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Sample records for weight lowering effect

  1. The Effect of the Weight of Equipment on Muscle Activity of the Lower Extremity in Soldiers

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    Tobias Lindner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier’s body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint.

  2. The effect of increase in baggage weight on elderly women's lower extremity muscle activation during gait.

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    Kim, Seong-Gil; Nam, Chan-Woo; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of increased baggage weight on the muscle activation of elderly women's lower extremities during gait. A total of 24 elderly women who were residing in communities in Daegu, South Korea aged 79.6±6.2, 149.7±7.0cm in height, and 53.5±7.2kg in weight participated in this study. The muscle activation of each muscle was measured three times at 2kg, 3kg, and 4kg of baggage weight while the subjects were conducting treadmill walking wearing backpacks. Electrodes were placed on four muscles: the quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris), the hamstring muscle (semitendinosus), the tibialis anterior muscle, and the soleus muscle. The results show that the rates of increase in muscle activation in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles according to baggage weight increase were higher than those in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (<0.05). These results indicate that the heavier weight loads increase the activation of muscles that control the ankle joints causing muscle fatigue. Moreover, a decrease in balance ability through muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for falls. Thus, elderly people should be instructed not to carry heavy objects.

  3. Effect of Body-Weight-Support Running on Lower-Limb Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Michael; Fleming, Neil; Eberman, Lindsey; Games, Kenneth; Vaughan, Jeremiah

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Body-weight-support (BWS) running is increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of its effects on running mechanics. Objectives To determine the effect of increasing BWS on lower-limb biomechanics during lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill running. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners completed 15 randomized trials on an LBPP treadmill at 5 levels of BWS and 3 velocities (1-minute trials with 3-minute recovery). Knee and ankle kinematic data were recorded continuously via electrogoniometry. Synchronous in-shoe plantar-pressure data identified stride onset and quantified foot-segment forces. Data were recorded during the final 30 seconds of each trial and averaged over 10 consecutive stride cycles. Results Higher levels of BWS resulted in significantly (PRunning on an LBPP treadmill alters lower-limb kinematics, resulting in reduced ankle and knee joint range of motion. In addition, increased BWS alters stride characteristics, resulting in shorter GCT and longer flight time. Clinicians must be aware of lower-limb kinematic alterations to provide safe and effective parameters for rehabilitation involving LBPP treadmills. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):784-793. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6503.

  4. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees.

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    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme's amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first without weight and then with 250 g weight on the ankle joint. The blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were recorded before and after Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 10 stairs up & down stairs test. Physiological Cost Index was used to calculate the energy expenditure. [Results] Heart rate and energy expenditure increased significantly when without weight and with weight results compared. [Conclusion] We conclude that the segmental weight of the prosthetic limb has a significant effect on the heart rate and energy expenditure but has no effect on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of lower limb amputees. In order to generalize our results to lower limb amputees, more patients need to be included in future studies.

  5. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Cryotherapy, in the form of ice massge is used to reduce inflammation after acute musculoskeletal injury or trauma. The potential negative effects of ice massage on proprioception are unknown, despite equivocal evidence supporting its effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of cooling on weight discrimination ability and hence the performance in footballers. The study was of same subject experimental design (pretest-posttest design). Thirty male collegiate football players, whose mean age was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes on hamstrings muscle tendon. Pre cooling scores of Single Leg Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 166.65 (± 10.16) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 167.25 (± 11.77) cm. Pre cooling scores of Crossed Over Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 174.14 (± 8.60) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 174.45 (± 9.28) cm. Pre cooling scores of Weight Discrimination Differential Threshold of the dominant leg in the subjects was 1.625 ± 1.179 kg compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg 1.85 (± 1.91) kg. Pre cooling scores of single leg hop and crossed over hop test of the dominant leg in the subjects compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg showed no significant differences and it was also noted that the weight discrimination ability (weight discrimination differential threshold) didn't show any significant difference. All the values are reported as mean ± SD. This study provides additional evidence that proprioceptive acuity in the hamstring muscles (biceps femoris) remains largely unaffected after ice application to the hamstrings tendon (biceps femoris).

  6. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme’s amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first withou...

  7. Effect of dietary fiber in lowering serum glucose and body weight in sprague dawley rats

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    Muhammad Imran Chohan

    2011-08-01

    %, respectively. Maximum serum albumin concentration was found to be 3.63 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1% showing non-significant differences than that of control (3.60 g/dL.Conclusion Soaring cost of medication and their side effects demand new ways against the existing malady of diabetes. Diet based strategy is a right approach as it is economical and assessable to avoid the health risks. The present research explored that diet diversification is an effective tool for the management of serum glucose and body weight. Role of legumes is indispensable to enhance the dietary fiber. Ingestion of chapaties prepared from selected compositions of composite flours providing an additional dietary fiber would be supportive to reduce hyperglycemia and obesity.

  8. Effect of recovery from muscle strength imbalance in lower limb using four point weight bearing reduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Kang, Seung Rok; Jeong, Ho Choon; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the improvement of muscle strength imbalance in the lower limbs using a four point weight bearing reduction system with a two-belt treadmill. Participants, each having differences in muscle function of the left and right legs of over 20%, were divided into two groups of ten. The participants were involved in experiments progressing 40 minutes per day, 3 days per week, during a period of 4 weeks. The maximal peak torque and average power were measured for testing joint torque in the hip, knee and ankle. The results showed the improvement of muscle imbalance as assessed by the maximal muscle strength was the most effective in the hip joint, while the improvement of muscular reaction was the most effective in the knee joint. We suggest that the method of weight bearing reduction could be sufficient to reduce muscle imbalance in the lower limbs.

  9. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  10. 论荷叶的减肥降脂作用%Weight lowering effect on the lotus leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨光

    2014-01-01

    随着人民生活水平的不断提高,饮食习惯的改变,肥胖的人群不断增多,人们对减肥和降脂的需求也越来越大。荷叶是常见的清热中药,其主要活性成分是生物碱和黄酮类,荷叶的现代研究有减肥、降血脂的功效,所以近些年来荷叶不断受到肥胖人群的推崇。荷叶的临床应用较多的是以复方的形式用于减肥降脂,已有的复方有:降脂中药煎剂、荷叶合剂、荷叶水煎剂、降脂一号胶囊等,主要用于防治冠心病、动脉粥样硬化及高脂血症。近些年以来,以荷叶为主要成分的减肥降脂制品应用越来越广泛,已有各种以荷叶为主要成分的减肥降脂制剂上市,主要有:荷丹片、血脂宁、脂脉康胶囊、通脉降脂片等。主要用于减肥及冠心病、高血压病、高脂血症、糖尿病、脑血管疾病的预防。临床应用证明,肥胖的人群经常食用荷叶,减肥效果明显。本文就以荷叶的减肥降脂作用的现代研究情况作简要综述。%Along with the improvement of people's living standards, changes in diet, obesity population increasing, the demand for reducing weight and fat is also more and more big. The leaves are heat clearing herbs in common, the main active ingredients are alkaloids and flavonoids of lotus leaf, the modern study of weight loss, reducing blood fat, respected so in recent years, lotus has been obese people. Lotus leaf clinical application is more compound form for reducing weight and fat, the existing:Jiangzhi Decoction of Chinese medicine compound, lotus leaf, lotus leaf decoction, lipid-lowering mixture, capsule, mainly used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. In recent years, with lotus leaf as the main component of the application of lipid-lowering diet products more and more widely, there are various with lotus leaf as the main component of the diet of lipid-lowering

  11. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  12. EFFECT OF LOCOMOTOR TRAINING WITH BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT ON GAIT AND LOWER LIMB STRENGTH IN INCOMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY-A CASE REPORT

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    Parneet Kaur Bedi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irrespective of the severity of the spinal injury, time after lesion and age at time of injury, the restoration of walking is given high priority by subjects with SCI. There is ample amount of literature with gait training methods for restoration of locomotion from other parts of the world. Rehabilitative training is currently one of the most thriving treatments to promote functional recovery following SCI. Many strategies exist to enhance locomotion, such as treadmill training with and without body weight support, robotic-assisted gait training, functional electrical stimulation, epidural stimulation and surface spinal stimulation. Pertaining to developing countries, this case study is an attempt to determine the effect of Locomotor Training with Body Weight Support on Gait and Muscle Strength in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Methods: Single case design, Body weight support treadmill training for over a period of 12 months for an Individual with SCI (ASIA C in a private clinic set up for SCI rehabilitation. ASIA lower extremity muscle strength, Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory and Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury –II. Results: Significant change in lower extremity muscle strength, gait parameters and temporal parameters of SCI-FAI. Though, no change was observed in score of assistive devices and similarly WISCI-II scoring. Conclusion: Single participant case study provided us with vital evidence for locomotor training with Body weight support in incomplete SCI. Further research in to the field shall yield valuable clinical findings.

  13. Higher fetuin-A, lower adiponectin and free leptin levels mediate effects of excess body weight on insulin resistance and risk for myelodysplastic syndrome.

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    Dalamaga, Maria; Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Chamberland, John; Nikolaidou, Athina; Lekka, Antigoni; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, Amalia; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-12-01

    Excess body weight has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We thus explored the role of serum fetuin-A reflecting ectopic hepatic fat deposition when storage capacity of adipocytes has been exceeded, free leptin reflecting overall fat mass and adiponectin reflecting visceral fat mass, all potential mediators of the effects of obesity on insulin resistance and, consequently, to MDS risk. In a hospital-based case-control study, we studied 101 cases with incident, histologically confirmed primary MDS and 101 controls matched on gender, age and date of diagnosis, between 2004 and 2007. Serum fetuin-A, adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor, free leptin and insulin were determined. Higher serum fetuin-A, lower adiponectin and lower free leptin were all individually and independently associated with higher risk of MDS before and after controlling for matching and risk factors, such as age, gender, date of diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), family history of lymphohematopoietic cancer, smoking history and serum insulin. Interestingly, we have shown that these associations were prominent among overweight/obese individuals and persisted after controlling for BMI and serum insulin indicating that their effects are above and beyond insulinemia only. Elevated serum fetuin-A but lower adiponectin and free leptin are associated with higher risk of MDS particularly among overweight/obese individuals. These findings suggest that the association between excessive weight gain and the risk of MDS could be mediated by fetuin-A, adiponectin and free leptin, which may have potential clinical and preventive implications. © 2013.

  14. Absence of birth-weight lowering effect of ADCY5 and near CCNL, but association of impaired glucose-insulin homeostasis with ADCY5 in Asian Indians.

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    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available A feature of the Asian Indian phenotype is low birth weight with increased adult type 2 diabetes risk. Most populations show consistent associations between low birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes. Recently, two birth weight-lowering loci on chromosome 3 (near CCNL1 and ADCY5 were identified in a genome-wide association study, the latter of which is also a type 2 diabetes locus. We therefore tested the impact of these genetic variants on birth weight and adult glucose/insulin homeostasis in a large Indian birth cohort.Adults (n = 2,151 enrolled in a birth cohort (established 1969-73 were genotyped for rs900400 (near CCNL1 and rs9883204 (ADCY5. Associations were tested for birth weight, anthropometry from infancy to adulthood, and type 2 diabetes related glycemic traits. The average birth weight in this population was 2.79±0.47 kg and was not associated with genetic variation in CCNL1 (p = 0.87 or ADCY5 (p = 0.54. Allele frequencies for the 'birth weight-lowering' variants were similar compared with Western populations. There were no significant associations with growth or adult weight. However, the 'birth weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with modest increase in fasting glucose (β 0.041, p = 0.027, 2-hours glucose (β 0.127, p = 0.019, and reduced insulinogenic index (β -0.106, p = 0.050 and 2-hour insulin (β -0.058, p = 0.010.The low birth weight in Asian Indians is not even partly explained by genetic variants near CCNL1 and ADCY5 which implies that non-genetic factors may predominate. However, the 'birth-weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with elevated glucose and decreased insulin response in early adulthood which argues for a common genetic cause of low birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161748.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications Women ... Oct. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who undergo weight-loss surgery gain major benefits when it comes to ...

  16. Weight Change Trajectories After Incident Lower-Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D; Thompson, Mary Lou; Boyko, Edward J; Morgenroth, David C; Littman, Alyson J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize weight change after amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower-limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Administrative data. Veterans who were men (N=759), living in the Northwest United States, and who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter. Not applicable. Postamputation weight and body mass index change. The mean weight at baseline was 91.6±24 kg (202±53 lb), and average follow-up was 2.4 years. We identified 4 trajectory groups for weight change: weight loss (13%), stable weight (47%), slow weight gain (33%), and rapid weight gain (7%). Men with a toe or foot amputation most frequently were assigned to the stable weight group (58%), whereas men with transtibial or transfemoral amputations were most commonly assigned to the slow weight gain group (42% each). Men who died during follow-up were more likely to be assigned to the weight loss group (24%) than men who did not die (11%). We identified distinct weight change trajectories that represent heterogeneity in weight change after LLA. An improved understanding of factors predictive of weight gain or loss in people with LLA may help better target rehabilitation and prosthetic prescription. Additional research is needed to fully understand the relation between weight change and health status after amputation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Goodwin, James S

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03-1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02-1.89), after

  18. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Rong Mao; Wai Leung Lo; Qiang Lin; Le Li; Xiang Xiao; Preeti Raghavan; Dong-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilatera...

  19. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  20. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  1. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT and conventional overground walking training (CT in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n=12 and CT (n=12 groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Interventions. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Results. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P<0.05, with no significant difference between the two groups after intervention. However, kinematic data were significantly improved (P<0.05 after BWSTT but not after CT. Maximum hip extension and flexion angles were significantly improved (P<0.05 for the BWSTT group during the stance and swing phases compared to baseline. Conclusion. In subacute patients with stroke, BWSTT can lead to improved gait quality when compared with conventional gait training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  2. Lower Bound on Weights of Large Degree Threshold Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Podolskii, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    An integer polynomial $p$ of $n$ variables is called a \\emph{threshold gate} for the Boolean function $f$ of $n$ variables if for all $x \\in \\{0,1\\}^n$ $f(x)=1$ if and only if $p(x)\\geq 0$. The \\emph{weight} of a threshold gate is the sum of its absolute values. In this paper we study how large weight might be needed if we fix some function and some threshold degree. We prove $2^{\\Omega(2^{2n/5})}$ lower bound on this value. The best previous bound was $2^{\\Omega(2^{n/8})}$ (Podolskii, 2009). In addition we present substantially simpler proof of the weaker $2^{\\Omega(2^{n/4})}$ lower bound. This proof is conceptually similar to other proofs of the bounds on weights of nonlinear threshold gates, but avoids a lot of technical details arising in other proofs. We hope that this proof will help to show the ideas behind the construction used to prove these lower bounds.

  3. Effects of Lower and Higher Quality Brand Versions on Brand Evaluation: an Opponent-Process Model Plus Differential Brand-Version Weighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timothy Heath; Devon DelVecchio; Michael McCarthy; Subimal Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    ...) or lower-quality versions (e.g., Ruby Tuesday's Corner Diner). A brand-quality asymmetry emerges on measures ranging from brand choice to brand attitude to perceptions of brand expertise, innovativeness, and prestige...

  4. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (Pbiofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (Pbiofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted.

  5. Ankle-foot orthoses in stroke: effects on functional balance, weight-bearing asymmetry and the contribution of each lower limb to balance control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, C.D.; Asseldonk, E.H. van; Kooij, H. van der; Geurts, A.C.H.; Buurke, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle-foot orthoses are often provided to improve walking in stroke patients, although the evidence of effects on walking and balance control is still inconsistent. This could be caused by a lack of insight into the influence of orthoses on the underlying impairments. These impairments c

  6. Ankle-foot orthoses in stroke: Effects on functional balance, weight-bearing asymmetry and the contribution of each lower limb to balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Corien D.M.; Asseldonk, van Edwin H.F.; Kooij, van der Herman; Geurts, Alexander C.H.; Buurke, Jaap H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ankle-foot orthoses are often provided to improve walking in stroke patients, although the evidence of effects on walking and balance control is still inconsistent. This could be caused by a lack of insight into the influence of orthoses on the underlying impairments. These impairments ca

  7. Changes in lower extremity muscle mass and muscle strength after weight loss in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low-energy diet-induced weight loss on lower-extremity muscle mass and knee muscle strength in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the associations of these effects.......To investigate the effects of low-energy diet-induced weight loss on lower-extremity muscle mass and knee muscle strength in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the associations of these effects....

  8. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  9. Slower eating speed lowers energy intake in normal-weight but not overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Copeland, Jennifer; Dart, Lyn; Adams-Huet, Beverley; James, Ashlei; Rhea, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    The effect of eating speed on energy intake by weight status is unclear. To examine whether the effect of eating speed on energy intake is the same in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. The effect of slow and fast eating speed on meal energy intake was assessed in a randomized crossover design. Thirty-five normal-weight (aged 33.3±12.5 years; 14 women and 21 men) subjects and 35 overweight/obese (44.1±13.0 years; 22 women and 13 men) subjects were studied on 2 days during lunch in a metabolic kitchen. The subjects consumed the same meal, ad libitum, but at different speeds during the two eating conditions. The weight and energy content of the food consumed was assessed. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed at specific times using visual analog scales. Effect of eating speed on ad libitum energy intake, eating rate (energy intake/meal duration), energy density (energy intake per gram of food and water consumed), and satiety were assessed by mixed-model repeated measures analysis. Meal energy intake was significantly lower in the normal-weight (804.5±438.9 vs 892.6±330.2 kcal; P=0.04) but not the overweight/obese (667.3±304.1 vs 724.8±355.5 kcal; P=0.18) subjects during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups had lower meal energy density (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively) and eating rate (Pintake in the normal-weight but not in the overweight/obese group. It lowered eating rate and energy density in both groups. Eating slowly led to lower hunger ratings in both groups and increased fullness ratings in the normal-weight group at 60 minutes from when the meal began. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (Pfoods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected...

  11. The Effect of Sunspot Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalgaard, Leif; Cagnotti, Marco; Cortesi, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Although W. Brunner began to weight sunspot counts (from 1926), using a method whereby larger spots were counted more than once, he compensated for the weighting by not counting enough smaller spots in order to maintain the same reduction factor (0.6) as was used by his predecessor A. Wolfer to reduce the count to R. Wolf's original scale, so that the weighting did not have any effect on the scale of the sunspot number. In 1947, M. Waldmeier formalized the weighting (on a scale from 1 to 5) of the sunspot count made at Zurich and its auxiliary station Locarno. This explicit counting method, when followed, inflates the relative sunspot number over that which corresponds to the scale set by Wolfer (and matched by Brunner). Recounting some 60,000 sunspots on drawings from the reference station Locarno shows that the number of sunspots reported was "over counted" by {≈} 44 % on average, leading to an inflation (measured by an effective weight factor) in excess of 1.2 for high solar activity. In a double-blind parallel counting by the Locarno observer M. Cagnotti, we determined that Svalgaard's count closely matches that of Cagnotti, allowing us to determine from direct observation the daily weight factor for spots since 2003 (and sporadically before). The effective total inflation turns out to have two sources: a major one (15 - 18 %) caused by weighting of spots, and a minor source (4 - 5 %) caused by the introduction of the Zürich classification of sunspot groups which increases the group count by 7 - 8 % and the relative sunspot number by about half that. We find that a simple empirical equation (depending on the activity level) fits the observed factors well, and use that fit to estimate the weighting inflation factor for each month back to the introduction of effective inflation in 1947 and thus to be able to correct for the over-counts and to reduce sunspot counting to the Wolfer method in use from 1894 onwards.

  12. Liuwei Dihuang Lowers Body Weight and Improves Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Perry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy and mechanism(s of action of a Chinese herbal formulation, Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH, as a prospective natural weight-lowering product. Following a 2-week acclimation period, 48 obesity-prone (OP-CD rats were divided into 4 groups (n=12 each. One group served as a positive control for obesity (OP, while the other 3 were challenged twice daily by oral gavage with total daily dosages of 500, 1500, or 3500 mg/kg BW LWDH, respectively, for 10 weeks. One group (n=12 of obesity-resistant (OR-CD rats served as the normal control group. All rats were fed the same AIN-93G diet modified to contain 60% energy from fat. The highest LWDH dose significantly reduced body weight during the last 4 weeks of treatment. Food intake was reduced beginning in week 2. The high LWDH dose lowered serum triglyceride (TG and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and body fat. Both the high and medium doses also lowered serum leptin and insulin levels. Liver function testing revealed no adverse side effects under the current experimental conditions. The results of the present study suggest that LWDH has potential as a preventive or therapeutic natural product against overweight and obesity.

  13. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  14. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  15. Effect of weight-bearing activity on the center of rotation in the lower lumbar vertebrae%负重状态对下腰椎椎体间旋转中心的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳男; 夏群; 苗军; 李宏达; 魏冬

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic reports have indicated that excessive weight-bearing exercise is one of important risk factors for lumbar degeneration, but the effects of weight-bearing activity on normal lumbar motion pattern are stil not clear. OBJECTIVE:To measure the changing characteristics and rules of position at the center of rotation of the lower lumbar spine during a weight-lifting activity of normal person. METHODS: Fourteen asymptomatic subjects with a mean age of (25±5) years were recruited for this study. The L4-5 and L5-S1 segments of each subject were CT-scanned to construct 3D models using dual X-ray imaging system and spiral CT examination combined technology in the aid of computer software. The physiological load and lumbar spinal 3D motion under the loading condition were reproduced when matching the flexion, neutrality and extension in the dual X-ray imaging system and on dual oblique lumbar X-ray image. Coordinate systems were established at the vertebral body of L4-S1 to obtain the center of rotation during flexion-to-neutral, neutral-to-extension and the ful flexion-extension motion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Under physiological load, the center of rotation of L4-5 of normal person was located about 1.0 mm anterior to the central axis of the vertebral body, and the center of rotation of L5-S1 was located about 0.7 mm anterior to the central axis of the vertebral body. (2) With weight loading, the center of rotation of both two segments shifted backward about 0.5 mm. There was no statistical difference between these two loading conditions. (3) When the center of rotation in flexion and extension was calculated respectively, the moving range of the center of rotation at both L4-5and L5-S1 became larger due to taking loads of 10 kg (P < 0.05). In flexion, the center of rotation at L5-S1 significantly shifted forward during a weight-lifting activity (P < 0.05). (4) These results confirm that compared with non-weight-bearing condition, the trajectory

  16. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions.

  17. A study of passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise effects on local muscles and whole body oxidative metabolism: a comparison with simulated horse riding, bicycle, and walking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Murase, Norio; Osada, Takuya; Kime, Ryotaro; Anjo, Mikiko; Esaki, Kazuki; Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2009-11-10

    We have developed an exercise machine prototype for increasing exercise intensity by means of passively exercising lower limb muscles. The purpose of the present study was to compare the passive exercise intensity of our newly-developed machine with the intensities of different types of exercises. We also attempted to measure muscle activity to study how these forms of exercise affected individual parts of the body. Subjects were 14 healthy men with the following demographics: age 30 years, height 171.5 cm, weight 68.3 kg. They performed 4 types of exercise: Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise (PWLLE), Simulated horse riding exercise (SHRE), Bicycle exercise, and Walking exercise, as described below at an interval of one week or longer. Oxygen uptake, blood pressure, heart rate, and electromyogram (EMG) were measured or recorded during exercise. At rest prior to exercise and immediately after the end of each exercise intensity, the oxygenated hemoglobin levels of the lower limb muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy to calculate the rate of decline. This rate of decline was obtained immediately after exercise as well as at rest to calculate oxygen consumption of the lower limb muscles as expressed as a ratio of a post-exercise rate of decline to a resting one. The heart rate and oxygen uptake observed in PWLLE during maximal intensity were comparable to that of a 20-watt bicycle exercise or 2 km/hr walking exercise. Maximal intensity PWLLE was found to provoke muscle activity comparable to an 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise. As was the case with the EMG results, during maximal intensity PWLLE, the rectus femoris muscle consumed oxygen in amounts identical to that of an 80-watt bicycle or a 6 km/hr walking exercise. Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise using our trial machine could provide approximately 3 MET of exercise and the thigh exhibited muscle activity equivalent to that of 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise

  18. Effect of lower limb rehabilitation robot on lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-liang LU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the rehabilitation effect of lower limb rehabilitation robot training on the lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke. Methods A total of 60 stroke patients (duration < 6 months accepted conventional rehabilitation training combined with body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT group, N = 30 or conventional rehabilitation training combined with lower limb rehabilitation robot training (Robot group, N = 30. Fugl - Meyer Assessment Scale for Lower Extremity (FMA-LE was used to evaluate lower limb motor function. Berg Balance Scale (BBS was used to evaluate balance function. Lower limb rehabilitation robot torque feedback system was used to evaluate lower limb muscle strength. All evaluations were performed before and after 8-week training.   Results Compared with before training, the FMA-LE score (P = 0.000, BBS score (P = 0.000, hemiplegic side of hip joint feedback torque value (HJTV, P = 0.000 and knee joint feedback torque value (KJTV, P = 0.000 were increased in both groups after 8-week training. Compared with BWSTT group, the hemiplegic side of HJTV (P = 0.000 and KJTV (P = 0.000 were increased in Robot group after 8-week training, while the FMA-LE score (P = 0.118 and BBS score (P = 0.159 had no statistically significant difference between 2 groups.  Conclusions The lower limb rehabilitation robot or body weight support treadmill training combined with conventional rehabilitation training could improve the lower limb motor function of hemiplegic patients after stroke. The lower limb rehabilitation robot training was better than body weight support treadmill training on the recovery of lower limb muscle strength. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.004  

  19. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  20. The Effect of Sunspot Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Svalgaard, Leif; Cortesi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Waldmeier in 1947 introduced a weighting (on a scale from 1 to 5) of the sunspot count made at Zurich and its auxiliary station Locarno, whereby larger spots were counted more than once. This counting method inflates the relative sunspot number over that which corresponds to the scale set by Wolfer and Brunner. Svalgaard re-counted some 60,000 sunspots on drawings from the reference station Locarno and determined that the number of sunspots reported were 'over counted' by 44% on average, leading to an inflation (measured by a weight factor) in excess of 1.2 for high solar activity. In a double-blind parallel counting by the Locarno observer Cagnotti, we determined that Svalgaard's count closely matches that of Cagnotti's, allowing us to determine the daily weight factor since 2003 (and sporadically before). We find that a simple empirical equation fits the observed weight factors well, and use that fit to estimate the weight factor for each month back to the introduction of weighting in 1947 and thus to be ab...

  1. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  2. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  3. Impact of Current and Emerging Glucose-Lowering Drugs on Body Weight in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, David C W; Teoh, Hwee

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, and most people with diabetes will eventually require adjunctive pharmacotherapy to optimize their glycemic control. As the majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, weight management is an essential component of diabetes management to improve their overall health and quality of life. Many of the currently available glucose-lowering drugs are associated with weight gain, which makes it challenging for both prescribing clinicians and patients. The 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines interim update on the pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes recommend individualization of therapy and glycemic targets. Clinicians should take into consideration not only the drug's efficacy and safety profiles but also its propensity for causing hypoglycemia and weight gain. Given that the number of glucose-lowering drugs is expanding rapidly, a better understanding of the impacts of current and emerging therapies on body weight will serve as a useful guide. Metformin remains the first-line drug after diet and exercise therapy. The next add-on agent could be selected from the incretin or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor class because these drugs rarely cause hypoglycemia and may lead to modest weight loss. When insulin therapy is considered, choosing a basal insulin that is associated with less nocturnal hypoglycemia and weight gain is recommended. Emerging therapies using combination therapy of an incretin-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist-basal insulin hold promise to achieve robust glycemic control with weight loss and low risk for hypoglycemia.

  4. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  5. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  6. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. P. Huot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P=0.03 and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P=0.03, compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P=0.01 and density (4%, P=0.002 of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P=0.01 and stiffness (P=0.002. However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

  7. Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT) a non-appetite suppressing natural product controls weight and lowers cholesterol and glucose levels in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Chung, Danna; Liu, Changda; Liang, Banghao; Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-07-23

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in industrialized countries. Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. Unfortunately, conventional obesity drug treatment is often associated with adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel natural formula, Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT), developed from traditional Chinese medicine, for weight control in a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity murine model. Two sets of experiments were performed. In experiment 1, 14-week-old C57BL/6 J male mice were fed with HFD for 21 days and then separated into 3 weight-matched groups. One group continued on the HFD as obese-controls. Two groups were switched from HFD to normal fat level diet (NFD) and sham or W-LHIT treated. In experiment 2, 25-week-old obese mice, following 2 weeks acclimatization, received either W-LHIT or sham treatment while maintained on HFD. In both sets of experiments, NFD fed, age matched normal weight mice served as normal controls. Body weight and food intake were recorded. Epididymal fat pad weight, serum glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as PPARγ and FABP4 gene expression in epididymal fat tissue were analyzed at the end of the experiment. In experiment 1, W-LHIT treated obese mice lost body weight 12.2 ± 3.8% whereas sham treated mice lost 5.5 ± 2.8% by day 10 after switching from the HFD to the NFD, without reduction of chow consumption. In experiment 2, W-LHIT treated obese mice maintained on the HFD had significantly lower body weight (8 fold less) than the sham treated mice. W-LHIT treatment also reduced epididymal fat pad weight, blood cholesterol and glucose levels versus sham treated mice without reduced chow consumption. In addition, significantly increased PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4) gene expression were found in epdidymal fat tissues. Liver and kidney function and

  8. Lower-extremity weight-bearing compliance is maintained over time after biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Blizzard, Daniel J; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Leslie, Michael P; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown immediate compliance with weight-bearing instructions to be better after biofeedback training than after verbal or scale training. This study assessed retention of biofeedback training to determine potential clinical applicability. Twelve participants were enrolled in a prospective clinical study at an academic orthopedic center. Participants were trained with a biofeedback device to comply with touch-down weight-bearing instructions (25 lb). Immediately following the training session, weight bearing was assessed for each participant. The retention of this training was then reassessed at 2 to 4, 6 to 8, and 22 to 24 hours. Two control participants were given no biofeedback training (verbal instructions only) and were followed similarly. Following initial biofeedback training at 25 lb, participants bore an average of 20.4±2.12 lb. Retention tests during the 24-hour period showed no significant difference from the original testing, with 2- to 4-hour retention of 19.98±4.75 lb, 6- to 8-hour retention of 25.07±6.60 lb, and 22- to 24-hour retention of 21.75±4.58 lb. Participants who only received verbal instructions consistently bore several-fold greater weight than instructed. Biofeedback training has previously been shown to have a strong immediate effect on partial weight-bearing compliance. This study demonstrated that this effect lasts up to 24 hours. This maintained weight-bearing compliance after biofeedback training suggests that this method may be an effective way to train patients to comply with given instructions for limited weight bearing.

  9. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  10. The Volatility Effect: Lower Risk without Lower Return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe present empirical evidence that stocks with low volatility earn high risk-adjusted returns. The annual alpha spread of global low versus high volatility decile portfolios amounts to 12% over the 1986-2006 period. We also observe this volatility effect within the US, European and Japan

  11. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol storage were determined. Following a 12-week experimental period, the body weights of allicin-fed mice were less than those of control mice on a high-cholesterol diet by 38.24±7.94% (P<0.0001 with 5 mg/kg allicin, 39.28±5.03% (P<0.0001 with 10 mg/kg allicin, and 41.18±5.00% (P<0.0001 with 20 mg/kg allicin, respectively. A decrease in daily food consumption was also noted in most of the treated animals. Meanwhile, allicin showed a favorable effect in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and caused a significant decrease in lowering the hepatic cholesterol storage. Accordingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated a potential value of allicin as a pronounced cholesterol-lowering candidate, providing protection against the onset of atherosclerosis.

  12. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( Angus cows and lower ( Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to 28.6 ± 9.4 kg for cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive ability of Romosinuano in temperate fescue regions may be favorable with respect to relative cow and calf weight but may be a consequence of

  13. Motor-Evoked Potentials in the Lower Back Are Modulated by Visual Perception of Lifted Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Behrendt

    Full Text Available Facilitation of the primary motor cortex (M1 during the mere observation of an action is highly congruent with the observed action itself. This congruency comprises several features of the executed action such as somatotopy and temporal coding. Studies using reach-grasp-lift paradigms showed that the muscle-specific facilitation of the observer's motor system reflects the degree of grip force exerted in an observed hand action. The weight judgment of a lifted object during action observation is an easy task which is the case for hand actions as well as for lifting boxes from the ground. Here we investigated whether the cortical representation in M1 for lumbar back muscles is modulated due to the observation of a whole-body lifting movement as it was shown for hand action. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to measure the corticospinal excitability of the m. erector spinae (ES while subjects visually observed the recorded sequences of a person lifting boxes of different weights from the floor. Consistent with the results regarding hand action the present study reveals a differential modulation of corticospinal excitability despite the relatively small M1 representation of the back also for lifting actions that mainly involve the lower back musculature.

  14. Economics effects of lower oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, S.; Horton, G.; Vernon, K.

    1985-01-01

    The economic effects, both for the world, and for the UK, of lower oil prices are examined, and the impact of a sustained fall in oil prices is considered. The results of some simulations on both the Treasury's World Economic Prospects model and its model of the UK economy are used to give an estimate of the possible effects on the world and UK economies of a sustained fall of 10 per cent in the world oil price. A number of studies of the relationship between oil price changes and exchange rate changes are summarised. (author).

  15. Effects of weight training on power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUKAB AZEEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Harris et al. declared that some researchers claim the use of 80% of 1RM is recommended toimprove power characteristics, while others suggest 50-60% of 1RM and below. Kawamori and Haff agreed withHarris et al., stating that there is inconsistency in the optimal load to produce the highest power. They claimedthat some studies that used untrained subjects, single joint exercises, and upper-body exercises reported 30-45%of 1RM, while others using trained subjects, multi-joint exercises, and lower-body exercises reported 30-70% of1RM.Method: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training in the developing the powerperformance among 20 students between 16 to 18 years of age enrolled for physical education course for theacademic year 2010, were selected as subjects. Pre and post test was conducted for the group on 1RM of squats,bench press and dead lift. 45 minutes weight training program, twice a week, for 12 weeks was given to thesubjects. The statistical tools used were mean, SD, and ‘t’ –test.Results & Discussion: The analysis of the data reveals that the subjects with the training have shownimprovement in the performance of squats from pre to post test with the mean and S.D being (76.00, 26.59 and(93.75, 27.19 respectively. The improvement is quite encouraging and highly significant (p<0.0001.With regard to bench press exercise of the subjects the mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (53.00, 23.14and (70.25, 23.37. The data clearly speaks of an improved performance from pre to post scores of the studentswhich is highly significant at (p<0.0001. The mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (104.00, 28.31 and(135.00, 24.97 respectively with respect to dead lift exercise. There is an increase in the power of the studentswhich is encouraging and highly significant with (p<0.0001.Conclusions: It is concluded from this study, that there was a marked improvement in the performance of thestudents in

  16. Muscle activation and estimated relative joint force during running with weight support on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine Louise

    2016-01-01

    Running on a lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg...... muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% body-weight (BW). Surface EMG, ground reaction force and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were...... estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and anti-gravity forces. At 20%BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100%BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20%BW...

  17. Weight effects on the periodic ambiguity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Benjamin; Levanon, Nadav

    1995-01-01

    CW radar signals and processors are discussed. The use of the periodic ambiguity function (PAF) to analyze the delay-Doppler performance of CW signals and their corresponding correlation receivers, is extended to include weight function effects. This work provides tools which can predict the delay-Doppler response of almost any phase-coded CW radar. Examples demonstrate that a combination of CW signals having perfect periodic autocorrelation, a matched reference signal with a large number of modulation periods and a smooth weight function, can create a delay-Doppler response with extremely low sidelobes, strongly resembling the response of a coherent pulse train.

  18. Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection

  19. Effects of metformin on weight loss: potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2014-10-01

    Despite the known glucose-lowering effects of metformin, more recent clinical interest lies in its potential as a weight loss drug. Herein, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which metformin decreases appetite and opposes unfavorable fat storage in peripheral tissues. Many individuals struggle to maintain clinically relevant weight loss from lifestyle and bariatric surgery interventions. Long-term follow-up from the Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrates that metformin produces durable weight loss, and decreased food intake by metformin is the primary weight loss mechanism. Although the effect of metformin on appetite is likely to be multifactorial, changes in hypothalamic physiology, including leptin and insulin sensitivity, have been documented. In addition, novel work in obesity highlights the gastrointestinal physiology and circadian rhythm changes by metformin as not only affecting food intake, but also the regulation of fat oxidation and storage in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Metformin induces modest weight loss in overweight and obese individuals at risk for diabetes. A more detailed understanding of how metformin induces weight loss will likely lead to optimal co-prescription of lifestyle modification with pharmacology for the treatment of obesity independent of diabetes.

  20. African American women exhibit similar adherence to intervention but lose less weight due to lower energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLany, J P; Jakicic, J M; Lowery, J B; Hames, K C; Kelley, D E; Goodpaster, B H

    2014-09-01

    African American (AA) women have been shown to lose less weight than Caucasian women in response to behavioral interventions. Our objective was to examine adherence to intervention and metabolic factors that may explain this difference. We examined longitudinal changes in body weight and energy expenditure (EE), and objective assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy intake (EI) during 6 months of a weight-loss intervention program, including prescribed calorie restriction and increased PA in 66 Caucasian and 39 AA severely obese women. Comparisons were also made in 25 Caucasian and 25 AA women matched for initial body weight. The AA women lost 3.6 kg less weight than Caucasian women. Total daily EE (TDEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) were significantly lower in the AA women, whereas the decrease in RMR in response to weight loss was greater in Caucasian women. Adherence to the prescribed PA and change in PA in response to intervention were similar in AA and Caucasian women. Prescribed EI (1794±153 and 1806±153 kcal per day) and measured EI during intervention (2591±371 vs 2630±442 kcal per day) were nearly identical in matched AA and Caucasian women. However, the AA women lost significantly less body weight due to lower energy requirements (2924±279 vs 3116±340 kcal per day; Pweight loss. Therefore, to achieve similar weight loss in AA women, the prescribed caloric restriction cannot be based on weight alone, but must be lower than in Caucasians, to account for lower energy requirements.

  1. Effect of Weight-bearing Too Early in Lower Limbs on Extensor Muscle Spasm and Knee Hyperextension of Affected Limb in Acute Stroke Patients with Hemiplegia%急性脑卒中患者过早下肢负重与患肢伸肌痉挛及膝过伸的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永霞; 刘建国; 戚晓昆

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of weight-bearing too early in the lower limbs on extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension of affected limbs in acute stroke patients with hemiplegia. Methods; Eighty acute stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited and the clinical data was analyzed. Results: All the cases were divided into control and weight-bearing groups according to their compliance in rehabilitation training. All the cases were given canonical rehabilitation program for 2 months, and the cases in the weight-bearing group started weight-bearing too early. Results: The number of cases with extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension of affected limbs in the weight-bearing group was higher than that in the control group (P<0. 05) after 2 months of treatment. Conclusion: Weight-bearing too early could increase the risk of extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension in acute stroke patients with hemiplegia.%目的:研究下肢过早负重对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能的影响.方法:急性脑卒中患者80例,对全部患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:根据患者康复过程中的依从性,分为规范康复组和过早负重组,各40例,2组均接受康复治疗2个月,但过早负重组患者康复治疗期间过早下肢负重;治疗2个月后,过早负重组患者下肢出现伸肌痉挛及膝过伸的例数均高于规范康复组(P<0.05).结论:过早下肢负重容易使脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢出现伸肌痉挛及膝过伸.

  2. 不同粒径和剂量毛木耳细粉对肥胖大鼠减肥降脂功效的研究%Effects of Auricularia polytricha Powder with Different Partical Sizes and Doses on Weight Loss and Lipid-Lowering of Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文丽; 李强; 李小林; 陈祖琴; 郑林用

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effects of Auricularia polytricha powder with different doses on weight loss and lowering blood lipid of high-fat nutritional diet-induced obesity SD rats. SD rats were used as obesity models by feeding them with high fat nutrition for 2 weeks, followed by administrating with different partical size ( 300 to 400 mesh and more than 400 mesh) or dose (1 250, 1 000 and 750 mg/kg) of Auricularia polytricha powder for 42 days. Body weight and food intake of rats were recorded. Meanwhile, the lipid levels in blood and body also were calculated after intervention. The results showed that animal model was made successfully, and there was no significant difference in total food and calorie intake and food utilization rate of rats among all groups ( P>0.05) . However, 300 to 400 mesh and more than 400 mesh of Auricularia polytricha powder with high dose ( 1 250 g/kg ) and medium dose ( 1 000 g/kg ) could significantly reduce the body weight and body weight gain of obesity rats than those in the model control group ( P<0.05) . Fat weight, fat body ratio, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) contents of rats fed with 300 to 400 mesh high dose or more than 400 mesh high dose were significantly lower than those of the model control group. It can be concluded that 300 to 400 mesh and more than 400 mesh of Auricularia polytricha powder possesses certain effects both on weight loss and lipid-lowering.%本研究旨在探讨不同剂量、粒径的毛木耳细粉对SD大鼠高脂性饮食诱发肥胖的减肥降脂功效。利用高脂饲料诱发 SD 大鼠肥胖模型2周后,给予不同粒径(300~400目和>400目)、剂量(1250、1000和750 mg/kg)的毛木耳细粉42 d,干预期间检测动物体重、摄食量,干预结束时检测动物血脂、体脂、体重。结果表明:肥胖模型建立成功,各组大鼠摄食总量、摄入总热量及食物利用率无显著差异( P>0.05),1250

  3. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie;

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0......Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow...

  4. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Aguirre, A. L.; Camacho-Ruíz, R. M.; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Padilla-Camberos, E.; González-Ávila, M.; Gálvez-Gastélum, F. J.; N.E. Díaz-Martínez; Ortuño-Sahagún, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperg...

  5. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  6. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (pxanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Revaccination does not improve an observed deficit in antibody responses in Pakistani adults born of a lower birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Jalil, Fehmida; Szu, Shousun Chen; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Prentice, Andrew M; Hanson, Lars A

    2008-01-10

    We have previously shown that the generation of antibodies to a polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) is compromised in Pakistani adults born of a lower birth weight. To assess whether this represents a true B-cell-dependent deficit, we revaccinated subjects with a second dose of the same vaccine and with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine to a different polysaccharide antigen (conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine). Anti-Vi IgG levels remained positively correlated with birth weight (p=0.0284) but no associations were observed between anti-Hib IgG levels and size at birth. These findings indicate that small size at birth results in a poor antibody response to vaccination with a polysaccharide antigen vaccine in adulthood, even following a second dose of the vaccine. No such association was observed in response to a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine indicating an early-life programming effect on the generation of antibodies during a B-cell-dependent immune response.

  8. Effects of rapid or slow body weight reduction on intramuscular protein degradation pathways during equivalent weight loss on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Y; Urashima, S; Inai, M; Nishimura, S; Higashida, K; Terada, S

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (pweight of fast-twitch plantaris muscle, but not slow-twitch soleus muscle, were significantly lower in the Rapid group compared with the control rats fed ad libitum. Substantial increases in the expression ratio of autophagosomal membrane proteins (LC3-II/-I ratio) and polyubiquitinated protein concentration, used as biomarkers of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome activities, respectively, were observed in the plantaris muscle of the Rapid group. Moreover, the LC3-II/-I ratio and polyubiquitinated protein concentration were negatively correlated with the total protein content and wet weight of plantaris muscle. These results suggest that short-term fasting-induced rapid body weight loss activates autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems more strongly than calorie restriction-induced slower weight reduction, resulting in muscular atrophy in fast-twitch muscle.

  9. Effect of egg weight on hatchability and hatchling weight in Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, embryonic deaths and hatchling weight of three rural breeds (Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens. Materials and Methods: Three different egg weight groups classified into small: ( 45g were used in the experiment. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. Simultaneously quadratic type equation was used to determine the egg weight for optimum hatchability and hatchling weight. Results: Percentage hatchability of medium-sized eggs was higher (P < 0.05 than those in large sized eggs. Similarly, large–sized eggs had higher (P < 0.05 percentage hatchability than small sized eggs in all breeds. Hatchability percentage changed by ratio 0.4077 with one unit change in mean egg weight of Fayoumi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.5488 with one unit change in egg weight of Desi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.3767 with one unit change in egg weight of crossbred chickens. Mean hatchling weight in Fayoumi eggs changed by ratio of 0.6760; Desi eggs by ratio of 0.5955 and crossbred chicken eggs by ratio of 1.3613 with one unit change in mean egg weight. The overall mean hatchling weight as percentage of mean egg weight in case of Fayoumi was 67.10, in Desi 62.42 and 68.36 in case of cross birds. There was no evidence that hatchabilitypercentage increased with increase in egg weight in all the three strains of birds. Small-sized eggs had higher (P<0.05 embryonic deaths than those of medium and large-sized eggs in three breeds. Hatchling weight from large eggs were (P < 0.05 higher than those of small eggs in three breeds. Mean hatchling weight of Fayoumi changed by ratio 0.676 with one unit change in mean egg weight. In case of Desi chickens, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 0.5955 with one unit change in egg weight. In case of crossbred chicken, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 1.3613 with one unit change in

  10. Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT) a non-appetite suppressing natural product controls weight and lowers cholesterol and glucose levels in a murine model

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Nan; Chung, Danna; Liu, Changda; Liang, Banghao; Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing in industrialized countries. Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. Unfortunately, conventional obesity drug treatment is often associated with adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel natural formula, Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT), developed from traditional Chinese medicine, for weight control in a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced ob...

  11. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  12. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  13. Chronic lower extremity lymphedema: A comparative study of high-resolution interstitial MR lymphangiography and heavily T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qing [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: luqingshan@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu Jianrong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: jiangrongx@hotmail.com; Liu Ningfei [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Second Medical University, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Rd, Shanghai 200011 (China)], E-mail: luqing_1973@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the role of heavily T2-weighted image and interstitial MR lymphangiography (MRL) for the visualization of lymphatic vessels in patients with disorders of the lymphatic circulation. Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients (9 bilateral and 22 unilateral) with primary lymphedema were examined by heavily T2-weighted image and indirect MRL. Maximum-intensity projection (MIP) was used to reconstruct the images of the lymphatic system. Two experienced radiologists analyzed the images with regard to the differences in image quality, number of lymphatic vessels, its maximum diameter and two other findings: accumulated lymph fluid in the tissue and honeycombing pattern. Results: The beaded appearance of the affected vessels in 73 leg segments of 40 lower extremities were present on both modalities 3D MIP. Larger amount of the dilated lymphatic vessels were visualized on heavily T2-weighted image than that on MRL (p = 0.003) and the maximum diameter of it was 4.28 {+-} 1.53 mm on heavily T2-weighted image, whereas 3.41 {+-} 1.05 mm on MRL (p < 0.01). The dilated lymphatic vessels on MRL showed better image quality and greater SNR and CNR than that on heavily T2-weighted image (p < 0.01). The regions of accumulated lymph fluid and the honeycombing pattern extent were identified on heavily T2-weighted image scored statistically higher than that on MRL (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The heavily T2-weighted imaging has greater sensitivity and the MRL image has higher legibility for detecting the pathologically modified lymphatic vessels and accompanying complications non-invasively. Combining these two MR techniques can accurately access the pathological changes in the lower extremity with lymphedema.

  14. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined accor

  15. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined accor

  16. Techniques in the development of a lower weight medical implants and strength validation using finite element methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarasu, Sudesh; Mathew, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Artificial knees have been used in total knee arthroplasty for more than 6 decades. The major drawback of the medical implant is its weight, with the average weight of an artificial knee implant made of stainless steel and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene being approximately 450 g. Tne weight of the natural knee removed during arthroplasty is weight is approximately 600 percent, which causes muscle fatigue and decreased knee functionality. Our research aimed to develop an artificial knee implant, in which the design is modified and corrected to make the implant weigh less. The implant weight was reduced by drilling holes in thicker areas of the implant. The radius of the drill holes and their length inside the implant were controlled by conducting simulation studies using finite element modelling (FEM) techniques. These effects of using drills on implants reduced the implant weight to approximately 25 g. Performance was validated by loading the implants to 2000 N, which is approximately 15x the average body weight, and showed satisfactory results in weight reduction and performance of the new implant models.

  17. Unexpected Molecular Weight Effect in Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Holt, Adam P; Wang, Huiqun; Fan, Fei; Bocharova, Vera; Martin, Halie; Etampawala, Thusitha; White, B Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Kang, Nam-Goo; Dadmun, Mark D; Mays, Jimmy W; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2016-01-22

    The properties of the interfacial layer between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles largely determine the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Although the static thickness of the interfacial layer was found to increase with the molecular weight (MW), the influence of MW on segmental relaxation and the glass transition in this layer remains to be explored. In this Letter, we show an unexpected MW dependence of the interfacial properties in PNC with attractive polymer-nanoparticle interactions: the thickness of the interfacial layer with hindered segmental relaxation decreases as MW increases, in sharp contrast to theoretical predictions. Further analyses reveal a reduction in mass density of the interfacial layer with increasing MW, which can elucidate these unexpected dynamic effects. Our observations call for a significant revision of the current understandings of PNCs and suggest interesting ways to tailor their properties.

  18. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  19. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  20. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas;

    2017-01-01

    on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test.......7 fold higher than the horizontal assessments. Using passive dosing rather than dilution series or spiking did not lower the threshold significantly. Below the threshold for synergy, slight antagony could often be observed. This is most likely due to induction of enzymes active in metabolization of alpha...

  1. Effect of a weight loss program on body composition and metabolic syndrome markers in obese weight cyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetoro, Samuel; Makmun, Lukman H; Lukito, Widjaja; Wijaya, Andi

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the effect of weight loss program on fat mass, visceral fat rating and metabolic syndrome markers in obese subjects with weight cycling. this was an 8-week open trial. The subjects were recruited consecutively from Balai Kota DKI Jaya. Subjects were classified into two groups according to the fluctuation of weight gain (weight cycling/WC and first encounter obesity/FEO group). Both groups were assigned to receive weight loss program consisted with following goals: a 1000 kcal energy intake reduction and 45 minutes mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity three times a week. Body composition (fat mass, visceral fat rating), and metabolic syndrome markers (waist circumference and triglyceride levels) were measured at baseline, week 4 and at the end of study. seventy two subjects completed the study (34 subjects in WC group and 38 subjects in FEO group). Following weight loss program, a decrease in fat mass, visceral fat rating, and waist circumference was lower in WC group compared with FEO group but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were decreased in the FEO group while it was increased in WC group. However the difference was not significant (p=0.055). weight loss program may contribute to changes in body composition and metabolic syndrome markers in obese subjects, which the response appears to be worse in weight cyclers.

  2. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  3. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  4. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  5. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve; Hopster, Hans; Fillerup, Maaike; Ekkel, E Dinand; Mulder, Eduard J H; Wiegant, Victor M; Taverne, Marcel A M

    2006-03-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows to levels also observed after psychological stress. HCA was administered during three different periods of gestation (115 days in pigs): period 1: 21-50 (P1, n = 10), period 2: 51-80 (P2, n = 10) and period 3: 81-110 (P3, n = 10) days after insemination. Control sows (n = 11) received vehicle from 21-110 days after insemination. When P1-, P2- and P3-sows did not receive HCA, they also received vehicle. During gestation, weekly saliva samples were taken from the sows to determine salivary cortisol concentrations. Treatment effects on sow, litter and piglet characteristics were determined. In addition, two female piglets per litter were subjected to an ACTH-challenge test at 6 weeks of age to determine the adrenocortical response to ACTH. Pigs were slaughtered at 6 months of age and slaughter weight, back fat thickness and percentage of lean meat were analysed. During the period of treatment with HCA, salivary cortisol concentrations were increased in P1-, P2- and P3-sows compared to control sows (P 0.30), but pooled HCA-litters had a higher percentage of live born piglets (P Gestation length did not differ among treatment groups (P = 0.21), but did affect treatment effects on birth weight. Overall, HCA-piglets weighed less at birth, and remained lighter until weaning (P < 0.05). The salivary cortisol concentrations after i.m. injection of ACTH (2.5 IU/kg) were lower in P1- and P3-piglets compared to control piglets. At slaughter, HCA-treatment indirectly decreased lean meat percentage and increased back fat thickness. In conclusion, elevated peripheral cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows affect both litter characteristics and piglet physiology, the latter depending on

  6. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Investigation of Spinal Injury Potential from the Use of the ACES II Ejection Seat by Lower Weight Female Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    8217_ when tasting was conducted, data pertinent to lower weight classes (i.a. below tha 5th parcantila mala - 140.2 pounds) Mas not usaa. Tabla XX... tabla showing tha raaponaa fro« tha basas and how wa arrivad at thasa parcantagas. Tha following aaction discussss tha atatiatical analysis of thi...written by Walker and Mehaffie (24ixi, xii >. These definitions are important because they constitute the coding conventions used by the Norton Flight

  8. Evidence for weight effects in Russian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that factors such as weight, pronominality, animacy and newness influence word order in several languages, but whereas newness repeatedly has been argued to be a relevant factor for Russian, little or no attention has been paid to weight. In this paper, which is based on evidence...... from corpus data, weight is demonstrated to have a very significant influence on word order in Russian. Specifically, four constructions are tested: Postverbal PPs, the double object construction, adversity impersonals and the order of S, V and O. In all cases the same pattern emerges: The heavier...

  9. Curative effect of dabigatran etexilate versus low molecular weight heparin to prevent lower extremity deep venous thrombosis following femoral head prosthetic replacement%达比加群酯与低分子肝素预防髋关节置换术后下肢深静脉血栓的作用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 曲虹; 丁美精; 胡小辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects and security of low molecular weight heparin and dabigatran etexilate against deep venous thrombosis( DVT) following femoral head prosthetic replacement. Methods Totally 73 femoral head prosthetic replacement pa-tients were randomized into three groups: routine treatment group with 24 cases, dabigatran etexilate group with 25 cases and low heparin group with 24 cases. Change of platelet count and prothrombin time of the patients in three groups were observed and compared. Occurrence of DVT was observed under color Doppler of lower limbs. Results There was significant differences in DVT prevention between routine treat-ment group,the dabigatran etexilate group and low heparin group groups ( ( P 0.05)。 DE组和LMWH组在治疗期间均无严重出血。结论达比加群酯与低分子肝素均具有较好的预防髋关节置换后DVT的发生,达比加群酯疗效及安全性与低分子肝素作用相当。

  10. Effect of weight loss on the severity of psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, R

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis.......Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis....

  11. Neuronal GLP1R mediates liraglutide’s anorectic but not glucose-lowering effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sisley, Stephanie; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Scott, Michael; D’Alessio, David A.; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Seeley, Randy J

    2014-01-01

    Glucose control and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment. Currently, only glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs are able to achieve both weight loss and glucose tolerance. Both glucose and body weight are regulated by the brain, which contains GLP1 receptors (GLP1R). Even though the brain is poised to mediate the effects of GLP1 analogs, it remains unclear whether the glucose- and body weight–lowering effects of long-acting GLP1R agonists are via direct action on CNS GLP...

  12. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Pdiet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Pdiet composition on weight loss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  14. [Implementing ambulatory prevention of thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin in plaster immobilization of the lower extremity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, H J; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P; Hanke, J; Terwort, A; Rudofsky, G; Hirche, H

    1994-12-01

    Plaster cast immobilisation following trauma is a major risk factor for the development of deep vein thrombosis. In our controlled, randomized and prospective study in patients with minor injuries the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 4.3% in conservatively treated outpatients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg (n = 163 control group without prophylaxis). By application of low molecular weight heparin once daily the number of deep vein thrombosis in the prophylaxis group (n = 176) was reduced to 0% (p = 0.006). No severe side effects of low molecular weight heparin were observed. Subcutaneous injections were self-applicated by 89% of males and 72% of females. We conclude that thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin once daily is effective to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis in outpatients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg.

  15. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. [Ambulatory prevention of thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin in plaster immobilization of the lower extremity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, H J; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P; Hanke, J; Hakmann, A; Althoff, M; Rudofsky, G; Hirche, H

    1993-06-01

    Plaster cast immobilisation following trauma is a major risk factor for the development of deep vein thrombosis. In our controlled, randomized and prospective study on patients with minor injuries incidence of DVT in conservatively treated out-patients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg was 3.9% in the control group (n = 126) without prophylaxis. By s.c. self-application of LMV heparin once daily the number of DVT in the prophylaxis group (n = 115) was reduced to 0. No severe side effects of NMH were observed. We conclude that thromboprophylaxis with LMW heparin once daily up to now conspiciously reduced the risk of DVT in outpatients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg.

  17. Muscle Activation and Estimated Relative Joint Force During Running with Weight Support on a Lower-Body Positive-Pressure Treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bente R; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine L

    2016-08-01

    Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force.

  18. Effect of lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia%较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 王艳婷; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯春兰; 侯凌峰; 董继学; 李俊福

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响.方法:选取2008年3月至2010年3月我院住院精神分裂症患者92例,随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组给予较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗,对照组给予单纯氯氮平治疗.两组观察疗程24周.两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗12周及24周对其体质量、身高、血糖、餐后2h血糖、三酰甘油及胆固醇进行测定,并做统计分析. 结果:与对照组相比,研究组治疗前后体质量及糖脂代谢变化显著较小(P均<0.01).研究组体质量、血糖及三酰甘油异常率明显低于对照组(P均<0.01). 结论:较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗与单用较高剂量氯氮平相比,对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢影响较小.%Objective: To investigate effect of the lower dose of clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight,glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method:92 schizophrenic patients from our hospital March,2008 to March,2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group,the study group was given a low dose clozapine combined with aripiprazole and the control group was given clozapine treatment for 24 weeks. The body mass, height, blood glucose, postprandial 2 hour blood glucose, cholesterol and tri-glyceride were measured before treatment, week 12 and 24. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group showed fewer changes on body weight and metabolism of glucose and lipid between before and after the treatment (all P<0.01), and abnormal rates of body mass, glucose and triglyceride (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole have less impact on the body mass and glucose metabolism than only high doses clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  19. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  20. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  1. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  2. Impact of climate change on the stream flow of lower Brahmaputra: trends in high and low flows based on discharge- weighted ensemble modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology. The Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world as it is subject to the combined effects of glacier melt, extreme monsoon rainfall and sea level rise. To what extent climate change will impact river flow in the Brahmaputra basin is yet unclear, as climate model studies show ambiguous results. In this study we investigate the effect of climate change on both low and high flows of the lower Brahmaputra. We apply a novel method of discharge-weighted ensemble modeling using model outputs from a global hydrological models forced with 12 different global climate models (GCMs. Based on the GCM outputs and long-term records of observed flow at Bahadurabad station, our method results in a multi-model weighted ensemble of transient stream flow for the period 1961–2100. Using the constructed transients, we subsequently project future trends in low and high river flow. The analysis shows that extreme low flow conditions are likely to occur less frequent in the future. However a very strong increase in peak flows is projected, which may, in combination with projected sea level change, have devastating effects for Bangladesh. The methods presented in this study are more widely applicable, in that existing multi-model streamflow simulations from global hydrological models can be weighted against observed streamflow data to assess at first order the effects of climate change for specific river basins.

  3. Weight isn't selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggs, Enrica N; Hebl, Michelle R; Williams, Amber

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the literature on the stigma of obesity has grown but there still remains a paucity of research examining specific issues associated with its impact in the workplace. In the current study, we examine 3 such issues related to the influence of weight-based stigmatization in retail settings. First, we highlight research on the impact of obesity in men often is minimized or altogether excluded, and we examine whether weight-based stigmatization influences men in authentic retail settings (Study 1). Across retail contexts, Study 1 reveals that heavy (vs. nonheavy) men do experience significantly more interpersonal (subtle) discrimination. Second, we examine the "why" of weight-based stigmatization and find that weight-related negative stereotypes compound to produce indirect but strong effects of stigmatization in retail settings (Study 2). Third and finally, we examine whether weight-based stigmatization against men and women in retail also influences ratings of associated products and the organizations for which heavy individuals work (also Study 2). Results from Study 2 show that stereotypes work similarly for men and women and that a stigma-by-association effect occurs in which evaluators rate products and organizations associated with heavy (vs. nonheavy) retail personnel more negatively. Finally, we discuss the importance of these findings in gaining a more holistic look at the influence of weight stigmatization in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, E H; Kawachi, I; Manson, J E; Speizer, F E; Willet, W C; Colditz, G A

    1998-10-01

    To compare levels of physical function, across levels of body mass index (BMI), among middle- to older-aged women. Cross-sectional study. Physical function, body weight and other covariates were measured in 1992. 56510 women aged 45-71 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, participating in the Nurses' Health Study. The four physical function scores on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form-36 (SF36) Health Survey: physical functioning, vitality, bodily pain and role limitations. After adjusting for age, race, smoking status, menopausal status, physical activity and alcohol consumption, there was a significant dose-response gradient between increasing levels of BMI in 1992 and reduced function. For example, women with a BMI between 30-34.9 kg/m2 averaged: 9.0 point lower physical functioning score (95% Confidence interval (CI) -9.5, -8.5), 5.6 point lower vitality score (95% CI: -6.1, -5.1), and 7.0 point lower freedom from pain score (95% CI: -7.6, -6.4). These declines represent an approximate 10% loss of function compared to the reference category of women with BMIs ranging from 22.0-23.9 kg/m2. For the same BMI comparison, heavier women were at 66% increased risk of limitations in ability to work or perform other roles (RR = 1.66; 95% odds ratio (OR) CI: 1.56, 1.76). These findings were replicated when the sample was restricted to women who had maintained their BMI over a ten year period. In addition to increasing risk of chronic health conditions, greater adiposity is associated with lower every day physical functioning, such as climbing stairs or other moderate activities, as well as lower feelings of well-being and greater burden of pain.

  5. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...

  6. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  7. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  8. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  9. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  10. Lower conditioning leisure-time physical activity in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g have elevated levels of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Preliminary observations suggest that this could partly be explained by lower rates of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess physical activity in healthy young adults born preterm at very low birth weight compared with term-born controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 94 unimpaired young adults, aged 21-29 years, born at VLBW and 101 age-, sex-, and birth hospital-matched term-born controls from one regional center in Southern Finland. The participants completed a validated 30-item 12-month physical activity questionnaire and the NEO-Personality Inventory based on the Big Five taxonomy, the most commonly used classification of personality traits. Yearly frequency, total time, total volume and energy expenditure of conditioning and non-conditioning leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and commuting physical activity were compared between VLBW and term-born subjects. A subset of participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurement. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Compared with controls, VLBW participants had lower frequency [-38.5% (95% CI; -58.9, -7.7], total time [-47.4% (95% CI; -71.2, -4.1], total volume [-44.3% (95% CI; -65.8, -9.2] and energy expenditure [-55.9% (95% CI; -78.6, -9.4] of conditioning LTPA when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, parental education and personality traits. Adjusting for lean body mass instead of body mass index attenuated the difference. There were no differences in non-conditioning LTPA or commuting physical activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with term-born controls, unimpaired VLBW adults undertake less frequent LTPA with lower total time and volume of exercise resulting in lower energy expenditure. Differences in personality that exist between the

  11. Lower Body Weight in Men, an Epidemiological Predictor of Enlarged Left Atrium in Sinus Rhythm Patients with Dilated Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalli, Aurora; Georgievska-Ismail, Ljubica; Musliu, Nebi; Koçinaj, Dardan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The source of thrombi in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy is not necessarily from the dilated left ventricle. Left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) might be in charge for relatively high rate of systemic embolizations in these patients. The main aim of our study was to identify epidemiological predictors in sinus rhythm patients with dilated heart for LA and LAA dilation and/or dysfunction. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from 2009 to 2014 in 101 sinus rhythm patients with dilated heart. We excluded patients with swallowing problems, acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, severe systolic dysfunction, mechanical valves, oral anticoagulation therapy, and/or patients with a history of stroke/systemic thromboembolic event. Results: Mean patient age was 58.13 ± 12.66 years and 69.3% were men. Hypertension was encountered in 51% of our patients, 56% of them had a history of coronary artery disease, 30% had diabetes, 25% had dyslipidemia, 30% were smokers, whereas 10% were alcoholics. Mean LA dimensions resulted higher than reference values, whereas 86% of our patients had LAA dysfunction. Male gender was an independent predictor for LA diameter dilation (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.765–9.078, P = 0.005), while lower body weight was a predictor for enlargement of LA area (95% CI: 0.044–0.351, P = 0.014) and LA volume (95% CI: 0.160–2.067, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Male patients with dilated cardiomyopathy at sinus rhythm with lower body weight tend to have larger LA and consequently might be at higher risk of developing atrial thrombus and its subsequent consequences. PMID:28465968

  12. Food Decision-Making : Effects of Weight Status and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance

  13. Toxic effect of chemotherapy dosing using actual body weight in obese versus normal-weight patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdequin, K C; Schpero, W L; McKenna, D R; Piazik, B L; Larson, R J

    2013-12-01

    Many oncologists reduce chemotherapy doses in obese patients due to fear of excess toxic effect from very large weight-based calculations. While recent guidelines advise against this practice, quantitative summarization of the supporting evidence is not available. We systematically identified studies that compared toxic effect or survival outcomes between obese and normal-weight adults receiving chemotherapy dosed by actual body weight (ABW). We pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Of 5490 records screened, 12 studies representing 9314 relevant patients met inclusion criteria. The large majority of reported toxic effect and survival outcomes did not statistically differ between obese and normal-weight subjects. Exceptions included five studies in which one or more toxic effect or survival outcomes statistically favored obese patients, and one study that statistically favored normal-weight patients. Pooling usable data, rates of toxic effects were similar or lower in obese patients (grade 3/4 hematologic toxic effect: OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.98, 4 studies; grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxic effect: OR 0.98, CI 0.76-1.26, 3 subgroups; any grade 3/4 toxic effect: OR 0.75, CI 0.65-0.87, three studies). Obese patients receiving chemotherapy based on ABW experience similar or lower rates of toxic effects compared with normal-weight patients, and survival outcomes do not differ.

  14. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  15. Interrelations of muscle functional MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and (31) P-MRS in exercised lower back muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiepe, Patrick; Gussew, Alexander; Rzanny, Reinhard; Anders, Christoph; Walther, Mario; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-08-01

    Exercise-induced changes of transverse proton relaxation time (T2 ), tissue perfusion and metabolic turnover were investigated in the lower back muscles of volunteers by applying muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before and after as well as dynamic (31) P-MRS during the exercise. Inner (M. multifidus, MF) and outer lower back muscles (M. erector spinae, ES) were examined in 14 healthy young men performing a sustained isometric trunk-extension. Significant phosphocreatine (PCr) depletions ranging from 30% (ES) to 34% (MF) and Pi accumulations between 95% (left ES) and 120%-140% (MF muscles and right ES) were observed during the exercise, which were accompanied by significantly decreased pH values in all muscles (∆pH ≈ -0.05). Baseline T2 values were similar across all investigated muscles (approximately 27 ms at 3 T), but revealed right-left asymmetric increases (T2 ,inc ) after the exercise (right ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 11.8/9.7%; left ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 4.6/8.9%). Analyzed muscles also showed load-induced increases in molecular diffusion D (p = .007) and perfusion fraction f (p = .002). The latter parameter was significantly higher in the MF than in the ES muscles both at rest and post exercise. Changes in PCr (p = .03), diffusion (p muscles.

  16. Longitudinal effects of weight loss and regain on cytokine concentration of obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeba, Erica J; Styn, Mindi A; Kuller, Lewis H; Brooks, Maria Mori; Evans, Rhobert W; Burke, Lora E

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial. Participants were obese adults (N=66) who lost and regained ≥ 10lb during a 24-month clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment. Measurements of cytokines and weight were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to determine percent change in weight and cytokines from baseline. The sample was predominantly female (80.3%) and White (86.4%), with a mean age of 48.4 ± 7.3 years and mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). At baseline, men had higher waist circumference, body weight, and energy intake, and lower percent body fat and adiponectin. The largest decrease in weight was observed at 6 months with a mean 11% decrease (pweight change interaction on percent change in adiponectin was observed [b(se)=0.9 (0.2), p=.0003], with men having a larger increase in adiponectin with weight loss compared to women. There was a significant effect of weight gain over time with increases in IL-6 [b(se)=0.9 (0.3), p=.001]. Overall, weight loss was significantly associated with improvements in adiponectin and IL-6. Those improvements remained at 24 months, following weight regain. The association between weight change and adiponectin was different between genders. Implementing strategies that support sustained weight loss can help prevent a state of chronic systemic inflammation and its associated adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Various Protein Sources on Body Weight Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal

    Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... with the consumption of lean meat in Western background diets was only evident with free access to the diets, most likely due to differences in body composition. We purpose that the beneficial effects of lean seafood consumption in relation to body weight regulation may be due to an enrichment of the amino acids...... weight regulation. We aimed to investigate how various protein sources influenced body weight development and glucose metabolism by feeding obesity prone male C57/BL6 mice various protein sources in different background diets. Results: In high fat/high sucrose diets (HF/HS), high fat/high protein diets...

  18. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Abdulkarimi; Alimirza Aghazadeh; Mohsen Daneshyar

    2011-01-01

    A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT), 0.2 (LT), 0.4 (MT) or 0.6% (HT) thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the b...

  19. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  20. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  1. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  2. 神经阻滞与轻比重麻醉在高龄患者单侧下肢创伤手术麻醉中的安全性与有效性比较%Comparison of Safety and Effectiveness of Nerve Block Anesthesia and Light-weight Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Unilateral Lower Limb Trauma Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁萌; 唐娟

    2016-01-01

    .88%(2/41) vs 28.21%(11/39)](P <0.01).Conclusion Compared with the light-weight anesthesia,the nerve block anesthesia has smaller influence on hemodynamics in elderly patients with lower limb operation and fewer complications,and has significant effect,long duration of action,therefore can be promoted in the clinical.%目的:比较神经阻滞与轻比重麻醉在高龄患者单侧下肢创伤手术麻醉中的安全性和有效性。方法选取2011年5月至2014年4月来桂林医学院附属医院行下肢创伤手术的高龄(>80岁)患者80例作为研究对象,按照随机数字表法分为研究组(41例)和对照组(39例)。研究组行腰丛或者坐骨神经阻滞麻醉,先给1%利多卡因10 mL,然后注入0.4%~0.5%罗哌卡因20 mL,每给5 mL药物回抽无血液再继续注入药液,直到全量;对照组行轻比重蛛网膜下腔麻醉,以1%罗哌卡因1 mL+无菌注射用水1 mL混合注入后继续侧卧10 min调节麻醉平面。记录两组患者注药前、注药后15 min、注药后30 min、注药后60 min、术毕时收缩压( SBP)、舒张压( DBP)、心率、脉搏血氧饱和度( SpO2)变化和麻醉起效时间、阻滞完善时间及麻醉药用量,采用Bromage评分比较两组间麻醉效果。结果两组患者注药后15 min、30 min、60 min的SBP、DBP及心率呈下降趋势,术毕均恢复至注药前水平,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者注药后15 min、30 min、60 min SpO2水平呈上升趋势,术毕均恢复至注药前水平,差异均有统计学意义( P <0.05)。研究组麻醉药用量多于对照组、麻醉起效时间、阻滞完善时间均显著长于对照组[(125.4±30.1) mg 比(10.6±2.5) mg,(14.3±3.1) min比(7.0±2.5) min;(20±7) min比(12±5) min,P<0.01];研究组术中低血压发生率显著低于对照组[4.88%(2/41)比28.21%(11/39)](P<0.01)。结论与轻比重麻醉比

  3. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  4. Lowering body weight in obese mice with diastolic heart failure improves cardiac insulin sensitivity and function: implications for the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Abo Alrob, Osama; Zhang, Liyan; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Wagg, Cory S; Fukushima, Arata; Padwal, Raj S; Johnstone, David E; Sharma, Arya M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest improved outcomes and survival in obese heart failure patients (i.e., the obesity paradox), although obesity and heart failure unfavorably alter cardiac function and metabolism. We investigated the effects of weight loss on cardiac function and metabolism in obese heart failure mice. Obesity and heart failure were induced by feeding mice a high-fat (HF) diet (60% kcal from fat) for 4 weeks, following which an abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) was produced. Four weeks post-AAC, mice were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (12% kcal from fat; HF AAC LF) or maintained on an HF (HF AAC HF) for a further 10 weeks. After 18 weeks, HF AAC LF mice weighed less than HF AAC HF mice. Diastolic function was improved in HF AAC LF mice, while cardiac hypertrophy was decreased and accompanied by decreased SIRT1 expression, increased FOXO1 acetylation, and increased atrogin-1 expression compared with HF AAC HF mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was increased in hearts from HF AAC LF mice, compared with HF AAC HF mice. Thus lowering body weight by switching to LF diet in obese mice with heart failure is associated with decreased cardiac hypertrophy and improvements in both cardiac insulin sensitivity and diastolic function, suggesting that weight loss does not negatively impact heart function in the setting of obesity.

  5. Impact of climate change on the stream flow of the lower Brahmaputra: trends in high and low flows based on discharge-weighted ensemble modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology. The Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world as it is subject to the combined effects of glacier melt, extreme monsoon rainfall and sea level rise. To what extent climate change will impact river flow in the Brahmaputra basin is yet unclear, as climate model studies show ambiguous results. In this study we investigate the effect of climate change on both low and high flows of the lower Brahmaputra. We apply a novel method of discharge-weighted ensemble modeling using model outputs from a global hydrological models forced with 12 different global climate models (GCMs. Our analysis shows that only a limited number of GCMs are required to reconstruct observed discharge. Based on the GCM outputs and long-term records of observed flow at Bahadurabad station, our method results in a multi-model weighted ensemble of transient stream flow for the period 1961–2100. Using the constructed transients, we subsequently project future trends in low and high river flow. The analysis shows that extreme low flow conditions are likely to occur less frequent in the future. However a very strong increase in peak flows is projected, which may, in combination with projected sea level change, have devastating effects for Bangladesh. The methods presented in this study are more widely applicable, in that existing multi-model streamflow simulations from global hydrological models can be weighted against observed streamflow data to assess at first order the effects of climate change for specific river basins.

  6. Effect of weight loss on cellulite: gynoid lypodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Hicks, Matthew; Passeretti, David; Gersin, Keith; Kitzmiller, W John; Bakhsh, Adel; Wickett, R Randall; Whitestone, Jennifer; Visscher, Marty O

    2006-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) affects most women, and many seek plastic surgery consultation to improve appearance. Various products are offered, but the literature on the cause and treatment is limited. Understanding the biological and biophysical factors that affect severity may facilitate the development of effective therapies. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people who have lost significant weight as a result of bariatric surgery or medically supervised weight programs. The effect of weight loss on cellulite severity has not been systematically studied and remains a common patient concern. The authors hypothesized that cellulite severity would decrease with weight loss and subsequent decrease in subcutaneous fat in most subjects. The authors examined the cellulite changes in female subjects who were enrolled in medically supervised weight loss programs using quantitative surface roughness by three-dimensional laser surface scanning, tissue composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, dermal-subcutaneous structure with three-dimensional ultrasound, and tissue elasticity with biomechanical measurements. The majority of subjects had an improvement in cellulite with weight loss, but the condition worsened for others. Improvement was associated with significant reductions in weight and percentage of thigh fat, significantly higher starting body mass index, and significantly greater initial severity. Cellulite worsened with a significantly smaller starting body mass index, smaller reductions in weight accompanied by no change in percentage of thigh fat, and significant increases in tissue compliance. Cellulite is a complex condition, and treatments such as weight loss have variable effects on the improvement or worsening of this condition. Additional studies are required to understand how the factors that influence and modulate cellulite severity, particularly those at the level of the subcutaneous tissue septa, can be manipulated to

  7. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  8. Sympathetic-leptin relationship in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliot, Didier; Böhme, Philip; Zannad, Faiez; Ziegler, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    Obese patients have high plasma leptin concentrations that do not induce the expected responses on weight regulation, suggesting a leptin resistance in obesity. Elevated leptin levels are also thought to be related to a high sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. This effect could be preserved, lowered, or even abolished in obesity. We planned to investigate the possible association in a longitudinal study. Ninety-five normotensive healthy women, aged 40.4 +/- 11.4 years and body mass index of 33.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2), were studied. Baseline leptin, fat mass, and heart rate variability were measured and included in a 6-month longitudinal study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption. Time domain heart rate variability, QT dynamicity, and spectral components on ambulatory electrocardiographs were analyzed. Dietary advice was given by a dietitian to the patient (maximum caloric reduction of 30%), and subjects were randomized in 3 treatment groups: sibutramine 10 mg, sibutramine 20 mg, or placebo. At baseline, low frequencies (LF) and the LF-high frequencies (HF) ratio, mainly related to the SNS, were negatively correlated to leptin concentration (r = -0.30, P = .002 and r = -0.36, P < .001) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (r = -0.28, P = .004 and r = - 0.33, P = .0007), thus explaining 38% of the LF variance and 33% of the LF/HF variance. Diastolic blood pressure was also negatively correlated to leptin concentrations (-0.20, P = .04) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (-0.22, P = .022). In contrast, no consistent correlations between leptin and the time domain components related to vagal activity were observed. At 6 months, after completion of the weight loss program, LF significantly decreased (-7.7% +/- 7.9%, P < .001), whereas HF was higher than the initial value (+20% +/- 5.2%). The leptin-fat mass ratio remained negatively correlated to the LF (r = -0.34, P = .030) and to LF/HF (r = -0.35, P = .021) values, explaining 21% of the LF

  9. Weight loss and exercise training effect on oxygen uptake and heart rate response to locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Bryan, David R; Zuckerman, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of resistance and aerobic training on the ease of physical activity during and after weight loss are unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine what effect weight loss combined with either aerobic or resistance training has on the ease of locomotion (net V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and heart rate). It is hypothesized that exercise training will result in an increased ease, lowers heart rate during locomotion. Seventy-three overweight premenopausal women were assigned to diet and aerobic training, diet and resistance training, or diet only. Subjects were evaluated while overweight, after diet-induced weight loss (average, 12.5 kg loss), and 1 year after weight loss (5.5 kg regain). Submaximal walking, grade walking, stair climbing, and bike oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured at all time points. Weight loss diet was 800 kcal per day. Exercisers trained 3 times per week during weight loss and 2 times per week during 1-year follow-up. Resistance training increased strength, and aerobic training increased maximum oxygen uptake. Net submaximal oxygen uptake was not affected by weight loss or exercise training. However, heart rate during walking, stair climbing, and bicycling was reduced after weight loss. No significant differences in reduction in heart rate were observed among the 3 treatment groups for locomotion after weight loss. However, during 1-year follow-up, exercise training resulted in maintenance of lower submaximal heart rate, whereas nonexercisers increased heart rate during locomotion. Results suggest that moderately intense exercise is helpful in improving the ease of movement after weight loss. Exercise training may be helpful in increasing the participation in free-living physical activity.

  10. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Camacho-Ruíz, R M; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; González-Ávila, M; Gálvez-Gastélum, F J; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Ortuño-Sahagún, D

    2016-12-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %. Interestingly, unfractionated fructans (HFD+F) decreased glucose and triglycerides (TG), whereas fractionated fructans with a higher dp (HFD+LcF) decreased TG but not glucose; in contrast, HFD+ScF decreased glucose but not TG. Our findings suggest that both higher and lower dp agave fructans have complementary effects in metabolic disorders related to obesity. These findings may contribute to the development of improved food supplements with a specific ratio combination of fructans with different dps.

  11. Long-term effects of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on inflammation in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Metzger, Molly W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Garfield, Craig; Adam, Emma K

    2014-06-07

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important physiological mechanism linking early life environments and health in adulthood. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)--a key biomarker of inflammation--predict increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk in adulthood, but the developmental factors that shape the regulation of inflammation are not known. We investigated birth weight and breastfeeding duration in infancy as predictors of CRP in young adulthood in a large representative cohort study (n = 6951). Birth weight was significantly associated with CRP in young adulthood, with a negative association for birth weights 2.8 kg and higher. Compared with individuals not breastfed, CRP concentrations were 20.1%, 26.7%, 29.6% and 29.8% lower among individuals breastfed for less than three months, three to six months, 6-12 months and greater than 12 months, respectively. In sibling comparison models, higher birth weight was associated with lower CRP for birth weights above 2.5 kg, and breastfeeding greater than or equal to three months was significantly associated with lower CRP. Efforts to promote breastfeeding and improve birth outcomes may have clinically relevant effects on reducing chronic inflammation and lowering risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  12. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS...

  13. Effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Morgan, P J; Plotnikoff, R C; Callister, R; Collins, C E

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions and to identify intervention characteristics associated with effectiveness. In May 2011, a systematic literature search with no date restrictions was conducted across eight databases. Twenty-four articles describing 23 studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies included a weight loss intervention and four studies included an additional weight loss maintenance intervention. Study quality was mostly poor for weight loss studies (median = 3/10, range = 1-9) and weight loss maintenance studies (median = 3.5/10, range = 1-6). Twenty-three of 31 individual weight loss interventions (74%) from the eligible studies were considered effective. Meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in weight change favouring weight loss interventions over no-intervention controls at the last reported assessment (weighted mean difference -5.66 kg [-6.35, -4.97], Z = 16.04 [P 2.7 contacts/month), group face-to-face contact and inclusion of a prescribed energy restriction. Preliminary evidence suggests men-only weight loss programmes may effectively engage and assist men with weight loss. However, more high-quality studies are urgently needed to improve the evidence base, particularly for maintenance studies.

  14. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  15. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  16. Effectiveness-weighted control method for a cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2015-12-15

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  17. Effectiveness-weighted control of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simmons, Robert E.

    2015-12-22

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  18. 减重平板训练对早期脑卒中患者下肢运动力矩峰值的影响%The effects of body-weight-supported treadmill training on peak moment of lower limb in early stage of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉瑢; 李乐; 肖湘; 丁明晖; 赵江莉; 黄东锋

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察减重平板步行训练对早期脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢动力学的影响.方法 选取首次发病且病程<3个月内的脑卒中偏瘫患者27例,采用随机数字表法将其分为治疗组(15例)及对照组(12例).2组患者均给予神经内科常规处理,对照组在上述基础上辅以地面步行训练,治疗组则将地面步行训练改为减重平板训练,平板运动速度从起始阶段0.22 m/s逐渐增加至0.60 ~ 0.80 m/s,减重量不超过体重的30%水平,减重平板训练时间从起始阶段的5 min逐渐增加至20 ~ 40 min.于治疗前、治疗3周后采用AMT测力板及Vicon Nexus三维摄像系统对入选患者进行动态力学检测(检测指标包括患侧下肢力矩峰值、地面反作用力等),同时选用简化Fugl-Meyer量表评定2组患者下肢运动功能变化情况.结果 治疗后治疗组FMA评分[(27.18±2.64)分]及对照组FMA评分[(25.64±4.67)分]均较治疗前明显改善(均P<0.05);治疗组经治疗后其地面反作用力[(10.76±1.11)%]较治疗前[(10.08±1.84)%]明显改善(P<0.05),对照组则无显著变化(P>0.05).治疗后治疗组及对照组髋关节伸展力矩峰值[(0.44 ±0.40)Nm/kg VS (0.69±0.67)Nm/kg]、膝关节屈曲力矩峰值[(0.38±0.65)Nm/kg VS (0.53±0.55)Nm/kg]、踝关节背伸[(1.06±1.45)Nm/kg VS(0.61±0.46) Nm/kg]及跖屈力矩峰值[(0.39 ±0.60) Nm/kg VS (0.66 ±0.81) Nm/kg]组间差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);此时治疗组、对照组远端和近端联合力矩峰值(包括屈曲和伸展)组间差异亦具有统计学意义(均P <0.05).结论 减重平板步行训练能促进早期脑卒中患者下肢运动功能恢复,提高偏瘫侧下肢地面反作用力,增强患侧肢体负重能力及地面推进力,同时还能改善脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢异常运动模式.%Objective To explore the outcome of body-weight-supported treadmill training on the kinetic data of lower limb in early stage of stroke

  19. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  20. The Effect of Meperidine on Peripartum Breastfeeding and Neonatal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mahboobeh; Rahimi, Fateme; Hoseinzade, Mohammad Javad; Tanha, Fatemeh Davari; Barkhordari, Khosro; Yasseri, Ali Mohammad Fakhre

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Meperidine, commonly administered for labor analgesia, on newborn weight and peripartum breastfeeding during two months after delivery. Materials and methods This pilot cohort study was conducted between October 2010 and October 2011 at the Women Hospital of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this study, we examined the effects of meperidine on breastfeeding and neonatal weight. A total number of 184 full term pregnant women, planned to deliver at this center (normal vaginally delivery or cesarean), participated in this study. The study group included the women who received meperidine in peripartum time to be compared with a control group who did not receive any opioid. Meperidine was administrated to them based on their peripartum breastfeeding behaviour and baby weight, two month after delivery. Results Of the 184 woman recruited to the trial, 38 women had normal vaginal delivery and 146 had ccesarean. Within the first two-month, 4% of mothers in control group and 11% of meperidine group used formula. However, this differences were not statistically significant (p value= 0.07). Furthermore, baby weight distribution was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of using Meperidine on peripartum breastfeeding and weight of newborn in the first two months was not statistically significant in this study. More research is needed to clarify the association between meperidine and peripartum breastfeeding. PMID:24971099

  1. Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post hatch ... Hatchability parameters were determined during incubation period of 18 days. ... with egg weight, egg weight loss, percent egg weight loss and fertility percentage but ...

  2. Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9 kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV, peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV, and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6 months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p baPWV. Conclusions Young adults with excess weight who both lower their insulin levels and lose weight see the greatest improvement in vascular stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial registration NCT00366990

  3. Lower body weight and female gender: Hyperphosphatemia risk factors after sodium phosphate preparations Parakkal Deepak, Eli D Ehrenpreis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parakkal Deepak; Eli D Ehrenpreis

    2011-01-01

    Casais et al have reported an inverse correlation between serum phosphate and body weight after administration of sodium phosphate at a dose of 60 g. Our group has already described the relationship between body weight and hyperphosphatemia with these preparations, although our study was not quoted by Casais. We performed a pharmacokinetic study involving 13 volunteers who were divided into two groups on the basis of body weight: group Ⅰ consisting of seven women with a median weight of 60 kg and group Ⅱconsisting due to a diminished volume of distribution of the high dose of ingested phosphate. Decreased volume of distribution in women is due to diminished body weight. This is further compounded by decreased creatinine clearance in females.

  4. Impact of blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular outcomes in normal weight, overweight and obese individuals: the PROGRESS Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Huxley, Rachel; Kengne, André-Pascal; Batty, G David; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; Chalmers, John

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering therapy in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese people. In this report we examine the effects of blood pressure lowering according to baseline body mass index (kg/m2) in the Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS). A total of 6105 participants with cerebrovascular disease were randomized to perindopril-based blood pressure-lowering therapy or placebo. The overall mean difference in systolic/diastolic blood pressure between participants assigned active therapy or placebo was 9/4 (SE, 0.5/0.3) mmHg, with no difference by body mass index quarters: < 23.1, 23.1-25.3, 25.4-27.8 and ≥ 27.9 kg/m2. A consistent treatment benefit was demonstrated for protection against major vascular events across quarters with the following hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.80 (0.62-1.02), 0.78 (0.61-1.01), 0.67 (0.53-0.86), 0.69 (0.54-0.88) and 0.74 (0.66-0.84) (p for heterogeneity = 0.16). Similar results were apparent for stroke and stroke subtypes (all p for heterogeneity ≥ 0.07) or with the standard definitions of overweight and obesity (< 25, 25 to 29 and ≥ 30 kg/m) (all p for heterogeneity ≥ 0.28). The absolute effects of treatment were, however, more than twice that in the highest compared with the lowest body mass index quartile. Across increasing quarters of body mass index over five years, active therapy prevented one major vascular event among every 28, 23, 13 and 13 patients treated. In conclusion, blood pressure-lowering therapy produced comparable risk reductions in vascular disease across the whole range of body mass index in participants with a history of stroke. However, the greater baseline level of cardiovascular risk in those with higher body mass index meant that these patients obtained the greatest benefit. PMID:20212271

  5. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  6. Weight loss effect of dietary diacylglycerol in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, T; Bauer, J E; Otsuji, K

    2006-06-01

    Obesity in dogs and cats have been increasingly recognized in recent years. Because obesity underlies various diseases, pet owners and veterinarians have an important responsibility to help animals lose weight and maintain their health. Diet therapy, however, is typically based on limited calorie intake and animals may suffer stress from hunger and this is also a concern to animal owners. For this reason, many clients drop out of weight control programmes. In the present study, we focused on dietary diacylglycerol (DAG) as a potentially effective ingredient for canine weight control without caloric restriction. We replaced a portion of the fat in dog food with either DAG or triacylglycerol (TAG), referred to as DAG or TAG diets here, and fed overweight beagle dogs (body condition score of 4 or higher) with either the DAG or TAG diet for a 6-week period. Results indicated that, even though the food composition other than fat type were identical, dogs fed the DAG diet showed a statistically significant reduction in body weight averaging a 2.3% reduction within 6 weeks while the TAG-fed dogs maintained their obese body weights. In addition, the DAG group also showed a reduction in body fat content, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. These results suggest the possibility of developing a pet food using DAG to control weight and serum lipid levels without compromising caloric intake.

  7. Effects of wearing ankle weight on knee joint repositioning sense in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Jung, Daeun; Han, Jintae; Jung, Jaemin

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of different ankle weights on knee joint repositioning sense in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one subjects were divided for assessment as follows: young (20-30 years, n=10) and elderly (60-70 years, n=11). Knee joint repositioning error was measured by asking the subjects to reposition the target angle of their knee joints while wearing different ankle weights (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) in an open kinetic chain. The Hawk Digital System (60 Hz; Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) was used to measure knee joint repositioning error. Differences in knee joint repositioning error between the young and elderly groups according to ankle weight load were examined by using two-way mixed repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The knee joint repositioning error was lower with than without ankle weights in both groups. The error value was lowest with the 1.0% weight, though not significantly. Knee joint repositioning error was significantly higher in the elderly under all the ankle weight conditions. [Conclusion] Knee joint repositioning sense can be improved in elderly individuals by wearing proper ankle weights. However, weights that are too heavy might disturb knee joint positioning sense.

  8. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  9. No effect of weight cycling on the post-career BMI of weight class elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marquet, Laurie-anne; Brown, Morgan; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Mouraby, Rémy; Bourhaleb, Samir; Toussaint, Jean-François; Desgorces, François-Denis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes' BMI after such weight cycling. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six retired French athletes who participated in major international competitions in weight class sports (rowers, wrestlers, boxers, an...

  10. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  11. A Novel Selective Inhibitor of Delta-5 Desaturase Lowers Insulin Resistance and Reduces Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Hiroaki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Tamura, Yumiko Okano; Miyahisa, Ikuo; Matsui, Junji; Suzuki, Hideo; Ikeda, Shota; Watanabe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is now recognized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and is called as metabolic inflammation. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is an enzyme that metabolizes dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). Thus, D5D inhibition increases DGLA (precursor to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids) while decreasing AA (precursor to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids), and could result in synergistic improvement in the low-grade inflammatory state. Here, we demonstrate reduced insulin resistance and the anti-obesity effect of a D5D selective inhibitor (compound-326), an orally active small-molecule, in a high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. In vivo D5D inhibition was confirmed by determining changes in blood AA/DGLA profiles. In DIO mice, chronic treatment with compound-326 lowered insulin resistance and caused body weight loss without significant impact on cumulative calorie intake. Decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was expected from mRNA analysis. Increased daily energy expenditure was also observed following administration of compound-326, in line with sustained body weight loss. These data indicate that the novel D5D selective inhibitor, compound-326, will be a new class of drug for the treatment of obese and diabetic patients.

  12. Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Lewis, David; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily...... with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD....... or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared...

  13. Effect of high-speed jet on flow behavior, retrogradation, and molecular weight of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen; Luo, Shun-Jing; BeMiller, James N; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2015-11-20

    Effects of high-speed jet (HSJ) treatment on flow behavior, retrogradation, and degradation of the molecular structure of indica rice starch were investigated. Decreasing with the number of HSJ treatment passes were the turbidity of pastes (degree of retrogradation), the enthalpy of melting of retrograded rice starch, weight-average molecular weights and weight-average root-mean square radii of gyration of the starch polysaccharides, and the amylopectin peak areas of SEC profiles. The areas of lower-molecular-weight polymers increased. The chain-length distribution was not significantly changed. Pastes of all starch samples exhibited pseudoplastic, shear-thinning behavior. HSJ treatment increased the flow behavior index and decreased the consistency coefficient and viscosity. The data suggested that degradation of amylopectin was mainly involved and that breakdown preferentially occurred in chains between clusters.

  14. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  15. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  16. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  17. Effect of Ramadan Fasting during Pregnancy on Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  18. Effect of Different Rearing Methods on the Weight of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónika Gyovai

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of the nutrient supply at foetal, suckling and growing age on the body weight of rabbits. 242 new-born rabbits were divided into three groups on the basis of their birth weight (Low = 34-45 g, Medium = 53-58 g, High = 65-70 g. One half of the litters were nursed by one doe, while the other half by two does. After weaning at 21 days of age, half of the rabbits were fed ad libitum, while the other half were fed restricted (ca. 85-90% of the ad lib.. All of the 12 groups were divided into two subgroups randomly: first artificial insemination (AI at 15.5 or 18.5 weeks of age. All of the studied factors had significant effects on the body weight of rabbits. At four weeks of age the influence of birth weight was the highest (L: 0.51, H: 0.67 kg, P<0.05. A significant difference was found between the groups nursed by one or two does (0.52 and 0.64 kg. At nine weeks of age the effect of all factors were similar. At 15 weeks of age the following differences were found: L: 3.03, H: 3.37 kg, one or two does: 3.11 and 3.26 kg, rest. and ad lib.: 3.00 and 3.37 kg, respectively. The highest difference was found between the group of low birth weight, nursed by one doe and fed restricted (2.75 kg and that of high birth weight, nursed by two does and fed ad libitum (3.81 kg.

  19. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  20. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  1. Effects of weight-reduction on obesity-associated diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebermeister, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Even moderate, but persistent weight-loss ameliorates most of the related diseases in obesity. Besides the consequences of the metabolic syndrome, this includes less well-known obesity-associated changes, such as impaired fertility, menstrual disorders, psychic changes, total leucocyte-count as a parameter of immunity and the impaired pulmonary function in asthma and sleep-apnoea. Life-expectancy is prolonged by diminution of visceral fat depots, whilst weight-loss by shrinking of fat-free body-mass seems to have a contrary effect.

  2. Effect of Water and Sediment Regulation on Lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guobin; SI Chundi

    2009-01-01

    According to the results of the water and sediment regulations of the Yellow River in year 2002-2007, the effect of erosion and deposition on the lower reaches, the amount and distribution of erosion and deposition in the river mouth area, the adjustment of river regime, the effect of river regulation projects and changes of flowing capacity of the channel are analyzed. It is revealed that the water and sediment regulation is efficient to reduce deposition and improve the flowing capacity and the conditions of sediment transport.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of statins, beyond lipid-lowering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andres M; Santana, Orlando

    2014-10-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, better known as 'statins', are amongst the most widely used medications in the world. They have become a pivotal component in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery and vascular disease. However, a growing amount of evidence has suggested that statins also possess strong pleiotropic effects irrespective of their lipid-lowering properties, which include enhancement of endothelial function, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherothrombotic properties, and immunomodulation. The following provides a comprehensive and updated review of the clinical evidence regarding the pleiotropic effects of statins in cardiovascular disorders and their potential therapeutic benefits.

  4. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  5. Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to...

  6. Who is counseled to lose weight? Survey results and anthropometric data from 3,149 lower socioeconomic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Egginton, Jason S; Naessens, James M; Montori, Victor M; Jatoi, Aminah

    2012-02-01

    Because obesity is a grave public health concern, this study examined the percentage of disadvantaged women who recalled ever having received weight loss advice from a healthcare provider and factors associated with such advice. This study was part of a 5-clinic, cervical cancer prevention trial. Patients not immediately post-partum completed a Spanish/English survey; height and weight were also obtained. Of the 3,149 respondents (response rate 83%), 2,138 (68%) were overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25); 94% reported a household income of <$35,000/year; 69% were Hispanic; 10% non-Hispanic black; and 40% completed the survey in Spanish. Only one-third reported ever having been told to lose weight. Based on BMI, these rates were 15% in the 25-29.9 range (overweight); 34% within 30-34.9; 57% within 35-39.9; and 73% ≥ 40. In univariate analyses, among overweight women, diabetes or English-speaking was associated with weight loss advice. In multivariate analyses, being older, more educated, and diabetic were associated with such advice. 48% of non-Hispanic whites, 31% of non-Hispanic blacks, and 29% of Hispanic had a home scale. Among disadvantaged women, obesity alone does not determine who recalls weight loss advice. Language barriers and lack of a home scale merit further study to address obesity.

  7. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  8. Effects of dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in overweight hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, D Q; Mori, T A; Burke, V; Puddey, I B; Beilin, L J

    1998-10-01

    Obesity is a major factor contributing to hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Regular consumption of dietary fish and omega3 fatty acids of marine origin can lower blood pressure (BP) levels and reduce cardiovascular risk. This study examined the potential effects of combining dietary fish rich in omega3 fatty acids with a weight loss regimen in overweight hypertensive subjects, with ambulatory BP levels as the primary end point. Using a factorial design, 69 overweight medication-treated hypertensives were randomized to a daily fish meal (3.65 g omega3 fatty acids), weight reduction, the 2 regimens combined, or a control regimen for 16 weeks. Sixty-three subjects with a mean+/-SEM body mass index of 31.6+/-0.5 kg/m2 completed the study. Weight fell by 5.6+/-0.8 kg with energy restriction. Dietary fish and weight loss had significant independent and additive effects on 24-hour ambulatory BP. Effects were greatest on awake systolic and diastolic BP (Phour (-3.1+/-1.4 bpm, P=0.036) and awake (-4.2+/-1.6 bpm, P=0. 013) ambulatory heart rates. Weight reduction had a significant effect on sleeping heart rate only (-3.2+/-1.7 bpm, P=0.037). Combining a daily fish meal with a weight-reducing regimen led to additive effects on ambulatory BP and decreased heart rate. The effects were large, suggesting that cardiovascular risk and antihypertensive drug requirements are likely to be reduced substantially by combining dietary fish meals rich in omega3 fatty acids with weight-loss regimens in overweight medication-treated hypertensives. The reduction in heart rate seen with dietary fish suggests a cardiac/autonomic component, as well as vascular effects, of increased consumption of omega3 fatty acid from fish.

  9. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  10. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  11. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roel G; Roumans, Nadia J T; Arkenbosch, Laura A J; Mariman, Edwin C M; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of rate of weight loss, with similar total weight loss, on weight regain in individuals with overweight and obesity. Fifty-seven participants (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2) ) underwent a dietary intervention (DI). They were randomized to a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks (slow weight loss) or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks (rapid weight loss) (weight loss (WL) period) followed by a 4-week weight-stable (WS) period and 9 months follow-up. Body weight and body composition (BodPod) were determined at study start and after each period. Weight change was similar in both groups after WL (LCD: -8.2 kg and VLCD: -9.0 kg, P = 0.24). Weight regain after follow-up was not significantly different between groups (LCD: 4.2 kg and VLCD: 4.5 kg, P = 0.73). Percentage fat-free mass loss (%FFML) was higher in the VLCD-group compared to the LCD-group after DI (8.8% and 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.034) and was associated with weight regain during follow-up in the whole group (r = 0.325, P = 0.018). The present study showed that, with similar total weight loss, rate of weight loss did not affect weight regain. However, %FFML after DI was associated with weight regain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. [Understanding the low prevalence of weight-for-height deficit in lower-income Brazilian children: correlations among anthropometric values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, C L; Victora, C G; Barros, A J

    2000-01-01

    The sample for this study consisted of 386 children from six to 59 months of age. The objective was to study the association between wasting and abdominal circumference. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were taken: weight, height or length, crown-rump length, 4 circumferences, 4 skin fold thicknesses, and 2 breadths. Muscle, fat, and total upper arm areas and leg length were calculated. Indices of body proportionality were obtained by dividing the anthropometric variables by height. Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height deficits were 25.9%, 14.4%, and 3.5%, respectively. The smallest and lightest children were those with the highest abdominal circumferences divided by height. According to this study, abdominal circumference for Brazilian children without height-for-age deficit is, on average, 1.2 cm larger than for US children. Using this as a basis, the study calculated that prevalence of weight-for-height deficit would increase from 3.5% to 7.0% by increasing 2 cm in the abdominal circumference. The low prevalence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting as indicated by several Brazilian studies could be explained partially by larger mean abdominal circumference values.

  14. Ultrasound Estimated Bladder Weight and Measurement of Bladder Wall Thickness-Useful Noninvasive Methods for Assessing the Lower Urinary Tract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bright; M. Oelke; A. Tubaro; P. Abrams

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the last decade interest has arisen in the use of ultrasound derived measurements of bladder wall thickness, detrusor wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight as potential diagnostic tools for conditions known to induce detrusor hypertrophy. However, to date such measuremen

  15. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Hobel, Calvin J; Sing, Charles F

    2010-08-01

    The goals of our study were (1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and (2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analysed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy: preconception (W(0)); 16-20 weeks gestation (W(1)); 30-36 weeks gestation (W(2)), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W(01)) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W(12)); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W(12) but not W(01). Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity.

  16. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...... factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet....

  17. The efficacy and nephrotoxicity associated with colistin use in an intensive care unit in Vietnam: Use of colistin in a population of lower body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Gia Binh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A personalized dosing protocol of colistin was effective, with low nephrotoxicity, among critically ill Vietnamese patients with low body weight. Further studies are warranted for assessing the efficacy and toxicity in a larger cohort.

  18. Effect of molecular weight of dissolved organic matter on toxicity and bioavailability of copper to lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chen, Xianni; Liu, Shuai; Ge, Xizu

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the effects of molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the toxicity and bioavailability of copper (Cu) to plants, DOM extracted from chicken manure was ultra-filtered into four fractions according to their molecular weights by means of sequential-stage ultrafiltration technique. Lettuce seeds were germinated by being exposed to the solutions containing Cu2+ with or without different fractions of DOM. The concentration of copper in roots, leaves, sprouts and the length of roots were investigated. The results showed that not all fractions of DOM could improve copper availability or toxicity. The fraction of DOM with larger molecular weight more than 1 kDa had higher complexation stability with Cu2+ and caused lower concentration of free Cu2+ ion in the solution of copper plus the fraction, resulting in lower availability and toxicity of copper to lettuce, but the fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa had the opposite function. Therefore, the molecular weight of 1 kDa may be the division point to determine DOM to increase or decrease copper availability and toxicity.

  19. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background: Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function.Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes.Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants (n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL (P HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. The effect of exercise training on lower trunk muscle morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtahmassebi, Behnaz; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Stomski, Norman J; Hecimovich, Mark; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the lumbar region. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of exercise on trunk muscle morphology. To systematically review the literature on the effects of exercise training on lower trunk muscle morphology to determine the comparative effectiveness of different exercise interventions. A systematic search strategy was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PEDro. We included full, peer-reviewed, prospective longitudinal studies, including randomized controlled trials and single-group designs, such as pre- to post-intervention and crossover studies, reporting on the effect of exercise training on trunk muscle morphology. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We classified each exercise intervention into four categories, based on the primary exercise approach: motor control, machine-based resistance, non-machine-based resistance or cardiovascular. Treatment effects were estimated using within-group standardized mean differences (SMDs). The systematic search identified 1,911 studies; of which 29 met our selection criteria: motor control (n = 12), machine-based resistance (n = 10), non-machine-based resistance (n = 5) and cardiovascular (n = 2). Fourteen studies (48 %) reported an increase in trunk muscle size following exercise training. Among positive trials, the largest effects were reported by studies testing combined motor control and non-machine-based resistance exercise (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.66 [0.06 to 1.27] to 3.39 [2.80 to 3.98]) and machine-based resistance exercise programmes (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.52 [0.01 to 1.03] to 1.79 [0.87 to 2.72]). Most studies investigating the effects of non-machine-based resistance exercise reported no change in trunk muscle morphology, with one study reporting a medium effect on trunk muscle size (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.60 [0.03 to 1.16]). Cardiovascular exercise

  1. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF PDMS ON MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PP/PDMS BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-yong Zhao; Wei-wei Yap; Rong-ni Du; Qin Zhang; Qiang Fu; Ze-hao Qiu; Su-lan Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with varied molecular weights (Mw = 3x106,1x106 and 0.5x106)were melt blended with PP to investigate the effect of PDMS molecular weight (MW) on the morphology and mechanical properties of PP/PDMS blends.Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination showed that the size of PDMS domains was dependent on the MW of PDMS.It was found that the lower the value of PDMS MW,the better dispersion of the PDMS domains in the PP matrix.Tensile and Izod impact tests revealed that the addition of PDMS with lower MW would lead to a more significant increase in impact strength of the blends compared with the blends with higher MW ones,while the influence of the molecular weight on tensile strengths of the blends was relatively small in the MW range studied.Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also showed that the crystallization temperature of PP was increased with decreasing PDMS MW,indicating a better nucleation capability of lower MW of PDMS.Melting flow rate (MFR)measurements indicated that the processibility of PP could be enhanced by adding PDMS,and again the lower MW PDMS resulted in better data.Our work demonstrates that not only the processibility but also the mechanical properties of PP could be enhanced to a more significant degree by using low MW PDMS than the higher ones.

  2. EFFECT OF POLYMERIZATION CONDITIONS ON THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLYPHENYLSILSISQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guizhi; YE Meiling; SHI Lianghe

    1994-01-01

    Samples of polyphenylsilsisquioxane (PPSQ)using CaF2 or MgF2 as the main catalysts had been prepared under different polymerization conditions. The results were treated on an orthogonal design L9 (34). All weight-average molecular weights Mw of PPSQ had been measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Effects of polymerization conditions including reaction temperature, composition of the dual catalysts (CaF2 or MgF2 and DCC),mixture of solvents and reaction time on Mw of PPSQ have been discussed. The quantity of the catalysts is the most important factor that affects Mw of PPSQ. Reaction temperature is the second important factor. Appropriate polymerization condition has been established to get PPSQ with high Mw.

  3. Body weight, body mass index, overweight and obesity in consecutive cohorts of children at school entry in a community in Lower Bavaria 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Baune, BT; Mikolajczyk, RT; Stich, HL; Krämer, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study time trends of weight, body mass index, overweight and obesity of children at school entry and to analyze potential effects of changes in the structure of consecutive cohorts of children at school entry over time on these weight-related measures.Design: We studied height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in 6 consecutive cohorts (1997-2002) of children at school entry (N=6,420). Overweight and obesity were defined by internationally valid sex and age specific cut-off poi...

  4. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  5. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Mnafgui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension.

  6. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Hichem; Kchaou, Mouna; Nasri, Mbarek; Slama, Sadok; Derbali, Fatma; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension. PMID:23258993

  7. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  8. Combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectories of young Australian women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory. The association of education with weight trajectory (1996-2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973-1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models. Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth 32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg. While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Effect of segmental, localized lower limb cooling on dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Roger E; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Tyler, Christopher J; Cheung, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of cooling progressively greater portions of the lower extremities on dynamic balance and neuromuscular activation. Ten healthy males (22.8 ± 3.4 yr, 76.5 ± 9.1 kg) performed one room air temperature control (22.4°C ± 0.8°C) and three trials of cold water immersion at 12°C (lateral malleolus, ankle; lateral femoral epicondyle, knee; anterior superior iliac spine, hip) for 10 min before performing a unipedal balance test (Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT)) with their dominant limb. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius was measured with surface EMG during the SEBT. Core temperature remained euthermic throughout all trials. Gastrocnemius temperature decreased from control (30.4°C ± 0.5°C) with knee (23.7°C ± 1.7°C) and hip immersion (22.4°C ± 1.0°C), whereas vastus lateralis temperature decreased from control (33.7°C ± 1.7°C) with hip immersion (27.3°C ± 2.0°C) (P Cold water immersion influenced mean anterior and posterior reach distance on the SEBT in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with those in control, mean anterior and posterior SEBT reach distances were not decreased with ankle (-1.38% and -0.74%, respectively) and knee immersion (-2.48% and -2.74%), whereas hip immersion significantly reduced SEBT by 4.73% and 4.05% (P Muscle activation was largely unaffected as the lower extremities were cooled, with only the lateral gastrocnemius during the anterior SEBT approaching a decrease (P = 0.059). Cooling larger portions of the lower extremities progressively affect dynamic balance, and thermal protection strategies should focus on maintaining temperature in the large muscle mass of the thigh.

  10. Blood pressure lowering effect of Pennisetum glaucum in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the seeds of Pennisetum glaucum for its blood pressure lowering effect in rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of P. glaucum seeds in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive, egg-feed diet and glucose-induced hypertensive rats using non-invasive technique. The extract significantly (p˂0.5 - p˂0.001 decreased blood pressure and heart rate with maximum effect at 1,000 mg/kg dose. The extract was found to prevent rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The extract was safe in mice up to dose of 4 g/kg and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alterations in blood chemistry of extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that aqueous-methanolic extract of P. glaucum seeds has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity which may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents.

  11. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  12. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  13. Gaussian Weighted Trajectory Method IV: No Rainbow Effect in Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Bonnet

    2009-01-01

    The Gaussian weighted trajectory method (GWTM) is a practical implementation of classical S matrix theory (CSMT) in the random phase approximation, CSMT being the first and simplest semi-classical approach of molecular collisions, developped in the early seventies.Though very close in spirit to the purely classical description, GWTM accounts to some extent for the quantization of the different degrees-of-freedom involved in the processes.While CSMT may give diverging final state distributions, in relation to the rainbow effect of elastic scattering theory, GWTM has never led to such a mathematical catastrophe. The goal of the present note is to explain this finding.

  14. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P weight loss, but this difference was attenuated after 5 weeks of weight stability. Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later. Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. Catch–up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lotte; Rayyan, Maissa; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Ortibus, Els; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed. Results ELBW neonates displayed extra–uterine growth restriction with mean Z–scores for height, weight and head circumference of –0.77, –0.93 and –0.46 at birth, –1.61, –1.67 and –0.72 at 9 months, –1.22, –1.61 and –0.84 at 24 months, and –0.42, –0.49 and –1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1). Catch–up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg) and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%), but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2%) and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025). Catch–up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch–up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049). Conclusions In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength and a higher percentage body fat, a potential risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our key finding is that catch–up growth in ELBW children in the first two years of life is associated with a lower percentage body fat and is therefore likely to be beneficial. PMID:28278233

  16. Purification and properties of a lower-molecular-weight endo-cellulase from Irpex lacteus (Polyporus tulipiferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, T; Wakabayashi, K; Nisizawa, K

    1980-06-01

    A new endo-cellulase component of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) type (En-1) was obtained by gel filtration and column chromatography from Driselase, a commerical enzyme preparation from Irpex lacteus (Polyporus tulipiferae). The enzyme behaved as a single protein on polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Its molecular weight was estimated to be 15,500 and it contained only 0.73% carbohydrate as glucose. The pattern of its amino acid composition is similar to those of other cellulases in respect of high contents of acidic amino acids, glycine, serine, and threonine. The cellulase was most active at pH 4.0 and was very stable in the pH range of 3.0 to 6.0, but was completely inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 10 min. A series of cellooligosacharides, including cellobiose, was formed by this enzyme from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as well as from water-insoluble celluloses. In the hydrolysis of CMC, the increase in the fluidity of the substrate was relatively large as compared with the simultaneous increase in reducing power. From this result and the pattern of hydrolysis products, En-1 was elucidated to be an endo-cellulase, and it showed the highest randomness among the cellulase components obtained so far from Irpex lacteus.

  17. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on body weight: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for "exenatide," "liraglutide," "albiglutide," "semaglutide," and "lixisenatide" was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of -1.0 [-1.3; -0.6] kg/m(2). Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m(2)) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  18. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Monami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs, approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients and 7 (2,416 patients trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of −1.0 [−1.3; −0.6] kg/m2. Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m2 these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  19. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  20. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Sawczyn, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat), relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg), mean power (444 to 464 W), and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg). No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p = 0.0019) and upper (−2∧0.5 p = 0.03) WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise. PMID:28589135

  1. Differential effects of leptin on adiponectin expression with weight gain versus obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Sharma, P; Sahakyan, K R; Davison, D E; Sert-Kuniyoshi, F H; Romero-Corral, A; Swain, J M; Jensen, M D; Lopez-Jimenez, F; Kara, T; Somers, V K

    2016-02-01

    Adiponectin exerts beneficial effects by reducing inflammation and improving lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Although the adiponectin level is lower in obese individuals, whether weight gain reduces adiponectin expression in humans is controversial. We sought to investigate the role of weight gain, and consequent changes in leptin, on altering adiponectin expression in humans. Forty-four normal-weight healthy subjects were recruited (mean age 29 years; 14 women) and randomized to either gain 5% of body weight by 8 weeks of overfeeding (n=34) or maintain weight (n=10). Modest weight gain of 3.8±1.2 kg resulted in increased adiponectin level (P=0.03), whereas weight maintenance resulted in no changes in adiponectin. Further, changes in adiponectin correlated positively with changes in leptin (P=0.0085). In-vitro experiments using differentiated human white preadipocytes showed that leptin increased adiponectin mRNA and protein expression, whereas a leptin antagonist had opposite effects. To understand the role of leptin in established obesity, we compared adipose tissue samples obtained from normal-weight versus obese subjects. We noted, first, that leptin activated cellular signaling pathways and increased adiponectin mRNA in the adipose tissue from normal-weight participants, but did not do so in the adipose tissue from obese participants. Second, we noted that obese subjects had increased caveolin-1 expression, which attenuates leptin-dependent increases in adiponectin. Modest weight gain in healthy individuals is associated with increases in adiponectin levels, which correlate positively with changes in leptin. In vitro, leptin induces adiponectin expression, which is attenuated by increased caveolin-1 expression. In addition, the adipose tissue from obese subjects shows increased caveolin-1 expression and impaired leptin signaling. This leptin signal impairment may prevent concordant increases in adiponectin levels in obese subjects despite their

  2. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.

  3. The effect of temporal perception on weight perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKambara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A successful catch of a falling ball requires an accurate estimation of the timing for when the ball hits the hand. In a previous experiments in which participants performed ball-catching task in virtual reality environment, we accidentally found that the weight of a falling ball was perceived differently when the timing of ball load force to the hand was shifted from the timing expected from visual information. Although it is well known that spatial information of an object, such as size, can easily deceive our perception of its heaviness, the relationship between temporal information and perceived heaviness is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of temporal factors on weight perception. We conducted ball-catching experiments in a virtual environment where the timing of load force exertion was shifted away from the visual contact timing (i.e., time when the ball hit the hand in the display. We found that the ball was perceived heavier when force was applied earlier than visual contact and lighter when force was applied after visual contact. We also conducted additional experiments in which participants were conditioned to one of two constant time offsets prior to testing weight perception. After performing ball-catching trials with 60 ms advanced or delayed load force exertion, participants' subjective judgment on the simultaneity of visual contact and force exertion changed, reflecting a shift in perception of time offset. In addition, timing of catching motion initiation relative to visual contact changed, reflecting a shift in estimation of force timing. We also found that participants began to perceive the ball as lighter after conditioning to 60 ms advanced offset and heavier after the 60 ms delayed offset. These results suggest that perceived heaviness depends not on the actual time offset between force exertion and visual contact but on the subjectively perceived time offset between them and/or estimation error in

  4. Glucose-lowering treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part II--Glucose-lowering drugs after metformin: a choice based largely on adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Metformin alone is the glucose-lowering drug of first choice for patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the other glucose-lowering drugs available in 2014 have any proven efficacy in preventing diabetes complications. How important are adverse effects in the choice of glucose-lowering alternatives to metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes? What about their effects on HbA1c levels? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Sulphonylureas have been in use for many years. These drugs lower HbA1c levels by an average of 1.5% when used alone, and by 0.8% to 1% when added to metformin. All sulphonylureas can cause dose-related hypoglycaemia. Available data do not rule out a tangible increase or decrease in cardiovascular mortality among patients treated with sulphonylureas. Comparative data suggest that the combination of metformin + sulphonylurea increases overall mortality. Human insulins have also been in use for many years. A daily injection of long-acting insulin, added to on-going oral glucose-lowering therapy, lowers HbA1c by 0.7% to 2.5% on average but causes weight gain and increases the risk of hypoglycaemia. It cannot be ruled out that insulin may increase the risk of certain cancers. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors have a weak glucose-lowering effect. The average decline in HbA1c is about 0.7%, which is not sufficient to offset the gastrointestinal disorders caused by these drugs. The glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide is similar to that of sulphonylureas. Repaglinide can cause hypoglycaemia, particularly when co-administered with inhibitors of some cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Glitazones have a clearly unfavourable harm-benefit balance, potentially causing fractures, heart failure, other cardiovascular events, bladder cancer. Gliptins lower HbA1c by 0.7% on average but can provoke anaphylactic reactions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and infections. Saxagliptin may increase the risk of

  5. Skeletal muscle characterization of Japanese quail line selectively bred for lower body weight as an avian model of delayed muscle growth with hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Min; Suh, Yeunsu; Shin, Sangsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to extensively characterize the skeletal muscle development in the low weight (LW) quail selected from random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail in order to provide a new avian model of impaired and delayed growth in physically normal animals. The LW line had smaller embryo and body weights than the RBC line in all age groups (Pmuscle (PM), mainly resulting from lower fiber numbers compared to the RBC line (Pgrowth with prolonged expression of Pax7 and lower expression levels of MyoD, Myf-5, and myogenin (Pmuscle fiber formation. Additionally, the LW line had delayed transition of neonatal to adult myosin heavy chain isoform, suggesting delayed muscle maturation. This is further supported by the finding that the LW line continued to grow unlike the RBC line; difference in the percentages of PMW to body weights between both quail lines diminished with increasing age from 42 to 75 d post-hatch. This delayed muscle growth in the LW line is accompanied by higher levels of myogenin expression at 42 d (Pmuscle development of the LW quail line provided a well-characterized avian model for future identification of the responsible genes and for studying mechanisms of hypoplasia and delayed muscle growth.

  6. Effect of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Riis, Simone; Lund, Ditte; Møller, Anders; Farina, Dario; Falla, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    The study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise of the quadriceps on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks. Proprioception of the exercised leg was assessed at 120° and 150° of knee extension in 15 healthy adults (age 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) before, immediately after, and 24h following eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. Three tests of proprioception were performed: 1. matching the position of the exercised leg (right leg) to the reference leg (left leg) in sitting (non-weight bearing matching task); 2. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in sitting (non-weight bearing repositioning task); 3. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in standing (weight bearing task). Maximum knee extension force was reduced by 77.0 ± 12.3 % immediately after the exercise, and by 82.7 ± 16.2% 24h post exercise, with respect to baseline (Peccentric exercise (12.3 ± 5.6, Pexercise (8.1 ± 4.5, Pexercise (5.2 ± 3.0°, Peccentric exercise by adopting a more extended knee position of the exercised limb. Furthermore, the subjects showed higher variability in their performance immediately post exercise (Peccentric exercise did not affect the repositioning errors in the weight bearing task. In conclusion, eccentric exercise of the quadriceps impairs proprioception of the knee both immediately after and 24h post exercise, but only in non-weight bearing tasks.

  7. Effect of Onsite Dietitian Counseling on Weight Loss and Lipid Levels in an Outpatient Physician Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K.; Nasca, Melita M.; Lew, Natalie S.; Gregoire, Sue; Ruan, Yuheng

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of an outpatient office-based diet and exercise counseling program on weight loss and lipid levels with an onsite dietitian who sees patients at the same visit with the physician and is fully reimbursable. Eighty overweight or obese patients (average age 55 ± 12 years, baseline body mass index 30.1 ± 6.4 kg/m2) with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor (86%) or coronary heart disease (14%) were counseled to exercise 30 minutes/day and eat a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (saturated fat <7%, polyunsaturated fat to 10%, monounsaturated fat to 18%, low in glycemic index and sodium and high in fiber, low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables). Weight, body mass index, lipid levels, and blood pressure were measured at 1 concurrent follow-up visit with the dietitian and physician and ≥1 additional follow-up with the physician. Maximum weight lost was an average of 5.6% (10.8 lb) at a mean follow-up of 1.75 years. Sixty-four (81%) of these patients maintained significant weight loss (average weight loss 5.3%) at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years. Average decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.3%, average decrease in triglycerides was 34%, and average increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.6%. Systolic blood pressure was lowered from 129 to 126 mm Hg (p = 0.21) and diastolic blood pressure from 79 to 75 mm Hg (p = 0.003). In conclusion, having a dietitian counsel patients concurrently with a physician in the out-patient setting is effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss and is fully reimbursable. PMID:17599444

  8. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows t

  9. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows

  10. Manipulation of the Body Schema - Unilateral Manual Stimulation of Lower Extremity Influences Weight Distribution in Standing Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    2017-01-01

    Clinical experience advocates sensory stimulation to increase the body sensation and adjust the body schema, which may be disturbed in some patients. Unilateral massage may affect the body midline orientation, but little evidence is available to support the effect of this practice. Twenty...

  11. Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, J; Slochower, J

    1976-03-01

    The study considered whether external responsiveness in normal weight people would predict changes in eating behavior and weight following major alteration of environmetnal food cues. Normal weight children were tested for externality on measures of eating, slide recall, and extremity of affective responsiveness during the first week of a summer camp, and were weighed biweekly thereafter. There was a significant correlation between externality and weight change, indicating that the more externally responsive the children were, the more weight they gained. The implications of this finding for theories about the development of obesity were considered.

  12. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth.

  13. Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Josefine; Norman, Mikael; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus; Berglund, Staffan K

    2017-08-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558454. © 2017 American Society for

  14. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  15. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  17. Hemospray treatment is effective for lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holster, I.L.; Brullet, E.; Kuipers, E.J.; Campo, R.; Fernandez-Atutxa, A.; Tjwa, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is diverse in origin and can be substantial, requiring urgent hemostasis. Hemospray is a promising novel hemostatic agent for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). It has been claimed in a small series that the use of Hemospray is also feasible in LGIB.

  18. The effect of lower hybrid waves on JET plasma rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, M. F. F.; Kirov, K.; Bernardo, J.; Brix, M.; Ferreira, J.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N.; Hellsten, T.; Jonsson, T.; Mailloux, J.; Ongena, J.; Parra, F.; Contributors, JET

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on observations of rotation in JET plasmas with lower hybrid current drive. Lower hybrid (LH) has a clear impact on rotation. The changes in core rotation can be either in the co- or counter-current directions. Experimental features that could determine the direction of rotation were investigated. Changes from co- to counter-rotation as the q-profile evolves from above unity to below unity suggests that magnetic shear could be important. However, LH can drive either co- or counter-rotation in discharges with similar magnetic shear and at the same plasma current. It is not clear if a slightly lower density is significant. A power scan at fixed density, shows a lower hybrid power threshold around 3 MW. For smaller LH powers, counter rotation increases with power, while for larger powers a trend towards co-rotation is found. The estimated counter-torque from the LH waves, would not explain the observed angular frequencies, neither would it explain the observation of co-rotation.

  19. Effects of garlic supplementation on parasitic infestation, live weight, and hematological parameters in Black Bengal goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Md. Iqbal Hasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of garlic on egg per gram (EPG count of feces for gastrointestinal parasites, live weight, and hematological parameters in Black Bengal goat. A total of 18 dry does of 18-22 months of age were divided into 3 groups as T0, T1 and T2; where, each group comprised of 6 goats. The goats of T0 were feed with normal feeds, whereas the goats of T1 and T2 were fed with normal feeds plus 25 mL and 50 mL of 10% water solution of garlic twice per day, respectively for 60 days. The EPG count was performed by McMaster counting chamber, and live weight was measured by digital electric balance. EPG count for gastrointestinal parasites was found significantly lower in the treatment groups as compared to T0. Weight gain was recorded significantly higher in the treatment groups. The hematological parameters like total leucocyte count (TLC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb and total erythrocyte count (TEC showed significant changes in the treatment groups. The study suggests that 10% water solution of garlic is a useful supplementation to decrease EPG count, body weight gain; thus, the 10% aqueous garlic solution can improve the general health condition of goat. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 326-331

  20. Effect of molecular weight on the electrophoretic deposition of carbon black nanoparticles in moderately viscous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Satyam; Panwar, Artee; Mead, Joey L; Barry, Carol M F

    2013-08-06

    Electrophoretic deposition from viscous media has the potential to produce in-mold assembly of nanoparticles onto three-dimensional parts in high-rate, polymer melt-based processes like injection molding. The effects of the media's molecular weight on deposition behavior were investigated using a model system of carbon black and polystyrene in tetrahydrofuran. Increases in molecular weight reduced the electrophoretic deposition of the carbon black particles due to increases in suspension viscosity and preferential adsorption of the longer polystyrene chains on the carbon black particles. At low deposition times (≤5 s), only carbon black deposited onto the electrodes, but the deposition decreased with increasing molecular weight and the resultant increases in suspension viscosity. For longer deposition times, polystyrene codeposited with the carbon black, with the amount of polystyrene increasing with molecular weight and decreasing with greater charge on the polystyrene molecules. This deposition behavior suggests that use of lower molecular polymers and control of electrical properties will permit electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles from polymer melts for high-rate, one-step fabrication of nano-optical devices, biochemical sensors, and nanoelectronics.

  1. Differential effects of weight bias experiences and internalization on exercise among women with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Dovidio, John F

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of experiences with weight stigma and weight bias internalization on exercise. An online sample of 177 women with overweight and obesity (M(age) = 35.48 years, M(BMI) = 32.81) completed questionnaires assessing exercise behavior, self-efficacy, and motivation; experiences of weight stigmatization; weight bias internalization; and weight-stigmatizing attitudes toward others. Weight stigma experiences positively correlated with exercise behavior, but weight bias internalization was negatively associated with all exercise variables. Weight bias internalization was a partial mediator between weight stigma experiences and exercise behavior. The distinct effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias carry implications for clinical practice and public health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... restriction (P weight loss (r = 0.32; P obesity and associated with body fat distribution, suggesting...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  3. Effect of rain boot shaft length on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the extent of lower extremity muscle activity before and after walking based on rain boot shaft length. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects, 12 young and healthy females, were divided into three groups based on rain boot shaft length (long, middle, and short). They walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius was measured using electromyography before and after walking. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the muscle activities of each group. [Results] There were no significant differences in terms of the interactive effects between group and time for all muscles, the main effects of group, or the main effects of time. [Conclusion] The results of this study may indicate that movement of the lower extremities was not significantly limited by friction force based on the characteristics of the boot material or the circumference of the boot shaft. Thus, it may be helpful instead to consider the material of the sole or the weight of the boots when choosing which rain boots to wear. PMID:27799685

  4. The effects of weight cycling on lifespan in male C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Wright-Piekarski, Jacob; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective With the increasing rates of obesity, many people diet in attempts to lose weight. Since weight loss is seldom maintained in a single effort, weight cycling is a common occurrence. Unfortunately, reports from clinical studies that have attempted to determine the effect of weight cycling on mortality are in disagreement, and to date, no controlled animal study has been performed to assess the impact of weight cycling on longevity. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether wei...

  5. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  6. Effects of blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular risk according to baseline body-mass index : a meta-analysis of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, A.; Arima, H.; Czernichow, S.; Woodward, M.; Huxley, R.; Turnbull, F.; Perkovic, V.; Neal, B.; Agodoa, L.; Estacio, R.; Schrier, R.; Lubsen, J.; Chalmers, J.; Cutler, J.; Davis, B.; Wing, L.; Poulter, N. R.; Sever, P.; Remuzzi, G.; Ruggenenti, P.; Nissen, S.; Lindholm, L. H.; Fukui, T.; Ogihara, T.; Saruta, T.; Black, H.; Sleight, P.; Lievre, M.; Suzuki, H.; Fox, K.; Lisheng, L.; Ohkubo, T.; Imai, Y.; Yusuf, S.; Bulpitt, C. J.; Lewis, E.; Brown, M.; Palmer, C.; Wang, J.; Pepine, C.; Ishii, M.; Yui, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Pfeff, M.; Asselbergs, F. W.; van Gilst, W. H.; Byington, B.; Pitt, B.; Brenner, B.; Remme, W. J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Rahman, M.; Viberti, G.; Teo, K.; Zanchetti, A.; Malacco, E.; Mancia, G.; Staessen, J.; Fagard, R.; Holman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular benefits of blood pressure lowering in obese people compared with people of normal weight might depend on choice of drug. We compared the effects of blood pressure-lowering regimens on cardiovascular risk in groups of patients categorised by baseline body-mass index (BM

  7. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  8. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen

  9. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  10. Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in people with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhofer, Andrea; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Berghold, Andrea; Posch, Nicole; Meschik, Jutta; Semlitsch, Thomas

    2016-03-02

    and cardiovascular morbidity as predefined outcomes. Incidence of gastrointestinal side effects was consistently higher in those participants treated with orlistat versus those treated with placebo. The most frequent side effects were dry mouth, constipation, and headache with sibutramine, and dry mouth and paresthaesia with phentermine/topiramate. In participants assigned to orlistat, sibutramine, or phentermine/topiramate body weight was reduced more effectively than in participants in the usual-care/placebo groups. Orlistat reduced systolic blood pressure as compared to placebo by -2.5 mm Hg (mean difference (MD); 95% confidence interval (CI): -4.0 to -0.9 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure by -1.9 mm Hg (MD; 95% CI: -3.0 to -0.9 mm Hg). Sibutramine increased diastolic blood pressure compared to placebo by +3.2 mm Hg (MD; 95% CI: +1.4 to +4.9 mm Hg). The one trial that investigated phentermine/topiramate suggested it lowered blood pressure. In people with elevated blood pressure, orlistat and sibutramine reduced body weight to a similar degree, while phentermine/topiramate reduced body weight to a greater extent. In the same trials, orlistat and phentermine/topiramate reduced blood pressure, while sibutramine increased it. We could include no trials investigating rimonabant, liraglutide, lorcaserin, or naltrexone/bupropion in people with elevated blood pressure. Long-term trials assessing the effect of orlistat, liraglutide, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, or naltrexone/bupropion on mortality and morbidity are unavailable and needed. Rimonabant and sibutramine have been withdrawn from the market, after long-term trials on mortality and morbidity have confirmed concerns about the potential severe side effects of these two drugs. The European Medicines Agency refused marketing authorisation for phentermine/topiramate due to safety concerns, while the application for European marketing authorisation for lorcaserin was withdrawn by the manufacturer after the

  11. Glucose lowering effect of montbretin A in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Violet G; Coleman, John; Withers, Steven G; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Mustafa, Sally; McNeill, John H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent disease state with a global impact. It is important that effective and cost-efficient methods be developed to treat this disease state. Zucker diabetic fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, were treated with montbretin A (MbA), a selective human pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, isolated from the corms of the Crocosmia crocosmiiflora plant that may have potential as a glucose-lowering agent. The study purpose was to determine if MbA was an orally effective treatment for diabetes. The effect of MbA was compared to a current clinical treatment modality, acarbose that is associated with gastrointestinal side effects known to affect patient compliance. MbA and acarbose were administered daily in the drinking water. Body weight and fluid intake were measured daily to calculate dose consumption. Plasma glucose levels were determined twice weekly in both the fed and fasted state. At termination samples were collected to assess increased risk of secondary complications related to diabetes and oxidative stress. There was no effect of either MbA or acarbose treatment on insulin levels. Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower following MbA treatment in the ZT group which persisted throughout the study period (day 49: 12.1 ± 1.2 mM). However, while there was an initial decrease in plasma glucose levels in the acarbose-treated fatty group, this effect was not sustained (day 49: 20.6 ± 1.3 mM) through to termination. MbA improved the oxidative status of the fatty diabetic animals as well as attenuated markers for increased risk of cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. This study demonstrated that, at a lower dose as compared to acarbose (10 mg/kg/day), chronic oral administration of MbA (7.5 mg/kg/day) was an effective glucose-lowering agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Effect of nutritional intervention on weight multidisciplinary ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Fallas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective descriptive study is based on statistical data generated in the outpatient nutritional support of Dr. RA Calderon Guardia Hospital. Educate the patient and their family. Further, the nutritional plans and nutritional supplementation given by the multidisciplinary group shows a weight gain of 74% of the study group. The sample population was 156 patients who presented during calendar 2011. The population consisted of 100 patients who had at least 2 evaluations in 2011. The analysis evaluated the impact of nutritional interventions on body weight of those treated. At each patient examination, weight was measured in kilograms (kg, height in meters, body mass index as (kg/m2, and changes in weight in kilograms. The spreadsheet designed and used for data and graphs was Word 2003 and Excel 2003. The doctor and a nurse specialist trained in nutritional support, the team was complete the sample. Variables were: Age, Sex, Patient Diagnosis Regarding the outcome of patients treated in the outpatient, nutritional support found that 74 patients gained weight which represents 74% of the sample group, 4 patients (4% were able to maintain weight, and 22 patients (22% continued to lose weight. A multidisciplinary approach to nutritional support allows most of patients by their pathology or malnutrition to submit increased risk of suffering, can improve or maintain their nutritional status

  13. The effect of excess weight gain in teenage pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Masouem, Shahryar; Baker, Arthur M; Saddlemire, Stephanie; Boggess, Kim A

    2010-01-01

    Excess weight gain in pregnancy, as defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has been linked to adverse obstetrical outcomes. However, this relationship has not been examined in the younger maternal population. Our aim was to study excess weight gain in our inner-city teenage population. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed all nulliparous teenage deliveries between 2000 and 2004. The groups were divided by IOM criteria into "underweight" (body mass index [BMI] 29.0 kg/m(2); n = 89). The groups were then compared according to normal (control, n = 257) and excess weight gain (n = 199). Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes were calculated. Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk for cesarean delivery (OR 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 3.01) and postpartum fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.13 to 5.35). Significant neonatal findings included higher birthweight (3199 g versus 2864 g; p < 0.0001) and increased risk of macrosomia (OR, 8.18; 95% CI, 2.02 to 32.99) in the excess weight gain group. We concluded that excess weight gain places teen mothers at increased risk for cesarean delivery, postpartum febrile morbidity, and macrosomia. Interventions aimed at optimal weight gain in teen pregnancies are warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  14. Effect on the lipid parameters of an intervention to reduce weight in overweight and obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga Marcos, M Loreto; Panisello Royo, Josefa María; Carbayo Herencia, Julio A; Rosich Domenech, Nuria; Alins Presas, Josep; Tárraga López, Pedro J

    To assess the effect on lipid parameters most associated with excess weight (triglycerides [TG], cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein [HDL-C]) of an intervention to reduce weight in overweight and obese patients. A randomised, controlled, double blind clinical trial, with three groups, and a follow-up of 12 months. Patients included in the study were randomised into three intervention groups: Obesity motivational intervention group with previously trained nurse (G1), lower intensity consultation, non-motivational group, with digital platform support (G2), and a third group that received a recommendation to lose weight and usual follow-up (G3). The anthropometric variables measured were height, weight, and abdominal/waist circumference, and laboratory results, total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol). The study include 176 patients, of whom 60 were randomised to G1, 61 to G2, and 59 to G3. All groups significantly decreased body weight at the end of the study, with a decrease in G1 (-5.6kg), followed by G2 (-4.3kg), and G3 (-1.7kg), with an overall mean loss of -3.9kg. There was a also significant decrease (P<.05) in total cholesterol and TG, and an increased HDL-C. These changes were more marked in the G1 group (the group that lost more weight). The clinical relevance indicators that were significant were: in the case of TG: G1/G3: relative risk: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.11-1.80); relative risk reduction: 41.7% (11.4-80.2); absolute risk reduction: 25% (9.2-40.8) and NNT: 5 (3-11). In the case of G1/G2 HDL-C: relative risk: 1.32 (1.07-1.63); relative risk reduction: 32.2% (7.4-62.6); absolute risk reduction: 21.1% (6.4-35.8) and NNT: 5 (3-16). Weight reduction is accompanied by favorable changes in the lipid parameters related to overweight and obesity, being more intense the greater the weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of weight at slaughter and sex on the carcass characteristics of Florida suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco; Perea, J; García, A; Acero, R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of slaughter weight and sex on some carcass traits of suckling kids of the Florida breed was evaluated. A total of 60 kids (30 male and 30 female), fed exclusively on milk replacers, were slaughtered at 7-8kg (group 1), 10-11kg (group 2) or 14-15kg (group 3) of liveweight (mean weights of 7.6kg, 10.8kg and 14.4kg, respectively). Higher slaughter weights decreased the percentage of subproducts (blood, skin, head, feet) and internal organs (lungs+traquea, heart, liver, spleen, thymus) but significantly increased the percentage of intestine and fat depots (omental fat and mesenteric fat). Higher slaughter weights also increased carcass measures (L 40.5 vs 49.1; F 22.5 vs 25.9; G 10.4 vs 14.2; Wr 10.1 vs 13.9; Wth 8.0 vs 10.5; Th 16.5 vs 199; B 32.3 vs 42.4; PT 41.5 vs 50.8), compactness carcass index (96.6 vs 152.3) and compactness leg index (27.5 vs 44.1). Sex only significantly affected the percentages of feet, internal organs, omental fat, measure L, carcass compactness index and hind limb compactness index. The meat colour and fat colour were mainly scored as pale and white respectively in the carcasses of the lightest animals, whereas heavier kids were scored as pink and cream. Slaughter weight also influenced significantly the carcass fatness (score 1 in lightest kids and 2 or 3 in heavier ones). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between slaughter weight group and sex in dressing percentages. Percentages corresponding to the long leg, back and neck (30-33%, 18-19% and 8-10%, respectively) decreased when the slaughter weight increased, whereas the ribs (23-25%) and the flank (10-11%) increased slightly. The carcasses comprised 57-58% muscle, 22-25% bone, 5-6% subcutaneous fat and 9-12% intermuscular fat. The percentage muscle stayed the same with increasing slaughter weight, whereas the bone decreased and the fat increased. The carcasses of the heavier females contained less lean and more fat than the males. The bone percentage was

  16. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all Pdiet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet.

  17. The Effect of Using Different Weights for Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Item Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Amy; Patterson, Brian; Melican, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Annual National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in New York in March 2008. This presentation explores how different item weighting can affect the effective weights, validity coefficents and test reliability of composite scores among test takers.

  18. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  19. The productivity effects of truck size and weight policies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-11-01

    While previous studies have indicated that increases in truck size and weight limits could improve motor carrier productivity, the question of whether or not freight shippers will also benefit has not been adequately addressed. It is generally assumed that competitive conditions in the motor carrier industry will result in cost savings being passed to shippers in the form of lower freight rates. Transportation costs, however, are only one component of shipper total logistics cost. Warehousing cost, inventory holding cost, order processing cost, and other categories of business logistics cost may also change as a result of the less frequent but larger shipments typically associated with the use of longer combination vehicles (LCVs). If switching from single trailer truckload shipments to LCVs causes shipper non-transport logistics costs to increase more than the savings available from lower freight rates, then productivity gains may be lost to the firm and the economy as a whole. This research was undertaken to determine the net effect of truck size and weight policy changes on shipper total logistics cost and how these effects might influence the demand for alternative tractor-trailer configurations.

  20. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  1. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Although Brassica species produce maximum yield under normal soil and ..... germination of seeds and growth of young plants of hordeum vulgare, ... weight and plant growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars.

  2. Effect Of Depot Medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) On Body Weight And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate body weight and serum lipid profile ... both treated and control groups studied for lipid profile using a colorometric method. ... Statistical analysis indicated that these changes were significant (p <

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meral Erdal Erbatur

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... oxide synthase (NOS), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathion S transferase (GST) levels were found significantly higher in .... sequent coupling to N-(1-napthyl-ethylene diamine), .... administration is more effective in recovery of renal.

  4. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  5. Acute fatigue effects on ground reaction force of lower limbs during countermovement jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gabriel Fábrica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameters associated with the performance of countermovement jumps were identified from vertical ground reaction force recordings during fatigue and resting conditions. Fourteen variables were defined, dividing the vertical ground reaction force into negative and positive external working times and times in which the vertical ground reaction force values were lower and higher than the participant's body weight. We attempted to explain parameter variations by considering the relationship between the set of contractile and elastic components of the lower limbs. We determined that jumping performance is based on impulsion optimization and not on instantaneous ground reaction force value: the time in which the ground reaction force was lower than the body weight, and negative external work time was lower under fatigue. The results suggest that, during fatigue, there is less contribution from elastic energy and from overall active state. However, the participation of contractile elements could partially compensate for the worsening of jumping performance.

  6. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet. The trial had two phases: 1 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass decreased similarly (P P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively. LDL peak particle size increased (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  7. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women's weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmar, Isaac E; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m(2)) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women.

  8. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Housami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis.

  9. Effects of cross-linking molecular weights in a hyaluronic acid-poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel network on its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Insup [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongnung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongnung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jeong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongnung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongnung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yongdoo [Korea Artificial Organ Center, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu-Back [Korea Artificial Organ Center, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-Sook [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon-Jung [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Giyoong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effects of cross-linking molecular weights on the properties of a hyaluronic acid (HA)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogel. Swelling behaviors, mechanical strength and rheological behaviors of the HA-PEO hydrogel were evaluated by employing different cross-linking molecular weights (100 kDa and 1.63 mDa) of the HAs in the hydrogel networks. The low molecular weight of HA was obtained in advance by treating high molecular weight HA with a hydrogen chloride solution. Methacrylation of HA was obtained by grafting aminopropylmethacrylate to its caroboxylic acid functional groups. While reduction of the HA molecular weights was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, the degree of methacrylate grafting to the HA was measured by {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Synthesis of the HA-PEO hydrogel was successfully achieved via the Michael-type addition reaction between the methacrylate arm groups in the HA and the six thiol groups in PEO. The hydrogel formation was not dependent upon the HA molecular weights and its gelation behaviors were markedly different. Compared to the properties of the high molecular weight HA-based PEO one, the low molecular weight HA-based hydrogel induced quicker hydrogelation, as observed from the behaviors of the elastic and viscous modulus. Furthermore, the low molecular weight HA-based hydrogel demonstrated stronger mechanical properties as measured with a texture analyzer, lower water absorption as measured with a microbalance and smaller pore sizes on its surface and cross section as observed with scanning electron microscopy. The information about the effects of the cross-linking molecular weights of the gel network on the properties of the HA-based PEO hydrogel may lead to better design of hydrogels, especially in tissue engineering applications.

  10. The effects of rope or weighted rope jump training on strength, coordination and proprioception in adolescent female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D; Duzgun, I; Baltaci, G; Karacan, S; Colakoglu, F

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of a 12-week "rope jumping" and "weighted rope jumping" training programs on functional parameters including multi-joint coordination and proprioception, strength, endurance in adolescent female volleyball players. Pretest posttest experimental design. Weighted Rope Training group (N.=9; 15±1 years), Rope Training group (N.=9; 14.1±1.3 years) and Controls (N.=7; 14.4±1.3 years). Motor coordination, proprioception, strength and endurance of the lower extremities with concentric and eccentric performances in closed kinetic chain on multi joint system assessed by the Monitorized Squat system. Absolute average error (cm) and the standard deviation for coordination and proprioception, Peak Force (N), Total Work (Nm), Average Power (Nm/s), Maximal Speed for strength and endurance tests were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U test were utilized. Weighted rope jump group had significant decrease for the deviation results of coordination on the concentric and eccentric phases for both legs (PRope jump and weighted rope jump groups had significantly lower results on non visible second movement deviation (PRope Training group in comparison to controls (PRope Training and control groups improved in concentric maximal speed (PRope Training group (Prope jump to training programs improves joint repositioning and coordination. Weighted Rope Training group got greater gains for coordination and eccentric endurance parameters for lower extremities in a closed kinetic chain.

  11. Effect of ski simulator training on kinematic and muscle activation of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Kim, Kitae; Shin, Insik; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jinhae

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an augmented reality-based ski simulator through analyzing the changes in movement patterns as well as the engagement of major muscles of the lower body. [Subjects] Seven subjects participated in the study. All were national team-level athletes studying at "K" Sports University in Korea who exhibited comparable performance levels and had no record of injuries in the preceding 6 months (Age 23.4 ± 3.8 years; Height 172.6 ± 12.1 cm; Weight 72.3 ± 16.2 kg; Experience 12.3 ± 4.8 years). [Methods] A reality-based ski simulator developed by a Korean manufacturer was used for the study. Three digital video cameras and a wireless electromyography system were used to perform 3-dimensional motion analysis and measure muscle activation level. [Results] Left hip angulation was found to increase as the frequency of the turns increased. Electromyography data revealed that the activation level of the quadriceps group's extension muscles and the biceps femoris group's flexing muscles had a crossing pattern. [Conclusion] Sustained training using an augmented reality-based ski simulator resulted in movements that extended the lower body joints, which is thought to contribute to increasing muscle fatigue.

  12. Decreased cardiotrophin-1 levels are associated with a lower risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese children after a weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; García-Calzón, Sonia; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Chueca, María; Oyarzabal, Mirentxu; Azcona-Sanjulián, María Cristina; Bustos, Matilde; Moreno-Aliaga, María Jesús; Martínez, J Alfredo; Marti, Amelia

    2013-10-01

    Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) shares some similarities with other cytokines, and participates in the control of energy metabolism. Higher circulating levels are observed in obese humans, but little information is gathered in weight loss (WL) programs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of serum CT-1 levels with metabolic variables and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) after a WL program in overweight/obese children. Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5 y; 50% males) undergoing a 10-week WL program were enrolled. Subjects were dichotomized at the median of Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score (BMI-SDS) change, as high and low responders after intervention. CT-1 levels were significantly reduced (-48 fmol/mL, p=0.043) in the high responder group after the WL program. They had significantly lower body weight (-3.7 kg, pchanges in total cholesterol (41%) and LDL-cholesterol (28%). Moreover, in our participants the lower the CT-1 levels, the higher the reduction in MetS risk components, after the 10-week intervention, (p-ANCOVA=0.040, p-trend=0.024). We showed, for the first time, a reduction in serum CT-1 levels after a WL program and this decrease in CT-1 was strongly associated with a reduction in cholesterol levels and in MetS risk factors in overweight/obese children. Our findings may suggest that CT-1 could be an indirect marker for the diagnosis of MetS in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical course and effective treatment of varicose vein of lower limb in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.O. Syniachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis of the lower extremities, and the relationship with the state of the feet venous vascular territory remains insufficiently studied, the effectiveness of surgical treatment of patients with varicose veins is not defined. Objective: to analyze the clinical course of foot varicose veins and the effectiveness of medical measures on the background of DM2. Materials and methods. The study included 302 patients (227 men and 75 women aged 29–72 years old, 16 % of which had previous phlebothrombosis and the prevalece of II, III, IV, V and VI class of venous insufficiency was 10, 14, 37 16 and 23 %, respectively. 263 patients underwent endovenous laser coagulation, and 39 — the traditional phlebectomy and ligation of perforating veins. Results. Among the examined patients with varicose veins of lower extremities DM2 was diagnosed in 9 % of cases, more often in males and elderly patients on the background of atherosclerosis of the foot vessels (iliac, femoral, tibial, popliteal artery, which was accompanied by more frequent involvement of the great saphenous vein in the process and its gate extension, the prevalence of severe grades of venous insufficiency, significantly worse the results of surgical treatment of varicose veins and greater frequency of complications, despite more frequent using of rivaroxaban and low molecular weight heparins, and the effectiveness of endovenous laser ablation after four weeks of its implementation is inferior to that in the group without DM2, while glycemic index inversely correlated with the surface tension of the venous blood, which has prognostic significance in the context of future medical interventions. Conclusions. The presence of DM2 is a risk factor for more severe feet varicose veins, is a negative predictive factor in the effectiveness of surgical treatment of the disease and the complications number.

  14. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, M M J W; Lejeune, M P G M; Saris, W H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of 13 weeks conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in overweight subjects after weight loss on weight regain, body composition, resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, and blood plasma parameters. This study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized design. Subjects were first submitted to a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD 2.1 MJ/d) for 3 weeks after which they started with the 13-week intervention period. They either received 1.8 g CLA or placebo per day (low dosage, LD) or 3.6 g CLA or placebo per day (high dosage, HD). A total of 26 men and 28 women (age 37.8+/-7.7 y; body mass index (BMI) 27.8+/-1.5 kg/m(2)). Before VLCD (t=-3), after VLCD but before CLA or placebo intervention (t=0) and after 13-week CLA or placebo intervention (t=13), body weight, body composition (hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution), resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, physical activity, and blood plasma parameters (glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glycerol and beta-hydroxy butyrate) were measured. The VLCD significantly lowered body weight (6.9+/-1.7%), %body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient and plasma glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol concentrations, while free fatty acids, glycerol and beta-hydroxy butyrate concentrations were increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that at the end of the 13-week intervention, CLA did not affect %body weight regain (CLA LD 47.9+/-88.2%, CLA HD 27.4+/-29.8%, Placebo LD 32.0+/-42.8%, Placebo HD 22.5+/-37.9%). The regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA (LD 6.2+/-3.9, HD 4.6+/-2.4%) compared to placebo (LD 2.8+/-3.2%, HD 3.4+/-3.6%), independent of %body weight regain and physical activity. As a consequence of an increased regain of fat-free mass by CLA, resting metabolic rate was increased by CLA (LD 12.0+/-11.4%, HD 13.7+/-14.4%) compared to placebo (LD 9.1+/-11.0%, HD 8.6+/-8.5%). Substrate oxidation and blood plasma

  15. Cup or bottle for preterm infants: effects on oxygen saturation, weight gain, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Neide M N; Martinez, Francisco E; Jorge, Salim M

    2002-05-01

    The impact of cup-feeding or bottle-feeding on weight gain, oxygen saturation, and breastfeeding rates of preterm infants was studied in 34 bottle-fed and 44 cup-fed preterm infants. At initiation of oral feeding, postconceptional age and weight were 37.2 +/- 2.2 weeks and 1676 +/- 83 g for the bottle-fed group (BF) and 37.0 +/- 1.6 weeks and 1637 +/- 40 g for the cup-fed (CF) group, respectively. No significant differences between groups were found with regard to time spent feeding, feeding problems, weight gain, or breastfeeding prevalence at discharge or at 3-month follow-up. Possible beneficial effects of cup-feeding were lower incidence of desaturation episodes (13.6% vs 35.3%, CF vs BF, P = .024) and a higher prevalence of breastfeeding at 3 months among those still breastfeeding at the first follow-up visit (68.4% vs 33.3%, CF vs BF, P = .04).

  16. EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON DRY WEIGHT AND RELATIVE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN GREENINGMAIZE AND SUNFLOWER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Várallyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found in the environment. Excessive uptake of arsenic may cause physiological changes in plants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different arsenic treatments on relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of shoot and root of maize and sunflower in the early phases of plant development. Seedlings were grown in climatic room in nutrient solution under strictly regulated environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1arsenic, whereas there was no arsenic treatment on the control plants. We applied arsenic in the form of arsenite (NaAsO2 and arsenate (KH2AsO4, respectively. After 14 days of arsenic treatments, changes in relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these physiological parameters were measured after 21 day. The applied arsenic decreased the relative chlorophyll content of maize and sunflower leaves, especially at concentration of30 mg kg-1. The increasing amount of As treatment were resulted the lower weight of the experimental plants, which was more considerable in the case of the roots. The results indicate that the sunflower plants is more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants and all data demonstrate that the As(III is more toxic to these crop plants than the As(V.

  17. Effect of icodextrin dialysis solution on body weight and fat accumulation over time in CAPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Hyang; Do, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Won; Yoon, Kyung-Woo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the changes of body composition and the effects of icodextrin dialysis solution over time on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Among 183 incident patients, 75 patients finished a complete 36-month protocol. Clinical indices including daily glucose absorption and body composition, by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), were measured in both groups (icodextrin group: 36 patients, non-icodextrin group: 39 patients) at the 1st (baseline), 12th, 24th and 36th months. There were significant increases in body weight and fat mass during the 36 months after initiation of CAPD. It was found that 78% of 3 years of weight gain occurred during the first year and 88% of weight gain at the end of the first year was fat mass gain. The icodextrin group showed a significantly lower percent of fat mass during the first 36 months (P icodextrin group. There were no significant changes in total body water (TBW), extra cellular fluid (ECF), oedema index and lean body mass (LBM) through comparable daily and ultrafiltration volume (UFV) between the two groups during the initial 3 years. Factors associated with the higher percent of fat mass gain over time on peritoneal dialysis were age, diabetes, gender (female) and non-icodextrin group (all, P icodextrin solution may be a better option to alleviate excessive fat gain over time for patients on PD.

  18. Therapeutic effects of high molecular weight hyaluronan injections for tendinopathy in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Funasaki, Hiroki; Kubota, Makoto; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathy is the most common tendon disorder. The etiology is still uncertain, and the disorder poses many therapeutic problems. In a few clinical studies, analgesic effects of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) injections were observed, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the therapeutic effects of hyaluronan injections for tendinopathy in an animal model. We made the tendinopathy rat model using a rodent treadmill machine. Rats with tendinopathy were injected with HMW HA (HA group), normal saline (NS group), or nothing (control group) into the space between the patellar tendon and the fat pad bilaterally, or were injected with HMW HA into the right knees and with saline to the left knees (HA/NS group), 5 times every 4 days. To assess the pain-relieving effect of HA, the spontaneous locomotor activities at night (12 h) and weight bearing of hind paws were measured every day. Histological sections of the patellar tendon stained with hematoxylin-eosin or prepared by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were microscopically analyzed. The number of spontaneous locomotor activities in the HA group was significantly larger than those in NS or control groups, and in the HA group they recovered up to a healthy level. The percent weight distribution of the right hind paws was significantly increased along with the number of injections. On histologic examinations, the numbers of microtears, laminations, or apoptotic cells in the patellar tendons in the HA group were significantly lower than those in the NS or the control groups. The injections of HMW HA were effective for pain relief and for partial restoration of the patellar tendon in our tendinopathy rat model, and thus may become an effective therapeutic modality for the disease.

  19. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  20. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss. AIM: We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods. RESULTS: EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain

  1. Lipid-lowering effects of curcumin in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Sun; Su, Ying-Fang; Yang, Hui-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Chou, Janet I; Ueng, Kwo-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Human studies of curcumin extract on lipid-lowering effect have not been completely investigated and have had controversy results. This study tested the effect of daily curcumin extract for 12 weeks on weight, glucose, and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-five patients were randomized into two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from 40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p cholesterol (LDL) was significantly reduced (120.55 ± 36.81 to 106.51 ± 25.02 mg/dL, p curcumin may have a lowering cholesterol effect in male patients and an increasing HDL-C effect in female patients, both of which result in a decrease of T-Chol/HDL-C ratio. The intake of the curcumin extract of 1890 mg/day for 12 weeks was associated with lipid-lowering effect but did not improve weight and glucose homeostasis in the patients with metabolic syndrome. Daily curcumin consumption may be an alternative choice to modify cholesterol-related parameters, especially in metabolic syndrome patients.

  2. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  3. Effect of Commercial Synthappret BAP Treatment on the Tailorabilitv of Light-Weight Worsted Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gehui(王革辉); Zhang Weiyuan(张渭源); Postle, R.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of measurement with the FAST instruments,the effect of commercial Synthappret BAP treatment on the tailorability of light-weight wool worsted fabrics has been investigated. It was found that the commercial Synthappret BAP treatment improved the tailorability of the light-weight wool fabrics mainly by increasing the bending stiffness of the light-weight wool fabrics.

  4. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  5. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  6. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  7. Adverse effects of weight loss: Are persistent organic pollutants a potential culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, M; Karelis, A D; St-Pierre, D H; Lamontagne, L

    2016-09-01

    Health professionals commonly recommend weight loss to individuals with obesity. However, unexpected adverse health effects after a weight-loss program have been reported in several studies. The factors that could explain this phenomenon are currently poorly understood. However, one potential factor that has emerged is persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Due to their lipophilic nature, POPs are known to accumulate in the adipose tissue and their concentrations are found to be higher in obese individuals than lean subjects. There is evidence to suggest that weight loss induces a significant increase in POPs levels in the bloodstream. Furthermore, the increases in plasma POPs levels after weight loss are even greater with an intensive weight loss. Thus, a critical question that remains unresolved is whether POPs released from the adipose tissue to the bloodstream during intensive weight loss could increase the risk of cardiometabolic disturbances. In turn, the accumulation of POPs released in response to an intensive weight loss may impair energy metabolism and stimulate a subsequent weight regain. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide insights about the role of POPs on cardiometabolic risk factors during weight loss and weight regain that could potentially explain, at least in part, the adverse effects observed in certain weight-loss studies. We will also discuss the potential synergistic or antagonistic POPs-dependent risks following weight-loss programs. Ultimately, this may lead in establishing new therapeutic boundaries to minimize potential health hazards related to weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of microperfusion in hepatic diffusion weighted imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Baron, Paul; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical hepatic diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) generally relies on mono-exponential diffusion. The aim was to demonstrate that mono-exponential diffusion in the liver is contaminated by microperfusion and that the bi-exponential model is required. Nineteen fasting healthy volunteers were examined

  9. Physical activity, body weight and cancer. Effects and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steins Bisschop, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of general health, but seems to provide similar benefits after a diagnosis of disease, e.g. cancer. In this thesis, we investigated relations between physical activity, body weight and disease risk in the general population (Part I), and we studied some

  10. Effects of microperfusion in hepatic diffusion weighted imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Baron, Paul; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E.

    Clinical hepatic diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) generally relies on mono-exponential diffusion. The aim was to demonstrate that mono-exponential diffusion in the liver is contaminated by microperfusion and that the bi-exponential model is required. Nineteen fasting healthy volunteers were examined

  11. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  12. Effect of short chain fatty acids on the performance and intestinal weight in germ-free and conventional chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, M; Yang, S I; Niwa, N; Okumura, J

    1991-03-01

    1. In experiment 1, the performance and tissue weights of germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) chicks fed on diets containing 25.4 g acetic acid/kg diet (AD) or 25.4 g kaolin/kg diet (KD) were investigated. Body weight gain in GF chicks was significantly higher on the AD, but significantly lower on the KD compared with their CV counterparts. The values for food efficiency, protein retention and energy retention followed a similar pattern to that of the body weight gain. 2. The weights of all sections of the intestine except the colon were significantly greater in CV chicks. In CV but not in GF birds the jejunum and ileum were heavier from birds fed on the AD than from those on the KD diet. 3. In experiment 2, the influence of butyric acid administration on the weight of some organs in chicks was investigated. The weight of duodenum, jejunum and ileum was significantly increased by intraperitoneal administration of butyric acid (2 ml of 100 mM solution/d) for 4 d, but no significant effect was observed by oral administration. 4. It might be suggested that short chain fatty acids such as acetic and butyric acids formed by bacterial action in the crop and subsequently absorbed are at least partly responsible for the heavier gut weight in CV birds.

  13. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  14. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  15. Effects of Bridging Exercise Methods on the Muscular Activity of the Neck, Trunk and Lower Limbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryu, Youngsang; Ju, Sungbum; Park, Giduck; Jang, HyunJeong

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different bridging exercise methods, varied by the position of the lower limbs, on the muscular activity of the neck, trunk, thigh and lower limbs. [Subjects...

  16. The effect of melatonin supplementation on the quality of sleep and weight status in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Walecka-Kapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : We evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation on the nutritional status of postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study included 56 women (51-65 years and 25 healthy women (27-36 years. The emotional state was assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, the quality of sleep using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were also calculated. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (control – 25 women with normal body weight, group II – 26 postmenopausal women with normal body weight, group III – 30 postmenopausal women with high body weight. In women from group II and III, routine laboratory tests, levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, 17-estradiol, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and the concentration of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate (6-HMS in day/night urine fractions were determined. On the day of the examination, women remained on a liquid diet (1800 kcal. Next, a balanced diet of 1500 kcal and 5 mg of melatonin administration were recommended. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks. Results : The patients from groups II and III showed similar mild levels of anxiety and depression and a significant degree of sleep disorders. In group III, lower urinary 6-HMS excretion was observed at night. In both groups a negative correlation was found between urinary 6-HMS excretion and the degree of sleep disorders. After 24 weeks, a statistically significant improvement of quality of sleep was obtained. A negative correlation was detected between urinary 6-HMS excretion and BMI. Conclusion : Melatonin supplementation contributed to body weight reduction.

  17. Effect of weight loss and regain on adipose tissue distribution, composition of lean mass and resting energy expenditure in young overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Schautz, B; Lagerpusch, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Goele, K; Heller, M; Glüer, C-C; Müller, M J

    2013-10-01

    Although weight cycling is frequent in obese patients, the adverse consequences on body composition and an increased propensity to weight gain remain controversial. We investigated the effect of intentional weight loss and spontaneous regain on fat distribution, the composition of lean mass and resting energy expenditure (REE). Weight regainers (≥ 30% of loss, n=27) and weight-stable subjects (within weight change, n=20) were selected from 103 overweight and obese subjects (body mass index 28-43 kg m(-2), 24-45 years) who passed a 13-week low-calorie diet intervention. REE and body composition (by densitometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging) were examined at baseline, after weight loss and at 6 months of follow-up. Mean weight loss was -12.3 ± 3.3 kg in weight-stable subjects and -9.0 ± 4.3 kg in weight regainers (PWeight regain was incomplete, accounting for 83 and 42% of weight loss in women and men. Regain in total fat and different adipose tissue depots was in proportion to weight regain except for a higher regain in adipose tissue of the extremities in women and a lower regain in extremity and visceral adipose tissue in men. In both genders, regain in skeletal muscle of the trunk lagged behind skeletal muscle regain at the extremities. In contrast to weight-stable subjects, weight regainers showed a reduced REE adjusted for changes in organ and tissue masses after weight loss (PWeight regain did not adversely affect body fat distribution. Weight loss-associated adaptations in REE may impair weight loss and contribute to weight regain.

  18. Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, Vladimir; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Rogovik, Alexander L; Fairgrieve, Christopher D; Jovanovski, Elena; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2011-11-01

    The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (SD 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (SEM 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14,300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136,300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY (-12.6 (SEM 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB (-14.6 (SEM 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet.

  19. Disability and effects of weight loss in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Evers Larsson, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity has become an important health problem world wide. It increases medical risks and affects daily living. Women are in the majority among obese persons seeking help. Standard recommendations on fitness training and losing weight by walking are common. Physiotherapists know little about disability problems in obese women and we lack obesity- specific instruments for outcome evaluation. OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of the present thesis was to identify and...

  20. Effect of Lower Protein Level in Feed on Production Performance of Zagorje Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Mužić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest for production and marketing of Zagorje turkey in Croatia is rising. Traditional way of breeding Zagorje turkey is manifested through the variety of production and nutritional practices. Typical Croatian customer demands a carcass of Zagorje turkey that has a low weight, ranging between 2.5 . 3.5 kg and is pre-processed in the slaughterhouse. As the data on nutrition, breeding and production of light autochthonous turkey breeds, particularly, among them, Zagorje turkey, are insufficient; there is a need for research on the nutritional and technological aspects of free-range production of Zagorje turkey. In that direction we carried out the research of the effect of different protein level in the diet of turkey chicks up to 8 weeks of age to the final production performance and meat quality of Zagorje turkey slaughtered at the age of six months. Two control (68 ♂ and 68 ♀ and two experimental groups (68 ♂ and 68 ♀ of Zagorje turkeys were housed indoors for the first 8 weeks. After that period each group had access to a fenced pasture of 0.5 ha. Both experimental groups were fed a diet with 25 % less protein than the control groups during the first period of 8 weeks, while after this period all of the groups were fed equally until the end of month 6. At the end of production period, birds of both sexes of the experimental groups had a lower body weight that the control ones, but still within the suitable category for Croatian consumers, while males from the control groups were too heavy (6854 g. Feed conversion ratio (FCR over the whole experimental period both in the control and experimental groups ranged between 3.47-4.06 kg (concentrates only, without a pattern considering treatment or sex. In the same time, share of different parts of body in the carcass differed between treatments and sexes.

  1. Effect of smoking and ABO blood groups on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Cozzoli, E; Neri, A; Bottini, E; Magrini, A

    2011-11-01

    The negative effects of cigarette smoking on human reproduction and on birth weight are well documented. On the other hand ABO system, encoding for glycosyltransferases, contributes to biosynthesis of antigens and oligosaccharide structures involved in blastocyst adhesion and intrauterine selection. In this paper we have searched for possible interaction between ABO system and smoking concerning their effects on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. We have studied 395 consecutive healthy puerperae from the White Caucasian population of Rome. ABO blood group was determined by standard laboratory methods. Three-way contingency table analysis was performed according to Sokal and Rohlf and Chi square test of independence by SPSS programs. The proportion of smokers is higher in A phenotype than in other ABO types among young puerperae (≤ 24 years) while it is lower in A phenotype than in other types among older women. The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in women with A blood group than in women carrying other ABO phenotypes. The interaction between smoking and ABO blood groups concerning their effects on birth weight is influenced by gender of newborn and by maternal age. ABO blood groups and smoking could have a joint influence on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective weight loss for overweight children: a meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Cashin, Susan E

    2006-02-01

    Childhood overweight has increased in the United States. Success of weight-loss programs has been limited (Barlow, S.E., & Dietz, W.H. (1998). Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert committee recomendations. Pediatrics, 102, e29.). The purpose of this investigation was to systematically examine the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions for children. For this meta-analysis, seven weight-loss intervention studies were coded and quality index scores calculated. The interventions had a significant positive effect on weight-loss average d = 0.95, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.79 to 1.11. Limited interventional studies with effective long-term maintenance of weight loss in children are available in the literature. However, there are effective methods for weight loss in children.

  3. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  4. Effects of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise testing in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatman, Robbert C; Spruit, Martijn A; van Melick, Paula P; Peeters, Jos P I; Rutten, Erica P A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased dyspnoea and reduced health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies on the effects of obesity on exercise capacity showed divergent results. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise tolerance in obese and normal weight patients, matched for age, gender and degree of airflow limitation. Retrospective analyses of data obtained during pre-pulmonary rehabilitation assessment in 108 obese COPD patients (OB) (age: 61.2 ± 5.3y, FEV1 : 43.2 ± 7.4%, BMI: 34.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) ,) and 108 age and FEV1 -matched normal weight COPD patients (NW) (age: 61.7 ± 3.6y, FEV1 : 41.5 ± 8.4%, BMI: 22.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ,). Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and 6 min walk test (6MWT) were performed, Borg scores for dyspnoea and leg fatigue were recorded, before and after the tests. Six-minute walk distance differed between OB (398 ± 107 m) and NW patients (446 ± 109 m, P exercise load was comparable (OB: 75 ± 29 W, NW: 70 ± 25 W, ns). Dyspnoea (OB 3.2 ± 2.0 vs NW 3.1 ± 1.7, ns) and leg fatigue (OB 2.4 ± 2.3 vs NW 1.9 ± 1.7, ns) were not significantly different in OB compared with NW after 6MWT, or after CPET (dyspnoea: OB 5.1 ± 2.4 vs NW 5.4 ± 2.2, ns; leg fatigue: OB 4.0 ± 2.3 vs NW 4.0 ± 2.7, ns). In contrast to weight-supported exercise, obesity has a negative impact on weight-bearing exercise capacity, despite comparable exercise-related symptoms. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the impact of obesity on physical performance in COPD. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. The Effect of Core and Lower Limb Exercises on Trunk Strength and Lower Limb Stability on Australian Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Sellentin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: A before and after design in the collection of data and using analyses of variance to examine the changes in each test score. Objectives: The objectives and hypotheses of this study are: (1 Do specific core exercises, incorporating the lower limbs improve lower limb stability and trunk core muscle strength?; (2 Can the Star Excursion Balance Test be used as a measure of ankle and lower limb stability without a history of ankle instability?; (3 Can static core tests be used as a measure of core stability?; and (4 Is the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT questionnaire sufficiently sensitive to show any changes to ankle instability following the outcomes of this study? Background: An earlier study undertaken by Sellentin and Sanchez (2011 r identified specific injuries sustained by Australian garrison soldiers of the 16 Air Defence Regiment. These injuries involved the neck, low back, knee and ankle. This current study was designed to address these injuries by providing exercises to specifically strengthen the core and lower limb muscles and to improve proprioception and muscle movement patterns, with the aim of reducing the number of injuries in Australian soldiers. Methods and Measures: Eight young adult males volunteered for this study (mean age of 22 years. Female Australian soldiers did not participate in this study, as there were none available at the time and there were very few women in the Regiment. The eight male subjects undertook a twelve week supervised exercise programme loosely based on the validated FIFA 11+ programme. Subjects performed specific exercises over twelve weeks which were gradually increased in intensity, difficulty and resistance week by week. Each subject also completed a CAIT questionnaire before and after the 12 week exercise program. In order to measure any effect from our exercise programme. Each subject was asked to perform a series of sustained flexion, extension, side holds and prone hold

  6. Effects of loading on maximum vertical jumps: selective effects of weight and inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Leontijevic, Bojan; Pazin, Nemanja; Bozic, Predrag R.; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    A novel loading method was applied to explore selective effects of externally added weight (W), weight and inertia (W+I), and inertia (I) on maximum counter-movement jumps (CMJ) performed with arm swing. Externally applied extended rubber bands and/or loaded vest added W, W+I, and I corresponding to 10–40% of subjects' body mass. As expected, an increase in magnitude of all types of load was associated with an increase in ground reaction forces (GRF), as well as with a decrease in both the ju...

  7. Independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Kerry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human balance during quiet standing is influenced by adding mass to the body with a backpack, with symmetrically-applied loads to the trunk, or with obesity. Adding mass to the body increases both the weight and inertia of the body, which theoretically could provide counteracting effects on body dynamics and balance. Understanding the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance may provide additional insight into human balance that could lead to novel advancements in balance training and rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing. Methods Sixteen normal-weight young adult participants stood as still as possible on a custom-built backboard apparatus under four experimental conditions: baseline, added inertia only, added weight only, and added inertia and weight. Results Adding inertia by itself had no measurable effect on center of pressure movement or backboard movement. Adding weight by itself increased center of pressure movement (indicated greater effort by the postural control system to stand as still as possible and backboard movement (indicating a poorer ability of the body to stand as still as possible. Adding inertia and weight at the same time increased center of pressure movement but did not increase backboard movement compared to the baseline condition. Conclusions Adding inertia and adding weight had different effects on balance. Adding inertia by itself had no effect on balance. Adding weight by itself had a negative effect on balance. When adding inertia and weight at the same time, the added inertia appeared to lessen (but did not eliminate the negative effect of adding weight on balance. These results improve our fundamental understanding of how added mass influences human balance.

  8. Cerebral Effects of Targeted Temperature Management Methods Assessed by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grejs, Anders Morten; Gjedsted, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized porcine study was to compare surface targeted temperature management (TTM) to endovascular TTM evaluated by cerebral diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and by intracerebral/intramuscular microdialysis. It is well...... known that alteration in the temperature affects ADC, but the relationship between cerebral ADC values and the cooling method per se has not been established. Eighteen anesthetized 60-kg female swine were hemodynamically and intracerebrally monitored and subsequently subjected to a baseline MRI...... a significantly lower median ADC than endovascular cooling: 714 (634; 804) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s versus 866 (828; 927) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s, (p edema and these low values could not be explained solely by the temperature effect per se...

  9. A genetic variant in proximity to the gene LYPLAL1 is associated with lower hunger feelings and increased weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstein, Marcus; Mwinyi, Jessica; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment of severe obesity. We investigated to what extent BMI- or waist-hip ratio (WHR)-related genetic variants are associated with excess BMI loss (EBMIL) two years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and elucidated the affected biological pathways. Methods: Two-hundred fifty-one obese patients (age: 43 ± 10.7, preoperative BMI: 45.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2, 186 women) underwent RYGB surgery and were followed up after two years with regard to BMI. Patients were genotyped for 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were investigated with regard to their impact on response to RYGB and preoperatively measured Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) scores. Results: Homozygous T carriers of the SNP rs4846567 in proximity to the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) gene showed a 7% higher EBMIL compared to wild-type and heterozygous carriers (p = 0.031). TT-allele carriers showed furthermore lower scores for Hunger (74%, p < 0.001), lower Disinhibition (53%, p < 0.001), and higher Cognitive restraint (21%, p = 0.017) than GG/GT carriers in the TFEQ. Patients within the lowest quartile of Hunger scores had a 32% greater EBMIL compared to patients in the highest quartile (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The LYPLAL1 genotype is associated with differences in eating behavior and loss of extensive body weight following RYGB surgery. Genotyping and the use of eating behavior-related questionnaires may help to estimate the RYGB-associated therapy success. PMID:27181159

  10. Simvastatin Efficiently Lowers Small LDL-IgG Immune Complex Levels: A Therapeutic Quality beyond the Lipid-Lowering Effect.

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    Gerd Hörl

    Full Text Available We investigated a polyethylene glycol non-precipitable low-density lipoprotein (LDL subfraction targeted by IgG and the influence of statin therapy on plasma levels of these small LDL-IgG-immune complexes (LDL-IgG-IC. LDL-subfractions were isolated from 6 atherosclerotic subjects and 3 healthy individuals utilizing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Cholesterol, apoB and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined in each fraction by enzymatic testing, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The levels of LDL-IgG-IC were quantified densitometrically following lipid electrophoresis, particle size distribution was assessed with dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. The influence of simvastatin (40 mg/day for three months on small LDL-IgG-IC levels and their distribution among LDL-subfractions (salt gradient separation were investigated in 11 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD. We demonstrate that the investigated LDL-IgG-IC are small particles present in atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects. In vitro assembly of LDL-IgG-IC resulted in particle density shifts indicating a composition of one single molecule of IgG per LDL particle. Normalization on cholesterol levels revealed MDA values twice as high for LDL-subfractions rich in small LDL-IgG-IC if compared to dominant LDL-subfractions. Reactivity of affinity purified small LDL-IgG-IC to monoclonal antibody OB/04 indicates a high degree of modified apoB and oxidative modification. Simvastatin therapy studied in the CAD patients significantly lowered LDL levels and to an even higher extent, small LDL-IgG-IC levels without affecting their distribution. In conclusion simvastatin lowers levels of small LDL-IgG-IC more effectively than LDL-cholesterol and LDL-apoB levels in atherosclerotic patients. This antiatherogenic effect may additionally contribute to the known

  11. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

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    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  12. Bone metabolism markers in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: effects of growth, weight trend, developmental and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, I; Stridsberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) decrease and those of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) increase during weight loss in adolescent girls with eating disorders (ED). The impact of weight loss on bone metabolism markers is greatest in premenarcheal girls. Adolescents with ED stand a risk of not reaching optimal peak bone mass and develop osteoporosis. Previous investigations are contradictory as to how markers of bone formation and resorption change during weight loss and nutritional rehabilitation. Serum OC and CTX were measured at assessment of 461 adolescent girls with ED and during treatment of 55 girls with anorexia nervosa. Bone metabolism was related to weight, weight change and growth rate. At assessment, OC concentrations were positively correlated with growth rate and inversely with age and (rate of) weight loss. Growth rate was the only predictor of CTX concentrations in premenarcheal girls. In postmenarcheal girls, CTX concentrations were inversely correlated with age and rate of weight loss. During weight gain, there was an increase of OC concentrations. CTX concentrations decreased at the onset of weight gain and increased when near normal weight was reached. Bone formation markers decrease and resorption markers increase during weight loss. The effects are independent of menstrual status but the impact on bone formation markers is greater in young, premenarcheal girls. Markers are normalised during weight gain but it is conceivable that repeated and/or prolonged weight loss in adolescents reduces peak bone mass.

  13. Effect of Lifestyle and Dietary Modifications on Prehypertensive Cases of Lower Socioeconomic Population in Ahmedabad City

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    Snehal R Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension is associated with high blood pressure and higher cardiovascular risk, and it should be suggested to prehypertensive patients that they modify their lifestyle in order to help avoid these problems. Methodology: The present study was the cross-sectional longitudinal study conducted on prehypertensive subjects of lower socio-economic group residing in Ahmedabad City. The participants were explained regarding modification in form of avoidance of entire amount of salt, morning exercise in form of brisk walking for half an hour at least three times a week and abstinence of smoking and alcohol in subjects who are habituated. Patients were instructed to attend OPD for every one month in the morning for 3 months as follow up. Results: In our study, pre HTN was detected in 72 (40% of male subjects and 70 (41.1% of female subjects. Prehypertension was found to be more prevalent in males (54.6% as compared to females (45.4%. Overall 81.15% of subjects who were prehypertensive were reverted to normotension within 3 months with life style modification. Conclusion: It is concluded from our study that preHTN is quite prevalent affecting > 40% of urban population of lower socioeconomic class. Weight reduction, abstinence from smoking, regular exercise and salt reduction are highly effective, easy to follow and cheaper measures to control pre HTN and prevent its progression to hypertensive levels thereby also reducing cardiovascular and other complications of HTN. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 226-229

  14. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

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    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

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    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  16. Coordination of Lower Limb Joints During Locomotion: The Effects of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Richards, Jason; Peters, Brian; Houser, Jeremy; Marshburn, Ann; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Controlling locomotion while maintaining a stable gaze requires precise coordination between several, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems (Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003; McDonald, et al., 1997). The overall goal of this study is to determine how this full-body gaze stabilization system responds to adaptive changes in vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function. Locomotion involves cyclical physical interactions (impacts) with the environment. Hence, focusing on a target and maintaining visual acuity during this activity may require mechanisms to manage the energy flow, so it does not disrupt the visual and vestibular sensory information processing that stabilizes gaze. It has been shown that increasing the difficulty of a gaze task (reading numbers on a screen as opposed to simply focusing on a central dot pattern) resulted in an increase in the amount of knee flexion movement during the critical phase immediately following the heel strike event (Mulavara and Bloomberg, 2003). The increase in knee flexion during the stance phase of the gait cycle has been suggested to function as a shock absorbing mechanism associated with the rapid weight transfer from the trailing to the leading leg during walking. To understand this full-body coordination, the relative contributions of each component and the resulting effects should be assessed. In this study, we hypothesized that VOR adaptation would result in a reorganization of the lower limb joint coordination during treadmill walking in a manner to facilitate the gaze stabilization task and preserve locomotor function.

  17. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Effects of Molecular Weight upon Irradiation-Cross-Linked Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Clay Aerogel Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Shen, Peng; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Schiraldi, David A

    2015-09-16

    Facile fabrication of mechanically strong poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)/clay aerogel composites through a combination of increasing polymer molecular weights and gamma irradiation-cross-linking is reported herein. The aerogels produced from high polymer molecular weights exhibit significantly increased compressive moduli, similar to the effect of irradiation-induced cross-linking. The required irradiation dose for fabricating strong PVOH composite aerogels with dense microstructure decreased with increasing polymer molecular weight. Neither thermal stability nor flammability was significantly changed by altering the polymer molecular weight or by modest gamma irradiation, but they were highly dependent upon the polymer/clay ratio in the aerogel. Optimization of the mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of these composite aerogels could therefore be obtained by using relatively low levels of polymer, with very high polymer molecular weight, or lower molecular weight coupled with moderate gamma irradiation. The facile preparation of strong, low flammability aerogels is an alternative to traditional polymer foams in applications where fire safety is important.

  19. Clinical effect of naturally random allocation to lower systolic blood pressure beginning before the development of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ference, Brian A; Julius, Stevo; Mahajan, Nitin; Levy, Phillip D; Williams, Kim Allan; Flack, John M

    2014-06-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) rises approximately linearly with age in most societies. The cause of this rise is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that SBP is causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age by evaluating the effect of 12 polymorphisms associated with lower SBP on the age-related rate of rise in SBP in a series of meta-regression analyses involving ≤199 477 participants in 63 studies. We then evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the odds of coronary heart disease in 22,223 case and 64,762 control subjects and compared it with the effect of lower SBP observed in both prospective cohort studies and blood pressure-lowering randomized trials. All 12 polymorphisms were associated with both lower SBP and a slower age-related rise in SBP. The weighted mean effect of these 12 polymorphisms was associated with a 0.32-mm Hg lower SBP (P=1.79×10(-7)) and a 0.093-mm Hg/decade slower age-related rise in SBP (P=3.05×10(-5)). The effect of long-term exposure to lower SBP on coronary heart disease mediated by these polymorphisms was 2-fold greater than that observed in prospective cohort studies (P=0.006) and 3-fold greater than that observed in short-term blood pressure treatment trials (P=0.001). We conclude therefore that SBP seems to be causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age and has a cumulative effect on the risk of coronary heart disease.

  20. Lower thresholds for lifetime health effects in mammals from high-LET radiation - Comparison with chronic low-LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykina, Tatiana G; Kryshev, Alexander I

    2016-12-01

    Lower threshold dose rates and confidence limits are quantified for lifetime radiation effects in mammalian animals from internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides. Extensive datasets on effects from internal alpha-emitters are compiled from the International Radiobiological Archives. In total, the compiled database includes 257 records, which are analyzed by means of non-parametric order statistics. The generic lower threshold for alpha-emitters in mammalian animals (combined datasets) is 6.6·10(-5) Gy day(-1). Thresholds for individual alpha-emitting elements differ considerably: plutonium and americium - 2.0·10(-5) Gy day(-1); radium - 2.1·10(-4) Gy day(-1). Threshold for chronic low-LET radiation is previously estimated at 1·10(-3) Gy day(-1). For low exposures, the following values of alpha radiation weighting factor wR for internally deposited alpha-emitters in mammals are quantified: wR(α) = 15 as a generic value for the whole group of alpha-emitters; wR(Pu) = 50 for plutonium; wR(Am) = 50 for americium; wR(Ra) = 5 for radium. These values are proposed to serve as radiation weighting factors in calculations of equivalent doses to non-human biota. The lower threshold dose rate for long-lived mammals (dogs) is significantly lower than comparing with the threshold for short-lived mammals (mice): 2.7·10(-5) Gy day(-1), and 2.0·10(-4) Gy day(-1), respectively. The difference in thresholds is exactly reflecting the relationship between the natural longevity of these two species. Graded scale of severity in lifetime radiation effects in mammals is developed, based on compiled datasets. Being placed on the severity scale, the effects of internal alpha-emitters are situated in the zones of considerably lower dose rates than effects of the same severity caused by low-LET radiation. RBE values, calculated for effects of equal severity, are found to depend on the intensity of chronic exposure: different RBE values are characteristic for low

  1. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  2. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...... evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases....

  3. Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, M; Morgan, P J; Jones, P R; Collins, C E

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the effectiveness of web-based interventions on weight loss and maintenance and identify which components of web-based interventions are associated with greater weight change and low attrition rates. A literature search from 1995 to April 2008 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were aged >or=18 years with a body mass index >or=25, at least one study arm involved a web-based intervention with the primary aim of weight loss or maintenance, and reported weight-related outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies aimed to achieve weight loss, and five focused on weight maintenance. Heterogeneity was evident among the studies with seven research questions examined across interventions of varying intensity. Seven studies were assessed for effectiveness based on percentage weight change, with four studies deemed effective. Although the four meta-analyses suggest meaningful weight change, it is not possible to determine the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance due to heterogeneity of designs and thus the small number of comparable studies. Higher usage of website features may be associated with positive weight change, but we do not know what features improve this effect or reduce attrition.

  4. Acute fatigue effects on ground reaction force of lower limbs during countermovement jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gabriel Fábrica; González,Paula V.; Jefferson Fagundes Loss

    2013-01-01

    Parameters associated with the performance of countermovement jumps were identified from vertical ground reaction force recordings during fatigue and resting conditions. Fourteen variables were defined, dividing the vertical ground reaction force into negative and positive external working times and times in which the vertical ground reaction force values were lower and higher than the participant's body weight. We attempted to explain parameter variations by considering the relationship betw...

  5. Effectiveness of Vehicle Weight Estimation from Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerachai Deesomsuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vehicle weight estimations from bridge weigh-in-motion system is studied. The measured bending moments of the instrumented bridge under a passage of vehicle are numerically simulated and are used as the input for the vehicle weight estimations. Two weight estimation methods assuming constant magnitudes and time-varying magnitudes of vehicle axle loads are investigated. The appropriate number of bridge elements and sampling frequency are considered. The effectiveness in term of the estimation accuracy is evaluated and compared under various parameters of vehicle-bridge system. The effects of vehicle speed, vehicle configuration, vehicle weight and bridge surface roughness on the accuracy of the estimated vehicle weights are intensively investigated. Based on the obtained results, vehicle speed, surface roughness level and measurement error seem to have stronger effects on the weight estimation accuracy than other parameters. In general, both methods can provide quite accurate weight estimation of the vehicle. Comparing between them, although the weight estimation method assuming constant magnitudes of axle loads is faster, the method assuming time-varying magnitudes of axle loads can provide axle load histories and exhibits more accurate weight estimations of the vehicle for almost of the considered cases.

  6. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

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    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  7. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, T.S.; Lima, P.R.; Carvalho, K.M.M.B.; Fontenele, T.M.; Solon, F.R.N.; Tomé, A.R.; de Lemos, T.L.G.; da Cruz Fonseca, S.G.; Santos, F.A.; Rao, V.S.; de Queiroz, M.G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses. PMID:28076453

  8. Effect of programmed strength training on explosive strength of lower extremities in children aged 11 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Andrija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical jumps are an integral part of many sport activities. There are several factors that affect the athlete's jumping ability: strength, force and acceleration that occur when we jump. The jump is a complex and more articulated activity that requires not only strength, but great power as well. The main types of training to increase explosive strength are plyometric training and myogenic training with weight load on the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of myogenic training with weight load on explosive strength of the lower extremities. The first group is the control group (K, while the second group is an experimental group (E, each consisting of eighteen respondents. By Using the Myotest and performing the squat jump (SJ, the Height, Power, Force and Velocity were determined. The programme of power lasted for six weeks, twice a week for up to 60 minutes. We conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the final and initial measurements in the experimental group, the multivariate level sig = 0.000. Increase in jump height ΔHeight = 3.28 in cm, force ΔForce = 4.68 in N/kg, the strength ΔPower = 6.18 in W/kg, the acceleration ΔVelocity = 21.8 in cm/s. The results of this study show that myogenic training with weight load has a positive impact on the explosive power of the lower extremities. This research was carried out against children aged 11 to 14 years, so we cannot say with certainty that this type of programme can have identical effects on athletes.

  9. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  10. Gastric bypass surgery has a weight-loss independent effect on post-challenge serum glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofsø, Dag; Birkeland, Kåre I; Holst, Jens J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass surgery seems to have an effect on glucose metabolism beyond what is mediated through weight reduction. The magnitude of this effect on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels remains unknown. RESULTS: Morbidly obese subjects without known diabetes performed a 75 g oral...... glucose tolerance test before and after either gastric bypass surgery (n = 64) or an intensive lifestyle intervention programme (n = 55), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104. The age-adjusted effects of the therapeutic procedures and percentage weight change on fasting and 2-h glucose levels at 1......-h glucose levels were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the lifestyle group, 4.7 (0.4) versus 5.4 (0.7) mmol/l and 3.4 (0.8) versus 6.0 (2.4) mmol/l, respectively (both p Gastric bypass and weight-loss had both independent glucose-lowering effects on 2-h glucose levels [B...

  11. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  12. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  13. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  14. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  15. [Effects of different feeding patterns on body weight of perinatal women in rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhou, Ling-zhi; Dai, Li-na; Tian, Zhen; Lai, Jian-qiang; Zhao, Xian-feng; Yin, Shi-an

    2009-02-01

    To study the relations between different feeding patterns and the body weight retention of the perinatal women living in rural areas of China. A cluster sampling method was used to investigate 409 women, who are currently living in rural areas of Tianjin, at pregnant and perinatal status. While, their body weights and heights before pregnancy, antepartum and postpartum were measured, respectively. Body weight retention was the difference of the measured data after postpartum minus pre-pregnant weight. Variance analysis was used for statistic comparison. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 70.9% (290/409) within four months. The net body weight retention of women (5.8 kg) using the exclusive breastfeeding was lower than that of the women (7.0 kg) using artificial feeding within 4 - 6 months, but there was no significantly statistic difference (F = 1.45, P = 0.236). However, there was the opposite result within 7 - 9 months, the data showed that the body weight retention in the women using the exclusive breastfeeding was 4.9 kg, which was significantly higher than that the women (2.9 kg) with artificial feeding (F = 3.17, P = 0.043). The food consumption of the women (901 g) using exclusive breastfeeding was the highest, followed by those (877 g) using mixed feeding and the women (750 g) using artificial feeding. The body weight retention after postpartum should be related to infant feeding patterns. After postpartum, the weight loss of women using the exclusive breastfeeding is relatively low. While, for the women using the exclusive breastfeeding, the net weight retention during pregnancy and after postpartum were lower than those with artificial feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance health education and guidance on promoting exclusive breast-feeding as well as increasing awareness on pre-pregnant health.

  16. The effect of synchronized running activity with chronic stress on passive avoidance learning and body weight in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Results: Our results showed that: (1 Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05 increased in exercised group. (2 Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively impaired acquisition and retention time. (3 Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4 Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss. Conclusions: The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.

  17. Analysis of digenic epistatic effects and QE interaction effects QTL controlling grain weight in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高用明; 朱军; 宋佑胜; 何慈信; 石春海; 邢永忠

    2004-01-01

    Immortalized F2 population of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed by randomly mating F1 among recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from (Zhenshan 97B×Minghui 63),which allowed replications within and across environments.QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping analysis on kilo-grain weight of immortalized F2 population was performed by using newly developed software for QTL mapping,QTL Mapper 2.0. Eleven distinctly digenic epistatic loci included a total of 15 QTL were located on eight chromosomes.QTL main effects of additive,dominance,and additive×additive,additive×dominance,and dominance×dominance interactions were estimated.Interaction effects between QTL main effects and environments (QE) were predicted.Less than 40% of single effects,most of which were additive effects,for identified QTL were significant at 5% level.The directional difference for QTL main effects suggested that these QTL were distributed in parents in the repulsion phase.This should make it feasible to improve kilo-grain weight of both parents by selecting appropriate new recombinants. Only few of the QE interaction effects were significant.Application prospect for QTL mapping achievements in genetic breeding was discussed.

  18. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, moderately obese patients (BMI 2 were compared to severely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results: Out of 311 participants, 217 individuals completed the program. Their mean baseline BMI was 41.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2. Average weight loss was 17.9 ± 0.6%, resulting in a BMI of 34.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2 after 1 year (p Conclusion: 1-year weight loss intervention improves body weight as well as lipid and glucose metabolism not only in moderately, but also in severely obese individuals.

  19. The effects of limited-precision weights on the threshold Adaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of limited-precision weights on the functional capability of a threshold Adaline is examined. The number of logic functions which can be implemented by the threshold Adaline serves as the primary measure of functional capability. Closed-form expressions are provided for the number of logic functions which can be implemented by a threshold Adaline with four different levels of weight precision. In addition, realization tests and procedures (based on the characterizing numbers) are provided for each level of weight precision. The number of realizable logic functions is compared to the capacity of a threshold Adaline with limited precision weights and a relationship between the two measures is proposed.

  20. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  1. Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E

    2012-06-15

    Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg(-1)·h(-1))] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats.

  2. Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg−1·h−1)] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg−1·h−1) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats. PMID:22510712

  3. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.

  4. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  5. Effect of an Exercise and Weight Control Curriculum: Views of Obesity among Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura A.; Fister, Carrie L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of effective weight management strategies is necessary to prepare exercise science students for future work with obesity. Exercise science faculty members developed a course related to exercise as a therapeutic tool and options available for weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to investigate student views of weight…

  6. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  7. Effect of an Exercise and Weight Control Curriculum: Views of Obesity among Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura A.; Fister, Carrie L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of effective weight management strategies is necessary to prepare exercise science students for future work with obesity. Exercise science faculty members developed a course related to exercise as a therapeutic tool and options available for weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to investigate student views of weight…

  8. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  9. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/301024731; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811790; Aarts, Henk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/127521011; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation

  10. Effect of body image on gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Turnbull, Deborah; Dodd, Jodie

    2013-12-01

    There is little information available describing how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their bodies, and in particular the effect of body image dissatisfaction on gestational weight gain. To describe how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their body, and the effect of body image on gestational weight gain. This prospective nested cohort study evaluated self estimation of body weight, preferred body shape, dieting behavior, satisfaction with body weight and shape, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women who were overweight or obese, through self-completed questionnaire in early pregnancy in South Australia from October 2010 to February 2012. Of the 442 women who completed the questionnaire, 25.8% correctly identified their BMI, with 70.1% under-estimating and 4.1% over-estimating their BMI. Women who were obese were significantly less likely to correctly identify their BMI, as were younger women. Women who incorrectly identified their BMI were significantly more likely to have higher gestational weight gain (Pwomen indicated dissatisfaction with their weight or body shape, with this being more common in women of higher parity and higher BMI. Dissatisfaction was significantly related to gestational weight gain. Women who report increasing dissatisfaction with their body size and shape are more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Further research should explore insights about maternal body image and diet related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  12. The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2013-05-01

    The concept of cost effectiveness emerged in an attempt to link the prices of new healthcare technologies to the immediate value they provide, with payers defining the acceptable cost per unit of incremental effect over the alternatives available. It has been suggested that such measures allow developers to assess potential market profitability in an early stage of development, but may result in discouraging investment in efficient research if not used appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of the factors determining cost effectiveness and assess the evolution of cost-effectiveness potential for drugs in development using lipid-lowering therapy as a case study. The study is based on observational clinical and market data covering a 20-year period (from 1990 to 2010) in the UK. Real-life clinical data including total cholesterol laboratory test results were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and are used to illustrate how the clinical effectiveness of existing standard care changed over time in patients managed in clinical practice. Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) data were extracted and the average price of the drug mix used was computed throughout the study period. Using this information, the maximum clinical benefit and cost savings to be had were estimated for each year of the analysis using a cost-effectiveness model. Subsequently, the highest price a new technology providing the maximum clinical effectiveness possible (i.e. eliminating cardiovascular risk from high cholesterol levels) could achieve under current cost-effectiveness rules was calculated and used as a measure of the potential cost effectiveness of drugs in development. The results in this study show that the total cholesterol values of patients managed in clinical practice moved steadily towards recommended clinical targets. Overall, the absolute potential for incremental health-related quality of life decreased by approximately 78

  13. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  15. Effectiveness of strategies for recruiting overweight and obese Generation Y women to a clinical weight management trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Hayley J; O'Connor, Helen T; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2013-01-01

    Limited research in young overweight and obese women indicates that they are difficult to recruit to weight management trials, with attrition higher and weight loss success lower than middle to older age participants. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies for a clinical weight loss trial in overweight and obese Generation Y women. Overweight and obese (BMI >=27.5 kg/m-2) women aged 18-25 years (n=70) were required for a 12 month clinical weight management trial including diet, exercise and behaviour modification. Contact with researchers and eventual recruitment are reported for the various strategies employed to engage participants. Data reported as % or mean±SE. Recruitment was challenging with only 50 of the total 70 participants recruited within the scheduled time frame (24 months). Just over one quarter (27%) of volunteers assessed were recruited. Flyers posted around local tertiary education campuses were the most successful method, yielding 36% of included participants. This was followed by advertisements on the local area health service intranet (26%) and in local and metropolitan newspapers (16%). Recruitment of overweight and obese Generation Y women for a clinical weight loss trial was difficult. Multiple strategies targeted at this age and gender group were required. Less rigorous selection criteria and reduced face-to-face intervention time may improve recruitment and retention rates into clinical trials for this age group.

  16. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  17. Family Food Providers' Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-01-18

    The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group's awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM). Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences) had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES) populations.

  18. Family Food Providers’ Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Worsley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group’s awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM. Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES populations.

  19. Effect of high molecular weight plasticizers on the gelatinization of starch under static and shear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata; Favis, Basil D

    2013-02-15

    Starch gelatinization in the presence of high molecular weight polyol plasticizers and water was studied under static and dynamic conditions and was compared to a glycerol reference. For static gelatinization, glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol were examined using polarized light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The plasticizers show that the onset and conclusion temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol are in the same range and are lower than the other two plasticizers. On the other hand, polyglycerol shows a higher gelatinization temperature than diglycerol because of its higher molecular weight and viscosity. The results indicate that in the case of all plasticizers, increasing the water content tends to decrease the gelatinization temperature and, except for polyglycerol, increasing the plasticizer content increases the gelatinization temperature. In the case of polyglycerol, however, increasing the plasticizer content had the opposite effect and this was found to be related to the borderline solubility of polyglycerol in water. When the polyglycerol/water solubility was increased by increasing the temperature of the water/plasticizer/starch slurry, the gelatinization temperature dependence was found to be similar to the other polyols. A rheological technique was developed to study the dynamic gelatinization process by tracking the influence of shear on the complex viscosity in a couette flow system. Glycerol, diglycerol and sorbitol were subjected to different dynamic gelatinization treatments and the results were compared with static gelatinization. It is quantitatively shown that shear has a major effect on the gelatinization process. The conclusion temperature of gelatinization is significantly diminished (up to 21 °C) in the presence of shear whereas the onset temperature of gelatinization remains

  20. Postoperative Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery: Effect on Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Kasten, Kevin R; Celio, Adam; Burruss, Matthew B; Pories, Walter J

    2016-04-01

    While adherence to long-term follow-up after bariatric surgery is a mandate for center of excellence certification, the effect of attrition on weight loss is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of postoperative follow-up on 12-month weight loss using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) dataset. Patients with complete follow-up (3, 6, and 12 months) were compared to patients who had one or more prior missed visits. There were 51,081 patients with 12-month follow-up data available. After controlling for baseline characteristics, complete follow-up was independently associated with excess weight loss ≥50%, and total weight loss ≥30%. Adherence to postoperative follow-up is independently associated with improved 12-month weight loss after bariatric surgery. Bariatric programs should strive to achieve complete follow-up for all patients.

  1. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  2. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  3. Values, Norms, and Peer Effects on Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    This study uses data from the European Social Survey in order to test the Prinstein-Dodge hypothesis that posits that peer effects may be larger in collectivistic than in individualistic societies. When defining individualism and collectivism at the country level, our results show that peer effects on obesity are indeed larger in collectivistic than in individualistic societies. However, when defining individualism and collectivism with individual values based on the Shalom Schwartz universal values theory, we find little support for this hypothesis. PMID:28348886

  4. Values, Norms, and Peer Effects on Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Peng; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses data from the European Social Survey in order to test the Prinstein-Dodge hypothesis that posits that peer effects may be larger in collectivistic than in individualistic societies. When defining individualism and collectivism at the country level, our results show that peer effec...

  5. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Sources on Daily Weight Gain and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Peanut Worm(Sipunculus nudus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Xu Mingzhu; Tong Tong; Dong Lanfang

    2015-01-01

    In the study,glucose,sucrose,dextrin,tapioca starch,potato starch,corn starch and gelatinized corn starch were selected to make the diets with same nitrogen and lipid,and Juvenile peanut worms( Sipunculus nudus) were fed with the diets came from different carbohydrate sources,effects of diets with different carbohydrate sources on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus were studied. Results showed that diets with different carbohydrate sources had significant influences on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Daily weight gain in gelatinized corn starch group was significantly higher than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in glucose group was significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in the three ungelatinized starch groups was significantly higher than that in glucose,sucrose and dextrin groups( P < 0. 05). Analysis of digestive enzyme activities showed that dietary carbohydrate sources had significant influences on digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Protease activities and amylase activities of S. nudus in sucrose group were the highest,which were significantly higher than that in the other groups( P < 0. 05); lipase activities of S. nudus in glucose group were the lowest,which were significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05). In conclusion,growth-promoting effects of macromolecules carbohydrates( starch) were better than that of disaccharide( sucrose) and monosaccharide( glucose),which of gelatinized starch were better than that of ungelatinized starch.

  6. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences.

  7. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  8. Weight change trajectory in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and the effect of different regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ni; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Miaskowski, Christine; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Jeng, Chii; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the trajectory of weight change in Taiwanese women with breast cancer after starting chemotherapy and the impact of chemotherapy regimens on weight change while controlling for age, menopausal status, body mass index, lymph node involvement and changes in habits of dietary fat intake and exercise. Weight gain after adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer has negative impact on health outcomes. Longitudinal, clinical observational study. Weights were repeatedly measured in 147 women with breast cancer stages I-III. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse these longitudinal data. The overall pattern of weight change was a cubic form beginning with a mean of 56·9 kg before chemotherapy. It gradually increased to 59·4 kg at 8·5 months after the first chemotherapy followed by a decrease to 58·5 kg at 21·5 months. During the last 2·5 months, weight increased slightly and never returned to the initial level. After controlling for confounders, steeper weight change was observed among women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil. The highest weight gain in the cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil group was 2·9 kg (5%) vs. 0·9 kg (1%) in the anthracycline-based group. The trajectory of body weight change within two years after chemotherapy shows a trend of gradual ascent, followed by a small decline and a slight increase in the last 2·5 months. The chemotherapy regimen can predict the trend after controlling for other confounders; women on cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil have a steeper weight change. Nurses can inform women with breast cancer about the expected changes in body weight after chemotherapy to reduce their uncertainty. Future studies on effective interventions to minimise chemotherapy-induced weight gain are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  10. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The skinfold thickness (two layers of scrotal skin) were subtracted from initial measurements of length and width of each testis. Testis volume was ... Table 2 Effects of birth weight and litter size on growth performance of boars.

  11. MVPA Is Associated with Lower Weight Gain in 8–10 Year Old Children: A Prospective Study with 1 Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Fisher; Claire Hill; Laura Webber; Lisa Purslow; Jane Wardle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA) to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than total physical activity (total PA) or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part ...

  12. Drawbar Pull and Its Effect on the Weight Distribution of a Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to experimentally determine how the tractor’s weight distribution changes during loading by drawbar pull, and how the tractor’s weight affects its drawbar pull properties. Drive wheel ballasting has a significant effect on the drawbar pull and wheel slip of the tractor - travelling gear losses. To achieve these objectives, we conducted experimental measurements on the tractor Case IH Magnum 370 CVX. The results show that higher drawbar pull is achieved in tractors with a higher weight. The measured increase of drawbar pull was 15,8 kN between maximal and minimal weight (∆ 2320 kg. All variants show an equal percentage increase in the weight on the rear axle of the tractor (+ 6 %. Increasing the tractor’s weight affected the drawbar pull as well as the wheel slip. As the tractor’s weight increases, there is a smaller increase in wheel slip as the drawbar pull increases. The results confirmed that tractor ballasting is important in order to achieve optimum drawbar pull properties, but it is necessary to keep in mind that the higher the weight of the machine or equipment, the larger the effect on the soil.

  13. Effects of chronic leptin infusion on subsequent body weight and composition in mice: Can body weight set point be reset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravussin, Y; LeDuc, C A; Watanabe, K; Mueller, B R; Skowronski, A; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L

    2014-07-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight "set-point". To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5-10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently "defend" a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain.

  14. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks.

  15. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  16. Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: a discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, David R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss modern lifestyle factors that promote weight gain and to suggest methods for clinicians to more effectively educate patients about weight management. Most adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Multiple factors related to the modern lifestyle appear to play causal roles. In general, the population maintains sedentary lives and overconsumes calorie-dense foods. In particular, refined carbohydrates negatively impact metabolism and stimulate neural addiction mechanisms, which facilitate weight gain. As adipose tissue mass accumulates, satiation centers in the hypothalamus become resistant to insulin and leptin, which leads to increased caloric consumption. Several behavior issues further augment weight gain, such as eating too quickly, a lack of sleep, high stress levels, and a lack of exercise. Finally, adipose tissue accumulation alters the body weight set point, which leads to metabolic changes that function to resist weight loss efforts. Each of these factors may work together to augment weight gain and promote obesity. Health care providers, such as chiropractic physicians, who educate patients on wellness, prevention, and lifestyle changes are well positioned to address these issues. People need to be educated about the modern lifestyle factors that prevent effective weight management. Without this knowledge and the associated practical application of lifestyle choices that prevent weight gain, becoming overweight or obese appears to be an unavoidable consequence of living a modern lifestyle.

  17. The effect of orlistat on weight reduction in obese and overweight Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soo Mi; Kim, Hyunah; Ji, Eunhee; Han, Nayoung; Oh, Jung Mi

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that affects an increasing number of people around the world. There have been limited studies evaluating the weight loss effects of orlistat in the Korean population, whose diet is different from that of the Caucasian population. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orlistat on the weight and body mass index of obese and overweight Korean patients. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of orlistat on risk factors for obesity and metabolic disorders. Obese adult patients with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) who received 120 mg of orlistat three times daily for 24 weeks were included in this study. Patients were retrospectively evaluated for changes in body weight and body mass index, as well as waist and hip circumference, body fat levels, serum lipid levels, fasting glucose levels, and blood pressure. The evaluation included 63 patients. Treatment with orlistat for 4, 12, or 24 weeks significantly decreased the weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference compared to that at the baseline. The average weight loss was 3.0 kg at 12 weeks and 3.6 kg at 24 weeks, which indicated a 3.8 and 4.6 % decrease from initial weight, respectively. The number of patients who lost more than 10 % of their initial body weight was 3 (4.8 %) at 12 weeks and 27 (7.9 %) at 24 weeks. About 27 % of patients reported gastrointestinal-related adverse effects with orlistat, but no serious adverse effects were reported. A retrospective study of overweight and obese Korean patients showed that treatment with orlistat for 24 weeks significantly decreased body weight and body mass index compared to the initial weight.

  18. Effect of a thick inverted sedimentary package on seismic wave propagation in the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Dobreflection Working Group

    2003-04-01

    High quality seismic deep reflection data was acquired across the Donbas inverted basin in The Ukraine during the summer of 2000. The 80-fold (nominal) vibrator operation supported by lower-fold explosive acquisition resulted in a good data quality. Detailed analysis of the shallower (basin) part of the wave-field - not reported here - has produced a good 2-D velocity model for the thick sedimentary cover overlying the middle and the lower crust in this area. The sedimentary structures show the effects of large-scale tectonic disturbances involving folding and both normal- and thrust- faulting. Seismic waves propagating on their way to- and from- the lower crustal region interact with this shallower medium and undergo complex interaction involving scattering, focussing and defocussing. This effect will be studied by analysing the lower-crustal signals for coherent arrivals with/without the effect of the overburden. An attempt will be made to quantify the effect using an empirical technique.

  19. Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Furthermore, the effect of pectolinarigenin on breast cancer cell was evaluated by ... Conclusion: Pectolinarigenin inhibits breast cancer stem cell-like properties and lowers the ...

  20. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  1. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Burger; Mapanga, Rudo F.; Norton, Gavin R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months). Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail. PMID:28107484

  2. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  3. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  4. Effect of lipid lowering on new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).......Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS)....

  5. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  6. Sex and the housing: Effects on behavior, cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; de Melo, Gabriela Madalena; da Rosa, João Gabriel Dos Santos; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-08-16

    Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish. Four groups of animals were used: 1) segregated housed females (only females were kept in the tank); 2) segregated housed males (only males were kept in the tank); 3) mixed-sex housed females (only females were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex); 4) mixed-sex housed males (only males were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex). Males showed higher total distance travelled and mean speed when compared to females. In the inhibitory avoidance memory, sexually segregated animals had higher latencies than their mixed-sex counterparts in the 1day test and sexually segregated females presented a memory that persisted longer and was able to be reinstated. Whole-body cortisol levels were higher in mixed-sex animals while weight was lower in these fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that effects of sex and housing regarding sex were investigated in behavior and physiology of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation Analysis of Rice Seed Setting Rate and Weight of 1 000-Grain and Agro-Meteorology over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-yan; YAO Feng-mei; ZHANG Yong; XU Bin; YUAN Jing; HU Ya-nan; XU Yin-long

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the effects of historic climate change on rice yield over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and to better adapt to climate change in the future. This study presents the relation of temperature and precipitation and rice components from 1981 to 2003 at 48 early rice stations and 30 middle rice stations. It focuses on an analysis of three stages: flowering, pre-milk, and late milk. The results show that mean maximum temperature and mean daily precipitation at the stages of flowering and pre-milk are most related to early rice yield. Yield change of middle rice is mainly because of mean precipitation change at the flowering stage. Furthermore, percentage of undeveloped grain increases as mean maximum temperature rises at the flowering stage. Over-precipitation in the reproductive stage is a major reason for reduction in yield of early rice. Consecutive rainfall and continuous high temperature can have negative effects on middle rice yield. Global warming would affect middle rice more seriously than early rice.

  8. A novel and selective sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, tofogliflozin, improves glycaemic control and lowers body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S; Takano, Y; Cynshi, O; Tanaka, R; Christ, A D; Boerlin, V; Beyer, U; Beck, A; Ciorciaro, C; Meyer, M; Kadowaki, T

    2015-10-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of different doses of tofogliflozin, a novel, highly selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 12-week, multicentre, multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study, patients with inadequate glycaemic control from diet and exercise alone, or from diet and exercise plus a stable dose of metformin, were randomized to one of five doses of tofogliflozin (2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg) or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change at week 12 from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), minus the change in the placebo group. Statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in HbA1c were shown in all treated groups except the 2.5-mg dose group, with a maximum reduction of 0.56% (placebo-subtracted) at the 40-mg dose, along with increased urinary glucose excretion. Metformin treatment had no substantial influence on tofogliflozin efficacy. Dose-dependent reductions in fasting plasma glucose and body weight were observed, and glucose intolerance was improved, with a trend towards blood pressure reduction. Slight increases were observed for mean ketone bodies with no abnormal change in ketone body ratio. No deaths or treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the placebo (37.9%) to that in the tofogliflozin group (35.9-46.3%). Withdrawal because of adverse events was rare (≤2 patients per treatment group), with similar rates of withdrawal in the placebo and tofogliflozin groups. A once-daily dose of tofogliflozin for 12 weeks was an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment for T2DM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Water stress and crop load effects on fruit fresh and dry weights in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M E; DeJong, T M

    1996-10-01

    Effects of water stress on fruit fresh and dry weights were investigated in peach trees, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., with varying crop loads: light, moderate and heavy. In well-watered controls, tree water status was independent of crop load. In trees receiving reduced irrigation, the degree of water stress increased with increasing crop load. Water stress induced fruit fresh weight reductions at all crop loads. Fruit dry weight was not reduced by water stress in trees having light to moderate crop loads, indicating that the degree of water stress imposed did not affect the dry weight sink strength of fruit. Water-stressed trees with heavy crop loads had significantly reduced fruit dry weights, which were likely due to carbohydrate source limitations resulting from large crop carbon demands and water stress limitations on photosynthesis.

  10. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  11. Production of nabumetone nanoparticles: Effect of molecular weight, concentration and nature of cellulose ether stabiliser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D J; Martini, L G; Lawrence, M J

    2016-12-05

    The ability of a range of hydrophilic nonionic cellulose ethers (CEs) (namely methylhydroxethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose) to prepare stable nabumetone nanoparticles (ultrasonication for varying lengths of time to yield CEs of lower molecular weight. Of the CEs tested, only hydroxyethylcellulose was found not to stabilise the production of nabumetone nanoparticles at any of the molecular weights tested, namely viscosity average molecular weights (Mv) in the range of 236-33kg/mol. All other CEs successfully stabilised nabumetone nanoparticles, with the lower molecular weight/viscosity polymers within a series being more likely to result in nanoparticle production than their higher molecular weight counterparts. Unfortunately due to the nature of the ultrasonication process, it was not possible to compare the size of nabumetone particles produced using polymers of identical Mv. There was, however, enough similarity in the Mv of the various polymers to draw the general conclusion that there was no strong correlation between the Mv of the various polymers and their ability to produce nanoparticles. For example hydroxypropylcellulose of 112.2kg/mol or less successfully produced nanoparticles while only ethylhydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl polymers of 52 and 38.8kg/mol or less produced nanoparticles. These results suggest that polymer molecular weight is not the only determinant of nanoparticle production and that structure of the polymer is at least as important as its molecular weight. In particular the hydrophobic nature of the CE was thought to be an important factor in the production of nabumetone nanoparticles: the more hydrophobic the polymer, the stronger its interaction with nabumetone and the greater its ability to produce nanoparticles. In this context HPC was the most hydrophobic polymer and HEC the least hydrophobic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  13. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting On Neonatal Weight In Different Trimesters Of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid sarafraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: several investigations have been done to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on fetal and maternal health, which have all led to controversial results. The role of Ramadan fasting time in birth weight is still unclear. This study evaluated the effect of fasting at different periods of pregnancy on birth weight. Methods: 250 pregnant women fasting at least one day during Ramadan participated in this retrospective cohort study. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely first trimester (n=112, second trimester (n=68 and third trimester (n=70 of pregnancy. Demographic and anthropometric data, obstetric history and history of Ramadan fasting were recorded. After delivery, neonatal birth weight was measured. The mean of weight and frequency of low birth weight in each group were calculated. Probable related factors of low birth weight of neonates with fasting mothers were evaluated. Results: The mean of birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 3411.52±529.88, 3214.57±463.56 and 3336.86±444.89 gr respectively, which had a statistically significant difference (p=0.03. Frequencies of low birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first trimester was 8.9%, in second trimester 8.8% and in third trimester it was 7.1%, which had no statistically significant difference (p=0.9. Among all evaluated factors, only neonatal sex was related to low birth weight. Conclusion: Time of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy does not affect birth weight.

  14. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Brewis, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls, among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls. Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of “normal” eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  15. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.

  16. Effect of low molecular weight heparin in combined with Shuxuetong in preventing the post-traumatic deep venous thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of low molecular weight heparin in combined with Shuxuetong in preventing the post-traumatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT).Methods:A total of 120 patients with post-traumatic DVT who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2014 to February, 2015 were included in the study and divided into the treatment group and the control group with 60 cases in each group according to different treatment protocols. The patients in the treatment group were given subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin calcium and intravenous drip of Shuxuetong, while the patients in the control group were only given subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin calcium. The changes of swelling degrees and coagulation indicators of the affected limb before and after treatment, and the clinical efficacy in the two groups were compared.Results:The total effective rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The mean range of the perimeter 15cm above and below the bilateral knee joints after treatment in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The shrinking rate of the mean range of the perimeter of the bilateral limbs in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of PT, APTT, FIB, and INR before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. PT, APTT, and INR after treatment in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while FIB was significantly lower than that in the control group.Conclusions:The low molecular weight heparin in combined with Shuxuetong can effectively prevent the post-traumatic DVT, with no requirement of monitoring of the bleeding tendency and safety.

  17. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  18. The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, John R

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain.

  19. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  20. Effects of loading on maximum vertical jumps: Selective effects of weight and inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontijevic, Bojan; Pazin, Nemanja; Bozic, Predrag R; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2012-04-01

    A novel loading method was applied to explore selective effects of externally added weight (W), weight and inertia (W+I), and inertia (I) on maximum counter-movement jumps (CMJ) performed with arm swing. Externally applied extended rubber bands and/or loaded vest added W, W+I, and I corresponding to 10-40% of subjects' body mass. As expected, an increase in magnitude of all types of load was associated with an increase in ground reaction forces (GRF), as well as with a decrease in both the jumping performance and power output. However, of more importance could be that discernible differences among the effects of W, W+I, and I were recorded despite a relatively narrow loading range. In particular, an increase in W was associated with the minimal changes in movement kinematic pattern and smallest reduction of jumping performance, while also allowing for the highest power output. Conversely, W+I was associated with the highest ground reaction forces. Finally, the lowest maxima of GRF and power were associated with I. Although further research is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of potential importance not only for understanding fundamental properties of the neuromuscular system, but also for optimization of loading in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures.

  1. Effect of different amounts of coffee on dietary intake and appetite of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, A; Karfopoulou, E; Kardatou, E; Spyreli, E; Fragopoulou, E; Mantzoros, C S; Yannakoulia, M

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effects of different coffee amounts on dietary intake and appetite feelings in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. Thirty-three volunteers (16 normal-weight, 17 overweight/obese) participated in three trials: they consumed a standard breakfast along with 200 ml of either coffee with 3 or 6 mg caffeine/kg body weight (Coffee 3 and Coffee 6, respectively), or water. At fasting and at standard time points for the 3 h following breakfast/drink consumption participants recorded their appetite feelings on visual analogue scales. At 180 min, participants consumed an ad libitum meal and the next day they recalled their food intake during the experimental day. A significant intervention effect was found for the energy intake of the ad libitum meal (P = 0.05) and of the whole day (P = 0.02) only in overweight/obese individuals. Specifically, Coffee 6 resulted in a reduced energy intake during the ad libitum meal compared to Coffee 3 (P = 0.03) and in the total day compared to both water (P = 0.04) and Coffee 3 (P = 0.008). No effect was observed for the appetite feelings. A moderate coffee amount can effectively reduce energy intake in the following meal and in the total day compared to lower or no coffee intake in overweight/obese participants. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Emphasising Personal Investment Effects Weight Loss and Hedonic Thoughts about Food after Obesity Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Husted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment method for the severely obese but does not work for everyone. Indications are that weight-loss success may be related to individuals’ sense of investment in surgery, with failure linked to higher automatic hedonic motivations to consume food and greater susceptibility to food in the environment. A pilot study using an independent experimental design recruited bariatric surgery patients (n=91 via a UK obesity-surgery charity website who were randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control condition. The intervention involved raising the salience of the personal investment made in having weight-loss surgery in an attempt to reduce automatic hedonic thoughts about food and aid weight loss. Data was collected initially with subsequent weight loss measured at 3 months of follow-up. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced hedonic thoughts, increased liking for low-fat foods, reduced liking of high-fat food, and higher self-efficacy for achieving sustained weight loss than controls. By 3 months, this was translated into significant differences in mean weight losses of 6.77 kg for the intervention group and 0.91 kg for control participants. To conclude, a quick simple cost-effective intervention encouraging participants to focus on investment helped weight loss and changed hedonic thoughts about food in bariatric patients.

  3. Effects of initial body weight and litter material on broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in a 104 m² poultry house located between the geographical coordinates 25°45'00" south latitude and 53°03'25" west longitude and an average altitude of 550 m, from September to November, 2008. The chickens were placed in 12 pens measuring 2 m² each at a stocking density of 12 chickens m-2. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of two different initial weights (chick weight on first day of experiment and two types of litter material on broiler production parameters, litter humidity, as well as on breast and footpad lesions. A total of 240 female Cobb® chickens, derived from the same flock of breeders, was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 (initial weight by 2 (litter material factorial arrangement with three replicates per treatment. Initial weights were classified as light (34.40 - 35.22 g or heavy (39.29 - 41.30 g, whereas wood shavings and sawdust were used as litter material. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Tukey's test at 95% confidence level. Initial weight significantly influenced bird performance, as chickens with heavy initial weight presented higher feed intake and body weight. Type of litter did not have any effect on breast injuries and litter humidity. However, the wood shavings litter significantly influenced footpad lesions.

  4. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  5. Antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Si

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1 SD group, fed standard diet; (2 HFD group, fed high fat diet; and (3 HFD-LAB group, fed high fat diet supplemented with LAB supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU. After 7 weeks, the body, organ, and fat weights, food intake, blood serum levels, fecal LAB counts, and harmful enzyme activities were measured. Results Administration of LAB reduced body and fat weights, blood serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, and lipase levels, and harmful enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tryptophanase, and significantly increased fecal LAB counts. Conclusion These data suggest that Bifidobacterium spp. used in this study may have beneficial antiobesity effects.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  7. Effect of a weight loss program in obese adolescents: a long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Rohm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity during adolescence is an increasing health problem in industrial countries. The comorbidities associated with obesity include important metabolic diseases. Methods: To analyze the effect of a weight-loss program, we recruited 12 obese, male adolescents before entering this program. We determined body weight measures at baseline, 6-week and 36-month follow-up. Also, the long-term changes of blood pressure, HbAlc, and CRP were evaluated. Twenty healthy age-matched adolescents served as controls. Results: Within the intervention group ((body mass index [BMI, kg/m²] > 95th percentile for age and sex, age 13-17 years the BMI and BMI-standard deviation score [SDS] were significantly reduced in the 6-week follow-up after completing the weight loss program. However, the significant weight-reduction effect was not persistent until the 36-month follow-up. Conclusion: The 6-week weight-loss program had beneficial short-term effects on body weight, BMI, and BMI-SDS in obese adolescents, but these effects could not be maintained until the 36-month follow-up.

  8. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  9. Effects of weight regain following intentional weight loss on glucoregulatory function in overweight and obese adults with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Caroline S; Katula, Jeffery A; Goff, David C; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-01-01

    To assess the extent to which initial, intentional weight loss-associated improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action are diminished with weight regain. 138 overweight and obese (BMI: 32.4±3.9kg/m(2)), adults (59.0±9.7 years), with pre-diabetes were followed through a 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 18-month weight maintenance period, or usual care control condition. Longitudinal change in weight (baseline, 6, 24 months) was used to classify individuals into weight pattern categories (Loser/Maintainer (LM), n= 50; Loser/Regainer (LR), n=51; and Weight Stable (WS), n=37). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and model adjusted changes, by weight pattern category, were assessed. LMs and LRs lost 8.3±4.7kg (8.7±4.5%) and 9.6±4.7kg (10.2±4.7%) during the first 6 months, respectively. LM continued to lose 1.1±3.4kg over the next 18 months (9.9±6.5% reduction from baseline; pregained 6.5±3.7kg (3.3±5.3% reduction from baseline; pWeight change was directly associated with change in all DM risk factors (all pweight (from baseline to 24 months) achieved in the LR group, 24-month changes in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR did not differ between WS and LR groups. Conversely, LM saw sustained improvements in all measured DM risk factors. Significant weight loss followed by weight loss maintenance is associated with sustained improvements in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR; conversely, even partial weight regain is associated with regression of initial improvements in these risk factors towards baseline values. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka;

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...... evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases....... in the plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly...

  11. Nitration of Polystyrene Part-I Effect of Molecular Weight of Polymer on Nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bajaj

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene in the molecular weight range, 3.67*10/Sup4 to 47.86*10/Sup10 has been nitrated in fuming nitric acid at 50 Degree C and degree of substitution of nitro group per monomeric unit in the polymer chains varying from 1.03 to 1.11 has been obtained. Molecular weight of the initial polymers have been found no appreciable effect on the degree of substitution. Degradation of the polymer chain is, however, found to be more pronounced in high molecular weight polymers.

  12. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  13. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters. In general, protein supplementation pre- and post-workout increases physical performance, training session recovery, lean body mass, muscle hypertrophy, and strength. Specific gains, differ however based on protein type and amounts. Studies on timing of consumption of milk have indicated that fat-free milk post-workout was effective in promoting increases in lean body mass, strength, muscle hypertrophy and decreases in body fat. The leucine content of a protein source has an impact on protein synthesis, and affects muscle hypertrophy. Consumption of 3–4 g of leucine is needed to promote maximum protein synthesis. An ideal supplement following resistance exercise should contain whey protein that provides at least 3 g of leucine per serving. A combination of a fast-acting carbohydrate source such as maltodextrin or glucose should be consumed with the protein source, as leucine cannot modulate protein synthesis as effectively without the presence of insulin. Such a supplement post-workout would be most effective in increasing muscle protein synthesis, resulting in greater muscle hypertrophy and strength. In contrast, the consumption of essential amino acids and dextrose appears to be most effective at evoking protein synthesis prior to rather than following resistance exercise. To further enhance muscle hypertrophy and strength, a resistance weight- training program of at least 10–12 weeks

  14. Lower risk of hypoglycaemia and greater odds for weight loss with initiation of insulin detemir compared with insulin glargine in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: local results of a multinational observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damci, Taner; Emral, Rifat; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Balkir, Tanzer; Vora, Jiten

    2014-07-21

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of insulin initiation with once-daily insulin detemir (IDet) or insulin glargine (IGlar) in real-life clinical practice in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a 24-week multinational observational study of insulin initiation in patients with T2DM. The Turkish cohort (n = 2886) included 2395 patients treated with IDet and 491 with IGlar. The change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from the pre-insulin levels was -2.21% [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.32, -2.09] in the IDet group and -1.88% [95% CI -2.17, -1.59] in the IGlar group at the final visit. The incidence rate of minor hypoglycaemia increased in both groups from the pre-insulin to the final visit (+0.66 and +2.23 events per patient year in the IDet and IGlar groups, respectively). Weight change in the IDet group was -0.23 kg [95% CI -0.49, 0.02 kg], and +1.55 kg [95% CI 1.11, 2.00 kg] in the IGlar group. Regression analysis with adjustment for previously identified confounders (age, gender, duration of diabetes, body mass index, previous history of hypoglycaemia, microvascular disease, number and change in oral anti-diabetic drug therapy, HbA1c at baseline and insulin dose) identified an independent effect of insulin type (IDet versus IGlar) with a risk of at least one episode of hypoglycaemia (odds ratio (OR): 0.33 [95% CI 0.21, 0.52], p insulin analogues, IDet and IGlar, were associated with clinically significant glycaemic improvements. A lower risk of minor hypoglycaemia and greater odds of weight loss ≥1 kg was observed with IDet compared with IGlar. NCT00825643 and NCT00740519.

  15. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as refl

  16. EFFECTS OF PLANTING SPACE AND HARVEST TIME ON THE NUMBER, WEIGHT AND DIAMETER OF MARIGOLD (CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during 2010 in marigold (Calendula officinalis L. to determine the effects of three plant densities (plant density A - 65 cm x 35 cm; plant density B - 65 cm x 25 cm; plant density C – 55 cm x 25 cm and harvest time on the number, weight and diameter of marigold flowers. The results showed that the plant density significantly influenced the number of flowers per plant and flower weight. The largest number of flowers per plant was recorded in the plant density B (13.2 and the lowest (9.87 in the plant density C. The lowest flower weight was recorded in the plant density C (1.31 g and was statistically lower than the flower weight in the plant densities A (1.42 g and B (1.38 g. The plant density significantly influenced the number of flowers on side branches, being the highest in the plant density B. The diameter of the marigold flower was not significantly influenced by the plant density. During the experiment, a total of 13 harvests were achieved. The greatest number of flowers per plant was harvested in the eighth, ninth and tenth harvest, while the largest flower weight was measured in the fifth and twelfth harvest. On the average, the number of flowers per plant / harvest was 11.63 and the weight of flowers was 1.38 g. Diameter of marigold flowers ranged from 2.89 cm to 3.59 cm in the thirteenth and the third harvest, respectively. The number of flowers on side branches per plant / harvest was 11.61.

  17. Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Gil; Shefi, Shai; Nizani, Dalia; Achiron, Anat

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether craniosacral therapy improves lower urinary tract symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A prospective cohort study. Out-patient clinic of multiple sclerosis center in a referral medical center. Hands on craniosacral therapy (CST). Change in lower urinary tract symptoms, post voiding residual volume and quality of life. Patients from our multiple sclerosis clinic were assessed before and after craniosacral therapy. Evaluation included neurological examination, disability status determination, ultrasonographic post voiding residual volume estimation and questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Twenty eight patients met eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Comparison of post voiding residual volume, lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life before and after craniosacral therapy revealed a significant improvement (0.001>p>0.0001). CST was found to be an effective means for treating lower urinary tract symptoms and improving quality of life in MS patients.

  18. Effect of adult weight and CT-based selection on rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the meat quality of different genotypes. Maternal (M; adult weight/AW/=4.0-4.5kg; selected for the number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; AW=4.3-4.8kg and Large type (L; AW=4.8-5.4kg rabbits were analysed. P and L genotypes were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11wk of age and hindleg (HL meat and M. Longissimus dorsi (LD were analysed for proximate composition and fatty acid (FA profile. Proximate composition was unaffected by the selection programme, even though the meat of P rabbits was leaner and had higher ash content (P<0.10. The LD meat of P rabbits exhibited significantly lower MUFA contents compared to M and L rabbits (25.4 vs 28.0 vs 27.7%; P<0.01 and higher PUFA content compared to M rabbits (31.9 vs 24.9%; P<0.05. This study revealed that long-term CT-based selection is effective in increasing meat leanness and PUFA content.

  19. Effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kwon-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons were randomly divided into an experimental group which performed core strengthening exercises, and a control group which performed standard strengthening exercises for 8 weeks. A Tetrax Interactive Balance System was used to evaluate the weight distribution index (WDI) and the stability index (SI). [Results] The ...

  20. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (peducation level even under the condition of controlling economic level (peducation levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, peducation level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions.

  1. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  2. [Cardiovascular effects and safety of glucose-lowering drugs: current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmiquel, L

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, in addition to normalising blood glucose, the aim of the treatment for diabetes mellitus should be to prevent cardiovascular complications. However, the evidence available on the cardio-protective role of the different glucose-lowering drugs is scarce and poor, particularly as regards with the risk of major cardiovascular events. In this context, the regulatory agencies have modified the regulations for the approval of glucose-lowering drugs, now requiring to demonstrate the glucose-lowering effect together with a robust assessment of the cardiovascular safety. The aim of this work is to review the cardiovascular effects of the different glucose-lowering drugs, focusing on their impact on the risk of major cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the glucose-lowering effect of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahne, Emilie; Hansen, Morten; Brønden, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is an oral antihyperglycaemic drug used in the first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin's classic and most well-known blood glucose-lowering mechanisms include reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, intravenously...... administered metformin is ineffective and recently, metformin was shown to increase plasma concentrations of the glucose-lowering gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which may contribute to metformin's glucose-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms behind metformin......-induced increments in GLP-1 levels remain unknown, but it has been hypothesized that metformin stimulates GLP-1 secretion directly and/or indirectly and that metformin prolongs the half-life of GLP-1. Also, it has been suggested that metformin may potentiate the glucose-lowering effects of GLP-1 by increasing target...

  4. The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.

  5. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  6. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Kavita H; Ames, Meghan; Hsin-Jen, Chen; Feeney, Mary Jo; Wang, Youfa; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2013-12-01

    Reducing energy density (ED) of the diet is an important strategy for controlling obesity. This 1-year, randomized clinical trial examined the effect of substituting mushrooms for red meat ('mushroom diet'), compared to a standard diet ('meat diet'), on weight loss and maintenance among 73 obese adults (64 women, 9 men). The subjects completed anthropometric measurements and 7-day food records four times during a standardized weight loss and maintenance regimen. At the end of the 1-year trial, compared to participants on the standard diet, participants on the mushroom diet (n=36) reported lower intakes of energy (mean ± [SE]=-123 ± 113 kcals) and fat (-4.25 ± 6.88 g), lost more pounds and percentage body weight (-7.03 ± 3.34 lbs, 3.6%), achieved lower body mass index (-1.53 ± 0.36), waist circumference (-2.6 ± 3.5 in.) and percent total body fat (-0.85 ± 0.53), and had lower systolic and diastolic pressure (-7.9 and -2.5 mmHg); their lipid profile and inflammatory markers also improved. After initial weight loss, subjects following the mushroom diet maintained that loss well. Those who completed the full 12-month trial still weighed a mean of 7 lbs less than baseline. Thus, encouraging adults to substitute mushrooms for red meat was a useful strategy for enhancing weight loss, weight maintenance, and health parameters.

  7. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  8. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  9. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  10. The effect of nursing or rampant caries on height, body weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Suskan, E; Yildirim, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nursing bottle caries and rampant caries on height, weight and head circumference was evaluated. For this purpose, 126 children, aged 3 to 5 years old, who have nursing or rampant caries were selected. One hundred twenty-six children with no caries and similar age and sex were matched as a control group. When the children who had rampant or nursing caries were evaluated in the direction of the mean weight, it was corresponding to mean weight between 25th and 50th percentiles. The mean percentile weight for control group were corresponding to mean weight between the 50th and 75th percentiles. Of the nursing or rampant caries children, 7.1% weighed less than 80% of their ideal weight, compared with only 0.7% of the control group children. When the children, who had rampant or nursing caries, were evaluated in the direction of the mean height, it was corresponding to mean height between 10th and 25th percentiles. The mean percentile height for control group were corresponding to mean height between the 25th and 50th percentiles. When the head circumference is evaluated, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups. Since the height and weight of the control group showed a higher percentile category than the nursing or rampant caries group, (P<0.001), it can be stated that rampant or nursing caries may correlate with adversely affected growth of the body.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEMODYNAMIC STABILITY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN GENERAL AND SPINAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS AGE GROUP (0-5YEARS IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER EXTREMITIES SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaitawat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Aim of this study was to compare the changes in heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and cost effectiveness between general anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia in pediatric patients undergoing lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries for the same duration. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty ASA1 patients in age group 0-5 years of either sex undergoing lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were randomly divided in to two groups (Group-I GA group-n25 and Group-II SA group-n25. Group1 was given general anaesthesia and group-II was given spinal anaesthesia. Haemodynamic parameters and side effects during intra operative and immediate post-operative period were recorded and cost of GA and SA was calculated. RESULTS Patients in both the groups were comparable in surgical procedures and duration of surgery. Haemodynamically children in spinal group (Group-II remained more stable intra operatively and no untoward incidence was observed in group-II. Spinal Anaesthesia was much more cost effective as compared to general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Pediatric spinal anaesthesia is a safe and effective anaesthetic technique for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. It is much more cost effective as compared to general anaesthesia.

  12. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Indresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine amino transferase (ALT and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05 decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 313-317

  13. Effects of three combinations of plyometric and weight training programs on selected physical fitness test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H T; Puckett, J R; Drummond, J P; Sawyer, K; Gantt, K; Fussell, C

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effects of prescribed training programs on 5 physical fitness test items, each of 50 high school boys participated for 10 wk. in one of three programs (wrestling, softball, and plyometrics; weight training; and weight training and plyometrics). (a) On the sit-ups, 40-yd. dash, vertical jump, and pull-ups, each group improved significantly from pre- to posttest. (b) On the shuttle run, none of the groups improved significantly from pre- to posttest. (c) On the vertical jump, groups had a significant effect, but the interaction was nonsignificant. No effects were significant.

  14. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women.

  15. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  16. Effects of Lowering Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Plasma Uric Acid: The OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; McAdams-Demarco, Mara; Gelber, Allan C; Sacks, Frank M.; Appel, Lawrence J; White, Karen; Miller, Edgar R

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effects of carbohydrates on plasma uric acid levels are controversial. We determined the individual and combined effects of carbohydrate quality (glycemic index, GI) and quantity (proportion of total daily energy, %carb) on uric acid. Methods We conducted a randomized, crossover feeding trial in overweight or obese adults without cardiovascular disease (N=163). Participants were fed each of four diets over 5-week periods separated by 2-week washout periods. Body weight was kept constant. The four diets were: high GI (GI ≥65) with high %carb (58% kcal), low GI (GI ≤45) with low %carb (40% kcal), low GI with high %carb; and high GI with low %carb. Plasma uric acid was measured at baseline and after each feeding period for comparison between the 4 diets. Results Study participants were 52% women and 50% non-Hispanic black with a mean age of 52.6 years and a mean uric acid of 4.7 (SD, 1.2) mg/dL. Reducing GI lowered uric acid when the %carb was low (−0.24 mg/dL; P uric acid only when GI was high (P = 0.05). The combined effect of lowering GI and increasing the %carb was −0.27 mg/dL (P uric acid. Future studies should examine whether reducing GI can prevent gout onset or flares. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00608049 PMID:26636424

  17. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...... (t = 0 min). The piglets were randomly allocated to be euthanized at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min (all groups, n = 6) after bolus feeding, and the weights of the stomach and its residuals were recorded. There was no difference in gastric emptying rates between normal and IUGR piglets (P = 0.129); however...

  18. Using loose-fill perlite with normal weight precast wall panels to lower the cost, time of construction projects, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al kulabi, Ahmed Kamil

    Lightweight concrete has been used in construction because of its properties, such as thermal, and fire resistances although it is more expensive and less available than normal weight concrete. One way to save time, cost, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete in construction projects is to reduce the number of installed insulations on precast wall panels and to improve the properties of normal weight concrete panels, respectively. These goals can be achieved by improving the four properties of precast panels, such as thermal resistance, fire resistance, heat capacity, and sound insulation by using perlite as insulation. The main goals of this research are getting buildings constructed or modified in less time and cost by producing superior wall panels and improving the properties of normal weight panels. Superior wall panels are new panels that provide the four properties listed above. Precast panels with different cross sections, concrete type, and different amounts of perlite will be investigated to observe the impact of each factor on the mentioned properties. The cost of each panel will be studied, and analytical methods will be used to find the optimum panel that provides the four mentioned properties with least cost. Moreover, theoretical methods will be applied to calculate the four properties for each panel. The preliminary theoretical calculations approved a good improvement in the four properties. In summary, the four properties of precast panels can be improved, time, and cost of construction can be reduced by using perlite as insulation.

  19. Effect of carrying a weighted backpack on lung mechanics during treadmill walking in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Sheel, A William; Foster, Glen E

    2012-06-01

    Weighted backpacks are used extensively in recreational and occupational settings, yet their effects on lung mechanics during acute exercise is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different backpack weights on lung mechanics and breathing patterns during treadmill walking. Subjects (n = 7, age = 28 ± 6 years), completed two 2.5-min exercise stages for each backpack condition [no backpack (NP), an un-weighted backpack (NW) or a backpack weighing 15, 25 or 35 kg]. A maximal expiratory flow volume curve was generated for each backpack condition and an oesophageal balloon catheter was used to estimate pleural pressure. The 15, 25 and 35 kg backpacks caused a 3, 5 and 8% (P ventilation, end-expiratory lung volume decreased as backpack weight increased. As backpack weight increased, there was a concomitant decline in calculated maximal ventilation, a rise in minute ventilation, and a resultant greater utilization of maximal available ventilation. In conclusion, wearing a weighted backpack during an acute bout of exercise altered operational lung volumes; however, adaptive changes in breathing mechanics may have minimized changes in the required POB such that at an iso-ventilation, wearing a backpack weighing up to 35 kg does not increase the POB requirement.

  20. [A systematic review of the effectiveness of alternative weight-loss products' ingredients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira-García, Cynthia; Souto-Gallardo, María; Bacardí-Gascón, Monserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The high demand for obesity treatment and conventional therapies' lack of effectiveness increases the use of alternative products. This study was aimed at assessing evidence from randomised clinical trials regarding the effectiveness of alternative weight-loss products' ingredients. A survey was conducted in Ensenada, Baja California, to assess the frequency of consuming alternative products used for weight reduction. The ingredients in the products most in demand were included in this review. The Pubmed database was searched for all randomised clinical trial papers including these ingredients and assessing weight loss. Thirty-six percent of the subjects questioned had used alternative methods for weight-loss, 83% of them being women. The most frequently used products were shakes, tea, pills and flaxseed/linseed. Sixteen randomised clinical trials using four ingredients were used: Garcinia cambogia, green tea, L-carnitina and flaxseed. Only two studies (green tea and Garcinia cambogia) showed significant weight-loss (25%) amongst control and experimental groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the studies regarding L-carnitina and flaxseed. There is a lack of evidence regarding quality studies justifying the use of alternative products for weight loss.

  1. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    during their child's treatment. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment. METHODS: The study included parents of 1,125 children...... and adolescents aged 3-22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic...

  2. The Effect of Depth Jumps and Weight Training on Leg Strength and Vertical Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutch, David; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments examined the results of depth jumping programs to determine: (1) whether certain depth jumping routines, when combined with weight training, are better than others; and (2) the effect of depth jumping on athletes already in training. Results indicated that depth jumping is effective, but no more so than regular jumping routines.…

  3. Recovery of Normal Body Weight in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: The Nurses’ Perspective on Effective Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie van Elburg; René Bakker; Laura Beukers; Esther Meerwijk; Joyce van Ommen; prof Berno van Meijel

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about effective nursing interventions for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study was to discover which aspects of nursing care are most effective, according to nurses, in recovery of normal body weight in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: A qualitative

  4. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient comp

  5. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effect of lower limb preference on local muscular and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral physical training can enhance muscular size and function as well as vascular function in the trained limb. In non-athletes, the preferred arm for use during unilateral tasks may exhibit greater muscular strength compared to the non-preferred arm. It is unclear if lower limb preference affects lower limb vascular function or muscular endurance and power in recreationally active adults. To examine the effect of lower limb preference on quadriceps muscle size and function and on lower limb vascular function in middle-aged adults. Twenty (13 men, 7 women) recreationally-active middle-aged (55 ± 7 yrs) adults underwent measurements of quadriceps muscle thickness, strength, mean power, endurance, and arterial stiffness, calf venous compliance, and calf blood flow in the preferred and non-preferred lower limb. The preferred limb exhibited greater calf vascular conductance (31.6 ± 15.5 versus 25.8 ± 13.0 units flow/mmHg; p = 0.011) compared to the non-preferred limb. The interlimb difference in calf vascular conductance was negatively related to weekly aerobic activity (hrs/week) (r = -0.521; p = 0.019). Lower limb preference affects calf blood flow but not quadriceps muscle size or function. Studies involving unilateral lower limb testing procedures in middle-aged individuals should consider standardizing the testing to either the preferred or non-preferred limb rather than the right or left limb.

  7. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  8. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  9. The Effect of Mother’s Hypertension and Weight and Parent’s Smoking Habit on Low Birth Weight Deliveries in Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffah A Latiff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal factors such as age, health, diet, and environment are significantly associated with low birth weight. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, distribution and major risk factors of low birth weight in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.Materials and methods: A hospital based case–control study was done in Obstetric Ward of Maternity Hospital in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Data was obtained using questionnaire and Performa. Out of 1021 deliveries, 330 were selected randomly as respondents that comprises of 110 cases and 220 controls. The outcome measure was low birth weight (<2500 grams.Results: The incidence of low birth weight was 10.8%. Among races, the highest occurrence of low birth weight was in Malay, while the highest age group was between 21 years old to 34 years old with majority of the respondent were married. Among the maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal height of less than 150 cm has a significant relationship with low birth weight. In addition, maternal weight of 45 kg and less and maternal weight gain during pregnancy of less than 10 kg were also found to be risk factors. However, none of the socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with low birth weight deliveries. Similarly, signs of premature delivery, maternal vaginal bleeding and fetal growth retardation (IUGR had a significant association.Conclusion: The mothers that have experienced any of the risks that were identified should be monitored and effective prevention should be taken to decrease the chances of low birth weight but not forgetting to promote a health lifestyle to the mother and father as well.

  10. Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: a discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them

    OpenAIRE

    Seaman, David R

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this commentary is to discuss modern lifestyle factors that promote weight gain and to suggest methods for clinicians to more effectively educate patients about weight management. Discussion Most adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Multiple factors related to the modern lifestyle appear to play causal roles. In general, the population maintains sedentary lives and overconsumes calorie-dense foods. In particular, refined carbohydrates negatively impact...

  11. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  12. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flak, Jonathan N; Jankord, Ryan; Solomon, Matia B; Krause, Eric G; Herman, James P

    2011-08-03

    Chronic stress is associated with dysregulation of energy homeostasis, but the link between the two is largely unknown. For most rodents, periods of chronic stress reduce weight gain. We hypothesized that these reductions in weight are an additional homeostatic challenge, contributing to the chronic stress syndrome. Experiment #1 examined cardiovascular responsivity following exposure to prolonged intermittent stress. We used radio-telemetry to monitor mean arterial pressure and heart rate in freely moving, conscious rats. Three groups of animals were tested: chronic variable stress (CVS), weight-matched (WM), and controls. Using this design, we can distinguish between effects due to stress and effects due to the changing body weight. WM, but not CVS, markedly reduced basal heart rate. Although an acute stress challenge elicited similar peak heart rate, WM expedited the recovery to baseline heart rate. The data suggest that CVS prevents the weight-induced attenuation of cardiovascular stress reactivity. Experiment #2 investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and metabolic hormone reactivity to novel psychogenic stress. WM increased corticosterone area under the curve. CVS blunted plasma glucose, leptin, and insulin levels in response to restraint. Experiment #3 tested the effects of WM and CVS on PVN oxytocin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. CVS increased, while WM reduced PVN CRH mRNA expression, whereas both CVS and WM reduced dorsal parvocellular PVN oxytocin mRNA. Overall, the data suggest that weight loss is unlikely to account for the deleterious effects of chronic stress on the organism, but in fact produces beneficial effects that are effectively absent or indeed, reversed in the face of chronic stress exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of inhaled citronella oil and related compounds on rat body weight and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H; Sa'diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-03-12

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: "Sereh Wangi" on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  14. Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanida Batubara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae, Indonesian local name: “Sereh Wangi” on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  15. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-02-01

    To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  16. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Poil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed.

  17. MVPA is associated with lower weight gain in 8-10 year old children: a prospective study with 1 year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fisher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA than total physical activity (total PA or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in Children Study (PEACHES. Weight status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, fat mass index (FMI, and waist circumference (WC in school Year 4 (baseline; age 8.7 yrs and Year 5 (follow-up; age 9.7 yrs. Physical activity was measured at baseline using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer to assess total PA (mean accelerometers counts per minute, MVPA; ≥ 4000 counts per minute and sedentary time (<100 counts per minute. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After adjustment for baseline BMI, SES, sex and ethnicity, MVPA was significantly associated with follow-up BMI (adjusted β  = -0.07; p = 0.002. This association was independent of total PA or sedentary time. Similar results were observed for FMI; again MVPA was significantly associated with follow up FMI (β = -0.16; p = 0.001 independent of total PA or sedentary time. The pattern was similar for WC (β = -0.07, but the association between MVPA and WC did not reach significance at p = 0.06. CONCLUSION: The results of this study strongly support promotion of MVPA in children.

  18. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  19. The Effect of Technology-Mediated Diabetes Prevention Interventions on Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-03-27

    Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs.

  20. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  1. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  2. EFFECTS OF MATRIX MOLECULAR WEIGHT ON STRUCTURE AND REINFORCEMENT OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/MICA COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yu-fang Xiang; Ke Wang; Qin Zhang; Rong-ni Du; Qiang Fu

    2011-01-01

    Three types of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different molecular weights (high, medium and Iow) were adopted to evaluate the influence of matrix molecular weight on the structure-property relation of injection-molded HDPE/mica composites through a combination of SEM, 2d-WAXS, DSC, DMA and tensile testing. Various structural factors including orientation, filler dispersion, interfacial interaction between HDPE and mica, etc., which can impact the macroscopic mechanics, were compared in detail among the three HDPE/mica composites. The transcrystallization of HDPE on the mica surface was observed and it exhibited strong matrix molecular weight dependence. Obvious transcrystalline structure was found in the composite with Iow molecular weight HDPE, whereas it was hard to be detected in the composites with increased HDPE molecular weight. The best reinforcement effect in the composite with low molecular weight HDPE can be understood as mainly due to substantially improved interracial adhesion between matrix and mica filler, which arises from the transerystallization mechanism.

  3. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Aysan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (: 0.0317, BAT (: 0.014, and SMT (: 0.0159 and UCP1 in BAT (: 0.026 were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1% while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, . Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  4. Effect of PEO molecular weight on the miscibility and dynamics in epoxy/PEO blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shoudong; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Lv, Weifeng; Liu, Qingjie; Jia, Ninghong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the effect of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) molecular weight in blends of epoxy (ER) and PEO on the miscibility, inter-chain weak interactions and local dynamics were systematically investigated by multi-frequency temperature modulation DSC and solid-state NMR techniques. We found that the molecular weight (M(w)) of PEO was a crucial factor in controlling the miscibility, chain dynamics and hydrogen bonding interactions between PEO and ER. A critical PEO molecular weight (M(crit)) around 4.5k was found. PEO was well miscible with ER when the molecular weight was below M(crit), where the chain motion of PEO was restricted due to strong inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. However, for the blends with high molecular weight PEO (M(w) > M(crit)), the miscibility between PEO and ER was poor, and most of PEO chains were considerably mobile. Finally, polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle (PISEMA) solid-state NMR experiment further revealed the different mobility of the PEO in ER/PEO blends with different molecular weight of PEO at molecular level. Based on the DSC and NMR results, a tentative model was proposed to illustrate the miscibility in ER/PEO blends.

  5. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  6. Effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on short-term weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J B; Pedersen, E; Petersen, K S; Clifton, P M

    2014-06-01

    Effective strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on weight loss after 8 weeks and weight loss maintenance after 12 months. Secondary aims were to determine changes in waist and hip measurements and diet quality. In a randomized parallel study, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg m(-2)) women were stratified by age and BMI before randomization. Participants undertook an 8-week intensive period with weight, waist and hip circumference measured every 2 weeks, followed by 44 weeks of independent dieting. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and 12 months, from which diet quality was determined. Weight loss was not significantly different between the two groups at 8 weeks (-3.2 ± 2.1 kg CER, n = 20, -2.0 ± 1.9 kg IER, n = 25; P = 0.06) or at 12 months (-4.2 ± 5.6 kg CER, n = 17 -2.1 ± 3.8 kg IER, n = 19; P = 0.19). Weight loss between 8 and 52 weeks was -0.7 ± 49 kg CER vs. -1 ± 1.1 kg IER; P = 0.6. Waist and hip circumference decreased significantly with time (P intermittent dieting was as effective as continuous dieting over 8 weeks and for weight loss maintenance at 12 months. This may be useful for individuals who find CER too difficult to maintain.

  7. Overweight children have higher circulating hepcidin concentrations and lower iron status but have dietary iron intakes and bioavailability comparable with normal weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk for iron deficiency, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. It is possible that overweight individuals may have lower dietary iron intake and/or bioavailability. Alternatively, obesity-related inflammation may increase hepcidin concentrations and reduce iron

  8. Overweight children have higher circulating hepcidin concentrations and lower iron status but have dietary iron intakes and bioavailability comparable with normal weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk for iron deficiency, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. It is possible that overweight individuals may have lower dietary iron intake and/or bioavailability. Alternatively, obesity-related inflammation may increase hepcidin concentrations and reduce iron

  9. Classification of non-weight bearing lower limb movements: towards a potential treatment for phantom limb pain based on myoelectric pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendaro, Eva; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2016-08-01

    Research in myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) for the prediction of motor volition has primarily focused on the upper limbs. Recent studies in the lower limbs have mainly concentrated on prosthetic control, while MPR for lower limb rehabilitation purposes has received little attention. In this work we investigated the viability of a MPR system for the prediction of four degrees of freedom controlled in a near natural or physiologically appropriate fashion. We explored three different electrode configurations for acquiring electromyographic (EMG) signals: two targeted (bipolar and monopolar) and one untargeted (electrodes equally spaced axially). The targeted monopolar configuration yielded overall lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) but similar accuracy than those of the targeted bipolar configuration. The targeted bipolar and untargeted monopolar configurations were comparable in terms of SNR and offline accuracy when the same number of channels was used. However, the untargeted configuration tested with twice the channels yielded the best results in terms of accuracy. An advantage of the untargeted configuration is that it offers a simpler and more practical electrode placement. This work is the first step in our long-term goal of implementing a phantom limb pain (PLP) treatment for lower limb amputees based on MPR and augmented/virtual reality.

  10. Effect of DEM resolution and comparison between different weighting factors for hydrologic connectivity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantreul, Vincent; Cavalli, Marco; Degré, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The emerging concept of hydrological connectivity is difficult to quantify. Some indices have been proposed. The most cited is Borselli's one. It mainly uses the DEM as input. The pixel size may strongly impacts the result of the calculation. It has not been studied yet in silty areas. Another important aspect is the choice of the weighting factor which strongly influences the index value. The objective of this poster is so to compare 8 different DEM's resolutions (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 204, 504 and 996cm) and 3 different weighting factors (factor C of Wischmeier, Manning's factor and rugosity index) in the Borselli's index calculation. The IC was calculated in a 124ha catchment (Hevillers), in the loess belt, in Belgium. The DEM used is coming from a UAV with a maximum resolution of 12 cm. Permanent covered surfaces are not considered in order to avoid artefact due to the vegetation (2% of the surface). Regarding the DEM pixel size, the IC increases for a given pixel when the pixel size decreases. That confirms some results observed in the Alpine region by Cavalli (2014). The mean difference between 12 cm and 10 m resolution is 35% with higher values up to 100% for higher connectivity zones (flow paths). Another result is the lower impact of connections in the watershed (grass strips…) at lower pixel sizes. This is linked to the small width of some connections which are sometimes comparing to cell size. Furthermore, a great loss of precision is observed from the 500 cm pixel size and upper. That remark is quite intuitive. Finally, some very well disconnected zones appear for the highest resolutions. Regarding the weighting factor, IC values calculated using C factor are lower than with the rugosity index which is only a topographic factor. With very high resolution DEM, it permits to represent the fine topography. For the C factor, the zones up to very well disconnected areas (grass strips, wood…) are well represented with lower index values than downstream

  11. From the Cradle to the Labour Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes. CEE DP 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    Lower birth weight babies have worse outcomes, both short-run in terms of one year mortality rates and longer run in terms of educational attainment and earnings. However, recent research has called into question whether birth weight itself is important or whether it simply reflects other hard-to-measure characteristics. By applying within twin…

  12. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  13. Effect of lowering of homocysteine levels on inflammatory markers : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durga, J.; Tits, van L.J.H.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocysteine and low concentrations of folate may lead to a proinflammatory state that could explain their relation to vascular disease risk. We investigated the effect of lowering homocysteine concentrations by means of folic acid supplementation on markers of inflammatio

  14. Krachtvoer: Effect evaluation of a Dutch healthful diet promotion curriculum for lower vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.K.; Assema, P. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Breukelen, G. van; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural effects of a school-based healthful diet promotion intervention implemented in lower vocational schools. Design: A cluster-randomised pre-test-post-test experimental design was used, and data were collected by means of written questionna

  15. String Instrument Intonation in Upper and Lower Registers: The Effects of Accompaniment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorski, Vincent J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effects of different accompaniment and register conditions on string instrumentalists' intonation performance of scalar passages. Both upper and lower register performances were significantly sharper than the computer-generated model. Violinist evidenced the least deviation, followed in order by violists, cellists, and bassists.…

  16. Effects of Arm Ergometry Exercise on the Reaction, Movement and Response Times of the Lower Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.

    A study determined the effects of fatigue produced in the upper extremities on the reaction time, movement time, and response time of the lower extremities in 30 male subjects, 19-25 years old. Each subject participated in a 10 trial practice session one day prior to the experiment and immediately preceding the pre-test. The pre-test consisted of…

  17. The effects of weight loss surgery on blood rheology in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiora, Maciej; Piecuch, Jerzy; Glűck, Marek; Slowinska-Lozynska, Ludmila; Sosada, Krystyn

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dieting on blood rheology in obese individuals suggest that improving the rheologic profiles depends on the amount of weight lost and its long-term maintenance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of weight loss after surgery on blood rheology at 12-month follow-up. We studied 38 obese patients who underwent laparoscopic weight loss surgery, 22 of whom had sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and 16 of whom had gastric banding (LAGB). We evaluated rheologic parameters such as blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte deformability (as measured by elongation index [EI]) preoperatively and 12 months after surgery. Whole blood viscosity at 150 s(-1) shear rate (Prheology in obese patients at 12 months after surgery. The increased red blood cell rigidity after surgery requires further study because the physiologic importance of this change has not yet been established. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  19. The effect of carbadox on reproduction when fed to Swine up to 60 kilograms body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, B I; Flipot, P M; Hartsock, T G; Vlielander, L C

    1983-05-01

    Forty female and ten male pigs were used to study the effect of carbadox on reproductive performance when included in the diet at a level of 55 mg/kg from one week of age through approximately 60 kg body weight. Five replicates, each consisting of eight females and a pair of littermate boars, all crossfostered, were used. One boar reared on medicated feed and another on an unmedicated diet, were bred to two groups of four littermates. One female in each pair had been fed the medicated diet, and the other the unmedicated diet. The same breeding scheme was carried out for two parities. The following observations were made: length of estrous cycle, weaning-to-estrus interval; conception rate; age and weight at first estrus, at breeding, at 109 days of gestation, at farrowing and after farrowing; gestation length; and litter size and weights at birth and 28 days. The results showed that carbadox had no apparent effect on reproductive performance.

  20. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

  1. Evaluation of World Population-Weighted Effective Dose due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    After the release of the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR2000), it became commonly accepted that the world population-weighted effective dose due to cosmic-ray exposure is 0.38 mSv, with a range from 0.3 to 2 mSv. However, these values were derived from approximate projections of altitude and geographic dependences of the cosmic-ray dose rates as well as the world population. This study hence re-evaluated the population-weighted annual effective doses and their probability densities for the entire world as well as for 230 individual nations, using a sophisticated cosmic-ray flux calculation model in tandem with detailed grid population and elevation databases. The resulting world population-weighted annual effective dose was determined to be 0.32 mSv, which is smaller than the UNSCEAR’s evaluation by 16%, with a range from 0.23 to 0.70 mSv covering 99% of the world population. These values were noted to vary with the solar modulation condition within a range of approximately 15%. All assessed population-weighted annual effective doses as well as their statistical information for each nation are provided in the supplementary files annexed to this report. These data improve our understanding of cosmic-ray radiation exposures to populations globally. PMID:27650664

  2. Evaluation of World Population-Weighted Effective Dose due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-09-01

    After the release of the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR2000), it became commonly accepted that the world population-weighted effective dose due to cosmic-ray exposure is 0.38 mSv, with a range from 0.3 to 2 mSv. However, these values were derived from approximate projections of altitude and geographic dependences of the cosmic-ray dose rates as well as the world population. This study hence re-evaluated the population-weighted annual effective doses and their probability densities for the entire world as well as for 230 individual nations, using a sophisticated cosmic-ray flux calculation model in tandem with detailed grid population and elevation databases. The resulting world population-weighted annual effective dose was determined to be 0.32 mSv, which is smaller than the UNSCEAR’s evaluation by 16%, with a range from 0.23 to 0.70 mSv covering 99% of the world population. These values were noted to vary with the solar modulation condition within a range of approximately 15%. All assessed population-weighted annual effective doses as well as their statistical information for each nation are provided in the supplementary files annexed to this report. These data improve our understanding of cosmic-ray radiation exposures to populations globally.

  3. Evaluation of World Population-Weighted Effective Dose due to Cosmic Ray Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-09-21

    After the release of the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR2000), it became commonly accepted that the world population-weighted effective dose due to cosmic-ray exposure is 0.38 mSv, with a range from 0.3 to 2 mSv. However, these values were derived from approximate projections of altitude and geographic dependences of the cosmic-ray dose rates as well as the world population. This study hence re-evaluated the population-weighted annual effective doses and their probability densities for the entire world as well as for 230 individual nations, using a sophisticated cosmic-ray flux calculation model in tandem with detailed grid population and elevation databases. The resulting world population-weighted annual effective dose was determined to be 0.32 mSv, which is smaller than the UNSCEAR's evaluation by 16%, with a range from 0.23 to 0.70 mSv covering 99% of the world population. These values were noted to vary with the solar modulation condition within a range of approximately 15%. All assessed population-weighted annual effective doses as well as their statistical information for each nation are provided in the supplementary files annexed to this report. These data improve our understanding of cosmic-ray radiation exposures to populations globally.

  4. Acute Effect of Static Stretching on Lower Limb Movement Performance by Using STABL Virtual Reality System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-07-17

    The effect of acute static stretch (ASS) on the lower limb RT has been recently questioned to decrease the risk of falling and injuries in situations requiring a rapid reaction, as in the cases of balance disturbance. The main purpose of this study was to detect the effect of ASS on the lower limb RT by using virtual reality device. Two Group Control Group design. Research laboratory. The control and experimental groups were formed randomly from sixty female university students. Each participant in the experimental group was tested before and after ASS for the quadriceps, hamstrings and planter flexor muscles, and compared with the control group with warming-up exercise only. The stretching program involved warming-up in the form of circular running inside the lab for 5 minutes followed by stretching of each muscle group thrice, to the limit of discomfort of 45 s, with resting period of 15s between stretches. The measurements included the RT of the dominant lower extremity by using the dynamic stability program, STABL Virtual Reality System (Model No. DIZ 2709, Motek Medical and Force Link Merged Co., Amsterdam). There was statistically significant reduction (F = 162, P= .00) in post-test RT between the two groups, and significant decrease in RT after stretching, in the experimental group (7.5%) (P= .00). ASS of the lower limb muscles tends to decrease the lower limb RT and improve movement performance.

  5. Cholesterol lowering effect of a commercial margarine in hypercholesterolemic adults: a review of the scientific literature.

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    Raquel Bernácer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the hypercholesterolemia is a growing problem, responsible of one fifth of coronary events in Spain. It is considered that plant sterols (PS could play an important role in their treatment.Objective: we review the role of a range of functional foods with added PS (including specific studies using Flora pro•activ in adults with hypercholesterolemia.Methods: we performed a review of the literature in the PubMed database to locate human studies that have evaluated the role of Flora pro•activ or PS fortified foods with a similar composition. We also have been consulted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA database.Results: Flora pro•activ demonstrated in rigorous scientific studies to lower cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Two servings of Flora pro•activ (1.5 g PS are needed to observe this effect. Lowering cholesterol with Flora pro•activ (2 servings / day oscillate as EFSA notes, between 7 and 10%. This effect is observed after 2-3 weeks. Its composition allows to make health claims about lowering cholesterol as is described for the European Union. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PS enriched foods that are not margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings or dairy products is under-researched. With few exceptions, the use of fortified foods with PS is safe.Conclusions: the current scientific evidence justify the promotion of the use of PS to lower LDL cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia.

  6. The Effect of Sprint Start Speed on Lower-limb Stiffness in Sprint Runners

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    Mansour Eslami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lower extremity stiffness is associated with variables such as the frequency and length of running steps, the amount of muscle force and power production. Previous studies showed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between lower extremities joints stiffness and start velocity. Sprint start can be highly affected by two key components of lower limb stiffness, namely, force and time. However, no research has yet investigated the effect of start velocity changes on lower–limb stiffness during sprint start. To test the effect of velocity changes on lower-limb stiffness during sprint start. Method: 15 male members of track and field were selected for this study. Leg stiffness was calculated dividing peak ground reaction force by the leg length. Joint stiffness was also estimated dividing the muscle moment of force by joint angular displacement. Subjects performed a start with three different speeds. Results: From low to high start velocity, means of leg stiffness, knee stiffness and ankle stiffness increased by 67.53%, 41.9% and 39.03% respectively. Conclusion: The findings show that lower-limb stiffness could be a key factor in changing runners' acceleration during sprint start.

  7. The effect of vitamin D on lower respiratory tract infections in children

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    Şişmanlar, Tuğba; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Gülbahar, Özlem; Özkan, Seçil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lower respiratory tract infections including mainly pneumonia represent an important public health problem leading to high mortality and mobidity rates in children aged below five years in developing countries including our country. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of rickets/osteomalacia, various cancers, autoimmune diseases, hyperproliferative skin diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important role in cellular and humoral immunity and pulmonary functions. Vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infection are common health problems in children in our country and no clinical study investigating the relationship between these problems has been conducted so far. In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the association between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Material and Methods: Sixty-three children aged between six months and five years with lower respiratory infections and 59 age-matched children who had no history of respiratory symptoms in the last month and no accompanying chronic disease were compared in terms of vitamin D levels. The children in the patient group were also evaluated by the clinical picture. Results: No significant correlation was found between vitamin D levels and lower respiratory tract infection in terms of disease and its severity. However, it was found that vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency was observed with a high rate in all children included in the study. Conclusions: Although no correlation was found between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection, it is recommended that vitamin D level should be measured in children with lower respiratory tract infection and vitamin D supplementation should be given to all children especially in winter months based on the fact that the level of vitamin D was lower than normal in approximately half of the children included in the study and considering the

  8. The effect of disturbances of lower ionospheric parameters by powerful radio waves on partially reflected signals

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    Martynenko, S. I.; Chernogor, L. F.

    The interaction of intense pulsed short-wave radiation with ionospheric plasma in the D region is studied. Also considered is the effect of the disturbances caused by this radiation on the characteristics of the partially reflected radio signals used in the method of partial reflections. Calculations are carried out showing that present installations designed for the method of partial reflections can have a significant effect on the parameters of the lower ionosphere. Recommendations are made for the maximum power of these installations.

  9. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance

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    Femke-Anouska Heinsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Results: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047. The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053. Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006. Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078. These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs.

  10. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

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    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  11. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome.

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    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka; Grassl, Niklas; Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Torekov, Signe S; Mann, Matthias

    2016-12-22

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly affected proteins. The adipocyte-secreted SERPINF1 and apolipoprotein APOF1 were most significantly regulated with fold changes of -16% and +37%, respectively (P plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. The effect of weight loss on the outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting in obese patients

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    Remez Kocz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of body mass index (BMI in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery has been a focus of past studies. However, the effects of postoperative weight loss in patients after CABG is yet to be known. We performed a retrospective study of 899 patients who underwent CABG at our institution. Perioperative patient information was collected from an onsite electronic record system. Patients were grouped into four BMI categories: normal controls, overweight, obese and morbidly obese. Based on the postoperative BMI changes, patients were then grouped into three categories: gainers, no change and losers. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and linear regression to establish an association among the data. Hazard ratios (HR and cumulative survival were obtained by the Cox-Mantel and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively. The normal controls exhibited a markedly higher mortality postoperatively, at 27.9%, especially when compared with the obese individuals (16.1%. Patients who lost weight faced a significantly increased risk of mortality than those who experienced no changes or gained weight after surgery. This trend was especially salient among the obese patients, who more than tripled their mortality risk (HR = 3.24 versus individuals who gained weight, and more than doubled their risk (HR = 2.87 versus those who had no changes. We conclude that obesity confers a survival advantage in the setting of the CABG surgery. Weight loss among all BMI categories of patients studied results in an adverse effect on postoperative survival.

  13. Effects of 5 weeks of lower limb suspension on muscle size and strength

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    Tesch, P. A.; Ploutz, L. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of weight-bearing, as occurs in space, appears to be associated with reductions in strength and mass of skeletal muscle. Very limited data, however, is at hand describing changes in skeletal muscle size and function following manned space missions. Our current knowledge therefore is mainly based on studies of space flown rats. It is obvious though that this information, only in part can be extrapolated to humans. A few bed rest studies have demonstrated that decreases in strength and muscle size are substantial. At this time, however, the magnitude or time course of such changes either in response to space flight or simulations of microgravity have not been defined. In the last few years we have employed a human model to simulate unloading of lower limb skeletal muscles that occurs in microgravity. This model was essentially adopted from the rat hindlimb suspension technique. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of decreases in muscle strength and size as a result of five weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension.

  14. Effectiveness of foot orthoses for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries : a review.

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    Hume, Patria; Hopkins, Will; Rome, Keith; Maulder, Peter; Coyle, Greg; Nigg, Benno

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare professionals prescribe foot orthoses (FOs) for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries, but previous reviews of the effectiveness of FOs have been inconclusive. We have therefore performed a review emphasizing the magnitude of treatment effects to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FOs in the treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries.Qualifying studies were mainly controlled trials, but some uncontrolled clinical trials of patients with chronic injuries were analy