significantly higher in primigravidae than in multigravidae for both prepolicy (6.3% versus 4% and postpolicy (8.6% versus 5.1% years. The risk of LBW in primigravidae compared to multigravidae increased from 1.62 (1.17–2.23 in the prepolicy years to 1.74 (1.436–2.13 during the postpolicy years. Conclusion. The study demonstrated that both the prevalence and risk of LBW remained significantly higher in primigravidae even after the change in policy to IPTp-SP.

  15. 75 FR 27564 - Final Notice on Ending the “Hold-Harmless” Policy in Calculating Section 8 Income Limits Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... face serious cash flow problems. Such a decrease in rental income would result in insufficient cash... funds will face serious cash flow issues if the hold-harmless policy is eliminated. These commenters... from Section 8 income limits, while well intentioned, would create a massive administrative problem...

  16. The Experience of Childbearing Women in the Workplace: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies and Practices. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; And Others

    Secondary analyses of data collected in the Mothers in the Workplace study examined how family-relevant workplace policies and practices may influence childbearing women's labor force participation during pregnancy and after childbirth. It focused on 2,375 women who held wage and salary jobs during pregnancy and 1,761 of these women who were…

  17. The Final Rule: Implementing New Policies for Financial Conflict of Interest at the University of Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Andrea; McClellan, Tammie; Miner, John

    2013-01-01

    Academic institutions modified their financial conflict of interest policies (FCOI) in response to the Public Health Service's (PHS) 2011 revised regulations (42 CFR 50 Subpart F) on "Responsibility of Applicants for Promoting Objectivity in Research and Responsible Prospective Contractors" (45 CFR 94), which were to go into effect on…

  18. Policy Options for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Application in Healthcare; a Prospective View: Final Report (D5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie; Botterman, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the state of play of European markets and applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in healthcare in Europe. Based on the current situation the study presents three scenarios for 2020, to describe futures in which the technology and health care sectors develop in different ways. The scenarios were discussed in expert workshops to derive issues that need to be addressed by future policies of the European Union and other stakeholders. The market assessment is based on a review of literature and an analysis of proprietary market data. The information on the state of RFID applications in Health in Europe summarises the results of a literature review, an online Delphi survey, expert interviews and seven cases studies in Europe and the US. The policy analysis is based on the outcomes of a scenario gaming workshop with experts from academia, industry, healthcare providers, policymakers and representatives of patient organisations.

  19. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  20. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2018; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements; and Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the Medicare physician fee schedule (PFS) and other Medicare Part B payment policies such as changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. In addition, this final rule includes policies necessary to begin offering the expanded Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  1. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  2. Waste management and proliferation: an assessment of technologies and policies relevant to nuclear power. Final report, June 1975--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, R.N.; Selvaduray, G.; Gangwer, T.; Braun, C.; Goellner, D.; Malone, R.; Sevian, W.A.; Lester, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the long-term hazards from radioactive waste management and the problems in safeguarding plutonium in a world moving toward a plutonium economy are presented. To ameliorate these problems, several alternative fuel cycle options are presented: homogeneous reactor, denatured thorium, open, tandem, accelerator-regenerative, co-processing, plutonium, spiking, and partitioning. An assessment is made of a variety of separation technologies applied to these options, including a review of 32 different reprocessing methods. The effects of these options on both U.S. and transnational policies regarding waste management and proliferation are examined. This study addresses the transnational environmental policy issues created by a worldwide nuclear industry and suggests the need for two international organizations: one to manage spent fuel and the breeder fuel cycle; the second to protect the global environment. Two photochemical schemes for improving existing reprocessing technology by reducing wastes and materials unaccounted for (MUF) are presented. The applicability of this technology, along with column chromatography, Talspeak, and other separation methods, is examined relative to various waste management alternatives including the partitioning and transmutation option. A computer model to determine the effectiveness of transmutation as a function of separation efficiency has been developed and employed. To estimate health impacts from various fuel cycle options, the Brookhaven energy system network simulator has been integrated with an atmospheric dispersion and pathway analysis model. Using revised 222 Rn emission data, it is estimated from the linear hypothesis that the number of excess cancers is slightly less for the open than for the closed cycle. More importantly, the number of excess cancers induced by mill and mine tailings is from one to two times that caused by the rest of the entire fuel cycle

  3. Assessment of the effectiveness of European air quality policies and measures. Final report on Task 3.3. Survey to access successes and failures of the EU Air Quality Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of Task 3.3 of the title project was to survey the views of European policy makers and other stakeholders directly involved in air quality policy development and implementation on the successes and failures of the present European air quality policies. The survey also included several decisionmakers from the USA, Japan and Switzerland to learn about these countries' experiences with specific air quality policies. A list of approximately 90 people to be surveyed during the project was developed. The list included representatives from the European Commission, the European Parliament, national-level representatives from the Member States, including those designated by the CAFE Steering Group, along with representatives of local authorities, NGOs, industry and academia. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. The questionnaire consists of four major parts. Part 1 includes questions about the impact of EU legislation on air quality. Part 2 is designed to learn about stakeholder opinions on the adequacy of Community-level measures with respect to air quality protection. Part 3 asks for opinions about various measures used in Community-level legislation on air quality as well as ideas for new or modified measures that could be effective in achieving better air quality in the EU. Part 4 includes questions about stakeholder involvement and transparency and was designed to assist with the implementation of Task 3.4 (on public participation and transparency) of the project. The analysis of responses for this part of the questionnaire is presented in the parallel Report for Task 3.4. The final version of the questionnaire used to interview European stakeholders is attached as Appendix II. For the decision-makers from the USA, Switzerland, and Japan a separate questionnaire was developed, and is attached as Appendix III. In all, the team received 49 responses from the 90 enquiries.

  4. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Comment letters on draft statements and major comments with DOE responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Notice of availability of the draft environmental impact statement for storage of US spent power reactor fuel was published by DOE in the Federal Register on September 6, 1978. A subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register on December 14, 1978, on the availability of the draft EISs on storage of foreign fuel, on charge for spent fuel storage, and a supplement to the draft EIS on storage of US fuel. Copies of the draft EISs were distributed for review and comment by appropriate Federal agencies, state governments, and other organizations and individuals who were known to have an interest in spent fuel storage activities and those who requested them. Comments and views concerning the draft EISs were requested from other interested agencies, organizations, and individuals by means of the Federal Register notices. Approximately 1600 copies each of the draft Domestic, Foreign, and Charge EISs were distributed for comment. The closing date for comments to be received on the draft EISs was February 15, 1979. Copies of the EISs (upon publication) and comment letters received were placed for public inspection in DOE public document rooms at 10 locations throughout the country. To the extent practicable, comments received after the closing date were also considered in the preparation of the final EIS. A total of 78 comment letters (some with supplements) were received. These comment letters are reproduced in their entirety in Section I of this volume. Approximately 600 specific comments were identified in these letters

  5. Weight loss among female health care workers- a 1-year workplace based randomized controlled trial in the FINALE-health study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette R; Overgaard, Kristian; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    working hours 1 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Several anthropometric measures, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal muscle strength, and musculoskeletal pain were measured before and after the 12-months intervention period. Data were analyzed......ABSTRACT: Background Weight management constitutes a substantial problem particularly among groups of low socio-economic status. Interventions at work places may be a solution, but high quality worksite interventions documenting prolonged weight loss are lacking. This paper presents results...... by intention-to-treat analysis. Results The intervention group significantly reduced body weight by 6.1 kg (p...

  6. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  7. Awareness of Standardised Tobacco Packaging among Adults and Young People during the Final Phase of Policy Implementation in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Opazo Breton, Magdalena; Langley, Tessa; Britton, John

    2017-07-31

    Background : In May 2016, along with the latest European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), standardised packaging legislation was implemented in the UK. During the following 12-month transition period, both new and old types of packaging were allowed on the market. This study aimed to assess awareness of standardised packaging and other TPD changes in the UK population in March 2017, when both forms of packaging were in widespread use. Methods : We conducted two surveys-one in adults and one in young people-investigating awareness of plain packaging legislation. In young people, we also measured susceptibility to smoking using previously validated questions. We asked smokers whether they had recently changed the product they used and also whether they used any of the products that are banned by the new legislation. Results : In the adult survey, 73.5% (95% CI: 71.5-75.5%) of the participants were aware of the new legislation and 32.4% (95% CI: 30.3-34.5%) had noticed changes in tobacco packaging, this proportion being considerably higher among smokers (83.7%; 95% CI: 78.9-87.5%) than never smokers (20.7%; 95% CI: 18.2-23.4%). More than half (52.4%; 95% CI: 46.5-58.4%) were using pack sizes or shapes (typically less than 20 cigarettes or 30 g loose tobacco), that would become illegal after full TPD implementation, and 31.4% (95% CI: 26.2-37.1%) reported switching to a different product since October 2016, in most cases to a cheaper brand. Among young people, 20.2% (95% CI: 17.8-22.7%) reported that they had noticed standardised packaging, comprising 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7-19.0%) of non-susceptible never smokers, 25.6% (95% CI: 18.0-35%) of susceptible never smokers, and 49% (95% CI: 37.8-60.2%) of ever smokers. Conclusions : In the final stages of implementation, awareness of the introduction of standardised packs was highest among smokers. The TPD will cause nearly half of adult smokers to purchase larger packs, and may cause many smokers to switch to cheaper brands.

  8. Weight loss among female health care workers- a 1-year workplace based randomized controlled trial in the FINALE-health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jeanette R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight management constitutes a substantial problem particularly among groups of low socio-economic status. Interventions at work places may be a solution, but high quality worksite interventions documenting prolonged weight loss are lacking. This paper presents results of an intervention aimed to achieve a 12 months weight loss among overweight health care workers. Methods Ninety-eight overweight female health care workers were randomized into an intervention or a reference group. The intervention consisted of diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training during working hours 1 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Several anthropometric measures, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal muscle strength, and musculoskeletal pain were measured before and after the 12-months intervention period. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat analysis. Results The intervention group significantly reduced body weight by 6 kg (p  Conclusions The intervention generated substantial reductions in body weight, BMI and body fat percentage among overweight female health care workers over 12 months. The positive results support the workplace as an efficient arena for weight loss among overweight females. Trial registration NCT01015716.

  9. Culture, health, and bigotry: How exposure to cultural accounts of fatness shape attitudes about health risk, health policies, and weight-based prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Saguy, Abigail C; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2016-09-01

    We conducted three experiments to examine how cultural frames shape attitudes about health, focusing on obesity, which is considered a public health crisis and is imbued with symbolic meaning. College students (Ns = 99, 114, and 293) read news articles that presented high body weight according to one or more of the following frames: 1) public health crisis; 2) personal responsibility; 3) health at every size (HAES); or 4) fat rights. Compared to people who read the HAES and Fat Rights articles, those who read the Public Health Crisis and Personal Responsibility articles expressed more belief in the health risks of being fat (ds = 1.28 to 1.79), belief that fat people should pay more for insurance (ds = 0.53 to 0.71), anti-fat prejudice (ds = 0.61 to 0.69), willingness to discriminate against fat people (ds = 0.41 to 0.59), and less willingness to celebrate body-size diversity (ds = 0.77 to 1.07). They were less willing to say women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy. Exposure to these articles increased support for price-raising policies to curb obesity but not support for redistributive or compensatory policies. In Experiment 3, in comparison to a control condition, exposure to HAES or Fat Rights frames significantly reduced beliefs in the risks of obesity and support for charging fat people more for insurance. However, only people exposed to the Fat Rights frame expressed fewer anti-fat attitudes and more willingness to celebrate body-size diversity. Our findings suggest that simply disseminating information that people can be both fat and healthy will not suffice to reduce prejudice. Given that anti-fat stigma is a health risk and barrier to collective solidarity, fat rights viewpoints can buffer against the negative consequences of anti-fat stigma and promote a culture of health by fostering empathy and social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. More with thermal energy storage. Report 1. Coupling with policy. Coupling of research results MMB with policy aspects. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 1. Koppeling met beleid. Koppeling onderzoeksresultaten MMB met beleidsaspecten. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luitwieler, M. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Beek, D.; De Boer, S.; Koenders, M. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-25

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This final report provides (a) an overview of the activities that have taken place in the context of work package 1, (b) the results of the other work packages in the light of four policy frameworks, and (c) a view on future policy [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  11. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact that regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period.

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.6: Final Report of WP1 – road safety policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. Papadimitriou, E. & Yannis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Policy’ Work Package of DaCoTA was designed to fill in the gap in knowledge on road safety policy making processes, their institutional framework and the data, methods and technical tools needed to base policy formulation and adoption on scientifically-established evidence. More specifically,

  13. Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on…

  14. Efeito da restrição alimentar durante o final da gestação sobre o peso ao nascer de cordeiros Santa Inês Effects of maternal undernutrition during final pregnancy on weight birth of Santa Ines lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castro Geraseev

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no setor de Ovinocultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, com o objetivo de avaliar o peso ao nascer de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês, machos e fêmeas, nascidos de ovelhas submetidas ou não a uma restrição alimentar durante o terço final da gestação. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 44 ovelhas Santa Inês gestando gêmeos, as quais com 100 dias de gestação, foram confinadas e divididas em dois grupos: um grupo recebeu alimentação à vontade para satisfazer suas necessidades energéticas, e o segundo grupo recebeu alimentação restrita para satisfazer 60% das suas necessidades energéticas. O cálculo das necessidades energéticas foi baseado nas recomendações do ARC (1980, levando-se em consideração o peso da ovelha, o tempo de gestação e o número de fetos que cada ovelha estava gestando. Com relação as ovelhas, foram avaliados o peso corporal no início do experimento e logo após a parição, a duração da gestação e a massa biológica produzida. Com relação aos cordeiros, foram avaliados o peso ao nascer dos mesmos, sendo que para tanto estes animais foram divididos de acordo com o sexo (machos e fêmeas. O peso ao nascer dos cordeiros machos e fêmeas foi afetado pela restrição pré-natal, sendo que a média do peso ao nascer dos cordeiros machos sem restrição foi 4,162 kg e com restrição 2,893 kg; e o peso ao nascer das cordeiras fêmeas sem restrição foi 3,474 kg e com restrição 2,855 kg. A grande redução observada neste trabalho no peso ao nascer dos cordeiros machos (30,5% e fêmeas (17,8% revela a importância da adoção de um nível nutricional adequado para as ovelhas gestantes, principalmente durante o terço final da gestação.An experiment was conducted in the Sheep Production Sector of the Animal Science Department at the Federal University of Lavras, Lavras MG to evaluate weight birth of Santa Ines lambs, males and females from ewes submitted or not to feed

  15. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  16. O peso ao nascer influencia o estado nutricional ao final do primeiro ano de vida? Does birth weight affect nutritional status at the end of first year of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre o baixo peso ao nascer e o estado nutricional ao final do primeiro ano de vida. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo caso-controle aninhado a uma coorte em quatro municípios da Zona da Mata Meridional de Pernambuco. Os recém-nascidos foram recrutados para a coorte nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, sendo o peso aferido ao nascimento e ao final do primeiro ano de vida. Durante o primeiro ano de vida, foram realizadas duas visitas domiciliares semanais para confirmar aleitamento materno predominante e ocorrência de episódios diarréicos. Considerou-se caso (risco nutricional a criança com índice peso/idade abaixo do percentil 10 (n = 117; e controle aquela com percentil igual ou maior que 10 (n = 411. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística hierarquizada para detectar os fatores determinantes do estado nutricional no primeiro ano de vida. RESULTADOS: Os fatores que explicaram o risco nutricional ao final do primeiro ano de vida foram peso ao nascer e ausência de sanitário no domicílio. As crianças que nasceram com peso entre 1.500 g e 2.499 g tiveram uma chance 29 vezes maior (IC 95% = 9,77-87,49 de apresentar risco nutricional aos 12 meses de idade em relação àquelas com peso de nascimento maior que 3.500 g. Nas que residiam em domicílio sem sanitário, a chance foi três vezes maior (IC 95% = 1,54-6,22 em relação àquelas com sanitário com descarga no domicílio. CONCLUSÃO: O baixo peso ao nascer é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo risco nutricional ao final do primeiro ano de vida, sendo imprescindível adotar estratégias para sua redução e prevenção.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between low birth weight and nutritional status at the end of the first year of life. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study within a cohort. The study was carried out at maternity hospitals in four cities in the Zona da Mata Meridional in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Newborn infants

  17. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  18. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  19. Social implications of the Human Genome Project: Policy roundtable series and journals. Final progress report, March 15, 2001 - March 15, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiguer, Erica

    2002-12-30

    This report reflects the activities of the Harvard Health Caucus at Harvard Medical School that were supported, in part, by the Department of Energy. The following policy roundtables and panels were held: Spring 2001 Policy Roundtable Series: The social implications of the Human Genome Project; Spring 2002 Policy Roundtable Series: Managing globalization to improve health; 13 February 2002 Keynote Address: The globalization of health; 25 February 2002 Healthier or Wealthier: Which comes first in the new global era?; 28 February 2002 The crisis of neglected diseases: Creating R&D incentives for diseases of developing countries; 7 March 2002 Health care education in the developing world: Bridging global and local health care practices; 20 March 2002 Building a legal framework for global health: How can the US and UN work to reduce global disparities?; 25 April 2002 The role of mass media and tobacco control efforts. Caucus organizational information is also included.

  20. Policy and Regulatory Roadmaps for the Integration of Distributed Generation and the Development of Sustainable Electricity Networks. Final Report of the SUSTELNET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-08-01

    The SUSTELNET project has been created to identify criteria for a regulatory framework for future electricity markets and network structures that create a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, the objective of the project was to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to a sustainable electricity market and network structure. This report summarizes the results of the project. These results consist of: criteria, guidelines and rationales for a future electricity policy and regulatory framework, an outline for the development of regulatory roadmaps and nine national regulatory roadmaps (for Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia), recommendations for a European regulatory policy on distributed generation and a benchmark study of current Member States policies towards distributed generation

  1. D3.4: Recommendations for common policy across the EU regarding professional development as an element of quality in ECEC and child wellbeing for all. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Iannone, Rosa Lisa

    and exemplary case studies from three European countries (D3.3). The overall aim of the report is to highlight priorities in ECEC professional development, based on WP3’s findings and develop recommendations regarding high-quality provisions for common EU-policies. This led to the identification of six policy...... development; and vi) addressing the vulnerable through professional development. The good practices highlighted in the report have been chosen as examples, given their success. However, these must be regarded as practices that may inspire changes, which must nevertheless be adopted to cultural and systemic...

  2. Biofuels cost developments in the EU27+ until 2030. Full-chain cost assessment and implications of policy options. REFUEL WP4 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.M.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Wakker, A.; De Wit, M.; Junginger, M.; Koenighofer, K; Jungmeier, G.

    2008-02-01

    With the rapid developments in the biofuels domain comes the need for biofuel policies that spur their introduction in a responsible way. The REFUEL project, supported by the EU Intelligent Energy Europe programme, develops a road map for biofuels in the EU27+ up to 2030. This WP4 report shows the results of a full-chain analysis of the costs of different biofuels. Effects of different levels of biofuel target setting were analysed, and also the impact of different additional policy measures, such as the introduction of a CO2 pricing mechanism and specific subsidies

  3. The Career Education Policy Project (CEPP): Connecting Educators, Policymakers, and the Public. Annual Evaluation Report. Final Report, July 1, 1975-June 30, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Jane

    To inform and interconnect educational practitioners, knowledge-makers, policymakers, and the consuming public around the issues and potential of career education, the Career Education Policy Project (CEEP) collaborated with several existing programs to expose out-of-town leaders of the career education movement to the federal policymaking…

  4. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  5. Learning from the Sun. Analysis of the use of experience curves for energy policy purposes. The case of photovoltaic power. Final report of the Photex project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; De Moor, H.H.C.; Alsema, E.; Sark, W.; Durstewicz, M.; Perrin, M.; Boulanger, P.; Laukamp, H.; Zuccaro, C.

    2004-08-01

    Since the 1990s energy policy scientists have started to explore the possibilities of using the experience curve approach for energy policy making. The concept of the experience curve is simple, at least in principle. It states that, for every doubling of cumulative produced capacity of a product or technology, the cost for making it declines with a fixed percentage (learning rate). Historical statistical analysis can be used to define this percentage. Extrapolating the trend thus found, into the future will then give relevant information about future cost developments and will also give information how much 'learning money' will be needed to get to the break-even point. The Photex project used the development of solar PV as a case to further explore this approach, and also to deduce lessons for PV policy. Other aims were to look at learning rates of the different components of PV-systems and to combine the experience curve analyses with bottom-up engineering studies. The main conclusion with regard to the use of experience curves for energy policy making is that this is an interesting approach, but that such an analysis should be done with much care. For the historical analysis the availability of reliable and firm data is essential. As cost data often are not available, price data could be used as a proxy, as long as sufficient long time ranges are used. Also, the analyst should take care he considers the right learning system boundaries. Furthermore the number of years to be included in the statistical analysis should at least be 10 years and this period sample should not over-represent stable price periods or periods of steep price decline. If possible, data uncertainties should be taken into account as well. An interesting finding was that, at least in the case of PV, the learning rate is not a constant, but can vary over time. In the case of PV it improved from 20% to 23%. Extrapolations into the future should take uncertainties into account and always be

  6. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting

  7. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D

    2003-03-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting.

  8. Northwest Energy Policy Project. Institutional constraints and opportunities study module V, Report on tasks 4, 5, 6, and 7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    State governments, along with their counties, cities, public utility districts, and other local units have important responsibilities in the energy field. Their institutions and policy processes offer both constraints and opportunities in the exercise of these responsibilities. The purpose of this study is to explore them in four rather different aspects: Task 4, Public Participation; Task 5, State Rate-Making; Task 6, Siting Energy Facilities; Task 7, Unconventional Energy Sources. Public participation is basic to democratic systems, which strive to develop policies in accord with, or at least not adverse to, the wishes of the people; participation in decision making can be in the market place as well as in the voting booth or the halls of government. The state public utility commissions set rates for investor-owned utilities which supply some 23% of the electricity consumed in Washington, 72% in Oregon, and 92% in Idaho. Rates for electricity supplied by publicly-owned systems are established by their elected governing bodies. For these and other reasons there are many and widely varying rates charged in the Northwest. Siting of energy facilities presents a widely varying framework in the Northwest states also. Task 7 focuses on the institutional constraints and opportunities the states confront in seeking alternatives to the traditional pattern of looking to greater supplies of the conventional sources. Geothermal energy appears to have potential mainly as a heat source in this region. Energy conservation is considered as a policy alternative, although not an energy source. (MCW)

  9. Medicare Program; Cancellation of Advancing Care Coordination Through Episode Payment and Cardiac Rehabilitation Incentive Payment Models; Changes to Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model: Extreme and Uncontrollable Circumstances Policy for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This final rule cancels the Episode Payment Models (EPMs) and Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) Incentive Payment Model and rescinds the regulations governing these models. It also implements certain revisions to the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, including: Giving certain hospitals selected for participation in the CJR model a one-time option to choose whether to continue their participation in the model; technical refinements and clarifications for certain payment, reconciliation and quality provisions; and a change to increase the pool of eligible clinicians that qualify as affiliated practitioners under the Advanced Alternative Payment Model (Advanced APM) track. An interim final rule with comment period is being issued in conjunction with this final rule in order to address the need for a policy to provide some flexibility in the determination of episode costs for providers located in areas impacted by extreme and uncontrollable circumstances.

  10. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  11. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  12. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  13. Creating a strategy for science-based national policy: Addressing conflicting views on the health risk of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, Wingspread Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.; Apple, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Significant cancer risk for adults exposed to more than 100 millisieverts (10 REM) of ionizing radiation. More research on low-level ionizing radiation is needed in molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury and ongoing exposed populations. Implementation costs should be considered in regulating low-level ionizing radiation. Comparative risk assessment is a powerful tool for risk-based policy formation, and conflicting legal statutes should become harmonized for radiation regulation. More public dialog on low-level radiation is needed. A high level commission should evaluate radiation hazard control practices

  14. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  15. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Improved carbon management with EU Regional Policy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schram, J. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Amerighi, O. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Ten Donkelaar, M. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model supports national and regional authorities in making balanced decisions for their investment portfolio under their regional development programmes, in particular under their Operational Programmes of EU Regional Policy. The EU's climate objectives require that investments across the EU are channeled towards low-carbon development. The carbon impacts of investments should therefore be seriously considered in the decision making process of regional development programmes. The CO2MPARE model informs national and regional authorities on the impacts that the investments under various Operational Programmes can have in terms of CO2 emissions. Knowing which investments lead either to additional emissions or rather to emission reductions, and what the overall impact of a programme is, represents the first step towards investment decisions that have decarbonisation co-benefits. CO2MPARE estimates the combined carbon impact of all activities that take place under a programme, and provides insights into the relative contributions of the different themes. Through its high aggregation level, it allows comparison of investment scenarios rather than individual projects. As such, it aims to support informed decisions on investment strategies rather than project investment decisions. In doing so, it also helps to build and develop a 'carbon culture' within the authorities directly or indirectly in charge of managing Regional Policy Operational Programmes. The model is primarily aimed at Operational Programmes co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

  16. Light-weight plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  17. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  18. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  19. Climate protection in Germany. Final report on the research project policy scenarios III; Klimaschutz in Deutschland bis 2030. Endbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben Politikszenarien III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen; Hopf, Rainer; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), Berlin (DE)] (and others)

    2005-01-15

    One goal of the study was the evaluation of single greenhouse gas reduction measures which are part of the national climate protection program initiated in the year 2000 by the German Government. Within the project the potentials of greenhouse gas emissions reduction of single measures have been quantified up to the year 2010. Taken all the impacts of the measures into account, it seems to be possible to reduce the overall greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 20 % by the year 2010. 70 % of the reduction is caused by CO2 emissions reduction and 30 % by a reduction of other non-CO2 emissions. It should be emphasised that 38 million tonnes of CO2 can be reduced by forcing the use of renewable energies. However, to achieve the German's ''burden sharing'' goal of a 21 % emissions reduction by the year 2010 additional measures will be necessary. To analyse emissions reduction strategies for a long-term view (up to 2030) additional scenarios have been developed. The analysis shows that there are still technical options to reduce CO2 emissions by 30 to 40 % by the year 2030. In the case of such ambitious reduction targets measures in all sectors of the energy system have to be implemented. The costs of the different mitigation strategies are strongly correlated with the framework of energy and climate protection policies. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of 3- and 20-Gradient Direction Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in a Clinical Subacute Cohort of Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack: Application of Standard Vendor Protocols for Lesion Detection and Final Infarct Size Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Havsteen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDiffusion tensor imaging may aid brain ischemia assessment but is more time consuming than conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. We compared 3-gradient direction DWI (3DWI and 20-gradient direction DWI (20DWI standard vendor protocols in a hospital-based prospective cohort of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA for lesion detection, lesion brightness, predictability of persisting infarction, and final infarct size.MethodsWe performed 3T-magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion and T2-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR within 72 h and 8 weeks after ictus. Qualitative lesion brightness was assessed by visual inspection. We measured lesion area and brightness with manual regions of interest and compared with homologous normal tissue.Results117 patients with clinical TIA showed 78 DWI lesions. 2 lesions showed only on 3DWI. No lesions were uniquely 20DWI positive. 3DWI was visually brightest for 34 lesions. 12 lesions were brightest on 20DWI. The median 3DWI lesion area was larger for lesions equally bright, or brightest on 20DWI [median (IQR 39 (18–95 versus 18 (10–34 mm2, P = 0.007]. 3DWI showed highest measured relative lesion signal intensity [median (IQR 0.77 (0.48–1.17 versus 0.58 (0.34–0.81, P = 0.0006]. 3DWI relative lesion signal intensity was not correlated to absolute signal intensity, but 20DWI performed less well for low-contrast lesions. 3DWI lesion size was an independent predictor of persistent infarction. 3-gradient direction apparent diffusion coefficient areas were closest to 8-week FLAIR infarct size.Conclusion3DWI detected more lesions and had higher relative lesion SI than 20DWI. 20DWI appeared blurred and did not add information.Clinical Trial Registrationhttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier NCT01531946.

  1. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  2. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  3. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  4. Medicare program; payment policies under the physician fee schedule, five-year review of work relative value units, clinical laboratory fee schedule: signature on requisition, and other revisions to part B for CY 2012. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    This final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. It also addresses, implements or discusses certain statutory provisions including provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act) and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008. In addition, this final rule with comment period discusses payments for Part B drugs; Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule: Signature on Requisition; Physician Quality Reporting System; the Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program; the Physician Resource-Use Feedback Program and the value modifier; productivity adjustment for ambulatory surgical center payment system and the ambulance, clinical laboratory, and durable medical equipment prosthetics orthotics and supplies (DMEPOS) fee schedules; and other Part B related issues.

  5. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  6. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  7. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  8. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the Physician Fee Schedule, Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule, access to identifiable data for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation Models & other revisions to Part B for CY 2015. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    This major final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule, and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in this rule.

  9. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  12. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  13. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  14. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate. It adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange interventions, where the weights are their effectiveness. The

  15. Off-policy reinforcement learning for H∞ control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-01-01

    The H∞ control design problem is considered for nonlinear systems with unknown internal system model. It is known that the nonlinear H∞ control problem can be transformed into solving the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, model-based approaches cannot be used for approximately solving HJI equation, when the accurate system model is unavailable or costly to obtain in practice. To overcome these difficulties, an off-policy reinforcement leaning (RL) method is introduced to learn the solution of HJI equation from real system data instead of mathematical system model, and its convergence is proved. In the off-policy RL method, the system data can be generated with arbitrary policies rather than the evaluating policy, which is extremely important and promising for practical systems. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)-based actor-critic structure is employed and a least-square NN weight update algorithm is derived based on the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed NN-based off-policy RL method is tested on a linear F16 aircraft plant, and further applied to a rotational/translational actuator system.

  16. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  17. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  18. Discrete fourier transformations with weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Jiang Yong

    1988-01-01

    DFT and FFT with weight were considered and their properties were studied. The usual DFT and FFT were modified by reducing the number of sample points within a certain error band and therefore speeded up the computation. Finally, the practical applications of the new method in the fields of spectrum analysis, pulse tracing research and so on were pointed out

  19. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  20. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  2. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. Methods In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety. In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety. In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Results Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. Conclusions This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The

  3. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  4. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  5. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  6. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  7. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  8. Weighted Lomax distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, N M

    2016-01-01

    The Lomax distribution (Pareto Type-II) is widely applicable in reliability and life testing problems in engineering as well as in survival analysis as an alternative distribution. In this paper, Weighted Lomax distribution is proposed and studied. The density function and its behavior, moments, hazard and survival functions, mean residual life and reversed failure rate, extreme values distributions and order statistics are derived and studied. The parameters of this distribution are estimated by the method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimation method and the observed information matrix is derived. Moreover, simulation schemes are derived. Finally, an application of the model to a real data set is presented and compared with some other well-known distributions.

  9. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Proposed California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan Amendment (PA)/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Facility (OWEF) and by this notice is announcing the availability of the Proposed PA and Final EIS/EIR.

  10. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  11. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  13. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  14. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  15. Distance Education and Open Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: Criteria and Conditions for Quality and Critical Success Factor-- Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. A Survey of Policy and Practice. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Both of these "Surveys of policy and practice" were conducted on behalf of COL by the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) as part of COL's partnership agreement with the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. The first report identifies…

  16. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  17. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  18. SUSTAINABILITY OF FISCAL POLICY. CASE OF ROMANIA*

    OpenAIRE

    Ionuţ-Cătălin Croitoru

    2012-01-01

    The Sustainability of fiscal policy is one of the key concerns of each state, especially in periods of macroeconomic imbalance. This study aims to explore the concept of sustainability of Romanian’s fiscal policy. The analysis starts from the definition of sustainability of fiscal policy and its assessment methods. The work is based on the idea that a sustainable fiscal policy ensure sufficient financial resources for long-term to reduce public debt to GDP weighting and provide permits for gr...

  19. Decommissioning policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Boge, R.; Snihs, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

  20. Decommissioning policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Boge, R.; Snihs, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. The first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy is discussed. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint

  1. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of radioactive waste management policy: final conclusions. Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Environment, the Secretary of State for Scotland and the Secretary of State for Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The United Kingdom Government White Paper sets out the conclusions of a review of the nation's policy on radioactive waste management, following a consultation procedure. This review is closely linked to a Government review of the future prospects of nuclear power in the United Kingdom. The primary aim of this review has been to ensure that radioactive waste, whether produced by public or private sector operations, is managed properly, without unacceptable radiation risks to people and the environment. (UK)

  3. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  4. The role of policy for documentary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mata Caravaca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that policies have in guaranteeing the quality of creation, management and maintenance of digital resources, and offers an overview of national and international policies and standards that refer to records management and digital preservation. Finally, the article illustrates ICCROM’s records management manual and its digital preservation policy and strategy.

  5. SAVE - energy efficiency in Germany 1990-2000. Report based on the ODYSSEE data base on energy efficiency indicators and the MURE data base on energy efficiency policy measures with the support from SAVE. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Schlomann, B.

    2002-03-01

    This reports presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in Germany on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE programme. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2000. The year 1990 could however not be considered for all indicators, because most of the economic and some energy consumption data for Germany are only available since 1991. The analysis also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency, with a focus on the latest years until February 2002. All these measures are extracted from the MURE data base also updated within the SAVE programme. The report starts with a review on data collection and the recent trends in the general context of energy efficiency, i. e. economic and energy consumption development, energy and environmental policy and energy price trends (Chapter 2). Afterwards, the energy efficiency trends are described both at the level of the whole economy and at sectoral level (Chapter 3). In Chapter 4 the development in one sector - transport - is described more detailed. For the other sectors (industry, residential, tertiary) Annex 2 presents a selection of commented graphs that show the trends for the main indicators. An overview of the most important measures in the field of energy efficiency policy in the end-use sectors in Germany is given in Annex 1. A more detailed description of the most recent measures is presented in Annex 3. (orig.)

  6. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying until October 1, 2001, the effective date and reopening the administrative record to receive additional comments regarding certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The other provisions of the final rule become effective on December 4, 2000. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA) and the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). FDA is delaying the effective date for certain requirements relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record. FDA is also delaying the effective date of another requirement that would prohibit blood centers functioning as "health care entities" to act as wholesale distributors of blood derivatives. The agency is taking this action to address numerous concerns about the provisions raised by affected parties.

  7. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  8. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognise their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialisation; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  9. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    2016-01-01

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognize their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialization; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  10. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome? on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...

  11. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  12. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  13. Medicare program; update of ratesetting methodology, payment rates, payment policies, and the list of covered procedures for ambulatory surgical centers effective October 1, 1998; reopening of comment period and delay in adoption of the proposed rule as final--HCFA. Notice of reopening of comment period for proposed rule and delay in adoption of provisions of the proposed rule as final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This notice reopens the comment period for a proposed rule affecting Medicare payments to ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) that was originally published in the Federal Register on June 12, 1998 (63 FR 32290). This document gives notice of a delay in the adoption of the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule as a final rule to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (PPS) that is the subject of a proposed rule published in the Federal Register on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 47551). In addition this document confirms that the current ASC payment rates that are effective for services furnished on or after October 1, 1998, will remain in effect until rebased ASC rates and the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule are adopted as final to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the Medicare hospital PPS.

  14. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific Branches Grants Management Branch (GMB) Office of Committee Management ( ...

  15. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  16. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  18. The argument for pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-02-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy.

  19. Policy elements for post-accident management in the event of nuclear accident. Document drawn up by the Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident (CODIRPA). Final version - 5 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Inter-ministerial Directive on the Action of the Public Authorities, dated 7 April 2005, in the face of an event triggering a radiological emergency, the National directorate on nuclear safety and radiation protection (DGSNR), which became the Nuclear safety authority (ASN) in 2006, was tasked with working the relevant Ministerial offices in order to set out the framework and outline, prepare and implement the provisions needed to address post-accident situations arising from a nuclear accident. In June 2005, the ASN set up a Steering committee for the management of the post-accident phase in the event of nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation (CODIRPA), put in charge of drafting the related policy elements. To carry out its work, CODIRPA set up a number of thematic working groups from 2005 on, involving in total several hundred experts from different backgrounds (local information commissions, associations, elected officials, health agencies, expertise agencies, authorities, etc.). The working groups reports have been published by the ASN. Experiments on the policy elements under construction were carried out at the local level in 2010 across three nuclear sites and several of the neighbouring municipalities, as well as during national crisis drills conducted since 2008. These works gave rise to two international conferences organised by ASN in 2007 and 2011. The policy elements prepared by CODIRPA were drafted in regard to nuclear accidents of medium scale causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 hours) that might occur at French nuclear facilities equipped with a special intervention plan (PPI). They also apply to actions to be carried out in the event of accidents during the transport of radioactive materials. Following definitions of each stage of a nuclear accident, this document lists the principles selected by CODIRPA to support management efforts subsequent to a nuclear accident. Then, it presents the main

  20. The impact of monetary policy on output and inflation in India: A frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunkhe Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, several attempts by the RBI to control inflation through tight monetary policy have ended up slowing the growth process, thereby provoking prolonged discussion among academics and policymakers about the efficacy of monetary policy in India. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between monetary policy and its final objectives; i.e., growth, and controlling inflation in India. The methodological tool used is testing for Granger Causality in the frequency domain as developed by Lemmens et al. (2008, and monetary policy has been proxied by the weighted average call money rate. In view of the fact that output gap is one of the determinants of future inflation, an attempt has also been made to study the causal relationship between output gap and inflation. The results of empirical estimation show a bi-directional causality between policy rate and inflation and between policy rate and output, which implies that the monetary authorities in India were equally concerned about inflation and output growth when determining policy. Furthermore, any attempt to control inflation affects output with the same or even greater magnitude than inflation, thereby damaging the growth process. The relationship between output gap and inflation was found to be positive, as reported in earlier studies for India. Furthermore, the output gap causes inflation only in the short-tomediumrun.

  1. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  3. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Structural Underpinnings of Policy Learning: A Classroom Policy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen

    This paper investigates the relationship between the centrality of individual actors in a social network structure and their policy learning performance. In a dynamic comparable to real-world policy networks, results from a classroom simulation demonstrate a strong relationship between centrality in social learning networks and grade performance. Previous research indicates that social network centrality should have a positive effect on learning in other contexts and this link is tested in a policy learning context. Second, the distinction between collaborative learning versus information diffusion processes in policy learning is examined. Third, frequency of interaction is analyzed to determine whether consistent, frequent tics have a greater impact on the learning process. Finally, the data arc analyzed to determine if the benefits of centrality have limitations or thresholds when benefits no longer accrue. These results demonstrate the importance of network structure, and support a collaborative conceptualization of the policy learning process.

  7. Weightlifting, weight training and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J R

    1985-08-01

    Although millions of men and women in the United States are regularly involved in some form of weightlifting, the average physician knows, and frequently cares, little about the sports involved. As a result, his or her knowledge of the medical and physiological issues involved is limited This article attempts to address this lack by beginning with a brief introductory section outlining some of the similarities differences between the major weight lifting approaches (power lifting, olympic lifting, weight training and body building). Next it reviews major issues and controversies such as age restrictions for lifters, physiological effects, drug use, potential strength gains and hypertrophy. Finally, it discusses some of the more frequent and unique injuries that can occur in lifters.

  8. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Progress and Future Challenges in Implementing the HLG-MR Policy Principles: Final Report of the Second Mandate of the HLG-MR (2011-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2013-09-01

    At the request of its member countries, the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo)/technetium-99m (' 99m Tc). In April 2009, the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) was created and received an initial, two-year mandate from the NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to examine the causes of supply shortages of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc and develop a policy approach to address those causes. In its second mandate (2011-2013), the HLG-MR has given priority to the implementation by supply chain participants of the first two policy principles - on full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity for 99 Mo production, in a timely and globally consistent manner. To that end, the NEA, in co-operation with key stakeholders, has created methodologies for calculating full costs and valuing and paying for outage reserve capacity. It issued reports on these methodologies and their implementation, which are particularly useful to the upstream segment of the industry (reactor operators and processors), where the most changes need to occur for long-term market sustainability (Sections 2 and 3 of this report). The NEA has also worked with key stakeholders to ensure that the methodologies are applied in a consistent manner. Additionally, in its second mandate, the HLG-MR has focused on working with governments to accelerate the withdrawal of public funds to support reactors and processors, thus helping drive the process towards full-cost recovery and the provision of outage reserve capacity. To better understand the transition from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets for 99 Mo production, the HLG-MR requested that the NEA undertake a project to study the impacts on the 99 Mo/' 99m Tc supply chain and propose actions to support this transition. This work resulted in the release of two reports - one on the

  9. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  10. Goodnip - Good Practices in Nordic Innovation Policies. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Jensen, Søren Christrup; Edwards, Kasper

    Innovation policy trends and rationalities. The main chapter gives a comparison of contemporary innovation policies and policy instruments in the Nordic countries. There is in another chapter a discussion of how policy development actually takes place. Finally there is a presentation of reelvant ...

  11. Thyroid weight with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R.

    1965-01-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [fr

  12. Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy. Results from the computable induced technical change and energy (CITE) model - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-09-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the Computable Induced Technical Change and Energy (CITE) model. The authors note that, in the past two centuries, the Swiss economy experienced an unprecedented increase in living standards. At the same time, the stock of various natural resources declined and the environmental conditions changed substantially. The evaluation of the sustainability of a low energy and low carbon society as well as an optimum transition to this state is discussed. An economic analysis is made and the CITE and GCE (Computable General Equilibrium) numerical simulation models are discussed. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  13. The policies of supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moher, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the nuclear non-proliferation element of the policies of supplier nations. These policies include economic, commercial, resource management, financial and technological aspects. The evolution of the nuclear export policies of supplier nations is considered. The challenges facing the non-proliferation regime are looked at. Finally, the progress made is reviewed. Although this has been considerable, further work is necessary and this is mentioned. The postscript assesses the situation following the successful Third NPT Review Conference held in 1985. (U.K.)

  14. Há aumento do peso corporal nos finais de semana e nas festas de final de ano? Análise em participantes de programa de exercício supervisionado ¿Hay aumento del peso corporal en las fiestas de final de año? Análisis en participantes de un programa de ejercicio supervisado Are there increases on the body weight during weekends and New Year celebrations? Analysis on participants in a supervised exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Gomes

    2004-06-01

    corporal. El peso corporal fue registrado antes de cada sesión, siendo registrado en dos semanas del mes de noviembre y en dos sesiones pre y post dias de las fiestas de fin de año. RESULTADOS: Hubo estabilidad en el peso corporal (media ± error padrón 74,6 ± 1,7 vs. 74,6 ± 1,7 kg -, respectivamente, antes y después del final de semana (p = 0,382, en cuanto hubo un aumento pequeño, por significativo, con las fiestas de fin de año - 74,3 ± 1,7 vs. 74,9 ± 1,7 kg - (p OBJECTIVE: It is believed that adults' body weight (BW tends to increase during weekend days, either through the higher ingestion or through the reduction of exercises. We had as objective to verify whether or not the BW increases during weekend days and New Year celebrations. METHODS: We analyzed, retrospectively, data from 53 adults (36 men with ages ranging from 38 to 81 years (64 ± 10, who attended a supervised exercise program three to six weekly 60-minute sessions, including aerobic exercises, muscular strengthening and flexibility, individually prescribed. Those who missed over than 25% of sessions, more than two consecutive weeks or those who made use of diuretic or other remedies capable to affect the BW were excluded from the study. The BW was recorded before each session. Data from two weeks recorded during the month of November and from two pre and post-New Year celebration sessions were recorded. RESULTS: The BW was stable (average ± standard deviation 74.6 ± 1.7 vs. 74.6 ± 1.7 kg -, respectively, before and after the weekend days (p = 0.382, while a small but significant increase during the New Year celebrations was observed 74.3 ± 1.7 vs. 74.9 ± 1.7 kg - (p < 0.001. Gains above 1 and 2% of the BW (individual maximum of 3.8% during the New Year celebrations were observed, respectively, in only nine (16.9% and six (11.3% of individuals, with higher absolute variations in the heaviest individuals. DISCUSSION: In adults who attended a supervised exercise program, the impact of the

  15. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition, physical fitness, and combat readiness. The H.E.A.L.T.H. study is a cluster (group...of nutrition, fitness, sleep and mind / body health. During Year 7, final analyses for the LANG study will be conducted and further dissemination of...entry – start weight)/start weight 21 Key Lessons Key Lessons to date indicate: • Novel interventions are needed to promote healthy body weight

  16. A Weighted Configuration Model and Inhomogeneous Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Tom; Deijfen, Maria; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2011-12-01

    A random graph model with prescribed degree distribution and degree dependent edge weights is introduced. Each vertex is independently equipped with a random number of half-edges and each half-edge is assigned an integer valued weight according to a distribution that is allowed to depend on the degree of its vertex. Half-edges with the same weight are then paired randomly to create edges. An expression for the threshold for the appearance of a giant component in the resulting graph is derived using results on multi-type branching processes. The same technique also gives an expression for the basic reproduction number for an epidemic on the graph where the probability that a certain edge is used for transmission is a function of the edge weight (reflecting how closely `connected' the corresponding vertices are). It is demonstrated that, if vertices with large degree tend to have large (small) weights on their edges and if the transmission probability increases with the edge weight, then it is easier (harder) for the epidemic to take off compared to a randomized epidemic with the same degree and weight distribution. A recipe for calculating the probability of a large outbreak in the epidemic and the size of such an outbreak is also given. Finally, the model is fitted to three empirical weighted networks of importance for the spread of contagious diseases and it is shown that R 0 can be substantially over- or underestimated if the correlation between degree and weight is not taken into account.

  17. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and Fiscal Year 2014 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; hospital conditions of participation; payment policies related to patient status. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of the changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act) and other legislation. These changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2013, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits will be effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2013. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes that were applied to the LTCH PPS by the Affordable Care Act. Generally, these updates and statutory changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2013, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or have revised requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs)) that are participating in Medicare. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program and the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. In addition, we are revising the conditions of participation (CoPs) for hospitals relating to the

  18. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  19. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  20. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  1. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  2. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  3. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  4. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. Informed ... more evidence-based policy on social ... Community involvement is key to the success of CBMS in reducing poverty. IDRC ... nationwide network of “telecentres” that ... and holidays for young people to use for ... National Conference on Youth led to the.

  5. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  6. Fiscal policy and the global financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

     The financial crisis raises demands for fiscal policy interventions. While a fall in aggregate demand is an important consequence of the crisis, it also reflects more underlying structural problems and changes. Hence, appropriate policy designs have to take account of the nature of the crisis......-run objectives are discussed. Past experience shows that deep recessions become persistent due to marginalization of unemployed, and therefore labour market policies have to be considered as an integral part of policy packages. Finally the question of international policy coordination is addressed....

  7. Regulation - renewable energies finally liberated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosseville, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within the context defined by the new French policy for energy transition, notably in terms of share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, France seems to be somehow late in the development of these energies: about 1 GW of wind energy are installed each year when the expected pace would be 1,5 GW, and the photovoltaic market is shrinking. As the legal context is important, this article proposes an overview of the evolution of the French policy during the last four years which started with interesting measures. Recently, the government showed its will to liberate renewable energies from several constraints. Some legal procedures tend to slow down the development. Some advances could therefore be made, for example to make rules less complex and numerous. The different situations of the wind and biogas sectors are evoked, as well as new opportunities created by a new decree on investment planning

  8. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  9. Optimal Weighting for Exam Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ganzfried

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A problem faced by many instructors is that of designing exams that accurately assess the abilities of the students. Typically, these exams are prepared several days in advance, and generic question scores are used based on rough approximation of the question difficulty and length. For example, for a recent class taught by the author, there were 30 multiple choice questions worth 3 points, 15 true/false with explanation questions worth 4 points, and 5 analytical exercises worth 10 points. We describe a novel framework where algorithms from machine learning are used to modify the exam question weights in order to optimize the exam scores, using the overall final score as a proxy for a student’s true ability. We show that significant error reduction can be obtained by our approach over standard weighting schemes, i.e., for the final and midterm exam, the mean absolute error for prediction decreases by 90.58% and 97.70% for linear regression approach respectively resulting in better estimation. We make several new observations regarding the properties of the “good” and “bad” exam questions that can have impact on the design of improved future evaluation methods.

  10. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2017. Some of these changes will implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Notice of Observation Treatment and Implications for Care Eligibility Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are providing the estimated market basket update to apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2017. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2017. In addition, we are making changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education payments; establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities), including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program; implementing statutory provisions that require hospitals and CAHs to furnish notification to Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare Advantage enrollees, when the beneficiaries receive outpatient observation services for more than 24 hours; announcing the implementation of the Frontier Community Health Integration Project Demonstration; and

  11. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.

  12. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix. (paper)

  13. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

  15. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  16. Informatization Level Assessment Framework and Educational Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sekulovska; Pece Mitrevski

    2018-01-01

    Seeing the informatization as a measure of the educational policy, we propose an informatization level assessment framework and introduce a composite indicator – Education Informatization Index, calculated as a weighted sum by applying the Rank-Order Centroid method for weight designation. Although it is made up of only two main categories (Educational Policy Implementation subindex and Educational Policy Creation subindex) and a total of six individual indicators, it captures well all the so...

  17. Weighted Bergman Kernels for Logarithmic Weights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 781-813 ISSN 1558-8599 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Bergman kernel * Toeplitz operator * logarithmic weight * pseudodifferential operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2010 http://www.intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/pamq/content/vols/0006/0003/a008/

  18. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  19. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  20. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  1. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  2. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  3. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  4. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  5. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  6. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  8. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  9. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  10. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  11. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  12. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  13. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    . The paper finally argues that, although in practice, policy makers generally tend to make incremental choices that are reactive to diverse issues, new industries could adopt more precautionary policies based on processes of public negotiation, analytical decision making and regional planning based......This paper argues that regulatory processes and outcomes in the context of a new industry could respond to mechanisms and factors that shape governmental agendas, illustrating how policy can behave reactively rather than in a precautionary manner. In the case of salmon aquaculture, an emerging...... industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes...

  14. An objective approach to determining criteria weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić R. Milićević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an objective approach to determining criteria weights that can be successfully used in multiple criteria models. The methods of entropy, CRITIC and FANMA are presented in this paper as well as a possible combination of the methods of objective and subjective approaches. Although based on different theoretical settings, and therefore with different algorithms of realization, all methods have a decision matrix as a starting point. An objective approach to determining the weight of criteria eliminates the negative impacts of a decision maker on criteria weights as well as on the final solution of multicriteria problems. The main aim of this paper is to systematize description procedures as a kind of help when encountering a problem of determining the criteria weights for solving multicriteria tasks. A possibility of the method application is shown in a numerical example.

  15. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the Physician Fee Schedule, and other part B payment policies for CY 2008; delay of the date of applicability of the revised anti-markup provisions for certain services furnished in certain locations (Sec. 414.50). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-03

    This final rule delays until January 1, 2009 the applicability of the anti-markup provisions in Sec. 414.50, as revised at 72 FR 66222, except with respect to the technical component of a purchased diagnostic test and with respect to any anatomic pathology diagnostic testing services furnished in space that: Is utilized by a physician group practice as a "centralized building" (as defined at Sec. 411.351 of this chapter) for purposes of complying with the physician self-referral rules; and does not qualify as a "same building" under Sec. 411.355(b)(2)(i) of this chapter.

  16. POPULATION POLICY OR SOCIAL POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI STANOIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1989, the demographic situation of Romania population experienced a dramatic, very concerning and dangerous evolution trend. One of the first measures of the new political power was to abolish the very restrictive, anti-human and abusive legal regulation adopted in 1966 by the communist regime concerning abortion and the whole old demographic policy. As a result of this measure and of the worsening economic and social situation of the great majority of Romanian population, the birth rate declined sharply and, from 1992, the natural demographic growth rate became a negative one. The absolute number of Romanian population decreased more and more and, if nothing changes, in the next few decades it will be no bigger than 15 million people. At the same time, the process of demographic ageing of population will accentuate, generating serious problems from demographic and social-economic point of view, Taking into account the present demographic situation and, especially, the foreseen trend of evolution, it is more than clear that there should be taken some urgent, coherent and consistent measures in order to stop this dangerous demographic evolution, until it is not too late, and to avoid, as much as possible, a potential demographic disaster. The problem is: what kind of measures should be taken and what kind of policy should be adopted? Some social scientists believe that a new population policy should be adopted; some others believe that rather a social policy should be adopted. The purpose of my paper is to analyze this different opinions and to show that, behind the dispute on the terminology, should be taken consistent measures, at governmental level, in order to assure a substantial improvement of demographic situation, not only from a quantitative, but from a qualitative point of view as well, and to identify some of these kind of measures.

  17. 78 FR 69817 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and Amended Final Results of Administrative Review of the..., which recalculated the weighted-average duty margin for polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from... Packaging at the CIT. \\2\\ See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final Results and Partial...

  18. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  19. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Beyond the physical aspects of weight, the psychological mean- ing sees the virtues of ... sion in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediat- rics 2002 ... or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related.

  20. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  1. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  2. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting......, upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social...

  3. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance association is mediated by weight status in adolescents: DADOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Valls, María Reyes; Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-04-28

    The aim of our study was to examine the mediation effect of weight status on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and academic performance (AP). Two hundred sixty-nine adolescents (140 boys) aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years old from the DADOS study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test and estimated maximum oxygen uptake was used in the analysis. AP was assessed through the final academic grades and the Science Research Associates Test of Educational Abilities for assessing reasoning, verbal, and numeric abilities. Weight status was assessed by body mass index (kg/m 2 ). Boot-strapped mediation procedures were performed and indirect effects (IE) with confidence intervals (CI) not including zero were considered statistically significant. Mediation analysis revealed that weight status acted as a mediator of the relationship of CRF with reasoning ability (IE = 0.039; CI = 0.001; 0.091) and the final grades in Math (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.002; 0.025), Language (IE = 0.013; CI = 0.004; 0.027), and GPA (IE = 0.011; CI = 0.003; 0.023). Our data show that the influence of CRF on academic performance is mediated by weight status in adolescents. We suggest that our data could be considered by educators, families, and policy makers, so that active lifestyles might be promoted when designing programs aimed to improve AP among adolescents. What is Known: • Academic performance is associated with both, cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status. • The role of weight status in the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic performance is poorly understood. What is New: • We support the scarce research investigating the mediating role of weight status as mechanism in the association between fitness and academic performance in youth. • Previous knowledge is expanded by suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness is related to weight status which in turn may

  5. Ethical aspects of final disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Leder, W.; Achenbach, G.B.; Spaemann, R.; Gerhardt, V.

    2003-01-01

    In fulfilment of this task the Federal Environmental Ministry has commissioned GRS to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects of the final disposal of radioactive wastes as part of the project titled ''Final disposal of radioactive wastes as seen from the viewpoint of ethical objectives''. The questions arising from the opinions, positions and publications presented in the report by GRS were to serve as a basis for an expert discussion or an interdisciplinary discussion forum for all concerned with the ethical aspects of an answerable approach to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. In April 2001 GRS held a one-day seminar at which leading ethicists and philosophers offered statements on the questions referred to above and joined in a discussion with experts on issues of final disposal. This report documents the questions that arose ahead of the workshop, the specialist lectures held there and a summary of the discussion results [de

  6. OWNERSHIP POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Branovitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ownership policy in Ukraine. It makes a survey of the following: the current situation at state-run enterprises and their efficiency; the key criteria of the classification of state-run enterprises for the privatization for the period of 2017-2020. The article evaluates the institutional changes coming from a new law on the privatization of state-owned property in Ukraine. It reveals the stages of making the ownership policy as a state strategy. It describes the measures meant to raise efficiency in the area of the public property management. The article assesses the state of play of the stock market in Ukraine as a mechanism to attract money to the real economy. It recommends attracting foreign investment to the public sector of economy following the restructuring process via IPO or sale to a strategic investor (Private equity. It considers the positive aspects in the completion of active privatization and the scope of the main privatization risks.

  7. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  8. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  9. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  10. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  11. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  12. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  13. Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons from the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines what we have learned and how we should change our thinking about monetary policy strategy in the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis. It starts with a discussion of where the science of monetary policy was before the crisis and how central banks viewed monetary policy strategy. It will then examine how the crisis has changed the thinking of both macro/monetary economists and central bankers. Finally, it looks how much of the science of monetary policy needs to be a...

  14. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Amendments to Policy Directive. SUMMARY: This document announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR...

  15. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  16. 75 FR 2109 - Notice of Availability of Final Contracting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...-sector companies available to State and local government entities that have a need for the services... will continue to examine ways to improve its contracting processes, including minimizing the turnover frequency of contracting personnel and reducing the length of time required to award contracts and task...

  17. 75 FR 11181 - Issuance of Final Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... this both Native Language FOAs provide opportunities for teacher training for all types of schools and... funds to language survival schools, language nests, and language restoration programs; however, the type... School Projects: working toward a goal of all students achieving fluency in a Native American language...

  18. 76 FR 34773 - Final Safety Culture Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    .... For example, industry representatives could begin to identify tacit organizational and personal goals... with NRC-regulated activities. Experience has shown that certain personal and organizational traits are present in a positive safety culture. A trait, in this case, is a pattern of thinking, feeling, and...

  19. 78 FR 27419 - Final Safety Culture Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... organizational characteristics are present in a culture that promotes safety and environmental responsibility. A characteristic, in this case, is a pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving that emphasizes safety...

  20. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  2. 76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection prior to a change in the assumed average weight per person standard that will become effective in... several factors, including the total weight of people carried based on an Assumed Average Weight per... reason, the policy letter referred to in this notice provides supplemental guidance to the implementation...

  3. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther

    2016-01-01

    . It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...... and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...... specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long...

  4. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  5. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, ' A ought to X ' means that X -ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims.

  6. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  7. Environmental policy (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    With a defined set of policy goals, policy makers face an important decision on how and at what cost to the economy environmental compliance can be achieved. The costs of environmental compliance for Macedonia are still to be determined. However, environmental cost estimates, even those done with the highest degree of precision will not provide the actual burden that the society will face. The level of actual costs and their distribution in the economy will depend on the type of instruments that will be used by policy makers. In general, there are two policy options to be considered, namely command and control which relies on administrative instruments and market based which uses economic instrument. The command and control based environmental policy requires that ambient standards, emission standards and new source performance standards are in place, together with a permitting system and compliance monitoring to ensure enforcement. A market based environmental policy aims at achieving higher levels of environmental quality by correcting the imperfections of the market. This is done by what is called internalizing negative environmental externalities. In simple words, polluters are forced to pay a pollution charge or a tax and include the costs of pollution in the costs of production and finally in the prices of goods. (author)

  8. Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim

    A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....

  9. Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

  10. The Free Senior High Policy: An Appropriate Replacement to the Progressive Free Senior High Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahaman, Nurudeen; Rahaman, Abdul Basit Abdul; Ming, Wan; Ahmed, Abdul-Rahim; Salma, Abdul-Rahaman S.

    2018-01-01

    Governments all over the world have been improving their educational sector through funding programs aimed at reducing the financial burden on parents, increasing access and quality to education. The government of Ghana in 2017 switched policy to a free senior high school policy to reduce poverty by finally eliminating the financial burdens…

  11. Re-orientation of American energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, H

    1981-01-01

    The new organization of American economic policy has shown some effects also in the sectoral policies apart from the revision of the concept, new focuses in economic policy - e.g. the struggle against inflation - and the structural re-orientation concerning the role of the government as well as the private sector. Energy policy can be regarded as a paradigm of Reagan's concept of a 'supply-oriented economic policy'. The following contribution gives a survey of the outlines of American energy policy. Chapter one sketches the philosophy of 'supply-oriented' economic policy which is in obvious contrast to the former practice of American energy policy (chapter two). Chapter three deals with the essential problem of the new approach, the deregulation of the price controls especially for natural gas. Chapter four comments on measures of tax policy. Chapter five deals with the price-independent deregulation and the sectors concerned, i.e. coal, electricity and nuclears. Chapter six discusses the governmental quantity policy (distribution of licences). Chapter seven explains the policy of research promotion for synthetic gas. Finally an assessment is made.

  12. The experience of weight management in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann; Hernandez, David A; Wellington, Christine M; Kidd, Art

    2016-11-01

    No prior research has been done with normal weight persons specific to their experience of weight management. The purpose of this research was to discover the experience of weight management in normal weight individuals. Glaserian grounded theory was used. Qualitative data (focus group) and quantitative data (food diary, study questionnaire, and anthropometric measures) were collected. Weight management was an ongoing process of trying to focus on living (family, work, and social), while maintaining their normal weight targets through five consciously and unconsciously used strategies. Despite maintaining normal weights, the nutritional composition of foods eaten was grossly inadequate. These five strategies can be used to develop new weight management strategies that could be integrated into existing weight management programs, or could be developed into novel weight management interventions. Surprisingly, normal weight individuals require dietary assessment and nutrition education to prevent future negative health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Weight isn't selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggs, Enrica N; Hebl, Michelle R; Williams, Amber

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the literature on the stigma of obesity has grown but there still remains a paucity of research examining specific issues associated with its impact in the workplace. In the current study, we examine 3 such issues related to the influence of weight-based stigmatization in retail settings. First, we highlight research on the impact of obesity in men often is minimized or altogether excluded, and we examine whether weight-based stigmatization influences men in authentic retail settings (Study 1). Across retail contexts, Study 1 reveals that heavy (vs. nonheavy) men do experience significantly more interpersonal (subtle) discrimination. Second, we examine the "why" of weight-based stigmatization and find that weight-related negative stereotypes compound to produce indirect but strong effects of stigmatization in retail settings (Study 2). Third and finally, we examine whether weight-based stigmatization against men and women in retail also influences ratings of associated products and the organizations for which heavy individuals work (also Study 2). Results from Study 2 show that stereotypes work similarly for men and women and that a stigma-by-association effect occurs in which evaluators rate products and organizations associated with heavy (vs. nonheavy) retail personnel more negatively. Finally, we discuss the importance of these findings in gaining a more holistic look at the influence of weight stigmatization in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Biology of obesity and weight regain: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Mary Madeline; Gautam, Bibha

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss is recommended as first-line therapy for many chronic illnesses, including obesity. Most patients who do successfully lose weight are unable to maintain their reduced weight. Recent research findings are reviewed and synthesized to explain the biology of obesity, adaptation to weight loss, and weight regain. Weight regain is a common consequence of successful weight loss. Current obesity management strategies fail to take into consideration the underlying genetic and environmental causes of obesity. Available treatment modalities create a negative energy balance that stimulates integrated, persistent neurologic, endocrine, muscle, and adipose tissue adaptation to restore body weight and fat mass, independent of lifestyle changes. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity and weight loss alters nurse practitioners' responsibilities in caring for patients with obesity. They are responsible for expanding assessment and intervention strategies and offering people with obesity realistic expectations for weight loss and regain. They are obligated to explain weight regain when it occurs to minimize patient frustration. Nurse practitioners have the opportunity to adopt new approaches to patient advocacy, especially in the areas of public policy to improve diagnostic tools and adjunctive therapy for people with obesity. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Compositorial 'Weight' & 'Luminance'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Compositorial weight might be understood as an operational definition of salience. It is not a psychophysical entity, but holds a key position between psychophysics and aesthetics. Several factors ranging over raw photometric/colorimetric parameters, various kinds of psychophysical contrast, image

  17. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  18. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  19. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  20. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  2. Nuclear power and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors' purpose is to raise some of the social, political, and ethical issues which for so long have been ignored in making government assessments of nuclear power. In particular she asks whether current policy (governing admissible releases of radioactivity during electricity generation) is based on sound ethical premises. She argues that it is ethically reprehensible to generate long-lived nuclear wastes without knowing whether they can be safety stored. An ethical and methodological assessment of public policy is presented based on the presupposition that a core melt accident is improbable. It is then argued that the alleged cost-effectiveness of fission generated electricity is based on economical methodology which is both illogical and unethical. Finally, an outline of the sorts of policy-making procedures which ought to be followed in dealing with nuclear technology is given. (Auth.)

  3. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  4. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  5. Stakeholder conflicts and dividend policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhren, Øyvind; Josefsen, Morten G.; Steen, Pål E.

    2012-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article This paper compares the dividend policy of owner-controlled firms with that of firms where the owners are a minority relative to non-owner employees, customers, and community citizens. We find that regardless of whether owners or non-owners control the firm, the strong stakeholder uses the dividend payout decision to mitigate rather than to intensify the conflict of interest with the weak stakeholder. H...

  6. Declaration of energetic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This statement shows the interest that the Government of Niger covers the energy sector. This area has potential both varied valuable, is developing efficient. Indeed, the energy sector is primarily organized into four (4) sub-sectors, namely electricity sub-sector where more than half the energy consumption is imported. Regarding the hydrocarbon subsector, surveys have shown that Niger has significant reserves. As the sub-sector renewable energy sources are exploited biomass, solar and wind energy. Finally, the sub-sector domestic energy is characterized by the predominance of traditional energy.To ensure the development and implementation of strategies and energy policies the Government has developed institutional and regulatory framework, for the energy sector participates in the economic and social development [fr

  7. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  8. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  9. Development of low weight self-levelling mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, A; Panama, I; Toledo, A; Flores, A

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the development of self levelling mortars, using micro bubbles based on aluminium silicate with a density of 0.25 g/cm 3 . Mortars formulations are composed by 8 different components in order to achieve properties balance between fresh and solid state. The mean objective is development light weight mortars with high fluidity and compression strength using micro bubbles and some additives. Formulations were designed employing Taguchi DOE of 8 variables and 3 states. Result analysis according to Taguchi method lets indentify the preponderant effect of each variable on the cited properties. Several formulations reached fluidity higher than 250%, with compression strength around 100 kg/cm 2 and a low volumetric weigh. Obtained volumetric weights are 20% less than commercial self levelling mortars weight. Finally some relations are presented such: as relation water/cement with fluidity, and micro bubble content versus mortars volumetric weight, and finally compression strength versus the volumetric weight of mortars

  10. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  11. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  13. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  14. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  15. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  16. Link prediction in weighted networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Many complex networks feature relations with weight information. Some models utilize this information while other ignore the weight information when inferring the structure. In this paper we investigate if edge-weights when modeling real networks, carry important information about the network...... is to infer presence of edges, but that simpler models are better at inferring the actual weights....

  17. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  18. Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD)

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiki, Nayyar Zia

    2012-01-01

    Light weight deflectometer (LWD) has been widely used for quality assurance in road construction, in particular compaction of both chemically treated subgrade soil and aggregate subbase. However, it has been recognized that LWD measurements vary with many factors. Based on LWD tests in actual road construction, this presentation provides updated information on the LWD deflection measurements for both chemically treated subgrade soil and aggregate subbase.

  19. Weighted halfspace depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Lukáš; Hlubinka, D.; Vencálek, O.

    Vol. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 125-148 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data depth * nonparametric multivariate analysis * strong consistency of depth * mixture of distributions Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/kotik-weighted halfspace depth.pdf

  20. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  1. Online weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.

  2. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  3. DIMEC - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF.......Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF....

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  5. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; E Byan, W. R.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  6. Group prioritisation with unknown expert weights in incomplete linguistic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Cheng, Faxin; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Juan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study a group prioritisation problem in situations when the expert weights are completely unknown and their judgement preferences are linguistic and incomplete. Starting from the theory of relative entropy (RE) and multiplicative consistency, an optimisation model is provided for deriving an individual priority vector without estimating the missing value(s) of an incomplete linguistic preference relation. In order to address the unknown expert weights in the group aggregating process, we define two new kinds of expert weight indicators based on RE: proximity entropy weight and similarity entropy weight. Furthermore, a dynamic-adjusting algorithm (DAA) is proposed to obtain an objective expert weight vector and capture the dynamic properties involved in it. Unlike the extant literature of group prioritisation, the proposed RE approach does not require pre-allocation of expert weights and can solve incomplete preference relations. An interesting finding is that once all the experts express their preference relations, the final expert weight vector derived from the DAA is fixed irrespective of the initial settings of expert weights. Finally, an application example is conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the RE approach.

  7. Impact of food supplementation on weight loss in randomised-controlled dietary intervention trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Cinthya; Probst, Yasmine; Neale, Elizabeth; Tapsell, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Dietary trials provide evidence for practice and policy guidelines, but poor adherence may confound results. Food supplementation may improve adherence to dietary interventions, but the impact of supplementation on study outcomes is not known. The aim of this review was to examine the impact of food supplementation on weight loss in dietary intervention trials. The databases Scopus, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for dietary intervention trials published between January 2004 and March 2015 using the following keyword combinations: 'trial' OR 'intervention', 'food' OR 'diet', 'weight loss' and 'adherence' OR 'adherence'. Studies were included if food was provided to at least one study group and both 'weight change' and 'adherence' were reported. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess weighted mean differences (WMD) in body weight (change or final mean values). The included studies formed two groups: trials involving an intervention group supplemented with a food and a control without food supplementation (food v. no food), and trials in which food was provided to all subjects (food v. food) (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015017563). In total, sixteen studies were included. Significant weight reduction was reported in the food v. no food studies (WMD -0·74 kg; 95 % CI -1·40, -0·08; P=0·03, I 2=63 %). A non-significant increase in weight was found among the food v. food studies (WMD 0·84 kg; 95 % CI -0·60, 2·27; P=0·25, I 2=0 %). Food supplementation appeared to result in greater weight loss in dietary trials. Energy restrictions and intensity of interventions were other significant factors influencing weight loss.

  8. 76 FR 65746 - Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) as a joint environmental analysis document for Tule Wind, LLC's Tule Wind Project (Tule Project) and the San Diego Gas and Electric's (SDG&E) East County Substation Project (ECO Project) and by this notice are announcing the availability of the Final EIS/EIR. By this Notice the BLM is also segregating the public lands within the Tule Project application area from appropriation under the public land laws including the Mining Law, but not the Mineral Leasing or Material Sales Act, for a period of 2 years.

  9. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  11. Final disposition of MTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonnson, Erik B.

    1996-01-01

    The final disposition of power reactor fuel has been investigated for a long time and some promising solutions to the problem have been shown. The research reactor fuels are normally not compatible with the zirkonium clad power reactor fuel and can thus not rely on the same disposal methods. The MTR fuels are typically Al-clad UAl x or U 3 Si 2 , HEU resp. LEU with essentially higher remaining enrichment than the corresponding power reactor fuel after full utilization of the uranium. The problems arising when evaluating the conditions at the final repository are the high corrosion rate of aluminum and uranium metal and the risk for secondary criticality due to the high content on fissionable material in the fully burnt MTR fuel. The newly adopted US policy to take back Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel of US origin for a period of ten years have given the research reactor society a reasonable time to evaluate different possibilities to solve the back end of the fuel cycle. The problem is, however, complicated and requires a solid engagement from the research reactor community. The task would be a suitable continuation of the RERTR program as it involves both the development of new fuel types and collecting data for the safe long-term disposal of the spent MTR fuel. (author)

  12. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  13. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  14. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... shrinks the coefficient of each observation in the estimated functions; thus, it is widely used for minimizing influence of outliers. We propose to additionally add weights to the slack variables in the constraints (CF‐weights) and call the combination of weights the doubly weighted SVR. We illustrate...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  15. Longitudinal drop-out and weighting against its bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen C. E. Schmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bias caused by drop-out is an important factor in large population-based epidemiological studies. Many studies account for it by weighting their longitudinal data, but to date there is no detailed final approach for how to conduct these weights. Methods In this study we describe the observed longitudinal bias and a three-step longitudinal weighting approach used for the longitudinal data in the MoMo baseline (N = 4528, 4–17 years and wave 1 study with 2807 (62% participants between 2003 and 2012. Results The most meaningful drop-out predictors were socioeconomic status of the household, socioeconomic characteristics of the mother and daily TV usage. Weighting reduced the bias between the longitudinal participants and the baseline sample, and also increased variance by 5% to 35% with a final weighting efficiency of 41.67%. Conclusions We conclude that a weighting procedure is important to reduce longitudinal bias in health-oriented epidemiological studies and suggest identifying the most influencing variables in the first step, then use logistic regression modeling to calculate the inverse of the probability of participation in the second step, and finally trim and standardize the weights in the third step.

  16. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  18. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is a major problem of the developing nations. ... Except for the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume that were ...

  19. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those born weighing less ... an association between retinopathy of prematurity and poor weight gain. .... LGA = large for gestational age; SGA = small for gestational age; NEC = necrotising enterocolitis;.

  20. 78 FR 49372 - Notice of Availability of New Starts and Small Starts Policy Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... the final rule for Major Capital Investment Projects promulgated in January 2013. The rule sets the... publish policy guidance on the review and evaluation process and criteria for capital investment projects... final policy guidance accompanies the final rule for Major Capital Investment projects issued on January...

  1. The social policies of Lula's administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the initiatives taken by the Lula administration regarding social policies. To begin with, we describe the social reform process implemented by the governments that followed the redemocratization of Brazil. Then, we examine some indices showing the evolution of social conditions due to social policies practiced during the democratic period. Finally, we analyze the views about the social question predominant in the PT government, as well as the most appropriate policies to tackle such a question. We also discuss the present government's proposals and initiatives regarding the social area.

  2. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  3. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FINAL FINALweb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    religion as a force to be decolonized with manifests in terms of staff recruitment, policy making, decision ... for Christians to fight back when attacked by Muslims. News of similar .... investors could not find it safe to invest in Nigeria. Fear of .... psychological and economic wellbeing of the nation in general. Apart from the loss ...

  4. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  5. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  6. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  7. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  8. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  9. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  11. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  12. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  13. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  14. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  15. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  16. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  17. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  18. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  20. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K; Luedicke, J; Forhan, M; Danielsdottir, S

    2016-08-01

    No cross-national studies have examined public perceptions about weight-based bullying in youth. To conduct a multinational examination of public views about (i) the prevalence/seriousness of weight-based bullying in youth; (ii) the role of parents, educators, health providers and government in addressing this problem and (iii) implementing policy actions to reduce weight-based bullying. A cross-sectional survey of adults in the United States, Canada, Iceland and Australia (N = 2866). Across all countries, weight-based bullying was identified as the most prevalent reason for youth bullying, by a substantial margin over other forms of bullying (race/ethnicity, sexual orientation and religion). Participants viewed parents and teachers as playing major roles in efforts to reduce weight-based bullying. Most participants across countries (77-94%) viewed healthcare providers to be important intervention agents. Participants (65-87%) supported government augmentation of anti-bullying laws to include prohibiting weight-based bullying. Women expressed higher agreement for policy actions than men, with no associations found for participants' race/ethnicity or weight. Causal beliefs about obesity were associated with policy support across countries. Across countries, strong recognition exists of weight-based bullying and the need to address it. These findings may inform policy-level actions and clinical practices concerning youth vulnerable to weight-based bullying. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Stabilizing weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification

  2. Weight simulation fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumikawa, Kiyokazu; Tokomatsu, Mutsuo.

    1993-01-01

    A tungsten pellet is not applied with hollow fabrication but a tungsten rod is inserted and filled into a zircaloy fuel cladding tube, as well as different kind of material having a density lower than that of tungsten, for example, stainless steel rods, are disposed successively intermittently and alternately for simulating the weight of one fuel rod. The filling method and the length of the individual pellets are optional depending on the method of usage, providing that the outer diameter of the simulation pellet is made identical with that of the actual fuel pellet. With such a constitution, there is no need to dispose a hollow portion as in the case of using only tungsten pellets, and the costs for both the materials and the fabrication can be saved. (T.M.)

  3. Utility of Policy Capturing as an Approach to Graduate Admissions Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The present study examined and evaluated the application of linear policy-capturing models to the real-world decision task of graduate admissions. Utility of the policy-capturing models was great enough to be of practical significance, and least-squares weights showed no predictive advantage over equal weights. (Author/CTM)

  4. Climate policy after Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerholm, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Kyoto Convention recommends reductions in emissions of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, to mitigate the rate of climate change. Lively debate has taken place in many countries, not least over the political and economic implications. The basis for the Kyoto discussions was a set of studies commissioned, compiled and published by the UN's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). At first glance this scientific foundation plainly shows that significant climate change will occur unless emissions of greenhouse gases are sharply curtailed. On closer examination, the scientific evidence provided in the IPCC material is far from clear. Reputable scientists have expressed critical views about the interpretation of the scientific results and, even more, of the way the material is being used for policy purposes. The main purpose of this book is to voice this critique. To give the reader some context, a central section from the IPCC's basic document is presented first. There follow nine papers, by prominent natural and social scientists, in which the reasons for their sceptical attitudes are developed. A final paper by Professor Bert Bolin, chairman of the IPCC during the time when most of the material was produced, provides a response and commentary to the critique. The aim of the editor and authors, in presenting the material in this way, rather than as a polemical tract, is to leave open to the reader the question: Is global warming a consequence of man's activities, or are there other reasons; if so, is adopting policies with significant economic consequences, a reasonable response? (Author)

  5. Weight Changes in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 ...... lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean diet and increased exercise....

  6. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  7. On weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachizawa K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an alternate proof of weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities which are essentially proved by Sawyer and Wheeden. We use the Bellman function approach of Nazarov and Treil. As an application we give an alternate proof of weighted inequalities for dyadic fractional maximal operators. A result on weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators is given.

  8. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  9. Nuclear safety policy statement in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Kim, H.J.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, Y.S.; Park, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Wide varieties of programs to enhance nuclear safety have been established and implemented by the Korean government in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement announced in September 1994. The policy statement was intended to set the long-term policy goals for maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It has been recognized as very effective in developing safety culture in nuclear-related organizations and also enhancing nuclear safety in Korea. However, ageing of operating nuclear power plants and increasing of new nuclear facilities have demanded a new comprehensive national safety policy to cover the coming decade, taking the implementation results of the policy statement of 1994 and the changing environment of nuclear industries into consideration. Therefore, the results of safety policy implementation have been reviewed and, considering changing environment and future prospects, a new nuclear safety policy statement as a highest level national policy has been developed. The implementation results of 11 regulatory policy directions such as the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, introduction of Periodic Safety Review, strengthening of safety research, introduction of Risk Based Regulation stipulated in the safety policy statement of 1994 were reviewed and measures taken after various symposia on nuclear safety held in Nuclear Safety Days since 1995 were evaluated. The changing international and domestic environment of nuclear industry were analysed and future prospects were explored. Based on the analysis and review results, a draft of new nuclear safety policy statement was developed. The draft was finalized after the review of many prominent experts in Korea. Considering changing environment and future prospects, new policy statement that will show government's persistent will for nuclear safety has been

  10. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-03-01

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  11. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research

  12. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Future directions for environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Riordan, T

    1984-01-01

    Environmentalism is an elusive concept with many meanings. Its changing character is examined together with an analysis of how it is likely to influence public policy across a broad front. The paper also reviews the major environmental issues which QECD countries are likely to face nationally, regionally and globally over the next twenty years and discusses the type of politics that may emerge within the new environmentalism. The overriding global issue will be the tragic interconnection between poverty and environmental damage in the underdeveloped countries. In the developed but de-industrialising economies of the 'north' greatest attention will be placed on devising means for creating jobs and providing satisfying occupations for people forced out of a job or never in employment. Environmental rehabilitation can create jobs, but it will involve the denial of resources otherwise available to create jobs elsewhere. It will therefore be necessary to consider the 'next job effectiveness' of environmental policies. Another policy area that requires new thinking is the management of environmental hazards, notably how to dispose of toxic wastes in a manner acceptable to a majority of people. Finally serious efforts will have to be made, not only to infuse environmental principles within all policy arenas, but also to ensure that departmental responsibilities and budgets are properly linked. The principle that those who exploit environmental resources should subsidise those who use environmental resources frugally and benignly by means of transfer taxes and payments should also become established. (orig.).

  14. Green electricity policy in the Netherlands. An analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha van; Wees, Mark van

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes in both market conditions and the national and international policy framework in the Netherlands can be observed. The Dutch Government has intervened in markets regularly, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. The following conclusions can be drawn on the policy choices: First, the objectives and targets of Dutch renewable energy policy were frequently ambiguous. Although the government emphasised the importance of investments in local capacity, imports were always (implicitly) seen as an alternative option in meeting targets. Second, for a long period the government focused on reducing investment costs and dismantling administrative barriers. Only recently has the lack of a stable investment climate been identified as a potential barrier. Third, although many stakeholders have advocated a mandatory approach, Dutch policies stimulating renewable energy have always been voluntary. Finally, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has always played a very dominant role in renewable energy policy formulation and implementation, which may explain the fact that some unfavourable market reactions to policies have not been foreseen. (author)

  15. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  16. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  17. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  18. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  19. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  20. Weight Rhythms: Weight Increases during Weekends and Decreases during Weekdays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Leena Orsama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. Methods: The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m2; age, 25-62 years was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. Results: A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p Conclusion: Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation.

  1. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Güttel, Stefan

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  2. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Gü ttel, Stefan; Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  4. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... interviews of the mother during pregnancy and post partum. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (in brackets) are presented. Infantile colic was defined as crying for more than three hours per day and for more than three days per week (modified Wessel’s criteria). Results A total of 4...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA...

  5. Nilpotent weights in conformal field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rouhani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Logarithmic conformal field theory can be obtained using nilpotent weights. Using such scale transformations various properties of the theory were derived. The derivation of four point function needs a knowledge of singular vectors which is derived by including nilpotent variables into the Kac determinant. This leads to inhomogeneous hypergeometric functions. Finally we consider the theory near a boundary and also introduce the concept of superfields where a multiplet of conformal fields are dealt with together. This leads to the OPE of superfields and a logarithmic partner for the energy momentum tensor.

  6. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  7. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  8. Heterotic weight lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E 8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  9. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  10. Learning using privileged information: SVM+ and weighted SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Maksim; Hein, Matthias; Schiele, Bernt

    2014-05-01

    Prior knowledge can be used to improve predictive performance of learning algorithms or reduce the amount of data required for training. The same goal is pursued within the learning using privileged information paradigm which was recently introduced by Vapnik et al. and is aimed at utilizing additional information available only at training time-a framework implemented by SVM+. We relate the privileged information to importance weighting and show that the prior knowledge expressible with privileged features can also be encoded by weights associated with every training example. We show that a weighted SVM can always replicate an SVM+ solution, while the converse is not true and we construct a counterexample highlighting the limitations of SVM+. Finally, we touch on the problem of choosing weights for weighted SVMs when privileged features are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemic spreading on contact networks with adaptive weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanghu; Chen, Guanrong; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2013-01-21

    The heterogeneous patterns of interactions within a population are often described by contact networks, but the variety and adaptivity of contact strengths are usually ignored. This paper proposes a modified epidemic SIS model with a birth-death process and nonlinear infectivity on an adaptive and weighted contact network. The links' weights, named as 'adaptive weights', which indicate the intimacy or familiarity between two connected individuals, will reduce as the disease develops. Through mathematical and numerical analyses, conditions are established for population extermination, disease extinction and infection persistence. Particularly, it is found that the fixed weights setting can trigger the epidemic incidence, and that the adaptivity of weights cannot change the epidemic threshold but it can accelerate the disease decay and lower the endemic level. Finally, some corresponding control measures are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  13. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  14. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  15. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  16. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  17. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  18. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  19. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years.......Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  20. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  1. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  2. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  3. The nuclear power policy in Argentina (1965-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreiro, Francisco M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to expose some outcomes of a larger research on the nuclear power plants public policy review in Argentine, between 1965 and 2003. It points out the relevance of institutional design as a main factor to explain the policy evolution, and offers unpublished statistic data of this nuclear energy sector. Finally, some comments are presented in order to highlight the importance of the unsolved policy aspects that concern the decision makers in this area. (author) [es

  4. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  5. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  6. Economics and obesity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  7. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  8. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  9. Cassini's Grand Finale Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini sent back its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's final phase covered roughly ten months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet. In late 2016 Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 Ring Grazing orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring, providing close flybys of tiny ring moons, including Pan, Daphnis and Atlas, and high-resolution views of Saturn's A and F rings. A final Titan flyby in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits. Comprised of 22 orbits, Cassini repeatedly dove between Saturn's innermost rings and upper atmosphere to answer fundamental questions unattainable earlier in the mission. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn atmosphere probe. The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet. Science highlights and new mysteries collected in the Grand

  10. MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY: CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Radu CUHAL; Ludmila STARIŢÎNA; Nicolae BASISTÎI

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  11. Macroprudential policy: conceptual positions

    OpenAIRE

    Stariţîna Ludmila; Cuhal Radu

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  12. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  13. Energy. Policy and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroop, A.

    2006-01-01

    Why does the government have an energy policy? What form does it take? Who is involved in implementing that policy? These and similar questions are answered in the latest Energy Report. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) argues that the objectives are feasible as long as the energy policies are matched by suitable implementation measures [nl

  14. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  15. Weight Maintenance: Determinants of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    .... Obesity and physical inactivity are major preventable health problems in the United States, but despite overwhelming evidence regarding the benefits of a healthy weight and regular physical activity...

  16. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  17. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  18. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  19. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  20. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... to allow for a small degree of deviation in the matching of weights, inducing a directed distance on states. The distance between two states can be used directly to relate properties of the states within a sub-fragment of weighted CTL. The problem of relating systems thus changes to minimizing the distance...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  1. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the ... of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms. ... must be of impeccable quality and must conform to world class standard.

  2. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...... policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  3. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S

    2009-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.

  5. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  6. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates.

  7. Intersectionality: An Understudied Framework for Addressing Weight Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Mary S; Puhl, Rebecca M; Quinn, Diane M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is an ongoing public health concern in the U.S. Weight stigma is linked to a number of obesogenic health outcomes, which complicate obesity treatment and prevention. Despite higher rates of obesity in female and minority populations, little research has examined weight stigma in non-white women and men. This study investigated intersectionality in weight stigma and health-related coping responses to stigmatizing experiences across racial groups. In 2015, a total of 2,378 adults completed questionnaires about weight stigma, weight bias internalization, and coping strategies. Analyses were conducted in 2016. No differences in weight stigma emerged as a function of race or gender, but women reported higher weight bias internalization (B=0.19, p=0.004). Further, black men and women reported less weight bias internalization than white men and women (B=-0.43, p=0.009). Compared with white women, black women were less likely to cope with stigma using disordered eating (B=-0.57, p=0.001), whereas Hispanic women were more likely to cope with stigma using disordered eating (B=0.39, p=0.020). Black men were more likely than white men to cope with stigma via eating (B=-0.49, p=0.017). Findings highlight that weight stigma is equally present across racial groups, but that groups internalize and cope with stigma in different ways, which exacerbate health risks. Increased research and policy attention should address stigma as an obstacle in prevention and treatment for obesity to reduce weight-based inequities in underserved populations. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  9. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  10. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  11. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    open innovation with SME entrepreneurs, business execs, academics and policymakers via an online crowdsourcing event with 150 participants. Through inductive analysis of 1,696 text comments, five policy domains are identified: creating awareness/skills; building networks; funding/investing; measuring......Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...

  12. (Nuclear) energy policy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    With this report the German Federal Diet submits the final results of the opinion-forming and decision-making process concerning the recommendations made by the investigation committee 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' in June 1980. By means of this report it is intended to point out to an interested public the difficult and time-consuming process of parliamentary decision-making. This report is also to be seen as the final opinion delivered on the recommendations made by the investigation committee. The recommendations were to continue to pursue the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the necessity and technical justifiability of which had basically been approved by all parliamentary groups. In view of the import of the subject and in recognition of the work done by the investigation committee, the German Parliament has thoroughly discussed the report and has reviewed the analyses and recommendations in conjunction with other political fields to be considered. One part of the recommendations was taken up almost unanimously. As far as the safety of nuclear installations is concerned, the investigation committee could not submit any new findings which would give reasons for modifying the hitherto positive assessment of the safety of nuclear installations. The recommendations of the investigation committee mainly referred to the decision-making process in the field of energy policy which will effect the next decade. What fundamental decisions are to be made until when was pointed out as well as the findings and experience to be made until then. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Green electricity policies in the Netherlands: an analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha N.M. van; Wees, Mark T. van

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes can be observed in both market conditions and the national policy framework for green electricity in the Netherlands. The Dutch Government has regularly intervened in markets, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders, and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. Dutch green electricity policy over the last decade can be characterised roughly by three phases: in the early 1990s, the government negotiated voluntary agreements with the energy distribution sector on targets for green electricity sales, which were never met. In the second half of the 1990s, a regulatory energy tax was introduced, from which customers of green electricity were exempt. This led to a substantial increase in demand, which was largely met by green electricity imports, and did not lead to additional domestic renewable energy capacity. Finally, a change in policy has taken place recently (2003) shifting the focus from promotion of demand to the promotion of supply through a system of regulated feed-in tariffs. Despite the renewable energy policies, growth of the renewable energy market in the Netherlands has been small and targets have not been fully met. The Dutch government has not yet succeeded in substantially reducing market uncertainties and in building confidence among market parties, because the policies have not been stable and policy objectives have frequently been partly ambiguous. In addition, the influence of stakeholders in renewable energy policy making has been small which has the early acceptance and implementation of alternative policies

  14. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  15. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  16. Active Labour Market Policies for Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Griffith

    2007-01-01

    In this project we provide an example of how to develop multi-tiered models to go across levels of biological organization to provide a framework for relating results of studies of low doses of ionizing radiation. This framework allows us to better understand how to extrapolate laboratory results to policy decisions, and to identify future studies that will increase confidence in policy decisions. In our application of the conceptual Model we were able to move across multiple levels of biological assessment for rodents going from molecular to organism level for in vitro and in vivo endpoints and to relate these to human in vivo organism level effects. We used the rich literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain in our models. The focus of this report is on disrupted neuronal migration due to radiation exposure and the structural and functional implications of these early biological effects. The cellular mechanisms resulting in pathogenesis are most likely due to a combination of the three mechanisms mentioned. For the purposes of a computational model, quantitative studies of low dose radiation effects on migration of neuronal progenitor cells in the cerebral mantle of experimental animals were used. In this project we were able to show now results from studies of low doses of radiation can be used in a multidimensional framework to construct linked models of neurodevelopment using molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo in rodents. These models could also be linked to behavioral endpoints in rodents which can be compared to available results in humans. The available data supported modeling to 10 cGy with limited data available at 5 cGy. We observed gradual but non-linear changes as the doses decreased. For neurodevelopment it appears that the slope of the dose response decreases from 25 cGy to 10 cGy. Future studies of neurodevelopment should be able to better define the dose response in

  18. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  19. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  20. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  1. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  2. 反馈系统发展对策生成的顶点赋权反馈图法——以鄱阳湖区德邦生态能源经济反馈系统发展为例%Feedback system development policy generating vertex weighted feedback diagram analysis——Debang eco-energy economics feedback system development in Poyang Lake Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静华; 贾仁安; 袁新发; 张南生; 涂国平

    2011-01-01

    , farmer, local government etc. This kind of circulation system with farming scale and planting scale and energy saving and emission reduction is a feedback complex system. To study this system, Nanchang University created a threc-steps vertex weighted causal feedback diagram management policy generating method. First, this paper analyzes in depth real development. It builds growth and confine vertex weighted diagram made of two growth positive feedback loops and one confine positive feedback loop, it builds five scale breeding eco-energy economical zone growth and confine vertex weighted feedback diagrams from 2005 to 2009. It quantificationally reveals advantagesand disadvantages of system development. Secondly, by connote of two growth positive feedback loops and one confine positive feedback loop, the paper brings up sustainable development management of circulation system of farming scale and planting scale and energy saving and emission reduction. Last, by vertex value change law of five vertex weighted feedback diagrams it proves the result of three management policies which are to build biogas project of bio-energy enviromnent protection, to carry out hrecding and planting and company and household methaiie together, to increase investment with scale in eco-economic zone. The three management policies have carried out in pig farm zone and promoted eco-economic development. The three-steps vertex weighted diagram feedback analysis method and research are of important theory and practical significance and give the accumulation for establishing quantitificationally simulation formulation.

  3. Addressing weight bias and discrimination: moving beyond raising awareness to creating change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salas, X; Alberga, A S; Cameron, E; Estey, L; Forhan, M; Kirk, S F L; Russell-Mayhew, S; Sharma, A M

    2017-11-01

    Weight discrimination is the unjust treatment of individuals because of their weight. There have been very few interventions to address weight discrimination, due in part to the lack of consensus on key messages and strategies. The objective of the third Canadian Weight Bias Summit was to review current evidence and move towards consensus on key weight bias and obesity discrimination reduction messages and strategies. Using a modified brokered dialogue approach, participants, including researchers, health professionals, policy makers and people living with obesity, reviewed the evidence and moved towards consensus on key messages and strategies for future interventions. Participants agreed to these key messages: (1) Weight bias and obesity discrimination should not be tolerated in education, health care and public policy sectors; (2) obesity should be recognized and treated as a chronic disease in health care and policy sectors; and (3) in the education sector, weight and health need to be decoupled. Consensus on future strategies included (1) creating resources to support policy makers, (2) using personal narratives from people living with obesity to engage audiences and communicate anti-discrimination messages and (3) developing a better clinical definition for obesity. Messages and strategies should be implemented and evaluated using consistent theoretical frameworks and methodologies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  5. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. MATERNAL CIGARETTE SMOKING, METABOLIC GENE POLYMORPHISM, AND INFANT BIRTH WEIGHT. (R825818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Communication strategy for final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo; Kurki, Osmo

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999, Posiva filed an application for a policy decision to the Council of State on the construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. The decision to be made by the Council of State must be ratified by the Parliament. The precondition for a positive decision is that the preliminary statement on safety to be provided by STLTK by the end of the year 1999 is in favour of Posiva. continuing with its repository development programme, and that the Eurajoki municipality approves the project in its statement by the 28th of January 2000. The policy decision by the Council of State is expected to be made in March followed by the ratification of the Parliament before the summer. In a poll-carried out among 350 decision-makers, less than 10 % of those who answered 134 persons) found Internet as the most important source of Posiva's information on final disposal. On the other hand, over 80 % of those who answered found the information folder as the most significant source of information. When considering all the information available on final disposal (TV, radio, newspapers, authorities, environmental organisations, etc.) Posiva was found to be the most significant source of information while newspapers and periodicals came second. In this case the environmental organisations seemed to have a minor role, as a result of not being too active in confrontation. As a conclusive remark it can be assumed that because it is not only Posiva's information that is relevant to decision-makers, but the media also plays a significant role, the impression that decision-makers have of final disposal is based on a mixture of messages coming from Posiva and from the media. That is why the communication related to decision-makers is also communication with media, in order to ensure that the messages produced by the media support the information produced by Posiva

  8. DANAERO MW: Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from...... analysis of the data is given with the main objective to explore in detail the influence of atmospheric and wake turbulence on MW turbine performance, loading and stability. Finally, validation and demonstration of simulation codes are carried out....

  9. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  10. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...... 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark....

  11. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  12. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  14. Cosmology Without Finality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahootian, F.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.

  15. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  16. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  17. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamloumi, Jilani

    2013-01-01

    The report involves the findings of the final evaluation of the regional entrepreneurship education project in Arab States component II (2011-2012) (see ED560497), which is a joint activity between UNESCO and StratREAL Foundation. It aims to help the development of educational policies enabling the integration of entrepreneurship education within…

  19. TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    In its final report reviewing the Three Mile Island accident, the TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force has suggested change in several fundamental aspects of basic safety policy for nuclear power plants. Changes in nuclear power plant design and operations and in the regulatory process are discussed in terms of general goals. The appendix sets forth specific recommendations for reaching these goals

  20. 7 CFR 1735.94 - Final approval and closing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Requirements for All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.94 Final approval and closing procedure. (a) Legal documents relating to the acquisition or merger, including copies of required franchises, commission orders...

  1. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  2. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  3. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  4. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  5. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  6. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms...

  7. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  8. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  9. Do nations still need national energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James [Lehman Brothers, Washington, DC (United States); Odell, P [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of International Energy Studies; Jones, D

    1993-02-01

    Once again the issue has arisen whether a national energy policy is necessary or even desirable. No doubt renewed debate has been stimulated by recent developments - the collapse of the Soviet threat, an altered perception of the power of OPEC, or a jaundiced view regarding the effectiveness of governments in this arena. Yet, beneath the surface lie longer-standing issues regarding interests and ideology. This article attempts to deal with the issue, first, as a generic level, then in terms of the transformed energy market, and, finally, in relation to the content of energy policy. (author)

  10. Implications of the Netherlands' environmental policy for offshore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, K.; Krijt, K.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental policy in the Netherlands, as outlined in the National Environmental Policy Plan, aims for a sustainable development. In principle a two track approach is adhered to: source oriented as well as effects oriented. Effects oriented policy includes the setting of environmental quality objectives and is used to establish the final goals for the source-oriented measures. The policy aims at integrated life-cycle management; in the final target situation all waste is used again as raw material and remaining emissions to the environment should comply with the environmental objectives. In this paper the implications of this policy for the offshore mining industry are elaborated, both for drilling operations and for the production of oil, gas and condensate. The results of the recently concluded Environmental Impact Assessment for the offshore mining industry as a whole are also elaborated

  11. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  12. Weighted Evolving Networks with Self-organized Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhou; Wang Xiaofan; Li Xiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to describe the self-organization of communities in the evolution of weighted networks, we propose a new evolving model for weighted community-structured networks with the preferential mechanisms functioned in different levels according to community sizes and node strengths, respectively. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that our model captures power-law distributions of community sizes, node strengths, and link weights, with tunable exponents of ν ≥ 1, γ > 2, and α > 2, respectively, sharing large clustering coefficients and scaling clustering spectra, and covering the range from disassortative networks to assortative networks. Finally, we apply our new model to the scientific co-authorship networks with both their weighted and unweighted datasets to verify its effectiveness

  13. Parental Socioeconomic Status and Weight Faltering in Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kachi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies in the UK and Denmark found no significant association between low socioeconomic status (SES and weight faltering. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies from other developed countries. We examined the association between parental SES and weight faltering in infants up to 1.5 years of age, and investigated whether the inequalities changed between 2001 and 2010 in Japan.Methods: We used data from two Japanese population-based birth cohorts started in 2001 (n = 34,594 and 2010 (n = 21,189. Parental SES was assessed as household income and parental education when the infant was 6 months old. Weight faltering was defined as the slowest weight gaining in 5% of all children in each cohort. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with adjustment for covariates. The relative index of inequality was used to assess relative impact of parental SES on weight faltering.Results: Infants in the lowest quartile of household income were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.52 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.56 times more likely to experience weight faltering than those in the highest income quartile both in the 2001 and 2010 cohorts, respectively. The relative index of inequality for household income was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.36, 1.96 in 2001 and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.31 in 2010.Conclusions: Infants from lower income families have a greater risk of weight faltering in Japan. Additionally, the income-related inequalities in weight faltering did not change between the two cohorts. Social policies to address maldistribution of weight faltering due to household income are needed.

  14. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    ? Have the policy tools (services, transfers, funding or models of provision changed? To what extent have these policies been successful in coping with social and economic problems? To what extent a social demand in favour of these changes exist? What are the main political and social actors intervening as stakeholders in these policies? Finally, what are the major similarities and differences existing between the two countries? To what extent are there policy proposals that might easily travel between them? Could they foster mutually enriching exchanges of information? - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1809#sthash.g3KArOrW.dpuf

  15. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    ? Have the policy tools (services, transfers, funding or models of provision changed? To what extent have these policies been successful in coping with social and economic problems? To what extent a social demand in favour of these changes exist? What are the main political and social actors intervening as stakeholders in these policies? Finally, what are the major similarities and differences existing between the two countries? To what extent are there policy proposals that might easily travel between them? Could they foster mutually enriching exchanges of information? - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1811#sthash.uhM2OXqx.dpuf

  16. Optimal design of condenser weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The condenser is an important component in nuclear power plants, which dimension and weight will effect the economical performance and the arrangement of the nuclear power plants. In this paper, the calculation model is established according to the design experience. The corresponding codes are also developed, and the sensitivity of design parameters which influence the condenser weight is analyzed. The present design optimization of the condenser, taking the weight minimization as the objective, is carried out with the self-developed complex-genetic algorithm. The results show that the reference condenser design is far from the best scheme, and also verify the feasibility of the complex-genetic algorithm. (authors)

  17. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  18. Macroprudential Policy: A Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou; Alfred Lehar

    2016-01-01

    The 2007 global financial crisis brought sharply into focus the need for macroprudential policy as a means of controlling systemic financial stability. This has become a focal point for policy-makers and numerous central banks, including the Bank of Canada, but it has its drawbacks, particularly here in Canada. As a counterbalance to microprudential policy, the idea of a macroprudential outlook reaches beyond the notion that as long as every banking institution is healthy, financial stability...

  19. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  20. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  1. Final Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S. T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    U.S./China Energy and Environmental Technology Center (EETC), Payson Center for International Development, Law School of Tulane University was officially established in 1997 with initial funds from private sector, US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy (DOE.) Lately, DOE has provided EETC funds for operations with cost share from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China. EETC was created to facilitate the development of friendly, broad-based U.S./China relations. Tulane University signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs (1995) to promote the formation of Chinese partners for EETC. EETC’s original goal is to enhance the competitiveness of US clean fossil energy technology in China so that, as her economy expands, local and global environment are well protected. Specifically, through the demonstration and broadly deployment of US developed clean coal technology for power generation, transmission, and emission reductions in China. EETC is also focused on US industry partnerships for local economic development. One of the main the objectives of the EETC is to promote the efficient, responsible production and utilization of energy with a focus on clean fossil energy, promote US clean energy and environmental technologies, and encourage environmental performance while improving the quality of life in China. Another objective is to assist China with environmental and energy policy development and provide supports for China’s development with expertise (best practices) from US industry.

  2. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  3. AIPM Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mookken

    2006-06-30

    The final AIPM project report consists of six sections. Each section includes information on the original AIPM project and extension work on the high temperature design. The first section (1) provides an overview of the program and highlights the significant targets to meet at the end of the program. The next section (2) summarizes the significant technical accomplishments by the SEMIKRON AIPM team during the course of the project. Greater technical details are provided in a collection of all the quarterly reports which can be found in the appendix. Section three (3) presents some the more significant technical data collected from technology demonstrators. Section four (4) analyzes the manufacturing cost or economic aspects of producing 100,000 units/yr. Section five (5) describes the commercialization efforts of the AIPM technology into the automotive market. The last section (6) recommends follow on work that will build on the efforts and achievements of the AIPM program.

  4. Chernobyl: the final warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.; Hauser, Thomas.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a book has been written with firstly an introduction to the basic principles and development of nuclear power, followed by a brief review of previous nuclear power plant accidents and then a short account of the Chernobyl accident itself. The main text of the book however contains the personal story of Dr. Robert Peter Yale, head of the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit at the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles who travelled to Russia six times to help the victims of the Chernobyl accident. The final part of the book discusses the safety of nuclear power and the dangers of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  5. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  6. Multimuon final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.-M.

    1980-04-01

    Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its dependence on ν, Q 2 and t compared to Vector Dominance and photon-gluon fusion models. Also a clear signal has been seen for 3μ above QED tridents (outside J/PSI mass range) and 2μ events which are well described by charm production. An upper limit for the production of the T by high energy muons has been set

  7. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  8. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...... cutting nozzle which can be adjusted independently to the laser beam has been developed. The position of the focus relative the workpiece can be adjusted to cutting applications with relatively large processing windows, i.e. both mild and stainless steels, and of a broad thickness range. A build-in auto......This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial...

  9. The choice of strategic trade policy in China under the WTO frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆长春; 唐丹; 王新辉; 张德晖

    2007-01-01

    This text first elaborated the core thought and apply condition of the strategic trade policy first;secondly Put the strategic trade policy and WTO rule together to carry on analysis;finally,Combine the concrete circumstance of China,Put forward several suggestions on carrying out a strategic trade policy under the WTO frame。

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  11. Popular Music Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, Simon; Cloonan, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of Popular Music has its origins in a seminar organised at the University of Stirling in 2004. This meeting, one of a series on cultural policy, brought together researchers from a number of European countries who were asked to describe state music policy in their respective countries and to reflect on what differences, if any, such policies had made to recent national music history. As the seminar’s organisers, we were interested in a couple of issues: first, how policy ap...

  12. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  13. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social...

  14. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  15. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...

  16. Agribusiness Industry Study Final Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ascunce, Jorge; Burcham, Margaret; Couch, Kevin; Evans, Jason; Frisk, Amy; Graube, Raimonds; Halmrast-Sanchez, Tamra; Hoying, Donald; Kuchta, Michael; Lethin, Clarke

    2005-01-01

    .... The forces that are shaping this competition include: the integration of world agricultural markets, world-wide adoption of cutting edge technologies, and aggressive foreign government agricultural policies...

  17. The role of lifestyle in preventing low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, V R; Cheung, L W; Lieberman, E

    1995-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors such as cigarette smoking, weight gain during pregnancy, and use of other drugs play an important role in determining fetal growth. The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and low birth weight is complex and is affected by psychosocial, economic, and biological factors. Cigarette smoking is the largest known risk factor for low birth weight. Approximately 20% of all low birth weight could be avoided if women did not smoke during pregnancy. Reducing heavy use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy could also reduce the rate of low birth weight births. Pregnancy and the prospect of pregnancy provide an important window of opportunity to improve women's health and the health of children. The adoption before or during pregnancy of more healthful lifestyle behaviors, such as ceasing to smoke, eating an adequate diet and gaining enough weight during pregnancy, and ceasing heavy drug use, can positively affect the long-term health of women and the health of their infants. Detrimental lifestyles can be modified, but successful modification will require large-scale societal changes. In the United States, these societal changes should include a focus on preventive health, family-centered workplace policies, and changes in social norms.

  18. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mood stabilizer. The medication Symbyax combines the antidepressant fluoxetine and the antipsychotic olanzapine and is associated with ... in body weight and psychotropic drugs: A systematic synthesis of the literature. PLOS One. 2012;7:e36889. ...

  19. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  20. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  1. Summer Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidi, Nitou

    2012-01-01

    to be relocated. Besides supporting TBMP, I also supported the Section 508 Policy Compliance Coordinator, R. Liang. Section 508 is a policy that requires employers to implement accessibility assurance of information and technology to disabled communities. On Thursday, July 19, 2012, I was able to go to Camp Boggy Creek-a camp for disabled children-for an education outreach, in collaboration with the Education Office. We shared with them information about how astronauts live and work in space, they were able to ride hovercrafts, build paper rockets, and then launch them outside. Although this outreach was quite fun with the kids at the camp, this was a learning opportunity to gain some insight to those with cognitive and physical disabilities, the problems they typically face, and in tum, how to accommodate those with disabilities in the work environment. In the process of implementing accessibility and Section 508 compliance, I attended various teleconferences, did field runs to supply closed-caption call phones to employees with limited hearing, and helped with the development of the charter ofthe Section 508 Compliance Working Group.

  2. Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight Data detail Data name Molecular Formula and Molecul...- Description of data contents This RDF data includes molecular formula and molecular weight of chemical sub...ikkajiRDF_MFMW.tar.gz File size: 404 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method The data was converted from data of molecul...ar formulas and molecular weights in Basic Information ( http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j... Policy | Contact Us Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Long, S.; Li, Binsheng; Lamke, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The overall goal of the contract is to provide general support and advice to the DOE, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/EF) on the opportunities for coal and Clean Coal Technology trade in the Asia-Pacific region. The report which follows is divided into six subsections, each pertaining to separate subtasks the U.S. Department of Energy requested. Subtask A includes two reports, one which outlines important coal and clean coal technology news events which occurred during the second half of 1993, and another which outlines the potential for Clean Coal Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. Subtask B and the first paper in Subtask C contain advisories and briefing papers that present and explain the coal, electricity and Clean Coal Technology situation in China. The second paper in Subtask C is an overview of the coal supply, demand and trade situation in the Asian region with coal projections to the year 2010. Subtask D is an overview of meetings with Asian energy and policy representatives which were carried out to (1) gather key information relevant to this contract, and (2) examine areas for closer cooperation on important coal/CCT-related energy issues. The tasks listed in the contract proposal as Subtasks E and F are summarized in respective sections of this report. Subtask E specifies the activities carried out under the APEC Experts` Group on Clean Coal Technologies, and Subtask F explains the work done by the Coal Project in building contacts and working relationships with key energy and technology planners in China (including The State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Electric Power and Tsinghua University, and the State Planning Commission). The Subtask E section also includes activities to develop and strengthen the role of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Activities.

  4. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  5. The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Du, Nan; Wei, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Because of worldwide growing concerns about global climate change, great interest has been expressed in the potential of alternative climate policies to reduce global carbon emissions. In this paper, we compare cross-country implications of alternative climate policies, including unilateral and multilateral climate policies. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are large differences in cross-country effects of alternative unilateral climate policies, when the same given carbon emission reductions are achieved in each abating country respectively. Meanwhile, cross-border externalities undermine efficiency of unilateral climate policies. Secondly, there are significant differences in cross-country implications of alternative multilateral climate policies, when the same global emission reductions are allocated in several different ways among abating countries. Thirdly, it is difficult to reach a stable global climate treaty, since any abating country has the incentive to argue for small carbon emission reductions. Finally, multilateral climate policies can reduce the negative impacts of cross-border externalities, but cannot cure all cross-border externalities. Looking ahead, it will be a great policy challenge for the world to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. - highlights: • We compare impacts of unilateral climate policies across countries. • We compare effects of alternative multilateral climate policies. • We explore whether cross-border externalities disappear under multilateral climate policies

  6. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  7. 76 FR 80924 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2790-055] Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and [[Page 80925

  8. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  9. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering; Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Khanna, Vikas [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maravelias, Christos [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Petkovic, Lucia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Duong, Nhung [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2018-01-24

    The goal was to develop a biomass conversion process that optimizes fractionation and conversion to maximize Carbon efficiency and Hydrogen consumption to obtain drop-in fuels. Selective fractionation of raw biomass was obtained via multi-stage thermal fractionation to produce different streams that are enriched in a particular chemical family (acids, furanics or phenolics). These streams were later catalytically upgraded in both liquid and vapor phase to perform C-C bond formation and hydrodeoxygenation. Among various upgrading strategies investigated we have identified an effective path in which cyclopentanone is a crucial intermediate that can be derived from furfural and other furanics obtained in high concentrations from this thermal staged process. Cyclopentanone is a very versatile molecule, which can couple with itself to product high quality jet-fuel, or couple with phenolic or furanics to create long chain molecules. These (mono-oxygenated) compounds in the correct molecular weight fuel range can be hydrotreated to direct drop-in fuels. Interestingly, we have found that the conversion of furfural to cyclopentanone is not affected by the presence of acetic acid, and, more interestingly, it is enhanced by the presence of water. These are very significant findings, since water and acetic acid are always present in all streams from the primary conversion stage. These results have allowed to complete detailed life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis that have been back-fed to the experimentalists to refine the catalyst selection and process operations with the objective of maximizing C efficiency at minimum H utilization. These combined investigations have opened the possibility of an economically and technologically effective process that could result in commercial fuels produced from renewable sources at a cost that might be competitive with fossil fuels.

  11. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  12. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  13. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  14. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...

  15. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  16. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  17. Knowledge to Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In development research, getting a new discovery into policy and practice is just as ... As a matter of principle, moreover, people have a right to participate in the ...... environmental practices, tax law, competition policy, and much else besides), ...... with 80 researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

  18. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  19. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  20. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also