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  1. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-11-03

    To describe participants' adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m(2)). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 +/- 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.

  2. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.Keywords: adherence, obesity, diet, exercise, self-monitoring, biomarkers

  3. Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Christopher M; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-09-03

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  6. Does weight loss immediately before bariatric surgery improve outcomes: a systematic review.

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    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery has been proposed as a predictive factor for improved patient compliance and the degree of excess weight loss achieved after surgery. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative outcomes. A search of MEDLINE was completed to identify the patient factors associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. Of the 909 screened reports, 15 had reported on preoperative weight loss and the degree of postoperative weight loss achieved. A meta-analysis was performed that compared the postoperative weight loss and perioperative outcomes in patients who had lost weight preoperatively compared to those who had not. Of the 15 articles (n = 3404 patients) identified, 5 found a positive effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative weight loss, 2 found a positive short-term effect that was not sustained long term, 5 did not find an effect difference, and 1 found a negative effect. A meta-analysis revealed a significant increase in the 1-year postoperative weight loss (mean difference of 5% EWL, 95% confidence interval 2.68-7.32) for patients who had lost weight preoperatively. A meta-analysis of other outcomes revealed a decreased operative time for patients who had lost weight preoperatively (mean difference 23.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 13.8-32.8). Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery appears to be associated with greater weight loss postoperatively and might help to identify patients who would have better compliance after surgery.

  7. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD......Thirty-eight consecutive obese persons were treated as outpatients. The treatment commenced with VLCD formula diet NUPO (females 388 kcal, 1600 kJ, 56 g protein; males 446 kcal, 1864 kJ, 69 g protein). VLCD had no untoward effects and was continued for as long as the patient would accept. After...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...

  8. Behavior Change; Weight Loss, and Physiological Improvements in Type II Diabetic Patients.

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    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether behavior modification would improve short- and long-term results of weight control programs for obese patients (N=53) with Type II diabetes. The behavior modification group lost more weight than the nutrition education or standard-care condition during the 16-week treatment, but at 16-month follow-up, weight loss differences…

  9. Interventions to improve long-term weight loss in patients following bariatric surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrice M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanie McGrice, Kathlene Don Paul Nutrition Plus Enterprises, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments.Keywords: weight, bariatric, surgery

  10. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  11. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006 separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  12. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-06-21

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  13. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  14. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  15. Weight loss and biomedical health improvement on a very low calorie diet: the moderating role of history of weight cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kenneth E; Warriner, Erin M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined biomedical consequences of participation in a professionally delivered, multifaceted very low calorie diet (VLCD) program and whether the degree of benefit associated with treatment was moderated by history of weight cycling. The authors monitored body weight and biomedical health indicators in 66 severely obese outpatients on a VLCD liquid fast. Participants remained on the VLCD for a median of 55 (range 9 to 247) days. Treatment was associated with significant pre-to-post improvements on body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol. History of weight cycling (independent of age) was inversely related to the magnitude of absolute pre-to-post treatment changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as to the rate of weight change. More intensive, longer term, and explicit maintenance components, especially aimed at individuals with multiple weight loss-regain episodes, may be necessary to facilitate weight loss and attain optimal health benefits from VLCDs.

  16. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  17. Myocardial oxygen consumption change predicts left ventricular relaxation improvement in obese humans after weight loss.

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    Lin, C Huie; Kurup, Suraj; Herrero, Pilar; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; Stein, Richard I; Dorn, Gerald W; Gropler, Robert J; Waggoner, Alan D; Peterson, Linda R

    2011-09-01

    Obesity adversely affects myocardial metabolism, efficiency, and diastolic function. Our objective was to determine whether weight loss can ameliorate obesity-related myocardial metabolism and efficiency derangements and that these improvements directly relate to improved diastolic function in humans. We studied 30 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) subjects with positron emission tomography (PET) (myocardial metabolism, blood flow) and echocardiography (structure, function) before and after marked weight loss from gastric bypass surgery (N = 10) or moderate weight loss from diet (N = 20). Baseline BMI, insulin resistance, hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) mass, systolic function, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and fatty acid (FA) metabolism were similar between the groups. MVO2/g decreased after diet-induced weight loss (P = 0.009). Total MVO2 decreased after dietary (P = 0.02) and surgical weight loss (P = 0.0006) and was related to decreased BMI (P = 0.006). Total myocardial FA utilization decreased (P = 0.03), and FA oxidation trended lower (P = 0.06) only after surgery. FA esterification and LV efficiency were unchanged. After surgical weight loss, LV mass decreased by 23% (Doppler-derived) E/E' by 33%, and relaxation increased (improved) by 28%. Improved LV relaxation related significantly to decreased BMI, insulin resistance, total MVO2, and LV mass but not FA utilization. Decreased total MVO(2) predicted LV relaxation improvement independent of BMI change (P = 0.02). Weight loss can ameliorate the obesity-related derangements in myocardial metabolism and LV structure and diastolic function. Decreased total MVO2 independently predicted improved LV relaxation, suggesting that myocardial oxygen metabolism may be mechanistically important in determining cardiac relaxation.

  18. Quality of life is reduced in obese dogs but improves after successful weight loss.

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    German, A J; Holden, S L; Wiseman-Orr, M L; Reid, J; Nolan, A M; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Scott, E M

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P=0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (Panxiety (P=0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (r(P)=0.43, P=0.02) and percentage body fat loss (r(P)=0.39, P=0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight.

  19. Why does walking economy improve after weight loss in obese adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Nicolas; Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Belli, Alain; Duche, Pascale

    2012-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in walking economy (i.e., decrease in net metabolic rate per kilogram) after weight loss in obese adolescents is induced by a lower metabolic rate required to support the lower body weight and maintain balance during walking. Sixteen obese adolescent boys and girls were tested before and after a weight reduction program. Body composition and oxygen uptake while standing and walking at four preset speeds (0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 m·s⁻¹) and at the preferred speed were quantified. Net metabolic rate and gross metabolic cost of walking-versus-speed relationships were determined. A three-compartment model was used to distinguish the respective parts of the metabolic rate associated with standing (compartment 1), maintaining balance and supporting body weight during walking (compartment 2), and muscle contractions required to move the center of mass and limbs (compartment 3). Standing metabolic rate per kilogram (compartment 1) significantly increased after weight loss, whereas net metabolic rate per kilogram during walking decreased by 9% on average across speeds. Consequently, the gross metabolic cost of walking per unit of distance-versus-speed relationship and hence preferred walking speeds did not change with weight loss. Compartment 2 of the model was significantly lower after weight loss, whereas compartment 3 did not change. The model showed that the improvement in walking economy after weight loss in obese adolescents was likely related to the lower metabolic rate of the isometric muscular contractions required to support the lower body weight and maintain balance during walking. Contrastingly, the part of the total metabolic rate associated with muscle contractions required to move the center of mass and limbs did not seem to be related to the improvement in walking economy in weight-reduced individuals.

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

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    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  1. NIH working group report: Innovative research to improve maintenance of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Wing, Rena R; Davidson, Terry; Epstein, Leonard; Goodpaster, Bret; Hall, Kevin D; Levin, Barry E; Perri, Michael G; Rolls, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Michael; Rothman, Alexander J; Ryan, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health, led by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, organized a working group of experts to discuss the problem of weight regain after weight loss. A number of experts in integrative physiology and behavioral psychology were convened with the goal of merging their perspectives regarding the barriers to scientific progress and the development of novel ways to improve long-term outcomes in obesity therapeutics. The specific objectives of this working group were to: (1) identify the challenges that make maintaining a reduced weight so difficult; (2) review strategies that have been used to improve success in previous studies; and (3) recommend novel solutions that could be examined in future studies of long-term weight control. Specific barriers to successful weight loss maintenance include poor adherence to behavioral regimens and physiological adaptations that promote weight regain. A better understanding of how these behavioral and physiological barriers are related, how they vary between individuals, and how they can be overcome will lead to the development of novel strategies with improved outcomes. Greater collaboration and cross-talk between physiological and behavioral researchers is needed to advance the science and develop better strategies for weight loss maintenance. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, Pweight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, Pweight loss relative to energy deficit in mice. PMID:26784324

  3. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Sailer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. Methods: We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT, subgroup of N = 192. Results: Participants lost body weight (p FTO genotype (p = 0.5. There was a significant correlation between improvement in VO2max and decrease in body weight (p FTO genotype interacted with this relationship (p = 0.0042 for VO2max, p = 0.0049 for IAT. When stratifying the cohort according to their improvement in VO2max, FTO obesity-risk A-allele carriers in the higher quartiles of improvement in fitness lost significantly less body weight. Conclusions: Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness.

  4. Weight-loss medications

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  5. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  6. Increased glycine-amidated hyocholic acid correlates to improved early weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Krause, Crystal; Helm, Melissa C; McBride, Corrigan L; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Alamoudi, Jawaher; Kothari, Vishal; Alnouti, Yazen; Kohli, Rohit

    2017-08-04

    Bile acids (BAs) are post-prandial hormones that play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as energy expenditure. Total and glycine-amidated BAs increase after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and correlate to improved metabolic disease. No specific bile acid subtype has been shown conclusively to mediate the weight loss effect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the comprehensive changes in meal-stimulated BAs after SG and determine if a specific change in the BA profile correlates to the early weight loss response. Patients were prospectively enrolled at the University of Nebraska Medical Center who were undergoing a SG for treatment of morbid obesity. Primary and secondary plasma bile acids and their amidated (glycine, G-, or taurine, T-) subtypes were measured at fasting, 30 and 60 min after a liquid meal performed pre-op, and at 6 and 12 weeks post-op. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the hour meal test for each bile acid subtype. BAs that were significantly increased post-op were correlated to body mass index (BMI) loss. Total BA AUC was significantly increased at 6 (p loss (p = 0.03). Increased G-hyocholic acid was significantly correlated to increased weight loss at both 6 (p = 0.05) and 12 weeks (p = 0.006). SG induced an early and persistent post-prandial surge in multiple bile acid subtypes. Increased G-hyocholic consistently correlated with greater early BMI loss. This study provides evidence for a role of BAs in the surgical weight loss response after SG.

  7. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-slice MRI at L3. Results: The weight loss of 3.9 2.0 kg was accompanied by an improvement of HRV. SDNN increased by 9.2% (p ¼ 0.003) and SDNNindex increased by 11.4% (p ¼ 0.0003). MeanNN increased by 2.4%, reflecting a decrease in mean heart rate from 74.1 to 72.3 beats/min (p ¼ 0.033). Systolic blood....... IAAT and the IAAT/SCAT-ratio were found to be negatively associated with HRV parameters but changes in body composition were not associated with changes in HRV. Conclusions: The observed improvement of HRV seems to be facilitated by weight loss. IAAT and the IAAT/SCAT ratio were found to be associated...

  8. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  9. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Corinna; Schmid, Vera; Fritsche, Louise; Gerter, Tsvetelina; Machicao, Fausto; Niess, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Heni, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max) and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), subgroup of N = 192). Participants lost body weight (p fitness lost significantly less body weight. Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Physical activity and weight loss are independent predictors of improved insulin sensitivity following energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-02-01

    The role of physical activity and the joint effect with sleep duration on insulin sensitivity (IS) during energy restriction followed by weight maintenance were determined. One hundred and two subjects (28 males) (mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 years; BMI: 31.9 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) ) followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 weeks, followed by a 44-week period of weight maintenance. Body composition (three-compartment model based on body weight, total body water, and body volume), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were assessed before the diet and at 8, 20, and 52 weeks after the start. Compared to baseline, IS was improved significantly after 8 weeks (P physical activity counts. Maintaining daily physical activity during energy restriction is as important as weight loss itself in the improvement of IS; there was no additional effect of change in sleep duration. During weight maintenance, improved IS is maintained better if physical activity returns to baseline or higher. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Clinical Inquiries: Can mobile technology improve weight loss in overweight and obese patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa M; Mounsey, Anne; Nashelsky, Joan

    2017-02-01

    Yes, this technology can help in the short term. Mobile technology compared with minimal or no intervention increases short-term (⟨6 months) weight loss (1.4 to 2.7 kg) in overweight and obese patients. Interventions that combine nonelectronic measures with mobile technology increase weight loss more effectively (3.7 kg) than no intervention.

  12. Does medically induced weight loss improve obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese: review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, E

    2011-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by repeated periods of breathing cessation during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea is both common and underdiagnosed in the obese. A recent study found that as many as 86% of older obese type 2 diabetics had obstructive sleep apnoea. Obesity is independently associated with developing obstructive sleep apnoea, and the reverse may also occur. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is therefore expected to rise in the wake of the obesity epidemic. The number of partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) airway obstructions per hour (apnoea-hypopnoea index) is used to classify obstructive sleep apnoea as mild (5-14 events per hour), moderate (15-30) or severe (>30). Severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with a two to sixfold increase in all-cause mortality; the impact of mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnoea is less clear. Until recently, the evidence supporting a beneficial effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnoea has been limited by a lack of randomized trials. In 2009, at least three randomized controlled trials evaluated whether medically induced weight loss improves obstructive sleep apnoea. The treatment effect ranged from 42% to 62% improvement, although the highest estimate was seen in a very short duration study (9 weeks). Patients who either lost 10-15 kg or more, or had severe obstructive sleep apnoea at baseline, benefited most from treatment.

  13. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight loss. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You or a family member loses more ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The ... be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: How much weight have ...

  14. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  15. The shape of the epiglottis reflects improvement in upper airway obstruction after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazayerli, Mohamed; Bleibel, Wissam; Elhorr, Ali; Elakkary, Ehab

    2006-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of closure of the upper airway during sleep, and is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. A significant percentage of patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. This condition creates chronic nighttime hypoxemia that can result in significant complications including systemic and pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, and stroke. Polysomnography is still the most widely used method for diagnosing OSA. Studies have shown that in the majority of patients with OSA the airway obstruction involves the retroglossal region. Upon performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy on patients with a wide range of body mass indices (from 21 to 63), we noticed a gradual increase in the concavity of the posterior epiglottal surface as the BMI increases. Upon following some of the patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric banding and lost significant weight, we noticed a dramatic change in the shape of the epiglottis. This reflects a relief in the pressure on the epiglottis created by the collapsing airways in periods of apnea. Thus, the deformity in the shape of the epiglottis reflects the chronic airway collapse in obese patients, and improvement in this deformity after weight loss indicates a relief of the chronic upper airway obstruction.

  16. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Aggerholm, Anette Skærbech;

    2011-01-01

    A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reprodu...

  17. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  19. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case.

  20. Should Primary Care Physicians Address Sleep to Improve Weight Loss in Obese Patients? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti E. Knox

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a commonly encountered problem in the primary care setting. Simultaneously, sleep is seen to hold an increasingly important role in many components of health and wellness. A review of the literature was performed to determine if improving sleep positively impacts weight loss in obese adults. The evidence reviewed suggests that improving patients’ sleep may initially improve patient weight loss; however, current studies do not show a sustained statistically significant impact. Until higher powered and higher quality studies are completed, there are no clear evidence-based guidelines for primary care physicians to follow regarding sleep and obesity.

  1. Daily high doses of fluoxetine for weight loss and improvement in lifestyle before bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, JG; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Oei, HI; ten Hoor-Aukerna, NM; Schweitzer, DH

    2005-01-01

    Background: The number of gastric restrictive bariatric operations is increasing each year, but about one-fifth of patients will become disappointed due to unsatisfactory weight reduction or annoying complications. We questioned whether weight reduction by taking high doses of fluoxetine improves li

  2. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon I. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-protein (HP intake during weight loss (WL therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found that HP intake reduced the WL-induced decline in lean tissue mass by ∼45%. However, HP intake also prevented the WL-induced improvements in muscle insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the WL-induced adaptations in oxidative stress and cell structural biology pathways. Our data demonstrate that the protein content of a WL diet can have profound effects on metabolic function and underscore the importance of considering dietary macronutrient composition during WL therapy for people with obesity.

  3. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  4. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-month exercise and weight loss program improves heart rate recovery in obese persons along with cardiopulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Junzo; Musha, Haruki; Takada, Hideomi; Takagi, Kumiko; Mita, Toshiharu; Mochida, Takashi; Yoshihisa, Takeshi; Imagawa, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Ishige, Narumi; Fujimaki, Rikiya; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Masahiro

    2010-07-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, and it is well known to be modifiable by weight loss. We investigated whether HRR was mainly improved by better cardiopulmonary function or by alteration of the metabolic profile. The weight loss program included 2h of group exercise per week and individual dietary instruction by a qualified dietician every week. Clinical assessment (including HRR) was done before and after the 3-month program. The subjects were 125 obese persons without a past history of stroke, cardiovascular events, or use of medications who participated in and completed our exercise plus weight loss program. HRR (35.61+/-12.83 to 45.34+/-13.6 beats/min, pchange in HRR was significantly correlated (pchanges in body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, resting heart rate, peak exercise heart rate, exercise time, maximal work load, physical working capacity divided by body weight (PWC75%HRmax/weight), subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin. Multivariate analysis showed that the change in HRR was significantly correlated (pchanges in resting heart rate, peak exercise heart rate, and PWC75%HRmax/weight. Our data demonstrated that HRR can be improved in obese subjects by a 3-month exercise and weight loss program. Improvement in cardiopulmonary function by exercise seems to be the main contributor to the increment of HRR. Copyright 2010 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m(2); M(age) = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, β = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss.

  7. Genetic predisposition to an adverse lipid profile limits the improvement in total cholesterol in response to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Celia G; Holzapfel, Christina; Loos, Ruth J F; Mander, Adrian P; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Caterson, Ian D; Hauner, Hans; Jebb, Susan A

    2013-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with a dyslipidaemia which can be improved by weight loss. Whether genetic predisposition to an adverse lipid profile modifies such beneficial effects of weight loss on lipid levels in overweight and obese individuals was examined. White European participants (n = 374) who completed a 12-month weight loss trial were genotyped for 36 lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) were calculated for four lipid traits by summing the number of risk alleles (RA) for each participant. The associations of each GPS with four lipid traits were assessed at baseline, and with lipid changes in response to weight change after 12 months. At baseline, the trait-specific GPSs were associated with 0.11 ± 0.04 mM higher total cholesterol/RA (P = 0.004), 0.05 ± 0.02 mM higher low density lipoprotein cholesterol/RA (P = 0.005), 0.03 ± 0.007 mM lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol/RA (P = 0.00002) and 0.04 ± 0.01 mM higher triglyceride/RA (P = 0.00002). After the intervention, weight loss was associated with improvements in all lipids (P AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Mechanisms underlying weight loss and metabolic improvements in rodent models of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Deanna M; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a growing health risk with few successful treatment options and fewer still that target both obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities. Despite ongoing scientific efforts, the most effective treatment option to date was not developed from basic research but by surgeons observing outcomes in the clinic. Bariatric surgery is the most successful treatment for significant weight loss, resolution of type 2 diabetes and the prevention of future weight gain. Recent work with animal models has shed considerable light on the molecular underpinnings of the potent effects of these 'metabolic' surgical procedures. Here we review data from animal models and how these studies have evolved our understanding of the critical signalling systems that mediate the effects of bariatric surgery. These insights could lead to alternative therapies able to accomplish effects similar to bariatric surgery in a less invasive manner.

  9. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  10. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  11. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  12. Reduced sCD36 following weight loss corresponds to improved insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and liver fat in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knøsgaard, L; Kazankov, K; Birkebæk, N H; Holland-Fischer, P; Lange, A; Solvig, J; Hørlyck, A; Kristensen, K; Rittig, S; Vilstrup, H; Grønbæk, H; Handberg, A

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health problem with serious long-term metabolic consequences. CD36 is important for the development of obesity-related complications among adults. We aimed to investigate circulating sCD36 during weight loss in childhood obesity and its associations with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. The impact of a 10-week weight loss camp for obese children (N=113) on plasma sCD36 and further after a 12-month follow-up (N=68) was investigated. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay. Liver fat was estimated by ultrasonography and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Along with marked weight loss, sCD36 was reduced by 21% (P=0.0013) following lifestyle intervention, and individual sCD36 reductions were significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in HOMA-IR, triglycerides and total cholesterol. The largest sCD36 decrease occurred among children who reduced HOMA-IR and liver fat. After 12 months of follow-up, sCD36 was increased (P=0.014) and the metabolic improvements were largely lost. Weight-loss-induced sCD36 reduction, coincident with improved insulin resistance, circulating lipids and hepatic fat accumulation, proposes that sCD36 may be an early marker of long-term health risk associated with obesity-related complications.

  13. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  14. During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Murer, Stefanie B; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n=206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat loss in a standardized, multidisciplinary, 2-month, in-patient weight loss program. This was a prospective study that determined thyroid function, glucose and lipid parameters, leptin, anthropometric measures, and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, 52% of children had TSH concentrations in the high normal range (>2.5 mU/liter), but TSH was not correlated with body weight, body mass index sd scores, lean body mass, or body fat percentage. At baseline, independent of adiposity, TSH significantly correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013), fasting insulin (P=0.010), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (P=0.004), and leptin (P=0.006). During the intervention, mean body fat, TSH, HOMA, and fasting insulin decreased by 21, 11, 53, and 54%, respectively. Change (Δ) in TSH did not correlate with Δbody weight or Δbody composition, but ΔTSH significantly correlated with, Δfasting insulin and ΔHOMA, independent of Δbody weight or Δbody composition (Pweight or fat. During weight loss, independent of changes in body weight or composition, decreases in elevated serum TSH predict decreases in fasting insulin and HOMA. These findings suggest interventions that target high TSH concentrations during weight loss in obese subjects may improve insulin sensitivity.

  15. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  16. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Matched weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass similarly improves metabolic function in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David; Magkos, Faidon; Eagon, J Christopher; Varela, J Esteban; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of marked weight loss, induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgeries, on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and the metabolic response to a mixed meal were evaluated. Fourteen nondiabetic insulin-resistant patients who were scheduled to undergo SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7) procedures completed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and a mixed-meal tolerance test before surgery and after losing ∼20% of their initial body weight. Insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during a clamp procedure), oral glucose tolerance (postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve), and β-cell function (insulin secretion in relationship to insulin sensitivity) improved after weight loss, and were not different between surgical groups. The metabolic response to meal ingestion was similar after RYGB or SG, manifested by rapid delivery of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation and a large early postprandial increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in both groups. When matched on weight loss, RYGB and SG surgeries result in similar improvements in the two major factors involved in regulating plasma glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese people without diabetes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? results from a cohort of severely obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Emil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high body mass index (BMI has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reproductive indicators. Methods In this pilot cohort study, 43 men with BMI > 33 kg/m2 were followed through a 14 week residential weight loss program. The participants provided semen samples and had blood samples drawn, filled in questionnaires, and had clinical examinations before and after the intervention. Conventional semen characteristics as well as sperm DNA integrity, analysed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA were obtained. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B (Inh-B were measured. Results Participants were from 20 to 59 years of age (median = 32 with BMI ranging from 33 to 61 kg/m2. At baseline, after adjustment for potential confounders, BMI was inversely associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.02, total sperm count (p = 0.02, sperm morphology (p = 0.04, and motile sperm (p = 0.005 as well as testosterone (p = 0.04 and Inh-B (p = 0.04 and positively associated to estradiol (p Conclusion This study found obesity to be associated with poor semen quality and altered reproductive hormonal profile. Weight loss may potentially lead to improvement in semen quality. Whether the improvement is a result of the reduction in body weight per se or improved lifestyles remains unknown.

  19. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on factors relating to reasons why the weight loss programmes had ... the increase according to a National Health and Nutrition .... classes after weight gain. 7. 14. 26 .... 'slow metabolism' (8%), and a chronic problem of premenstrual.

  20. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  1. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  2. Improvement of Health-Related Quality of Life After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Related to Weight Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monpellier, Valerie M; Antoniou, Evangelia E; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Effect of bariatric surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) varies greatly. This might be caused by the diversity in questionnaires used to assess HRQOL and the weight loss of the studied population. This study assesses the relationship between weight loss and HRQOL in primar

  3. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. [Low doses of megestrol acetate increase weight and improve nutrition status in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrejón, Alberto; Palop, Julio; Inchaurraga, Ignacio; López, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Hernández, Antonio; Blanquer, Rafael; Están, Nuria; Anguera, Anna

    2011-07-23

    Weight loss in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prognostic bad factor. The objective of this study is to analyze the effectively of megestrol acetate (MA) to increase appetite of these patients. Randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to study the effect of 160 mg/bid of MA, for 8 weeks, on nutritional, functional, analytical and quality of life parameters, in 38 patients with severe COPD and body mass index (BMI) nutritional parameters and the sense of wellbeing, but it does not improve the respiratory muscular function or exercise tolerance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  6. Geophysical weight loss diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  7. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  8. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  9. Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kae-Woei; Tsai, I-Chen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Lee, I-Te; Fu, Chia-Po; Wang, Jun-Sing; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We prospectively enrolled 32 non-diabetic men with MetS for a 3-month weight reduction program mainly by diet control and exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were used to measure EAT, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal visceral fat. Anthropometric parameters, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and serum adipokines were assessed before and after the weight loss program. After a 3-month weight loss program, 27 obese MetS men had significant weight loss >5% (97 ± 14 to 87 ± 14 kg, with a 10.7 % decrease, p fat area (r = -0.673, p = 0.006) were significantly correlated with improvement of OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity index. The decrement ratio of SIVG EAT correlated with improvement of both HOMA-IR and OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity indexes after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with MetS. (Multi-faceted Evaluations Following Weight Reduction in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome NCT 01065753 on Feb 8, 2010).

  10. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders...

  11. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  12. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium......+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1......-sensation profile.Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of normal dietary protein intake (0.8-1.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01561131....

  13. Weight loss history as a predictor of weight loss: results from Phase I of the weight loss maintenance trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Valerie H.; McVay, Megan A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hollis, Jack F.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Funk, Kristine L.; Gullion, Christina M.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Stevens, Victor J; Svetkey, Laura P; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that weight loss history is associated with subsequent weight loss. However, questions remain whether method and amount of weight lost in previous attempts impacts current weight loss efforts. This study utilized data from the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial to examine the association between weight loss history and weight loss outcomes in a diverse sample of high-risk individuals. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine which specific aspects of ...

  14. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  15. Supporting your child with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care provider can set healthy goals for weight-loss and help with monitoring and support. Getting support ... to get the whole family to join a weight-loss plan, even if weight loss is not the ...

  16. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  17. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  18. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES...... well to dietary, physical activity, or drug based weight loss interventions and thus genetic predisposition to obesity associated with the FTO minor allele can be at least partly counteracted through such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015015969.......: Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  19. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehestanie, P.; Dogan, K.; Berends, F.; Janssen, I.; Wahab, P.J.; Groenen, M.; Müller, M.R.; Wit, de N.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this obs

  20. Cardiometabolic risk improvement in response to a 3-yr lifestyle modification program in men: contribution of improved cardiorespiratory fitness vs. weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Baillot, Aurélie; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to examine the respective contributions of changes in visceral adiposity, subcutaneous adiposity, liver fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers in response to a 3-yr healthy eating/physical activity lifestyle intervention. Ninety-four out of 144 viscerally obese healthy men completed a 3-yr lifestyle intervention. Body weight, body composition, and fat distribution were assessed by anthropometry and DEXA/computed tomography. CRF, adipokines, lipoprotein/lipid profile, and 75 g of oral glucose tolerance were assessed. CRF and visceral and subcutaneous adiposity significantly improved over the 3-yr intervention, with a nadir in year 1 and a partial regain in year 3 Liver fat (estimated by insulin hepatic extraction) stabilized from year 1 to year 3, whereas HOMA-IR, ISI-Matsuda index, and adiponectin continued to improve. Multivariate analysis revealed that both visceral adiposity and estimated liver fat reductions contributed to the improved ISI-Matsuda index observed over 3 yr (r(2) = 0.28, P healthy eating/physical activity intervention in men improves several cardiometabolic risk markers over the long term (3 yr) despite a partial body weight regain observed between year 1 and year 3 The improvement in CRF contributes to visceral and estimated liver fat losses over the long term, which in turn explain the benefits of the lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk profile. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  2. Dietary self-monitoring, but not dietary quality, improves with use of smartphone app technology in an 8-week weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S; Cunningham, Barbara K; Sterner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is linked to improved weight loss success. Mobile technologies, such as smartphone applications (apps), might allow for improved dietary tracking adherence. The authors assessed the use of a popular smartphone app for dietary self-monitoring and weight loss by comparing it with traditional diet counseling and entry methods. Diet tracking and weight loss were compared across participants during an 8-week weight loss trial. Participants tracked intake using 1 of 3 methods: the mobile app "Lose It!", the memo feature on a smartphone, or a traditional paper-and-pencil method. App users (n = 19) recorded dietary data more consistently compared with the paper-and-pencil group (n = 15; P = .042) but not the memo group (n = 13). All groups lost weight over the course of the study (P = .001), and no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Smartphone apps could represent a novel and feasible dietary self-monitoring method for individuals. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  4. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  5. A novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Sonne, Nina; Hellgren, Lars I; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges. Hence, there is an important need to develop weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities. The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on body weight, glucose homeostasis and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue and on food preference was investigated. Furthermore, we elucidated weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated, s.c., with KBP-089 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 μg·kg(-1) or vehicle. KB-089 induced in a dose-dependent and sustained weight loss (~17% by 2.5 μg·kg(-1) ). Moreover, KBP-089 reduced fat depot size and reduced lipid accumulation in muscle and liver. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, KBP-089 improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight matching led to improved glucose homeostasis by reducing plasma insulin; however, these effect were inferior compared to those of KBP-089. In the food preference test, rats fed a normal diet obtained 74% of their calories from chocolate. KBP-089 reduced total caloric intake and induced a relative increase in chow consumption while drastically reducing chocolate consumption compared with vehicle. The novel DACRA, KBP-089, induces a sustained weight loss, leading to improved metabolic parameters including food preference, and these are beyond those observed simply by diet-induced weight loss. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Beyond Body Mass Index: Are Weight-loss Programs the Best Way to Improve the Health of African American Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, Leilani; Spence-Almaguer, Emily

    2017-06-15

    African American women have higher prevalence (82%) of overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25-29) and obesity (BMI ≥30) than white women (63.2%) or Hispanic women (77.2%), and weight-loss programs yield minimal results in this population. We examine the concept of BMI as a measure of health for African American women and suggests a more holistic, multifaceted approach to preventing chronic disease.

  7. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  8. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-04-06

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  9. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murer, Stefanie B; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-04-01

    It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic improvements during weight loss is uncertain. The objective was to prospectively examine associations between plasma leptin, body fat, and weight and metabolic risk factors in obese children during weight loss. In obese children and adolescents [n = 203; mean age: 14.1 y, >98th body mass index (BMI) percentile for age and sex] participating in a 2-mo inpatient weight-loss program, we measured changes in body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), plasma leptin, insulin, and lipids. After discharge, anthropometric measures and plasma leptin were remeasured at 6 (n = 139) and 12 (n = 100) mo. During the 2-mo program, mean (±SD) weight and fat loss were 13.9 ± 4.0 kg and 9.2 ± 2.5 kg, respectively; and mean plasma leptin decreased by 76%. Weight and fat loss were sustained, and no significant differences in BMI-SD score (SDS) or body composition were found between 12 and 2 mo. Baseline leptin was a negative predictor for percentage fat loss at 2, 6, and 12 mo (P loss, and change in BMI-SDS at 2 and 6 mo (P loss of body fat and improvements in lipids and insulin sensitivity can be achieved. Thus, increased plasma leptin in obese children may not necessarily reflect leptin resistance; many children appear to remain leptin sensitive at this age.

  10. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  11. Results of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese vs superobese patients: similar body weight loss, correction of comorbidities, and improvement of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Michel; Calmes, Jean-Marie; Paroz, Alexandre; Romy, Sébastien; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-04-01

    Gastric bypass corrects comorbidities and quality of life similarly in superobese (SO) and morbidly obese (MO) patients despite higher residual weight in SO patients. Prospective cohort study comparing results of primary laparoscopic gastric bypass in MO and SO patients. University hospital and community hospital with common bariatric programs. A total of 492 MO and 133 SO patients treated consecutively between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2006. Primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Operative morbidity, weight loss, residual body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), evolution of comorbidities, quality of life, and Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System score. Surgery was longer in SO patients, but operative morbidity was similar. The MO patients lost a maximum of 15 BMI units and maintained an average loss of 13 BMI units after 6 years, compared with 21 and 17 in SO patients, which corresponds to a 30.1% and 30.7% total body weight loss, respectively. After 6 years, the BMI was less than 35 in more than 90% of MO patients but in less than 50% of SO patients. Despite these differences, improvements in quality of life and comorbidities were impressive and similar in both groups. Although many SO patients remain in the severely obese or MO category, equivalent improvements in quality of life and obesity-related comorbidities indicate that weight loss is not all that matters after bariatric surgery.

  12. Intensive practical lifestyle intervention improves endothelial function in metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Beatriz G S; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Santos, Angela S B; Foppa, Murilo; Junges, Mauricio; Bonzanini, Laisa; Nicolaidis, Gabriela; Camey, Suzi; Lopes, André L; Sehl, Paulo; Duncan, Bruce B; Clausell, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the metabolic and vascular effects of lifestyle interventions involving a healthy diet and either a moderate- or a high-intensity exercise regimen in nondiabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome. The effects of these interventions on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and risk profiles were compared with a standard low-fat diet and engaging in daily walking (standard of care). Seventy-five healthy adults with metabolic syndrome (30-55 years old) were randomized to a 10,000-steps-a-day exercise program, a 3-times-a-week fitness (>75% peak VO(2)) program, or a 1-hour-walking-a-day program for 12 weeks. The first 2 interventions were combined with an accessible healthy, no-sugar diet; and the third was combined with a tailored low-fat diet. The outcomes, including FMD and risk factors, were examined at 12 weeks and at 1-year reassessment. Significant increase in FMD (mean difference = 1.51%, 95% confidence interval = 1.05%-3.017%, P = .0007) and decrease in arterial pressure (mean difference = 19.3 ± 2.3/-12.6 ± 1.8 mm Hg, P = .0001) were observed in all groups. However, the FMD changed most favorably in the high-intensity, low-sugar group (mean difference = 1.56%, 95% confidence interval = 0.1%-3.02%, P = .036). Significant improvements in body mass index, waist, insulin-like growth factor-1, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, glucose, urinary albumin excretion, and lipid profiles occurred in all groups. Metabolic syndrome was resolved in 64%. One year later, weight loss (-9.1 ± 2.3 kg, P = .0001) and arterial pressure decrease (-18.5 ± 2.3/-12.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg, P = .0001) were maintained. Practical, health-centered diet combined with high-intensity exercise is associated with enhanced vascular protection. These data suggest that more intense exercise combined with a low-sugar diet modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  14. Ways to Track Weight Loss Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165874.html Ways to Track Weight Loss Success There's more to it than the scale ... News) -- Self-monitoring is part of virtually every weight loss plan, and weighing yourself is a key part ...

  15. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  16. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  17. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: significant long-term weight loss, improvement of obesity-related comorbidities and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Michel; Donadini, Andrea; Romy, Sébastien; Demartines, Nicolas; Giusti, Vittorio

    2011-08-01

    To present long-term results of a large series of patients submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) for morbid obesity. Reports on long-term results of RYGBP are scarce and focus primarily on weight loss. Our aim is to provide mid- to long-term data of RYGBP, with detailed results on weight loss, evolution of comorbidities and quality of life, also using the BAROS score. All patients who underwent a primary RYGBP for morbid obesity in our 2 hospitals between 1999 and August 2008 were included. Data were collected prospectively in a computerized database, and reviewed for the purpose of this study. A total of 379 patients were included in the analysis of long-term results, 282 women, and 97 men, with a mean BMI of 46.3 kg/m². After 5 years, 74.9% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50%, with a mean of 62.7% and 76.8% achieved a BMI <35 kg/m². The corresponding figures after 7 years were 64.9, 58.1, and 71.9, respectively. There was a small but significant long-term weight regain. All comorbidities improved markedly in the vast majority of patients, with no significant difference between the 3- and 5-year terms. Quality of life also improved markedly, and more than 95% of the patients had a good to excellent 5-year overall result according to the BAROS score. Laparoscopic RYGBP for morbid obesity results in good and maintained weight loss up to 7 years in the majority of patients, improves quality of life and markedly improves all the evaluated comorbidities, resulting in good to excellent overall 5-year results in 97% of the patients according to the BAROS score.

  18. Exercise and diet induced weight loss improves measures of oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in adults with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, R. Scott; Warner, Shana O.; Ying LIU; Hinton, Pamela S.; Sun, Grace Y.; Cox, Richard H.; Stump, Craig S.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Thomas, Tom R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) increase the risk for coronary heart disease; however, much of this risk is not attributable to traditional risk factors. We sought to determine whether weight loss associated with supervised aerobic exercise beneficially alters biomarkers of oxidative stress and whether these alterations are associated with improvements in measures of insulin resistance. Twenty-five sedentary and overweight to obese [body mass index (BMI) = 33.0 ± 0.8 kg/m2] individuals, w...

  19. Weight loss is associated with improved endothelial dysfunction via NOX2-generated oxidative stress down-regulation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, Francesco; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Augelletti, Teresa; Carnevale, Roberto; Pacella, Antonio; Albanese, Fabiana; Mancini, Ilaria; Di Santo, Serena; Del Ben, Maria; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adherence to a restricted-calorie, Mediterranean-type diet improves endothelial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. A moderately low-calorie (600 calories/day negative energy balance), low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (syndrome. Participants were divided into two groups according to body weight loss > or syndrome. The coexistent decrease of NOX2 activation suggests a role for oxidative stress in eliciting artery dysfunction.

  20. Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dixon, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teevale, Tasileta

    2013-03-01

    The current research aims to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. New Zealand secondary schools, 2007. Secondary-school students (n 9107). Among young people who attempted weight loss in the previous year, 51% reported long-term weight loss (lost weight and maintained weight loss for 6 months). Students reporting long-term weight loss were more likely to be male, but did not differ by age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation or measured weight status from students who reported temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Students with long-term weight loss also reported healthier weight-control strategies (e.g., exercising, eating fewer fatty foods, eating fewer sweets), high parental support for healthy eating/activity and were less likely to report being teased about their weight by their family and having junk food available at home than students with temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Approximately 50% of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family.

  1. Major depression and severe weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntrogkounta Α.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Α 25-year old patient was referred to the casualty department of the Community Mental Health Center of Central Sector of Thessaloniki from the emergency department of the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki, in order to manage symptoms of depression as long as her life- threating loss of weight. A. appeared to have depressive feelings, lack of appetite, lack of interest, withdrawal, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, low self-esteem and ideas of guilt. There were held 27 conferences. In the beginning there were supportive intervations in order to improve the depressive symptoms and to gain weight. Moreover we applied medication (SSRI's that after 6 months was stopped gradually, without any setback. There was an increase of weight, about 10 kg, which remained until the follow up one year later.

  2. Short-term weight loss in overweight/obese low-income women improves plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Klohe, Deborah M; Jordan, Kristine C; Lane, Michelle A; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders involving obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Obesity is the most crucial risk factor of metabolic syndrome, because it is known to precede other risk factors. Obesity is also associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the trace mineral, zinc. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term weight loss on plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors. An 8-week weight loss intervention study was conducted with 90 low-income overweight/obese mothers, whose youngest child was 1-3 years old. Plasma levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured and compared at weeks 0 and 8 of the weight loss program. At pre-study, plasma zinc was low in 39% and, within normal values in 46%, of obese/overweight mothers. By the end of intervention, plasma zinc rose by 22% and only 5% of the mothers continued to exhibit low plasma zinc. At post-study, the metabolic syndrome risk factors of waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure (pzinc increased by a greater margin (67%) in women with low zinc, as compared to those with normal zinc (18%); weight reduction was similar in both the groups. Finally, changes in % body fat were related negatively with changes in plasma zinc (r=- 0.28, pzinc, as well as the metabolic syndrome components, showed significant improvements in overweight/obese low-income women after weight loss.

  3. Effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Morgan, P J; Plotnikoff, R C; Callister, R; Collins, C E

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions and to identify intervention characteristics associated with effectiveness. In May 2011, a systematic literature search with no date restrictions was conducted across eight databases. Twenty-four articles describing 23 studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies included a weight loss intervention and four studies included an additional weight loss maintenance intervention. Study quality was mostly poor for weight loss studies (median = 3/10, range = 1-9) and weight loss maintenance studies (median = 3.5/10, range = 1-6). Twenty-three of 31 individual weight loss interventions (74%) from the eligible studies were considered effective. Meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in weight change favouring weight loss interventions over no-intervention controls at the last reported assessment (weighted mean difference -5.66 kg [-6.35, -4.97], Z = 16.04 [P 2.7 contacts/month), group face-to-face contact and inclusion of a prescribed energy restriction. Preliminary evidence suggests men-only weight loss programmes may effectively engage and assist men with weight loss. However, more high-quality studies are urgently needed to improve the evidence base, particularly for maintenance studies.

  4. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  5. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  6. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self, interpersonal/social and situational constraints, ... patterns sanctioned by cultural and social norms and styles.II ... tage, namely 61%, was reponed by the National Adolescent .... Having to disclose one's actual weight to other members.

  7. Internalized weight bias in weight-loss surgery patients: psychosocial correlates and weight loss outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Napolitano, Melissa A; Wood, G Craig; Argyropoulos, George; Gerhard, Glenn S; Hayes, Sharon; Foster, Gary D; Collins, Charlotte A; Still, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between pre-operative internalized weight bias and 12-month post-operative weight loss in adult bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery patients (n=170) from one urban and one rural medical center completed an internalized weight bias measure (the weight bias internalization scale, WBIS) and a depression survey (Beck depression inventory-II, BDI-II) before surgery, and provided consent to access their medical records. Participants (BMI=47.8 kg/m2, age=45.7 years) were mostly female (82.0 %), White (89.5 %), and underwent gastric bypass (83.6 %). The average WBIS score by item was 4.54 ± 1.3. Higher pre-operative WBIS scores were associated with diminished weight loss at 12 months after surgery (p=0.035). Pre-operative WBIS scores were positively associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). Greater internalized weight bias was associated with more depressive symptoms before surgery and less weight loss 1 year after surgery.

  8. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, protects arterial walls against atherosclerosis, and regulates glucose metabolism, and is decreased in obese, insulin resistant, and type 2 diabetic patients. Adiponectin circulates in plasma as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW...

  9. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  10. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition.

  11. Sustained weight loss and improvement of quality of life after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity: a single surgeon experience in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, K H

    2010-03-01

    Although substantial weight loss is the primary outcome following bariatric surgery, changes in obesity-related morbidity and quality of life (QoL) are equally important. This study reports on weight loss, QoL and health outcomes following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB).

  12. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896

  13. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, C; Crispino, P; Gioia, S; La Sala, N; D'amico, L; La Grotta, M; Miro, O; Colarusso, D

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings.

  14. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  15. The novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor tesofensine induces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control in the diet-induced obese rat: comparison to sibutramine and rimonabant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...

  16. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  17. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  18. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  19. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  20. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss.

  1. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P M Verhoef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males, age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod, protein levels (Western blot and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. RESULTS: A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4 during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc and lipolysis (ATGL were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION: Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  2. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2), followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  4. During Rapid Weight Loss in Obese Children, Reductions in TSH Predict Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Changes in Body Weight or Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Murer, S.B.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Knopfli, B.H.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects: Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n = 206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat

  5. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to have problems such as: Low self-esteem Poor grades in school Depression ... weight-loss surgery should receive care at an adolescent bariatric surgery center. There, a team of experts ...

  6. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  7. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  8. Association of Weight Loss and Medication Adherence Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M; Hardy, Elise

    2013-12-01

    Adherence to prescribed diabetes medications is suboptimal, which can lead to poor glycemic control and diabetic complications. Treatment-related weight gain is a side effect of some oral antidiabetic agents and insulin, which may negatively affect adherence to therapy. This study investigated whether adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who lost weight had better medication adherence than those who gained weight. Weight change over 1 year (2007 to 2008) was assessed among respondents in the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). Weight loss of >1.0%, ≥3%, and ≥5% of weight was compared with weight gain of ≥1.0%. Medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky 4-item questionnaire for medication-taking behavior, with lower scores representing better adherence. There were 746 T2DM respondents who lost >1.0%, 483 who lost ≥3%, 310 who lost ≥5%, and 670 who gained ≥1.0% of weight. Each weight-loss group had significantly lower Morisky scores than the weight-gain group; mean scores of 0.389 versus 0.473 (P = 0.050) for the >1.0% weight-loss group, 0.365 versus 0.473 (P = 0.026) for the ≥3% weight-loss group, and 0.334 versus 0.473 (P = 0.014) for the ≥5% weight-loss group. Significantly fewer respondents who lost weight had received insulin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione therapy (57%) compared with respondents who gained weight (64%) (P = 0.002). Demographics, exercise habits, and dieting were similar between weight-loss and weight-gain groups. T2DM respondents with weight loss had significantly better medication adherence and were less likely to be on treatment regimens that increase weight than T2DM respondents with weight gain. These findings suggest that strategies that lead to weight loss, including use of diabetes medications associated with weight loss, may improve medication adherence.

  9. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  10. Preoperative predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2012-01-01

    Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20-30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery. We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review. Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7-16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9-9.8%]). Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.

  11. Lanreotide Reduces Liver Volume, But Might Not Improve Muscle Wasting or Weight Loss, in Patients With Symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Frederik; Ho, Thien Ahn; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Coudyzer, Walter; Billen, Jaak; Dobbels, Fabienne; van Pelt, Jos; Bammens, Bert; Pirson, Yves; Nevens, Frederik

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) can induce malnutrition owing to extensive hepatomegaly and patients might require liver transplantation. Six months of treatment with the somatostatin analogue lanreotide (120 mg) reduces liver volume. We investigated the efficacy of a lower dose of lanreotide and its effects on nutritional status. We performed an 18-month prospective study at 2 tertiary medical centers in Belgium from January 2011 through August 2012. Fifty-nine patients with symptomatic PCLD were given lanreotide (90 mg, every 4 weeks) for 6 months. Patients with reductions in liver volume of more than 100 mL (responders, primary end point) continued to receive lanreotide (90 mg) for an additional year (18 months total). Nonresponders were offered increased doses, up to 120 mg lanreotide, until 18 months. Liver volume and body composition were measured by computed tomography at baseline and at months 6 and 18. Patients also were assessed by the PCLD-specific complaint assessment at these time points. Fifty-three patients completed the study; 21 patients (40%) were responders. Nineteen of the responders (90%) continued as responders until 18 months. At this time point, they had a mean reduction in absolute liver volume of 430 ± 92 mL. In nonresponders (n = 32), liver volume increased by a mean volume of 120 ± 42 mL at 6 months. However, no further increase was observed after dose escalation in the 24 patients who continued to the 18-month end point. All subjects had decreased scores on all subscales of the PCLD-specific complaint assessment, including better food intake (P = .04). Subjects did not have a mean change in subcutaneous or visceral fat mass, but did have decreases in mean body weight (2 kg) and total muscle mass (1.06 cm(2)/h(2)). Subjects also had a significant mean reduction in their level of insulin-like growth factor 1, from 19% below the age-adjusted normal range level at baseline to 50% at 18 months (P = .002). In a prospective study, we

  12. Consequences of obesity and weight loss: a devil's advocate position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R E; Kuk, J L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit. PMID:25410935

  13. The downside of weight loss: realistic intervention in body-weight trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, N John

    2012-05-01

    To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.

  14. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging.

  15. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey, Tricia M.; KUMAR, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on wei...

  16. [Fatigue and weight loss in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue is a common, under recognized, and poorly understood nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fatigue frequently presents early in PD, and its prevalence increases with disease progression, affecting up to 60% of patients. Fatigue has a negative impact on quality of life. Fatigue is often associated with other nonmotor symptoms, including sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depression. Only a few reports have been published on the treatment of fatigue in PD (methylphenidate, levodopa, and pramipexole). Further well-designed studies, including physiotherapy, are necessary to develop more effective treatments for PD-associated fatigue. A number of patients with PD lose weight because of loss of fat. However, the evolution and determinants of weight loss are not well established. Possible determinants of weight loss in PD include loss of appetite, impaired hand-mouth coordination, difficulty in chewing and dysphagia, nausea, intestinal hypomotility, and increased energy requirements because of muscular rigidity and involuntary movements. Noticeable weight gain has repeatedly been reported after subthalamic or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Because low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poor prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  17. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD.......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  19. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D C

    This article reviews popular diets for their ability to produce effective weight loss. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on anecdotal findings, theories and testimonials of short term results. The most prominent elements of fad diets are those of ritual and sacrifice. These diets offer quick and painless weight loss while allowing consumption of favourite or tasty foods, but place severe restrictions on certain other foods or food categories. Fad diets often work in the short term because they are low-kilojoule diets in disguise; that is, energy intake as a result of the diet is lower than the person's requirements. Successful long term weight loss depends on the consumption over a long period of time of less energy than is expended. The ideal approach is to increase physical activity while modifying eating behaviour to achieve a nutritionally balanced intake.

  20. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  1. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    -symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD...

  3. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  4. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  5. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  6. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sénéchal; Jana Slaght; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strateg...

  7. Evidence-based strategies in weight-loss mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin; Jojic, Mirjana; DeBiasse, Michele; Mann, Devin

    2013-11-01

    Physicians have limited time for weight-loss counseling, and there is a lack of resources to which they can refer patients for assistance with weight loss. Weight-loss mobile applications (apps) have the potential to be a helpful tool, but the extent to which they include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based interventions is unknown. The primary aims of the study were to determine the degree to which commercial weight-loss mobile apps include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based weight-loss interventions, and to identify features that enhance behavioral strategies via technology. Thirty weight-loss mobile apps, available on iPhone and/or Android platforms, were coded for whether they included any of 20 behavioral strategies derived from an evidence-based weight-loss program (i.e., Diabetes Prevention Program). Data on available apps were collected in January 2012; data were analyzed in June 2012. The apps included on average 18.83% (SD=13.24; range=0%-65%) of the 20 strategies. Seven of the strategies were not found in any app. The most common technology-enhanced features were barcode scanners (56.7%) and a social network (46.7%). Weight-loss mobile apps typically included only a minority of the behavioral strategies found in evidence-based weight-loss interventions. Behavioral strategies that help improve motivation, reduce stress, and assist with problem solving were missing across apps. Inclusion of additional strategies could make apps more helpful to users who have motivational challenges. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  8. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  9. Effect of weight loss on cellulite: gynoid lypodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Hicks, Matthew; Passeretti, David; Gersin, Keith; Kitzmiller, W John; Bakhsh, Adel; Wickett, R Randall; Whitestone, Jennifer; Visscher, Marty O

    2006-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) affects most women, and many seek plastic surgery consultation to improve appearance. Various products are offered, but the literature on the cause and treatment is limited. Understanding the biological and biophysical factors that affect severity may facilitate the development of effective therapies. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people who have lost significant weight as a result of bariatric surgery or medically supervised weight programs. The effect of weight loss on cellulite severity has not been systematically studied and remains a common patient concern. The authors hypothesized that cellulite severity would decrease with weight loss and subsequent decrease in subcutaneous fat in most subjects. The authors examined the cellulite changes in female subjects who were enrolled in medically supervised weight loss programs using quantitative surface roughness by three-dimensional laser surface scanning, tissue composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, dermal-subcutaneous structure with three-dimensional ultrasound, and tissue elasticity with biomechanical measurements. The majority of subjects had an improvement in cellulite with weight loss, but the condition worsened for others. Improvement was associated with significant reductions in weight and percentage of thigh fat, significantly higher starting body mass index, and significantly greater initial severity. Cellulite worsened with a significantly smaller starting body mass index, smaller reductions in weight accompanied by no change in percentage of thigh fat, and significant increases in tissue compliance. Cellulite is a complex condition, and treatments such as weight loss have variable effects on the improvement or worsening of this condition. Additional studies are required to understand how the factors that influence and modulate cellulite severity, particularly those at the level of the subcutaneous tissue septa, can be manipulated to

  10. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  11. Weight loss is superior to exercise in improving the atherogenic lipid profile in a sedentary, overweight population with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Anholm, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation are integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We aim to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and intensive exercise training on lipid atherogenicity and low-grade inflammation in a high-risk population with coronary artery...

  12. The cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome: therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Karin F; Jatoi, Aminah

    2005-07-01

    The cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome is characterized by loss of weight, loss of appetite, overall decline in quality of life, and shortened survival in patients with advanced incurable cancer. It is highly prevalent. To date, treatment options that have been firmly established with good scientific evidence are limited to progestational agents and corticosteroids, both of which have been demonstrated to improve appetite but have otherwise failed to have a favorable impact on some of the other aspects of this syndrome. As the mechanisms behind this syndrome are further elucidated, more effective therapeutic strategies will likely emerge.

  13. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  14. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murer, S.B.; Knopfli, B.H.; Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic i

  16. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murer, S.B.; Knopfli, B.H.; Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic i

  17. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murer, S.B.; Knopfli, B.H.; Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic

  18. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...... profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity...

  19. Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss In A Behavioral Weight Loss Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    body mass” (CDC, 2002; Stunkard & Wadden, 1993, p. 14). Excess body fat can be assessed by a variety of methods including skinfold thickness ...African American women. SPIRITUALITY AND WEIGHT LOSS 6 Table of Contents Abstract...45 Tables & Figures

  20. Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan, S H; Lobley, G E; Holtrop, G; Ince, J; Johnstone, A M; Louis, P; Flint, H J

    2008-01-01

    ...) in obese and non-obese subjects under conditions of weight maintenance, and in obese male volunteers undergoing weight loss on two different reduced carbohydrate weight-loss diets given successively for 4 weeks each...

  1. The impact of weight loss among seniors on Medicare spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Kenneth E; Yang, Zhou; Long, Kathleen M; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-03-20

    To examine the impact of temporary and permanent weight loss of 10% and 15% on 10-year and lifetime Medicare spending among adults with overweight and obesity aged 65 years and older. Weight loss of this magnitude is consistent with next generation anti-obesity medications recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We follow the approach of a longitudinal dynamic aging process model developed by our research team. This model considers the dynamic relationships between weight, chronic disease, acute medical events, functional status, mortality, health care utilization and spending among Medicare beneficiaries from age 65 until death. Using this model, we estimate baseline Medicare spending over the next decade and then over the lifetime of seniors with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 with at least one weight-related comorbidity (overweight), and seniors with obesity having a BMI ≥ 30 and ≥ 35. We then estimate Medicare spending for this population between ages 65 and 70 over the course of a year, assuming 10% and 15% weight loss under alternative scenarios: with and without weight regain. (Weight regain is assumed to be 90% over a 10-year period.) The difference in spending between baseline (no weight-loss intervention) and the alternative scenarios represent potential gross savings to the Medicare program. Permanent weight loss of 10 to 15% will yield $9,445 to $15,987 in gross per capita savings throughout their lifetime, and $8,070 to $13,474 over ten years. Similarly, initial weight loss of 10 to 15% followed by 90% weight regain will result in gross per capita savings of $7,556 to $11,109 over their lifetime, and $6,456 to $8,911 over ten years. Targeting weight loss medications to adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) produces greater savings to the Medicare program. Medicare can realize significant cost savings through anti-obesity medications that produce substantial weight loss, and as a result, reduce the progression to type 2 diabetes, and

  2. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  3. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  4. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R;

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  5. The relationship between prevalence and duration of weight loss strategies and weight loss among overweight managed care organization members enrolled in a weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.

  6. Cardiometabolic risk after weight loss and subsequent weight regain in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Daniel P; Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the cardiometabolic profile.

  7. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  8. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  9. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control.Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile.Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of normal

  10. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine Nyvold; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of weight loss surgery. Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY].Improved glucose metabolism after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy involves several mechanisms: early increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, resulting from reduced liver fat content in response to the postoperative caloric restriction, improved beta-cell function mediated by exaggerated postprandial GLP-1 secretion; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight loss. Changes in gut hormone secretion after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy surgery induce the beneficial effects on weight and glycemic control through the influence on appetite regulation and insulin secretion.

  11. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  12. Exercise for Weight Loss: Calories Burned in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Weight loss By Mayo Clinic Staff Being active is an important part of any weight-loss or weight-maintenance program. When you're active, ... may need to be decreased further to continue weight loss. Both are important. However, while diet has a ...

  13. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  14. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  15. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  16. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  17. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2010-03-25

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

  18. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  19. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Norton, Layne E

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain...

  20. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  1. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To ... have more questions or need help. Responsible, Safe Weight Loss If your health-care provider says you should ...

  2. Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162876.html Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds Quality-of-life boost seen ... 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Could weight loss combat psoriasis? Danish researchers are reporting that obese people with ...

  3. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients.......Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...

  4. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  5. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Weight Loss in Microemulsion with Eugenol Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R Laili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil has been widely used in many products. In this work, the location of the microemulsion region with eugenol was studied in two different surfactants namely sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS (ionic and Tween 80 (non-ionic. The phase diagrams were constructed for water/SDS:hexanol (30:70/eugenol oil and water/ Tween 80/ eugenol oil systems by titrating to turbidity. The result showed that microemulsion regions were present in both systems with the SDS:hexanol system formed a larger water-in-oil microemulsion region compared to Tween 80 system. In order to study the behaviour of the microemulsion with eugenol oil subjected to several conditions such as evaporation and rheology test, several weight ratios of eugenol oil to surfactants were studied. The weight loss during evaporation was carried under ambient condition. The rheological behaviour was also observed in both systems. The evaporation rate for the microemulsion with SDS was found to be higher than the equivalent counterpart but with Tween 80. The rheology study showed that the flow is of Newtonian behaviour with little or no shear thinning

  8. Weight loss is superior to exercise in improving the atherogenic lipid profile in a sedentary, overweight population with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Anholm, Christian

    2016-01-01

    maintenance diet. Lipid profile atherogenicity was described using lipoprotein particle size and density profiling. Low-grade inflammation was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor. RESULTS: Twenty-six (74%) AIT......BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation are integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We aim to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and intensive exercise training on lipid atherogenicity and low-grade inflammation in a high-risk population with coronary artery...... profile curve. LED was superior to AIT in decreasing atherogenicity reflected by increased LDL (between-group: 1.0 Å {0.4; 1.7},P = 0.003) and high-density lipoprotein (between-group: 1.2 Å {0.2; 2.4},P = 0.026) particle size and a decreased proportion of total lipoprotein constituted by the small, dense...

  9. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship...... between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10.......79 (SE, 0.02) (P calorie diet; but mitochondrial function decreased, and IMTG remained unchanged. Our results do not support a direct relationship between mitochondrial function and insulin...

  10. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  11. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  12. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. C. Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1 Cafeteria diet; (2 Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg; and (3 Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides (TG (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment.

  13. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabiana M. C.; Lima, Vanessa C. O.; Costa, Izael S.; Medeiros, Amanda F.; Serquiz, Alexandre C.; Lima, Maíra C. J. S.; Serquiz, Raphael P.; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Uchôa, Adriana F.; Santos, Elizeu A.; Morais, Ana H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI) in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1) Cafeteria diet; (2) Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg); and (3) Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) (Kruskal–Wallis, p cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment. PMID:27690087

  14. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active.

  15. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hollywood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  16. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  17. Fasting glycemia: a good predictor of weight loss after RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Gil; Preto, John; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Guimarães, João Tiago; Calhau, Conceição; Taveira-Gomes, António

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative prediction of weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) could help surgeons in managing surgical lists and patients' expectations. The objective of this study was to understand if preoperative metabolic control might improve surgical results. Prospective cohort of 163 consecutive patients who underwent RYGB with at least 1 year of follow-up. Most patients were female (90.2%), with a mean age of 38 (19-60) and a BMI of 46.0 (34.3-59.9) kg/m(2). After 12 months, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.7 kg/m(2) (21.5-39.9) with a corresponding percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL) of 78.8% and a percentage of weight loss (%WL) of 35.1%. Patients with the highest preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) were older (42 versus 36; Pmetabolic syndrome (89% versus 25%; Presponse effect with increasing FBG (100, were the only variables related (inversely) with the probability of achieving a %EWL>80 or %WL>35. This effect was not detected in patients receiving oral antidiabetic medications. Higher preoperative FBG is independently related to a poorer weight loss 12 months after RYGB; this suggests the need to offer earlier surgical intervention for severely obese patients with impairment of glucose metabolism. The potential for less weight loss in patients with a higher FBG should not discourage RYGB, given the significant metabolic improvement after surgery. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  18. High-intensity interval training without weight loss improves exercise but not basal or insulin-induced metabolism in overweight/obese African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Avigdor D; DiMenna, Fred J; Thomas, Naketa; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline; Weil, Richard; Geliebter, Allan; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 14-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention with weight stability on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, premenopausal, nondiabetic, overweight/obese African American women. Twenty-eight subjects were allocated to one of two groups: HIIT, which performed three sessions per week of four high-intensity cycling intervals, or a control group (CON), which maintained their normal level of physical activity. Diet was controlled for all subjects to ensure weight stability. Pre- and postintervention (pre/post), subjects completed an incremental cycling test to limit of tolerance and, following a 10-day high-fat controlled feeding period, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation. Nine members of HIIT (age, 29 ± 4 yr; body mass, 90.1 ± 13.8 kg) and eleven members of CON (age, 30 ± 7 yr; body mass, 85.5 ± 10.7 kg) completed the study. HIIT experienced an increased limit of tolerance (post, 1,124 ± 202 s; pre, 987 ± 146 s; P exchange threshold (post, 1.29 ± 0.34 liters/min; pre, 0.97 ± 0.23 liters/min; P rate compared with CON (P flexibility were not different in HIIT compared with CON. High-intensity interval training with weight stability increased exercise fat oxidation and tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetic progression, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or fat oxidation in the postabsorptive or insulin-stimulated state.

  19. Assessing Improvement in Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction following Body Contouring Surgery in Patients with Massive Weight Loss: A Critical Review of Outcome Measures Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body contouring following massive weight loss is a rapidly expanding field in plastic surgery. However, healthcare payers are reluctant to fund such procedures, viewing them as purely cosmetic. This has resulted in a flurry of studies assessing quality of life (QoL and patient satisfaction following body contouring surgery in this cohort of patients to establish an evidence base to support the idea that body contouring is as much (or even more a functional procedure as it is cosmetic. However, the methods employed in these studies are seldom ideal, and hence the conclusions are unreliable. The gold standard to assess QoL and patient satisfaction is to use patient specific psychometrically validated patient reported outcome (PRO measures. Developing such measures consists of a three-step process which includes a review of the current literature, qualitative patient interviews to determine what patients consider the most important, and expert opinion. This study aims to appraise the currently available literature on assessment of QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring surgery patients. This will hopefully provide an understanding of methodological weaknesses in current studies and inform future investigators of the design of ideal instruments for assessing QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring patients.

  20. Resolution of NASH with weight loss documented by hepatic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vasvi; Luthra, Saurav; Elajami, Tarec K; Welty, Francine K

    2015-01-06

    A 57-year-old Asian woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia and history of breast cancer, was referred to the cardiovascular health and lipid centre for evaluation and management of dyslipidaemia and NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) in 2010. She originally had a detailed work up at the liver clinic for elevated liver enzymes, with no associated symptoms. Initial hepatic MRI on 22 January 2007 showed diffuse fatty infiltration quantitated at 15%. We counselled her on lifestyle modifications, including dietary measures and exercise, geared toward weight loss. Over the next 2 years, she lost 24.5 lbs; repeat hepatic MRI on 22 December 2011 showed 6% hepatic fat, which is within the normal range. This case demonstrates the efficacy of significant weight loss in the improvement and resolution of NASH. We believe that this is the first case report documenting this through liver MRI. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  2. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients....

  3. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman; Leila Azadbakht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight re...

  4. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  5. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitger, Anne D.; Stallknecht, Bente M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogs during a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness and better preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone...... (as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone. We hypothesized that dogs having exercise added to the weight loss program would have a lower heart rate during exercise, compared...... with the preintervention value, and lesser loss of lean body mass, compared with that for dogs undergoing caloric restriction alone....

  6. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  7. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  8. Intentional weight loss and mortality among initially healthy men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mette K; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B

    2008-01-01

    Most prospective observational studies suggest that weight loss increases the risk of premature death among obese individuals. This is surprising because clinical studies show that weight loss generally leads to overall improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. It is sometimes argued that the ......Most prospective observational studies suggest that weight loss increases the risk of premature death among obese individuals. This is surprising because clinical studies show that weight loss generally leads to overall improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. It is sometimes argued...... that the increased mortality observed with weight loss must depend on confounding or poor study designs. This review was conducted to summarize results from studies on intentional weight loss and mortality among healthy individuals, while carefully considering the designs and problems in these studies. Evaluation...

  9. Changes in breathing and the pharynx after weight loss in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C

    1987-10-01

    The effect of weight loss following dietary restriction on disordered breathing on the pharyngeal airway is controversial in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We therefore prospectively studied eight patients before and after dietary-induced weight loss. Mean weight loss was 20.6 kg +/- 12.8 SD. After weight loss there were significant improvements in PO2 and PCO2 measured during wakefulness, and in the number of desaturation episodes per hour of sleep, average desaturation per episode, and number of movement arousals. The number of apneas and hypopneas significantly decreased in six of eight patients. There was a significant correlation between body mass index and number of disordered breathing events. Nasopharyngeal collapsibility and pulse flow resistance decreased in awake patients after weight loss. We conclude that moderate weight loss in obese patients with OSA improves oxygenation during both sleep and wakefulness, decreases the number of disordered breathing events in many patients, decreases the collapsibility of the nasopharyngeal airway.

  10. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  11. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  12. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  13. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more p

  14. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  15. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  16. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  17. Reliable Change in Depression during Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment among Women with Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Jessica L Oleski; Sybil L. Crawford; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. We examined rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to beh...

  18. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... restriction (P weight loss (r = 0.32; P obesity and associated with body fat distribution, suggesting...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  19. Improvements in insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise and weight loss in older women with a history of gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether a hypocaloric diet alone (WL) or with exercise training (AEX + WL) is effective in improving body composition, fitness, glucose utilization and CVD risk factors in sedentary women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) and with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Longitudinal clinical investigation of 25 overweight/obese (BMI: 32 ± 1 kg/m(2)) women (59 ± 1 yrs) with a GDM history (n = 20) or T2DM (n = 5). Women completed 6 months WL (n = 10) or AEX+WL (n = 15) with VO2max, body composition, and glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity was measured during the last 30 min of 2 h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU·m(-2.)min(-1)) before and after interventions. Body weight decreased ~7% after WL and AEX+WL (p insulin AUC after AEX + WL (p insulin sensitivity in older women who had previously been diagnosed with GDM and those with T2DM. These findings should encourage women with a history of GDM to engage in an active lifestyle and reduce caloric intake to lower the risk for the development of T2DM.

  20. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  2. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  3. Getting Past a Weight-Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose weight, you lose some muscle along with fat. Muscle helps keep the rate at which you burn ... more calories. Adding exercises such as weightlifting to increase your muscle mass will help you burn more calories. Pack ...

  4. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n=11 and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n=9. Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  5. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials.

  6. Internet-Based Weight Control: The Relationship Between Web Features and Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Thomas, Colleen S.; Micco, Nicci

    2008-01-01

    Internet-based weight control programs have been showing promising results; however, as of yet, it is unclear which website components are critical for producing and maintaining weight loss. The aim of this study is to examine the utilization patterns of a weight control website and the relationship of the Web features to weight loss and maintenance. One hundred and twenty three (N = 123) participants took part in a 12-month behavioral weight control program over the Internet and their websit...

  7. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M

    2014-01-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owin...

  8. Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A.; Powers, Theodore A.; Koestner, Richard; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. PMID:23730718

  9. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  10. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  11. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  12. Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161700.html Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens Boosts ... 26, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgeries can help severely obese teens shed pounds. ...

  13. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161748.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications Women ... Oct. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who undergo weight-loss surgery gain major benefits when it comes to ...

  14. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  15. Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165663.html Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse? Patients who undergo ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After a popular type of weight-loss surgery, nearly 21 percent of patients develop a ...

  16. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  17. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  18. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  19. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  20. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  2. Weight-loss programs still fatten profits despite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, H

    1990-04-01

    Why are hospitals interested in weight-loss programs? Low start-up costs, combined with a high demand for services, mean almost instant profits in some cases. And in an increasingly competitive market, hospital affiliation seems to be an advantage. But experts say that word of mouth is the best promotion for weight-loss programs, which means that patients must lose weight and keep the pounds off. That's why hospitals have found that patient education is integral to a successful program.

  3. The utility of weight loss medications after bariatric surgery for weight regain or inadequate weight loss: A multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Alfaris, Nasreen; Gomez, Gricelda; Ricks, Elizabeth T; Shukla, Alpana P; Corey, Kathleen E; Pratt, Janey S; Pomp, Alfons; Rubino, Francesco; Aronne, Louis J

    2017-03-01

    Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Two academic medical centers. We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  5. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  6. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  7. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings.

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jens-Christian, Holm; Michael, Gamborg; Leigh, Ward

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program......, and 68 children entered a follow-up program spanning 28 months. Measurements were performed at baseline and day 82 as well as at months 10, 16, and 28. Height, weight, body composition, Tanner stages, testicular size, and serum concentrations of leptin, and insulin were measured at all time points....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin...

  9. Is social support associated with greater weight loss after bariatric surgery?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livhits, M; Mercado, C; Yermilov, I; Parikh, J A; Dutson, E; Mehran, A; Ko, C Y; Shekelle, P G; Gibbons, M M

    2011-02-01

    Social support may be associated with increased weight loss after bariatric surgery. The objective of this article is to determine impact of post-operative support groups and other forms of social support on weight loss after bariatric surgery. MEDLINE search (1988-2009) was completed using MeSH terms including bariatric procedures and a spectrum of patient factors with potential relationship to weight loss outcomes. Of the 934 screened studies, 10 reported on social support and weight loss outcomes. Five studies reported on support groups and five studies reported on other forms of social support (such as perceived family support or number of confidants) and degree of post-operative weight loss (total n = 735 patients). All studies found a positive association between post-operative support groups and weight loss. One study found a positive association between marital status (being single) and weight loss, while three studies found a non-significant positive trend and one study was inconclusive. Support group attendance after bariatric surgery is associated with greater post-operative weight loss. Further research is necessary to determine the impact of other forms of social support. These factors should be addressed in prospective studies of weight loss following bariatric surgery, as they may represent ways to improve post-operative outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Caffeine treatment prevented from weight regain after calorie shifting diet induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p after 4-weeks of CSD (p after week 7 (p caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet.

  11. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Obino KF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss

  12. Association of Weight Loss Maintenance and Weight Regain on 4-Year Changes in CVD Risk Factors: the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Short-term weight loss improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We sought to determine the longer-term effects of maintaining weight loss or, conversely, regaining weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD), a randomized trial of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared to a control condition in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ILI participants were grouped according to weight change patterns, as follows: 1) no weight loss (±3% at years 1 and 4); 2) moderate weight loss (3–8% at years 1 and 4); 3) large weight loss (8–20% at years 1 and 4); 4) moderate loss/full regain (3–8% at year 1/±3% at year 4); 5) large loss/full regain (8–20% at year 1/± 3% year 4); and 6) large loss/partial regain (8–20% at year 1/3–8% at year 4) and changes in CVD risk factors were compared. RESULTS Adjusting for baseline differences and medication use, larger weight losses produced greater improvements in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides at years 1 and 4 (all P ≤ 0.02). Despite maintenance of weight loss, HbA1c levels worsened between years 1 and 4, and remained below baseline only in those with large weight losses. We found no negative associations of losing and regaining weight relative to not having lost weight. Moreover, those who had large initial weight loss but full regain of weight had greater improvements in HbA1c levels at year 4 than those with smaller or no initial weight loss. CONCLUSIONS Larger initial weight loss should be encouraged in individuals with type 2 diabetes, despite the possibility of regain. PMID:27271190

  13. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  14. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...

  15. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    the primary and sensitivity analysis results. While this suggests that, on average, clinically important weight loss may be achieved, further research is required to evaluate the efficacy of this commercial Web-based weight loss program prospectively using objective measures. The potential association between greater website use and increased weight loss also requires further evaluation, as strategies to improve participants' use of Web-based program features may be required.

  16. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin to notice other benefits. Improved sleep and self-esteem might be a couple of them. Other benefits ... good start. You can also try joining a dance, yoga, or karate class. You could also join ...

  17. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments for Individuals with Migraine and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Cynthia; Bond, Dale S; Seng, Elizabeth K

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and obesity are each prevalent disorders involving significant personal and societal burden. Epidemiologic research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity that is further substantiated by putative behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological mechanisms. As obesity is considered a modifiable risk factor for exacerbation of migraine, weight loss may be a particularly useful treatment option for people with comorbid migraine and obesity. Behavioral weight loss interventions complement existing behavioral treatments for migraine and offer patients evidence-based effective strategies for achieving weight loss that could help reduce frequency, severity, and impact of migraine attacks.

  18. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  19. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason A Spector; Steven M Levine; Nolan S Karp

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful.As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment.

  20. Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, M; Morgan, P J; Jones, P R; Collins, C E

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the effectiveness of web-based interventions on weight loss and maintenance and identify which components of web-based interventions are associated with greater weight change and low attrition rates. A literature search from 1995 to April 2008 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were aged >or=18 years with a body mass index >or=25, at least one study arm involved a web-based intervention with the primary aim of weight loss or maintenance, and reported weight-related outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies aimed to achieve weight loss, and five focused on weight maintenance. Heterogeneity was evident among the studies with seven research questions examined across interventions of varying intensity. Seven studies were assessed for effectiveness based on percentage weight change, with four studies deemed effective. Although the four meta-analyses suggest meaningful weight change, it is not possible to determine the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance due to heterogeneity of designs and thus the small number of comparable studies. Higher usage of website features may be associated with positive weight change, but we do not know what features improve this effect or reduce attrition.

  1. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  2. Randomized trial of tapas acupressure technique for weight loss maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Charles R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an urgent public health problem, yet only a few clinical trials have systematically tested the efficacy of long-term weight-loss maintenance interventions. This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a novel mind and body technique for weight-loss maintenance. Methods Participants were obese adults who had completed a six-month behavioral weight-loss program prior to randomization. Those who successfully lost weight were randomized into either an experimental weight-loss maintenance intervention, Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT®, or a control intervention comprised of social-support group meetings (SS led by professional facilitators. TAT combines self-applied light pressure to specific acupressure points accompanied by a prescribed sequence of mental steps. Participants in both maintenance conditions attended eight group sessions over six months of active weight loss maintenance intervention, followed by an additional 6 months of no intervention. The main outcome measure was change in weight from the beginning of the weight loss maintenance intervention to 12 months later. Secondary outcomes were change in depression, stress, insomnia, and quality of life. We used analysis of covariance as the primary analysis method. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. Results Among 285 randomized participants, 79% were female, mean age was 56 (standard deviation (sd = 11, mean BMI at randomization was 34 (sd = 5, and mean initial weight loss was 9.8 kg (sd = 5. In the primary outcome model, there was no significant difference in weight regain between the two arms (1.72 kg (se 0.85 weight regain for TAT and 2.96 kg (se 0.96 weight regain for SS, p post hoc tests showing that greater initial weight loss was associated with more weight regain for SS but less weight regain for TAT. Conclusions The primary analysis showed no significant difference in weight regain between TAT and SS, while secondary

  3. Psychosocial predictors of weight loss and psychological adjustment following bariatric surgery and a weight-loss program: the mediating role of emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Berry, Elliot M; Elizur, Yoel

    2009-03-01

    To examine a structural equation model of the effects of personal and interpersonal factors on treatment outcome of bariatric surgery and weight-loss program. Forty-four participants of the surgery group and 47 participants of the diet group completed questionnaires before treatment and 1 year afterward. Predictor measures are as follows: social support, motivation for control, sense of control, self-esteem, neuroticism, fear of intimacy, and emotional eating (EE). Weight loss, quality of life, and mental health. Neurotic predisposition (NP), a latent variable indicated by neuroticism, low self-esteem, and fear of intimacy, had an effect on weight loss that was fully mediated by EE. NP also had an effect on quality of life improvement that was fully mediated by EE and weight loss in both treatment groups. Both NP and EE predict outcome of obesity treatments, but EE is the more proximal variable that mediates the effect of NP.

  4. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  5. Involuntary weight loss in elderly individuals: assessment and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Moriguti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The loss of body weight and fat late in life is associated with premature death and increased risk of disability, even after excluding elderly subjects who have a preexisting disease. Although it is important to recognize that periods of substantially positive or negative energy balance and body weight fluctuation occur as a normal part of life, weight losses greater than 5% over 6 months should be investigated. We can divide the major causes of weight loss in the elderly into 4 categories: social, psychiatric, due to medical conditions, and age-related. The clinical evaluation should include a careful history and physical examination. If these fail to provide clues to the weight loss, simple diagnostic tests are indicated. A period of watchful waiting is preferable to blind pursuit of additional diagnostic testing that may yield few useful data, if the results of these initial tests are normal. The first step in managing patients with weight loss is to identify and treat any specific causative or contributing conditions and to provide nutritional support when indicated. Non-orexigenic drugs have found an established place in the management of protein-energy malnutrition. Early attention to nutrition and prevention of weight loss during periods of acute stress, particularly during hospitalization, may be extremely important, as efforts directed at re-feeding are often unsuccessful. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  6. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  7. Enriched Environment-induced Maternal Weight Loss Reprograms Metabolic Gene Expression in Mouse Offspring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of weight loss is increasing, especially in young women. However, the extent and mechanisms by which maternal weight loss affects the offspring is still poorly understood. Here, using an enriched environment (EE)-induced weight loss model, we show that maternal weight loss improves general health and reprograms metabolic gene expression in mouse offspring, and the epigenetic alterations can be inherited for at least two generations. EE in mothers induced weight loss and its associated physiological and metabolic changes such as decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their offspring exhibited improved general health such as reduced fat accumulation, decreased plasma and hepatic lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Maternal weight loss altered gene expression patterns in the liver of offspring with coherent down-regulation of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Epigenomic profiling of offspring livers revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on maternal weight loss, including reproducible changes in promoter methylation over several key lipid biosynthesis genes, correlated with their expression patterns. Embryo transfer studies indicated that oocyte alteration in response to maternal metabolic conditions is a strong factor in determining metabolic and epigenetic changes in offspring. Several important lipid metabolism-related genes have been identified to partially inherit methylated alleles from oocytes. Our study reveals a molecular and mechanistic basis of how maternal lifestyle modification affects metabolic changes in the offspring. PMID:25555918

  8. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, M L; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Porter, J S; Martin, I K; Odoms-Young, A; Sharp, L K

    2012-03-01

    The excess burden of obesity among African-American women is well documented. However, the behavioural weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioural weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for African-American women. The criteria for inclusion included (i) participants age ≥18 years; (ii) a behavioural weight loss intervention; (iii) weight as an outcome variable; (iv) inclusion of African-American women; and (v) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that more intensive randomized behavioural weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for African-American women. Still, African-American women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioural weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviours for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.

  9. Biochemical parameters response to weight loss in patients with non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Weight loss modulates insulin resistance, adiponectin, leptin, inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of ..... had significant change in levels of AST and ALT from baseline .... World Health Organization: Diet, Nutrition and the.

  10. Weight Loss: Choosing a Diet That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples: Ornish, Pritikin Flexible? No. Total fat and saturated fat are limited. Because even lean cuts of meat, ... of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review of randomized controlled ...

  11. Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165987.html Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries Better diversity ... Specifically, the procedure leads to increased diversity of bacteria in the gut, and a microbial population distinct ...

  12. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else M; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...

  13. Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162874.html Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss ... row, U.S. News & World Report has named the plant-based eating plan as the best choice overall, ...

  14. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  15. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  16. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    all independent predictors of 6-month weight loss and reduced the model fit by only 11%. The high success group lost weight faster and maintained weight loss more efficiently than the other groups (Pweight loss was associated with weight maintenance after 1 year and 2 years (both PWeight dynamics did not differ between men and women over 6 months when adjusted for baseline and usage parameters (P=.91). The percentage of male long-term users was unusually high (42.2%). Conclusions Our results suggest that early weight loss and close program adherence (ie, 5 dietary protocols per week and weekly entering of current weight), especially in the early phase of program usage, can improve weight loss outcome. PMID:24126250

  17. The impact of weight loss among seniors on Medicare spending

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Kenneth E.; Yang, Zhou; Long, Kathleen M.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of temporary and permanent weight loss of 10% and 15% on 10-year and lifetime Medicare spending among adults with overweight and obesity aged 65 years and older. Weight loss of this magnitude is consistent with next generation anti-obesity medications recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Methods: We follow the approach of a longitudinal dynamic aging process model developed by our research team. This model considers the dynamic relationships ...

  18. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orreality.

  19. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    OpenAIRE

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orre...

  20. A randomized trial testing a contingency-based weight loss intervention involving social reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Thomas, John G; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Wing, Rena R

    2012-02-01

    Even though behavioral weight loss interventions are conducted in groups, a social contingency (SC) paradigm that capitalizes on the social reinforcement potential of the weight loss group has never been tested. We tested a weight loss intervention in which participation in the weight loss group was contingent upon meeting periodic weight goals. We hypothesized that making access to the group dependent upon weight loss would improve weight outcomes. Participants (N = 62; 84% female; 94% white; age = 51.9 ± 9.0; BMI = 34.7 ± 4.5) were randomized to 6-months of standard behavioral weight loss (SBWL) or to a behavioral program that included a SC paradigm. Both groups engaged in social cohesion activities. Participants in SC who did not meet weight goals did not attend group meetings; instead, they received individual treatment with a new interventionist and returned to group once their weight goals were met. SC did not improve overall weight loss outcomes (SC: -10.0 ± 4.9 kg, SBWL: -10.8 ± 6.4 kg, P = 0.63). Similarly, overall weight loss was not significantly different in the subgroup of participants in the SC and SBWL conditions who did not meet periodic weight loss goals (-7.3 ± 4.1 kg vs. -7.1 ± 3.5 kg, P = 0.90). Surprisingly, "successful" SC participants (who met their weight goals) actually lost less weight than "successful" SBWL participants (-12.4 ± 3.2 kg vs. -14.5 ± 4.7 kg, P = 0.02). Whereas contingency-based treatments have been tested for other health behaviors (e.g., substance abuse), this is the first study to test a SC intervention for weight loss. This approach did not improve overall weight loss outcomes. Our attempt to offer appropriate clinical care by providing individual treatment to SC participants when needed may have mitigated the effects of the SC paradigm.

  1. The Relationship Between Intuitive Eating and Postpartum Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Katie; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Banks, Gabrielle G; Bachman, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to determine the relationship between IE, breastfeeding, weight gain during pregnancy, and postpartum weight trajectories. Results Participants (n = 50) were 28.5 ± 4.9 years old, had an average pre-pregnancy BMI of 26.4 ± 6.8 and the majority were married, and non-Hispanic white. The conditional model revealed that more intuitive eating practices predicted greater postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.10, p < .05) when controlling for breastfeeding duration, exercise duration, and initial BMI and pregnancy BMI changes. Greater pregnancy BMI increases were associated with more rapid postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.34, p < .001) while breastfeeding duration, exercise and initial BMI were not related. Conclusions for Practice Postpartum weight retention is a challenge for many women. Following a more intuitive eating approach to food consumption may encourage postpartum weight loss without the required weighing, measuring, recording and assessing dietary intake that is required of traditional weight loss programs. IE could offer an alternative approach that may be less arduous for new mothers.

  2. Postoperative Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery: Effect on Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Kasten, Kevin R; Celio, Adam; Burruss, Matthew B; Pories, Walter J

    2016-04-01

    While adherence to long-term follow-up after bariatric surgery is a mandate for center of excellence certification, the effect of attrition on weight loss is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of postoperative follow-up on 12-month weight loss using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) dataset. Patients with complete follow-up (3, 6, and 12 months) were compared to patients who had one or more prior missed visits. There were 51,081 patients with 12-month follow-up data available. After controlling for baseline characteristics, complete follow-up was independently associated with excess weight loss ≥50%, and total weight loss ≥30%. Adherence to postoperative follow-up is independently associated with improved 12-month weight loss after bariatric surgery. Bariatric programs should strive to achieve complete follow-up for all patients.

  3. Adaptations of leptin, ghrelin or insulin during weight loss as predictors of weight regain: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohacker, K; McCaffery, J M; MacLean, P S; Wing, R R

    2014-03-01

    Numerous laboratory studies involving both animal and human models indicate that weight loss induces changes in leptin, ghrelin and insulin sensitivity, which work to promote weight regain. It is unclear, however, whether these biological changes serve as a biomarker for predicting weight regain in free-living humans in which biological, behavioral and environmental factors are likely at play. We identified 12 studies published between January 1995 and December 2011 that reported changes in leptin, ghrelin or insulin during intentional weight loss with a follow-up period to assess regain. Two of the nine studies examining leptin suggested that larger decreases were associated with greater regain, three studies found the opposite (smaller decreases were associated with greater regain), whereas four studies found no significant relationship; none of the studies supported the hypothesis that increases in ghrelin during weight loss were associated with regain. One study suggested that improvements in insulin resistance were associated with weight gain, but five subsequent studies reported no association. Changes in leptin, ghrelin or insulin sensitivity, taken alone, are not sufficient to predict weight regain following weight loss in free-living humans. In future studies, it is important to include a combination of physiological, behavioral and environmental variables in order to identify subgroups at greatest risk of weight regain.

  4. Effects of metformin on weight loss: potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2014-10-01

    Despite the known glucose-lowering effects of metformin, more recent clinical interest lies in its potential as a weight loss drug. Herein, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which metformin decreases appetite and opposes unfavorable fat storage in peripheral tissues. Many individuals struggle to maintain clinically relevant weight loss from lifestyle and bariatric surgery interventions. Long-term follow-up from the Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrates that metformin produces durable weight loss, and decreased food intake by metformin is the primary weight loss mechanism. Although the effect of metformin on appetite is likely to be multifactorial, changes in hypothalamic physiology, including leptin and insulin sensitivity, have been documented. In addition, novel work in obesity highlights the gastrointestinal physiology and circadian rhythm changes by metformin as not only affecting food intake, but also the regulation of fat oxidation and storage in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Metformin induces modest weight loss in overweight and obese individuals at risk for diabetes. A more detailed understanding of how metformin induces weight loss will likely lead to optimal co-prescription of lifestyle modification with pharmacology for the treatment of obesity independent of diabetes.

  5. Leisure-time activity is an important determinant of long-term weight maintenance after weight loss in the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (STORM trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Baak, Marleen A; van Mil, Edgar; Astrup, Arne V

    2003-01-01

    The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified.......The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified....

  6. A twin study of weight loss and metabolic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Stunkard, A; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Allison, D B

    2001-04-01

    To assess the genetic contribution to determinants of therapeutic weight loss in obese female identical twins. Subjects were studied for 40 days on an inpatient unit in three phases: 7 baseline days; 28 days of weight reduction by a very low calorie diet (1.6 MJ per day); and 5 days after weight reduction. Fourteen pairs of premenopausal obese female identical twins (age: 39.0+/-1.7 y; body weight (BW): 93.9+/-21.2 kg; body mass index (BMI): 34.2+/-7.8 kg/m2). : Body composition by hydrodensitometry and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were assessed before and after weight loss. : There was great variability among pairs in loss of weight (5.9-12.4 kg) and body fat (3.1-12.4 kg). By contrast, the intraclass correlation (ICC) within twin pairs was 0.85, P<0.001 for weight and 0.88, P<0.001 for body fat. A measure of metabolic efficiency, calculated as the difference between 'estimated' and 'measured' energy deficit showed high intrapair correlation (ICC=0.77; P<0.001). The high correlation in metabolic efficiency within twin pairs in response to therapeutic weight loss suggests a strong genetic contribution.

  7. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  8. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  9. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  10. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body

  11. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  12. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Tylka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma. Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure, behavioral (e.g., binge eating, and psychological (e.g., depression indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community.

  13. Can't wait to lose weight? Characterizing temporal discounting parameters for weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is often related to steeper temporal discounting, that is, higher decision impulsivity for immediate rewards over delayed rewards. However, previous studies have measured temporal discounting parameters through monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to develop a temporal discounting measure based on weight-loss rewards, which may help to understand decision-making mechanisms more closely related to body weight regulation. After having their heights and weights measured, healthy young adults completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and an adapted version of the MCQ, with weight-loss as a reward. Participants also completed self-reports that measure obesity-related cognitive variables. For 42 participants who expressed a desire to lose weight, weight-loss rewards were discounted over time and had a positive correlation with temporal discounting for monetary rewards. Higher temporal discounting for weight loss rewards (i.e., preference for immediate weight loss) showed correlations with beliefs that obesity is under obese persons' control and largely due to lack of willpower, while temporal discounting parameters for monetary rewards did not. Taken together, our weight loss temporal discounting measure demonstrated both convergent and divergent validity, which can be utilized for future obesity research and interventions.

  14. Relationship between sleep quality and quantity and weight loss in women participating in a weight-loss intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Morrow, Kelly L; Flatt, Shirley W; Wertheim, Betsy C; Perfect, Michelle M; Ravia, Jennifer J; Sherwood, Nancy E; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L

    2012-07-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep characteristics and weight loss in overweight or obese women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a weight-loss program. We hypothesized that in overweight/obese women, significant weight loss would be demonstrated more frequently in women who report a better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global Score or sleep >7 h/night as compared to women who report a worse PSQI score or sleep ≤7 h/night. Women of ages 45.5 ± 10.4 (mean ± SD) years and BMI of 33.9 ± 3.3 (n = 245) were randomized and completed PSQI at baseline and 6 months; 198 had weight change assessed through 24 months. At baseline, 52.7% reported PSQI scores above the clinical cutoff of 5. Better subjective sleep quality increased the likelihood of weight-loss success by 33% (relative risk (RR), 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.86), as did sleeping >7 h/night. A worse Global Score at 6 months was associated with a 28% lower likelihood of continued successful weight loss at 18 months, but unassociated by 24 months. These results suggest that sleep quality and quantity may contribute to weight loss in intervention-based studies designed to promote weight control in overweight/obese adult women.

  15. Weight loss and exercise training effect on oxygen uptake and heart rate response to locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Bryan, David R; Zuckerman, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of resistance and aerobic training on the ease of physical activity during and after weight loss are unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine what effect weight loss combined with either aerobic or resistance training has on the ease of locomotion (net V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and heart rate). It is hypothesized that exercise training will result in an increased ease, lowers heart rate during locomotion. Seventy-three overweight premenopausal women were assigned to diet and aerobic training, diet and resistance training, or diet only. Subjects were evaluated while overweight, after diet-induced weight loss (average, 12.5 kg loss), and 1 year after weight loss (5.5 kg regain). Submaximal walking, grade walking, stair climbing, and bike oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured at all time points. Weight loss diet was 800 kcal per day. Exercisers trained 3 times per week during weight loss and 2 times per week during 1-year follow-up. Resistance training increased strength, and aerobic training increased maximum oxygen uptake. Net submaximal oxygen uptake was not affected by weight loss or exercise training. However, heart rate during walking, stair climbing, and bicycling was reduced after weight loss. No significant differences in reduction in heart rate were observed among the 3 treatment groups for locomotion after weight loss. However, during 1-year follow-up, exercise training resulted in maintenance of lower submaximal heart rate, whereas nonexercisers increased heart rate during locomotion. Results suggest that moderately intense exercise is helpful in improving the ease of movement after weight loss. Exercise training may be helpful in increasing the participation in free-living physical activity.

  16. Factors predictive of drop-out and weight loss success in weight management of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžiabdić, M Ortner; Mucalo, I; Hrabač, P; Matić, T; Rahelić, D; Božikov, V

    2015-02-01

    The prevention and treatment of overweight and obese individuals on a population-wide basis is challenging because patients have difficulties with adhering to weight loss programmes. The present study aimed to evaluate patients' adherence to the weight reduction programme by identifying factors predictive of both drop-out rate and weight loss success. One-hundred and twenty-four obese patients participated in a 12-month weight reduction programme, involving group therapy during an intensive 5-day educational intervention, followed by five, 2-h follow-up visits. The primary outcome measures included drop-out rate and percentage weight loss. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as type of diet, were explored as potential predictive factors. Type of diet was assigned based on randomisation. Regression analyses were conducted to identify predictive variables of drop-out and weight loss success. In total, 33.1% of all recruited participants were deemed successful because they reduced the initial weight by more than 5% after the 12-month intervention. The overall attrition rate was 32.3%. In a multiple regression model, initial weight loss and marital status were the strongest predictors of weight loss success after 1-year period (r(2) = 0.481, P drop-out were those with a lower educational level [odds ratio (OR) = 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-8.70, P = 0.018] and a higher level of obesity (OR = 0.974, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99, P = 0.010). The present study demonstrates that initial weight loss at 1 month made the strongest unique contribution to the prediction of percentage weight loss after 12 months, whereas being married was a negative predictor. Those with a lower educational level and a higher level of obesity were more likely to drop-out. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Is it the resistance training itself or the combined associated weight loss that improves the metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyluk O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Soyluk,1 Gulistan Bahat21Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the article entitled “Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women” by Oliveira et al1 with great interest. In the study, the authors examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. They reported that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were all significantly reduced with RT (P<0.01. Accordingly, they concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. View original paper by Oliveira and colleagues.

  18. Psychological predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regardto a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological...... factors are thought to play animportant role for maintaining the surgical weight loss. However, results from priorresearch examining preoperative psychological predictors of weight loss outcomeare inconsistent. The aim of this article was to review more recent literature onpsychological predictors...... studies published after 2003 were included.Results: 19 eligible studies were identified. Psychological predictors of surgicalweight loss investigated in the reviewed studies include cognitive function, per-sonality, psychiatric disorder, and eating behaviour....

  19. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  20. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. PMID:25614203

  1. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-02-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity reviews © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain.

  3. Improved frequency standard via weighted graph states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2012-01-01

    We study the spin squeezing property of weighted graph states,which can be used to improve sensitivity in interferometry.We study the time evolution of spin squeezing under local decoherence acting independently on each qubit.Based on the analysis,the spin squeezing of the weighted graph states is somehow robust in the presence of decoherence and the decoherence limit in the improvement of the interferometric sensitivity is still achievable.Furthermore,one can obtain the optimal improvement of sensitivity by tuning the weighted of each edges of the weighted graph state.

  4. Cardiometabolic results from an armband-based weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverdes JC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available John C Sieverdes, Xuemei Sui, Gregory A Hand, Vaughn W Barry, Sara Wilcox, Rebecca A Meriwether, James W Hardin, Amanda C McClain, Steven N BlairDepartment of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: This report examines the blood chemistry and blood pressure (BP results from the Lifestyle Education for Activity and Nutrition (LEAN study, a randomized weight loss trial. A primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of real-time self-monitoring of energy balance (using the SenseWearTM Armband, BodyMedia, Inc Pittsburgh, PA on these health factors.Methods: 164 sedentary overweight or obese adults (46.8 ± 10.8 years; BMI 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2; 80% women took part in the 9-month study. Participants were randomized into 4 conditions: a standard care condition with an evidence-based weight loss manual (n = 40, a group-based behavioral weight loss program (n = 44, an armband alone condition (n = 41, and a group plus armband (n = 39 condition. BP, fasting blood lipids and glucose were measured at baseline and 9 months.Results: 99 participants (60% completed both baseline and follow-up measurements for BP and blood chemistry analysis. Missing data were handled by baseline carried forward. None of the intervention groups had significant changes in blood lipids or BP when compared to standard care after adjustment for covariates, though within-group lowering was found for systolic BP in group and group + armband conditions, a rise in total cholesterol and LDL were found in standard care and group conditions, and a lowering of triglycerides was found in the two armband conditions. Compared with the standard care condition, fasting glucose decreased significantly for participants in the group, armband, and group + armband conditions (all P < 0.05, respectively.Conclusion: Our results suggest that using an armband program is an effective strategy to decrease fasting blood glucose. This indicates that devices, such as

  5. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  6. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Christine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713

  7. Longitudinal effects of weight loss and regain on cytokine concentration of obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeba, Erica J; Styn, Mindi A; Kuller, Lewis H; Brooks, Maria Mori; Evans, Rhobert W; Burke, Lora E

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial. Participants were obese adults (N=66) who lost and regained ≥ 10lb during a 24-month clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment. Measurements of cytokines and weight were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to determine percent change in weight and cytokines from baseline. The sample was predominantly female (80.3%) and White (86.4%), with a mean age of 48.4 ± 7.3 years and mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). At baseline, men had higher waist circumference, body weight, and energy intake, and lower percent body fat and adiponectin. The largest decrease in weight was observed at 6 months with a mean 11% decrease (pweight change interaction on percent change in adiponectin was observed [b(se)=0.9 (0.2), p=.0003], with men having a larger increase in adiponectin with weight loss compared to women. There was a significant effect of weight gain over time with increases in IL-6 [b(se)=0.9 (0.3), p=.001]. Overall, weight loss was significantly associated with improvements in adiponectin and IL-6. Those improvements remained at 24 months, following weight regain. The association between weight change and adiponectin was different between genders. Implementing strategies that support sustained weight loss can help prevent a state of chronic systemic inflammation and its associated adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan

    2013-03-14

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.

  9. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  10. Positive response to binge eating intervention enhances postoperative weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie; Windover, Amy; Merrell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder has been suggested as a predictor of negative outcomes, including weight regain and poorer weight loss, particularly if the symptoms (e.g., loss of control eating) remain after surgery. Binge eating disorder has been viewed by some as a contraindication for weight loss surgery, and preoperative treatment has been recommended to help reduce binge eating behaviors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the response to a preoperative binge eating intervention related to differential postoperative weight loss at an academic medical center. A total of 128 bariatric surgery candidates completed a brief cognitive behavioral group treatment for binge eating behaviors. The patients were categorized as positive responders or nonresponders according to the postintervention outcomes, including binge eating symptoms and episodes. The percentage of excess body weight loss (%EBWL) was measured at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Across all bariatric procedures, the positive responders to the brief binge eating intervention had lost significantly more weight at 6 months (46% EBWL versus 38% EBWL) and 12 months (59% EBWL versus 50% EBWL) postoperatively. The results for a subsample of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients (n = 89) were also significant, with 53% EBWL for the responders and 42% EBWL for the nonresponders at 6 months and 68% EBWL versus 54% EBWL at 12 months postoperatively, respectively. The response to binge eating treatment could be an important predictor of postoperative weight loss. The results from the present study provide support for patients who respond to preoperative binge eating treatment having enhanced surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Ritz, Christian; Verdich, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to investigate whether repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss or to weight cycling. METHODS: A retrospective review chart study with follow-up on 2120 participants (mean±SD age 36±15 years; body weight 116±28 kg; fat 43±6%). All had participated...... lost to follow-up after one to four interventions, respectively. The cumulated weight loss at follow-up increased with the number of interventions from one to four: 12.2±0.1, 15.9±0.7, 16.1±1.2 and 18.5±2.0 kg ( ploss of fat and fat free mass after one to four...... interventions in a selected and motivated group can be an efficient method for weight loss maintenance with only limited body weight cycling in the interim periods. However, the relationship between loss of fat and fat free mass might change in an unfavourable direction....

  12. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship. Objective To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health. Methodology An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Results Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Conclusion Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. PMID:28096687

  13. Health-related quality of life changes and weight reduction after bariatric surgery vs. a weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Elizur, Yoel; Karni, Yair; Berry, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the outcome of bariatric surgery against a uniform high-level weightloss program which included vigorous physical exercises, behavior modification and nutritional advice. 44 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 47 subjects participating in a weight-loss program completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form- 36 (SF-36), the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, prior to surgery/diet and one year afterwards. Post-surgery subjects had a greater mean weight loss (34.70% ± 11.94) than subjects in the weight-loss program, even though their weight reduction was also clinically significant (9.23% ± 8.31). Post-surgery subjects showed significant improvements in SF-36, MHI, and selfesteem. The diet group improved in SF-36 total score, physical functioning, health perceptions, and vitality scales. Differences in background variables and short follow-up. Surgery outcomes were significantly better in terms of both weight reduction and psychological adjustment compared to highly motivated participants in a prestigious, cutting edge weight-loss program.

  14. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…

  15. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…

  16. Use of SERI Surgical Scaffold for Soft-tissue Support in a Massive Weight Loss Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gross, MD, FACS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Patients with a history of massive weight loss have compromised and poor-quality skin and fascia. Various body contouring surgeries aim to improve appearance and shape of the trunk and restore fascial integrity. These patients may be at increased risk of recurrent fascial laxity or bulges after conventional techniques. Here, the author presents a case where a silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was used prophylactically in a massive weight loss patient undergoing a circumferential body lift.

  17. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available M Sénéchal1,2, H Arguin6, DR Bouchard4,5, AC Carpentier3, JL Ardilouze3, IJ Dionne1,2, M Brochu1,21Research Centre on Aging, Health and Social Services Centre, University Institute of Geriatrics of Sherbrooke, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sherbrooke, 3Clinical Research Centre, Sherbrooke University Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, QC; 4Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; 5Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute, Winnipeg, MB; 6Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, QC, CanadaObjective: To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program.Methods: Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up.Results: All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01 while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01. Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003 after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders.Conclusion: Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women.Keywords: obesity, body weight, weight regain, postmenopausal women, aging

  18. Outcomes associated with preoperative weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Camille; Graham, Laura A; Gullick, Allison A; Richman, Joshua; Stahl, Richard; Grams, Jayleen

    2016-11-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for achieving and maintaining weight loss and for improving obesity-related comorbidities. As part of the approval process for bariatric surgery, many insurance companies require patients to have documented recent participation in a supervised weight loss program. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship of preoperative weight changes with outcomes following LRYGB. A retrospective review was conducted of adult patients undergoing LRYGB between 2008 and 2012 at a single institution. Patients were stratified into quartiles based on % excess weight gain (0-4.99 % and ≥5 % EWG) and % excess weight loss (0-4.99 % and ≥5 % EWL). Generalized linear models were used to examine differences in postoperative weight outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months. Covariates included in the final adjusted models were determined using backwards stepwise selection. Of the 300 patients included in the study, there were no significant demographic differences among the quartiles. However, there was an increased time to operation for patients who gained or lost ≥5 % excess body weight (p models showed no statistically significant association between preoperative % excess weight change and weight loss outcomes at 24 months. Patients with the greatest % preoperative excess weight change had the longest intervals from initial visit to operation. No significant differences were seen in perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This study suggests preoperative weight loss requirements may delay the time to operation without improving postoperative outcomes or weight loss.

  19. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...... regained 2.73 kg (95% CI 1.33 to 4.13; P weight regain on NNR compared to ADD (-4.21 kg [95% CI -6.83 to -1.59]; P = 0.002) and MUFA (95% CI -2.77 kg [-5.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  20. Weight-loss supplements: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Shewmake, Roger A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in this country. In an effort to address this major public health problem, people have adopted a variety of strategies. These include medical and surgical interventions, both rational and fad diets, exercise and assorted weight-loss dietary supplements. Recent U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) action involving some of these proprietary supplements raises questions of both their safety and efficacy. This article reviews the evidence behind the components of many of these supplements and discusses the role of nutrition in weight loss.

  1. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  2. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects...... of weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY...

  3. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Stephens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  4. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions.

  5. Obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W J; Marsh, A P; Chmelo, E; Rejeski, J J

    2010-09-01

    We examine obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, body mass index exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 years constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 years or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programmes for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programmes as this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year randomized clinical trials are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. © 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Community-based behavioral weight-loss treatment: long-term maintenance of weight loss, physiological, and psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C; Wendicke, Annemarie U; Murakami, Jessica M; Durso, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem, and sustainable long-term treatments are needed. This study examined a community-based model of weight-loss treatment. Ninety participants were recruited from eight community organizations (mean age: 49.65 years, mean body mass index: 35.80 kg/m(2); 64% female). Treatment groups were randomly assigned to two maintenance conditions: 1) self-help continuing care, or 2) assessment-only. Both received the same initial 20-session group behavioral treatment. Those randomized to continuing care were additionally instructed to meet as self-sustaining groups for 18 months post-treatment. Weight, physiological, behavioral, and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at six-month and 18-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent of participants completed treatment. Participant treatment satisfaction and therapist adherence to treatment protocol were high. No group differences or time by group interaction effects emerged. Participants achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment, with no significant weight regain at six-month or 18-month follow-up. Treatment produced sustained changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, eating patterns, physical activity, quality of life, and body image. A community-based treatment program may be an effective form of behavioral-weight-loss treatment for overweight/obese adults. Weight losses, along with physiological and psychological benefits, were sustained over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  8. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  9. Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9 kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV, peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV, and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6 months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p baPWV. Conclusions Young adults with excess weight who both lower their insulin levels and lose weight see the greatest improvement in vascular stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial registration NCT00366990

  10. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP......Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  11. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunesova, M.; Hlavaty, P.; Tvrzicka, E.; Stankova, B.; Kalouskova, P.; Viguerie, N.; Larsen, T.M.; van Baak, M.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Kafatos, A.; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hill, M.; Langin, D.; Zak, A.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. To assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES

  12. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  13. Exercise and Weight Loss%运动与减肥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the etiology of obesity, exercise to lose weight principle concluded that regular exercise and non-drug resistance has an economic, effective, no side effects, etc., in favor of people of all age’s lipid weight loss, and can inhibit weight rebound.%通过分析肥胖的病因学、运动减肥原理得出,非药物性的适量运动具有经济、有效、无副作用等优点,有利于各年龄段的人降脂减重,并能抑制体重反弹。

  14. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  15. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, moderately obese patients (BMI 2 were compared to severely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results: Out of 311 participants, 217 individuals completed the program. Their mean baseline BMI was 41.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2. Average weight loss was 17.9 ± 0.6%, resulting in a BMI of 34.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2 after 1 year (p Conclusion: 1-year weight loss intervention improves body weight as well as lipid and glucose metabolism not only in moderately, but also in severely obese individuals.

  16. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigenetic patterns in successful weight loss maintainers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Maccani, Jennifer Z J; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R; Kelsey, Karl T; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese (OB) individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from OB to normal weight (NW; successful weight loss maintainers; SWLMs) vs currently OB or NW individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current body mass index (BMI)⩾30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ⩾30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across the groups were observed in ryanodine receptor-1 (RYR1; P=1.54E-6), myelin protein zero-like 3 (MPZL3; P=4.70E-6) and alpha 3c tubulin (TUBA3C; P=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; gene-wide P=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status.

  18. Internalized weight stigma and its ideological correlates among weight loss treatment seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, R A; Young, K M; Wott, C B; Harper, J; Gumble, A; Hobbs, M Wagner; Clayton, A M

    2009-01-01

    There are significant economic and psychological costs associated with the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. This pervasive anti-fat bias has been strongly internalized among the overweight/obese. While the etiology of weight stigma is complex, research suggests that it is often greater among individuals who embrace certain etiological views of obesity or ideological views of the world. This investigation examined 1) the level of internalized weight stigma among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults, and 2) the association between internalized weight stigma and perceived weight controllability and ideological beliefs about the world ('just world beliefs', Protestant work ethic). Forty-six overweight or obese adults (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) participating in an 18- week behavioral weight loss program completed implicit (Implicit Associations Test) and explicit (Obese Person's Trait Survey) measures of weight stigma. Participants also completed two measures of ideological beliefs about the world ("Just World Beliefs", Protestant Ethic Scale) and one measure of beliefs about weight controllability (Beliefs about Obese Persons). Significant implicit and explicit weight bias was observed. Greater weight stigma was consistently associated with greater endorsement of just world beliefs, Protestant ethic beliefs and beliefs about weight controllability. Results suggest that the overweight/obese treatment seeking adults have internalized the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. Internalized weight stigma may be greater among those holding specific etiological and ideological beliefs about weight and the world.

  19. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  20. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  1. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  3. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  4. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  5. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Effects of weight regain following intentional weight loss on glucoregulatory function in overweight and obese adults with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Caroline S; Katula, Jeffery A; Goff, David C; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-01-01

    To assess the extent to which initial, intentional weight loss-associated improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action are diminished with weight regain. 138 overweight and obese (BMI: 32.4±3.9kg/m(2)), adults (59.0±9.7 years), with pre-diabetes were followed through a 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 18-month weight maintenance period, or usual care control condition. Longitudinal change in weight (baseline, 6, 24 months) was used to classify individuals into weight pattern categories (Loser/Maintainer (LM), n= 50; Loser/Regainer (LR), n=51; and Weight Stable (WS), n=37). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and model adjusted changes, by weight pattern category, were assessed. LMs and LRs lost 8.3±4.7kg (8.7±4.5%) and 9.6±4.7kg (10.2±4.7%) during the first 6 months, respectively. LM continued to lose 1.1±3.4kg over the next 18 months (9.9±6.5% reduction from baseline; pregained 6.5±3.7kg (3.3±5.3% reduction from baseline; pWeight change was directly associated with change in all DM risk factors (all pweight (from baseline to 24 months) achieved in the LR group, 24-month changes in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR did not differ between WS and LR groups. Conversely, LM saw sustained improvements in all measured DM risk factors. Significant weight loss followed by weight loss maintenance is associated with sustained improvements in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR; conversely, even partial weight regain is associated with regression of initial improvements in these risk factors towards baseline values. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight Loss and Mortality in Overweight and Obese Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Malgorzata; Beeken, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity is a risk factor for poorer cancer survival, but there is uncertainty over whether losing weight reduces the risk. We conducted a critical review of the literature examining weight loss and mortality in overweight or obese cancer survivors. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles reporting associations between weight loss and mortality (cancer-specific or all-cause) in overweight/obese patients with obesity-related cancers. Where available, data from the same studies on non-overweight patients were compared. Results Five articles describing observational studies in breast cancer survivors were included. Four studies reported a positive association between weight loss and mortality in overweight/obese survivors, and the remaining study observed no significant association. Results were similar for non-overweight survivors. Quality assessment indicated high risk of bias across studies. Conclusions There is currently a lack of observational evidence that weight loss improves survival for overweight and obese cancer survivors. However, the potential for bias in these studies is considerable and the results likely reflect the consequences of disease-related rather than intentional weight loss. There is a need for stronger study designs, incorporating measures of intentionality of weight loss, and extended to other cancers. PMID:28060948

  8. Patterns of surgical weight loss and resolution of metabolic abnormalities in superobese bariatric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterman, Ai-Xuan L; Holterman, Mark; Browne, Allen; Henriques, Steve; Guzman, Grace; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the baseline and the 18-month follow-up for weight and metabolic characteristics of superobese (SO) (body mass index [BMI] ≥50 kg/m(2)) and morbidly obese (MO) (BMI weight loss is similar (30 ± 19 kg MO vs 28 ± 12 kg SO, P = .8 at 18 months; mean percent change in BMI, 22.8% ± 11.6% vs 20.5% ± 10.3% SO, P = .2), SO patients has less resolution of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia but experienced significantly improved health-related quality of life. The SO adolescents demonstrate equivalent short-term weight loss and improved quality of life but delayed metabolic response to a gastric banding-based weight loss treatment program compared with MO patients, illustrating the importance of early referral for timely intervention of MO patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...

  11. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  12. Weight loss and impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Akbar

    Full Text Available Weight loss is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD and sometimes may precede the diagnosis. Weight loss is associated with multiple factors but its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL in PD remains unknown. We sought to investigate the factors associated with weight change and to quantify its effect on HRQL.The National Parkinson Foundation Quality Improvement Initiative (NPF-QII data was used to analyze PD patients longitudinally between two visits, separated by 12 ± 6 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between baseline covariates and body weight change per month, and to evaluate whether, and to what degree, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 scores were affected.A higher Hoehn & Yahr stage, higher number of comorbidities, older age, lower MOCA estimate, and higher rate of levodopa usage were observed in patients who lost weight. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that age and levodopa usage were significantly associated with weight loss. Furthermore, monthly body weight loss was significantly associated with HRQL decline in PD patients. Loss of 1 lb (0.45 kg per month was associated with a decline in QOL: an increase of 0.5% in PDQ-39 Summary Index score (p=0.004, and 1.1% and 1.5% increases in the mobility and ADL dimensions, respectively.Weight loss in PD is common and seems to correlate with worsened HRQL. Awareness of factors associated with weight loss and its relation to HRQL may help practitioners improve patient management and expectations.

  13. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  14. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to lose weight bring a pen and paper, smartphone, or other mobile device to read your questions ... other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find ...

  15. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  16. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  17. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  18. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them.

  19. Relationship between weight loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients and serum biomarkers of cartilage breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Henrotin, Y; Bliddal, H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of weight loss and maintenance on serum cartilage biomarkers denaturation neoepitope for Collagen2 (Coll2-1) and Fibulin3 fragment (Fib3-2), as well as correlations between Coll2-1 and Fib3-2 and symptomatic improvement, in a knee osteoarthritis (KOA) population....... DESIGN: 192 obese KOA patients followed a 16 week weight loss intervention and 52 weeks weight maintenance (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00655941). Assessments were at 0, 8, 16 and 68 weeks. Serum Coll2-1 and Fib3-2 were determined with ELISA, and symptoms by the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score...

  20. Storage Period Affects Weight Loss of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Roriz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05 was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%. Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05 during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05 were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the quality of incubated Japanese quail eggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.

  1. Vitamin D status and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled weight-loss trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Howe, Anna S; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; however, uncertainty exists as to the direction of causation. To date, meta-analyses of randomized controlled vitamin D-supplementation trials have shown no effect of raising circulating vitamin D on body weight, although several weight-loss-intervention trials have reported an increase in circulating vitamin D after weight reduction. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials to determine whether weight loss compared with weight maintenance leads to an increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. A systematic search for controlled weight-loss-intervention studies published up to 31 March 2016 was performed. Studies that included participants of any age with changes in adiposity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as primary or secondary outcomes were considered eligible. We identified 4 randomized controlled trials (n = 2554) and 11 nonrandomized controlled trials (n = 917) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Random assignment to weight loss compared with weight maintenance resulted in a greater increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with a mean difference of 3.11 nmol/L (95% CI: 1.38, 4.84 nmol/L) between groups, whereas a mean difference of 4.85 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.59, 7.12 nmol/L) was observed in nonrandomized trials. No evidence for a dose-response effect of weight loss on the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was shown overall. Our results indicate that vitamin D status may be marginally improved with weight loss in comparison with weight maintenance under similar conditions of supplemental vitamin D intake. Although additional studies in unsupplemented individuals are needed to confirm these findings, our results support the view that the association between obesity and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be due to reversed causation with increased adiposity leading to suboptimal concentrations of circulating vitamin D. This trial was

  2. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... at weeks 0 and 68 applying the BLOKS score. RESULTS: During the 52 weeks maintenance period the continuous dietary maintenance group support on average gained 1.1 kg (95% CI: -0.3:2.5) body mass, the exercise group gained 6.6 kg (95% CI 5.4:7.8) and the no-attention group gained 4.8 kg (95% CI: 2...

  3. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Development of 'Twazon': An Arabic App for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Aroub; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Marais, Debbi

    2016-05-16

    Weight gain and its related illnesses have become a major public health issue across the world, with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries seeing dramatic increases in obesity and overweight, and yet there is very little information on how to intervene with this demographic due to cultural and linguistic barriers. As the use of smartphones and apps has also increased in the region, information communication technologies could be a cost-effective means of facilitating the delivery of behavior-modification interventions directly to the target population. Although there are existing apps that offer lifestyle-modification tools, they do not give consideration to the evidence-based practices for weight management. This offers an opportunity to create an Arabic language weight loss app that offers localized content and adheres to evidence-informed practices that are needed for effective weight loss. This paper describes the process of developing an Arabic weight loss app designed to facilitate the modification of key nutritional and physical activity behaviors among Saudi adults, while taking into consideration cultural norms. The development of the Twazon app involved: (1) reviewing all available Arabic weight loss apps and compared with evidence-based practices for weight loss, (2) conducting a qualitative study with overweight and obese Saudi women to ascertain their preferences, (3) selecting which behavioral change strategies and guidelines to be used in the app, (4) creating the Saudi Food Database, (5) deciding on graphic design for both iPhone operating system and Android platforms, including user interface, relational database, and programming code, and (6) testing the beta version of the app with health professionals and potential users. The Twazon app took 23 months to develop and included the compilation of an original Saudi Food database. Eight subjects gave feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the app and its features during a pilot

  5. Role of Mental Simulations in the Weight Loss Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszał-Wiśniewska, Magdalena; Jarczewska-Gerc, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify the influence of various mental simulations on the effectiveness and persistence of weight loss processes. In study one, 40 female students (aged 19-27, M = 23) who were eager to lose weight were randomly assigned to one of four groups: positive outcome simulation, process simulations, mixed simulations (process followed by negative outcome), and control (no simulations). Students from the mixed and process simulation groups lost significantly more weight after five weeks than participants from the outcome simulation and control groups. A total of 106 females (aged 19-45, M = 29) participated in study two, in which five types of mental simulations were tested. Besides the images used in study one, process followed by positive outcome simulations and negative outcome simulations were implemented. Results showed that process followed by positive outcome simulations lead to the highest persistence in the weight loss process, while process followed by negative outcome simulations induced the greatest reduction in weight. Both studies revealed self-regulatory benefits from mental simulations in difficult and long-term personal goal attainment.

  6. The utility of monetary contingency contracts for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes-Muskett, Bianca J; Prestwich, Andrew; Lawton, Rebecca J; Armitage, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Financial incentives to improve health have received increasing attention, but are subject to ethical concerns. Monetary Contingency Contracts (MCCs), which require individuals to deposit money that is refunded contingent on reaching a goal, are a potential alternative strategy. This review evaluates systematically the evidence for weight loss-related MCCs. Randomised controlled trials testing the effect of weight loss-related MCCs were identified in online databases. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate overall effect sizes for weight loss and participant retention. The association between MCC characteristics and weight loss/participant retention effects was calculated using meta-regression. There was a significant small-to-medium effect of MCCs on weight loss during treatment when one outlier study was removed. Group refunds, deposit not paid as lump sum, participants setting their own deposit size and additional behaviour change techniques were associated with greater weight loss during treatment. Post-treatment, there was no significant effect of MCCs on weight loss. There was a significant small-to-medium effect of MCCs on participant retention during treatment. Researcher-set deposits paid as one lump sum, refunds delivered on an all-or-nothing basis and refunds contingent on attendance at classes were associated with greater retention during treatment. Post-treatment, there was no significant effect of MCCs on participant retention. The results support the use of MCCs to promote weight loss and participant retention up to the point that the incentive is removed and identifies the conditions under which MCCs work best.

  7. Importance of emotional regulation in obesity and weight loss treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This theoretical study discusses the importance of emotional regulation process in obesity and in the success/failure of weight loss treatment, systematizing results of empirical studies and theoretical developments that have occurred in this field. Although there has been a substantial interest about this theme, it is difficult to achieve a consensual formulation to explain the relation between emotional regulation and weight because of the huge variability in the methodologies adopted and of the complexity of this phenomenon. In spite of all efforts, more than definite answers, studies have been revealing new research paths to be followed in this complex field.

  8. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  9. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  10. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  11. Overweight men's motivations and perceived barriers towards weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.

    2007-01-01

    motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated...... to weight loss the focus should not be on leanness and good health but rather on increased effectiveness and performance, and the arena should include the working place. Sponsorship: The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University supplied the necessary equipment and conference rooms....

  12. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por

  13. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  14. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also ...

  15. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900

  16. The relationship between pretreatment dietary composition and weight loss during a randomised trial of different diet approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, M A; Jeffreys, A S; King, H A; Olsen, M K; Voils, C I; Yancy, W S

    2015-02-01

    Identifying pretreatment dietary habits that are associated with weight-loss intervention outcomes could help guide individuals' selection of weight-loss approach among competing options. A pretreatment factor that may influence weight-loss outcomes is macronutrient intake. Overweight and obese Durham Veterans Affairs outpatients were randomised to a weight-loss intervention with a low-carbohydrate diet (n = 71) or orlistat medication therapy plus a low-fat diet (n = 73). Percentage fat, carbohydrate and protein intake prior to treatment were measured using 4-day food records. Linear mixed-effects models were used to determine whether pretreatment percentage macronutrient intake influenced weight trajectories and weight loss in each weight-loss condition. Participant's mean age was 53 years, baseline body mass index was 39.3 kg m(-2) and 72% were male. A higher pretreatment percentage carbohydrate intake was associated with less rapid initial weight loss (P = 0.02) and less rapid weight regain (P = 0.03) in the low-carbohydrate diet condition but was not associated with weight trajectories in the orlistat plus low-fat diet condition. In both conditions, a higher pretreatment percentage fat intake was associated with more rapid weight regain (P < 0.01). Pretreatment percentage protein intake was not associated with weight trajectories. None of the pretreatment macronutrients were associated with weight loss on study completion in either condition. Selection of a weight-loss approach on the basis of pretreatment macronutrient intake is unlikely to improve weight outcomes at the end of a 1-year treatment. However, pretreatment macronutrient intake may have implications for tailoring of interventions to slow weight regain after weight loss. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Self-regulatory theory and weight-loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Rylan J; Brown, Ronald T

    2015-03-01

    We examined the relationships between promotion and prevention focus and caloric consumption in reaction to a dietary lapse scenario among weight loss maintainers. Participants were 65 adult females who had attained and maintained a weight loss of 10 % or more for at least 1 month. After engaging in a dietary lapse in a feeding laboratory, participants completed a "bogus" taste test, during which they could consume as much food as they liked. It was hypothesized that promotion and prevention focus would predict caloric consumption, mediated by depressive and anxious affect. Prevention focus, but not promotion focus, was positively associated with proportion of daily calories consumed. Affect was not a mediator. Prevention focus may be deleterious for dietary maintenance following dietary lapses. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed in light of prior research. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research also are presented.

  18. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vicente Stanton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  19. Migraine and obesity: metabolic parameters and response to a weight loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, A; Carotenuto, M; Altieri, L; Parisi, P; Tozzi, E; Belcastro, V; Esposito, M; Guastaferro, N; Ciuti, A; Mohn, A; Chiarelli, F; Agostinelli, S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss can determine significant improvement of migraine in obese patients. Herein, we evaluated a clinical sample of adolescent migraineurs with obesity who participated in an interdisciplinary programme for weight loss, in order to identify possible metabolic parameters associated with good migraine control. Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated 112 out of 135 adolescents who previously underwent our intervention programme. Based on persistence of headache, subjects for comparison were 40 migraine-free and 72 not migraine-free adolescents. Participants underwent anthropometric evaluations and biochemical tests. Patients with persistence of migraine had significantly higher weight (P weight loss, patients who did not become migraine-free showed higher adiposity values than those who became migraine-free. Patients with insulin resistance had 3.5 times the odds of having persistence of migraine compared with those without. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  20. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Intentional weight loss and dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications--a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Intentional weight loss, primarily by improving insulin resistance, is known to decrease the need for anti-diabetic medications. In this study, we assess the magnitude of weight loss that resulted in dose reductions or discontinuation of anti-diabetic medications in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (DM undergoing weight loss treatment. METHODS: Case records of 50 overweight or obese patients with DM who successfully decreased dosage or discontinued diabetes medications after losing weight via attendance at two University-based, outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. Follow-up visits, weight reduction interventions, and decisions for dose reductions or discontinuation of medications were individualized to patient needs by the treating physician. RESULTS: Mean starting BMI was 35 kg/m(2, mean age 53.4 years, and 58% were male. All 50 used at least one anti-diabetic medication (30 metformin, 39 sulfonylureas, 31 insulin, 21 sitagliptin to manage blood sugar. Mean duration of follow-up was 30.2 months. Mean weight loss was 10.8 ± 4.1 kgs (11.1% of initial body weight ± 4.7%. 22/50 patients (44% discontinued anti-diabetes medications (14 sulfonylureas [36%], 7 insulin [23%], 4 sitagliptin [19%]. The mean percentage weight loss achieved at the point of successful discontinuation of medication was 11.2% ± 3.5% (14% for sulphonylureas, 11% for insulin, and 7.1% for sitagliptin. Mean percentage weight loss of 5.6% ± 2.8% (5.1% for sulphonylureas, 4.3% for insulin, and 7.1% for sitagliptin was required for initial dose reduction. For every 5% weight loss, predicted dose reductions were sulphonylureas, 39%; insulin, 42%; and any anti-diabetic medications, 49%. CONCLUSION: Among overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes, intentional weight loss of 7-14% was typically required for full discontinuation of at least one anti-diabetic medication. Discontinuation of insulin was achieved at a mean

  2. An Improved Weighted Clustering Algorithm in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin; XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu

    2004-01-01

    The original clustering algorithms in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) are firstly analyzed in this paper.Based on which, an Improved Weighted Clustering Algorithm (IWCA) is proposed. Then, the principle and steps of our algorithm are explained in detail, and a comparison is made between the original algorithms and our improved method in the aspects of average cluster number, topology stability, clusterhead load balance and network lifetime. The experimental results show that our improved algorithm has the best performance on average.

  3. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  4. Obesity, Intentional Weight Loss, and Physical Disability in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30...

  5. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  6. Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy in Super Superobesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Catheline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for its safety and efficiency in excess weight loss (%EWL in super superobese patients (BMI >60 Kg/m2. Results. Thirty patients (33 women and 7 men were included, with mean age of 35 years (range 18 to 59. Mean preoperative BMI was 66 Kg/m2 (range 60 to 85. The study included one patient with complete situs inversus and 4 (14% with previous restrictive gastric banding. The mean operative time was 120 minutes (range 80 to 220 min and the mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (4 to 28 days. There was no postoperative mortality or need for a laparotomy conversion. Two subphrenic hematomas, one gastric fistula, and one pulmonary embolism, were the major complications. After 18 months 17 (77% had sufficient weight loss and six had insufficient results, leading to either re-sleeve gastrectomy (3, or gastric bypass (2. Three years after the initial laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the mean EWL was 51% (range 21 to 82. Conclusion. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and efficient operating procedure for treating super superobesity. In the case of insufficient weight loss, a second-stage operation like resleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass can be proposed.

  7. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  8. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  9. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation betw

  10. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation

  11. Evidence-based practices for the prevention of weight loss in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Mary J; Schumacher, Julie Raeder

    2011-03-01

    Weight loss is common among nursing home residents. Food intake is often inadequate for elderly residents but is only one of several factors contributing to potential weight loss. Three common issues resulting in weight loss include starvation (or wasting), cachexia, and sarcopenia. Significant weight loss leads to increased mortality, increased morbidity, and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this article is to discuss the geriatric syndrome of weight loss in elderly nursing home residents and provide recommendations to decrease and prevent weight loss. A list of available evidence-based protocols related to weight loss issues is provided.

  12. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  13. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  14. Lifestyle medicine consulting walking meetings for sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Crane, Margaret E

    2016-02-01

    With rates of obesity and diabetes rising worldwide, effective ways of managing weight are becoming more important. We present the case study of a middle-aged Caucasian-American woman (body mass index (BMI) 27.8, overweight category) who wanted to lose weight. The patient participated in a behaviour modification programme with a physician trained in lifestyle medicine as well as health and wellness coaching. After the 14-week programme, which included 9, 1 h long walking sessions with the clinician, the patient lost 11 Ibs (BMI 24.7, normal category). The programme included a combination of increasing physical activity, eating appropriate quantities of healthy foods, goal setting and a positive attitude. The patient has kept her BMI at or below 24.1 for over 2 years. This case demonstrates a novel approach to weight loss management--walking therapeutic sessions--and also outlines critical components of lifestyle medicine counselling that facilitate the process of sustainable weight loss and lasting change.

  15. Surgical vs conventional therapy for weight loss treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John B; Schachter, Linda M; O'Brien, Paul E; Jones, Kay; Grima, Mariee; Lambert, Gavin; Brown, Wendy; Bailey, Michael; Naughton, Matthew T

    2012-09-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly related to obesity. Weight loss is recommended as part of the overall management plan for obese patients diagnosed with OSA. To determine whether surgically induced weight loss is more effective than conventional weight loss therapy in the management of OSA. A randomized controlled trial of 60 obese patients (body mass index: >35 and obesity hypoventilation syndrome, previous bariatric surgery, contraindications to bariatric surgery, or significant cardiopulmonary, neurological, vascular, gastrointestinal, or neoplastic disease were excluded. Patients were randomized to a conventional weight loss program that included regular consultations with a dietitian and physician, and the use of very low-calorie diets as necessary (n = 30) or to bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; n = 30). The primary outcome was baseline to 2-year change in AHI on diagnostic polysomnography scored by staff blinded to randomization. Secondary outcomes were changes in weight, CPAP adherence, and functional status. Patients lost a mean of 5.1 kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 9.3 kg) in the conventional weight loss program compared with 27.8 kg (95% CI, 20.9 to 34.7 kg) in the bariatric surgery group (P adherence did not differ between the groups. The bariatric surgery group had greater improvement in the Short Form 36 physical component summary score (mean, 9.3 [95% CI, 0.5 to 18.0]; P = .04). Among a group of obese patients with OSA, the use of bariatric surgery compared with conventional weight loss therapy did not result in a statistically greater reduction in AHI despite major differences in weight loss. anzctr.org Identifier: 12605000161628.

  16. Longitudinal changes in blood pressure during weight loss and regain of weight in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Neland, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain.......To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain....

  17. Weight loss and rapid cognitive decline in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Maria E; Secher, Marion; Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss is a frequent complication of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in patients suffering from this disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether weight loss was a predictor of rapid cognitive decline (RCD) in AD. Four hundred fourteen community-dwelling ambulatory patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score between 10 and 26 from the REAL.FR (REseau sur la maladie d'ALzheimer FRançais) cohort were studied and followed up during 4 years. Patients were classified in 2 groups according to weight loss defined by a loss of 4% or more during the first year of follow-up. RCD was defined as the loss of 3 points or more in MMSE over 6 months. The incidence of RCD was determined among both groups over the last 3 years of follow-up. MMSE, Katz's Activity of Daily Living scale, Mini-Nutritional Assessment scale, co-morbidities, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, medication, level of education, living arrangement, and caregiver's burden were assessed every 6 months. Eighty-seven patients (21.0%) lost 4% or more of their initial weight during the first year. The incidence of RCD for all patients was 57.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 51.6-64.8) per 100 person-year (median follow-up of 15.1 months). In Cox proportional hazards models, after controlling for potential confounders, weight loss was a significant predictor factor of RCD (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.04-2.17). In conclusion, weight loss predicted RCD in this cohort. Whether the prevention of weight loss (by improving nutritional status) impacts cognitive decline remains an open question.

  18. Wearable devices and mobile technologies for supporting behavioral weight loss among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-10-30

    Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings.

  19. Oxygenation and ventilation characteristics in obese sedated dogs before and after weight loss: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, M; German, A J; Holden, S L; MacFarlane, P; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Iff, I

    2013-11-01

    This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10 min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.

  20. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  1. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  2. The Role of Hormonal Factors in Weight Loss and Recidivism after Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial heterogeneity exists in weight loss trajectories amongst patients following bariatric surgery. Hormonal factors are postulated to be amongst the contributors to the variation seen. Several hormones involved in hunger, satiety, and energy balance are affected by bariatric surgery, with the alteration in hormonal milieu varying by procedure. Limited research has been conducted to examine potential hormonal mediators of weight loss failure or recidivism following bariatric surgery. While hormonal factors that influence weight loss success following gastric banding have not been identified, data suggest that hormonal factors may be involved in modulating weight loss success following gastric bypass. There may be hormonal mediators involved in determining the weight trajectory following sleeve gastrectomy, though the extremely limited data currently available prohibits definitive conclusions from being drawn. There is great need for future research studies to explore this knowledge gap, as improving this knowledge base could be of benefit to guide clinicians toward understanding the hormonal contributors to a patient’s postoperative weight loss failure or recidivism or perhaps be of value in selecting the most appropriate bariatric procedure based on the preoperative hormone milieu. Integrative interdisciplinary approaches exploring these complex interrelationships could potentially increase the explanatory power of such investigations.

  3. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  4. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults.......The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  5. Prediction of weight loss and regain following dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacologic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, A; Miller, S R; Murgatroyd, P R; Delafont, B; Brooke, A; Elkhawad, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Vidal-Puig, A; Nunez, D J

    2012-06-01

    To develop statistical models for predicting weight loss and regain, we analyzed the phenotypic responses in an outpatient study of 60 obese subjects randomized to one of three 12-week interventions, diet (-600 kcal) alone, diet with exercise, and diet with sibutramine. This was followed by 12 weeks of observation. The best of the "baseline covariates" models was one that incorporated intervention group and baseline homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). It predicted week 12 weight change with R(2) of 0.38 and root mean square error (√MSE) of 2.92 kg. An alternative model incorporating baseline fat mass plus change in weight and HOMA(IR) at week 4 improved the prediction (R(2), 0.67, √MSE, 2.19 kg). We could not identify a satisfactory model to predict weight regain. We conclude that prediction of weight loss over 12 weeks is significantly improved when short-term weight change is incorporated into the model. This information could be utilized to forecast the success of a weight-loss program and to motivate and contribute to innovative designing of obesity trials.

  6. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  7. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  8. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  9. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  10. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. © 2014.

  11. Weight Loss Through Lifestyle Modification Significantly Reduces Features of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Gomez, Eduardo; Martinez-Perez, Yadina; Calzadilla-Bertot, Luis; Torres-Gonzalez, Ana; Gra-Oramas, Bienvenido; Gonzalez-Fabian, Licet; Friedman, Scott L; Diago, Moises; Romero-Gomez, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    It is not clear how weight loss affects histologic features of liver in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We examined the association between the magnitude of weight loss through lifestyle modifications and changes in histologic features of NASH. We conducted a prospective study of 293 patients with histologically proven NASH who were encouraged to adopt recommended lifestyle changes to reduce their weight over 52 weeks, from June 2009 through May 2013, at a tertiary medical center in Havana, Cuba. Liver biopsies were collected when the study began and at week 52 of the diet and were analyzed histologically. Paired liver biopsies were available from 261 patients. Among 293 patients who underwent lifestyle changes for 52 weeks, 72 (25%) achieved resolution of steatohepatitis, 138 (47%) had reductions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS), and 56 (19%) had regression of fibrosis. At week fifty-two, 88 subjects (30%) had lost ≥5% of their weight. Degree of weight loss was independently associated with improvements in all NASH-related histologic parameters (odds ratios = 1.1-2.0; P fasting glucose >5.5 mmol/L, and many ballooned cells, NAS scores decreased significantly with weight reductions ≥10%. A greater extent of weight loss, induced by lifestyle changes, is associated with the level of improvement in histologic features of NASH. The highest rates of NAS reduction, NASH resolution, and fibrosis regression occurred in patients with weight losses ≥10%. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight Loss in Patients with Dementia: Considering the Potential Impact of Pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, B.A.; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Gustafson, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional body weight loss is common in patients with dementia and is linked to cognitive impairment and poorer disease outcomes. It is proposed that some dementia medications with market approval, while aiming to improve cognitive and functional outcomes of a patient with dementia, are associat

  13. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  14. Gastric bypass may promote weight loss in overweight partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, F.; Radhakishun, N.N.E.; van Vliet, M.; Geenen, R.; von Rosenstiel, I.A.; Hinnen, C.; Beijnen, Jacob; Brandjes, D.P.M.; Diamant, M.; Gerdes, V.E.A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. METHODS: In

  15. Gastric Bypass May Promote Weight Loss in Overweight Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N. E.; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. Methods: In

  16. Gastric bypass may promote weight loss in overweight partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, F.; Radhakishun, N.N.E.; van Vliet, M.; Geenen, R.; von Rosenstiel, I.A.; Hinnen, C.; Beijnen, Jacob; Brandjes, D.P.M.; Diamant, M.; Gerdes, V.E.A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. METHODS: In th

  17. Gastric Bypass May Promote Weight Loss in Overweight Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N. E.; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. Methods: In th

  18. Potential Mechanisms Mediating Sustained Weight Loss Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaronidis, Janine M; Batterham, Rachel L

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), the most commonly performed procedures, lead to sustained weight loss, improvements in obesity-related comorbidities and reduced mortality. In humans, the main driver for weight loss following RYGB and SG is reduced energy intake. Reduced appetite, changes in subjective taste and food preference, and altered neural response to food cues are thought to drive altered eating behavior. The biological mediators underlying these changes remain incompletely understood but changes in gut-derived signals, as a consequence of altered nutrient and/or biliary flow, are key candidates.

  19. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.

  20. Body weight perception and weight loss practices among Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.

  1. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P loss during the first 15% reduction in body weight. Finally, no significant differences (P = 0.103) between groups for maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  3. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  4. [Diagnostic value of selective anorexia in pathological weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquet, P; Mercier, G; Reynes, J; Jeandel, C; Pinzani, V; Guilpain, P; Rivière, S; Le Quellec, A

    2016-02-01

    The diagnostic value of selective anorexia is debated. Some authors have suggested an association between meat aversion and cancer, but most do not use it as a diagnostic tool. We aimed to characterize anorexia of different diseases to search for an association between selective aversions and diagnostic groups. All the patients admitted to three departments of a teaching hospital were included consecutively for 22months if they had more than 10 % weight loss in less than one year. Patients were excluded if history taking was not reliable, or if they suffered from anorexia nervosa. We compiled diagnoses at discharge and validated them six months later. We used logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with selective anorexia. Inclusion criteria were met in 106patients (female 44 %, median age 65years). Most frequent diagnoses were: cancer (36 %), infection (35 %), digestive diseases (19 %), non organic diseases (21 %). Recent selective anorexia was found in 46 % of the cases. It was significantly associated with female gender (P=0.002), marginally with young age (P=0.069) and long duration of weight loss (P=0.079). Opioid use at admission was negatively associated with selective anorexia (P=0.001). No specific diagnostic category was found to be associated. Selective anorexia does not appear to be a useful symptom to investigate pathological weight loss. It behaves more like a non-specific reactivation by current disease of earlier latent personal food aversions. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss causes remission of food addiction in extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Stein, Richard I; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: induces remission of food addiction (FA), and normalizes other eating behaviors associated with FA. Forty-four obese subjects (BMI= 48 ± 8 kg/m(2) ) were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by bariatric surgery (25 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 11 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and eight sleeve gastrectomy). We assessed: FA (Yale Food Addiction Scale), food cravings (Food Craving Inventory), and restrictive, emotional and external eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire). FA was identified in 32% of subjects before surgery. Compared with non-FA subjects, those with FA craved foods more frequently, and had higher scores for emotional and external eating behaviors (all P-values 0.8). Surgery-induced weight loss resulted in remission of FA in 93% of FA subjects; no new cases of FA developed after surgery. Surgery-induced weight loss decreased food cravings, and emotional and external eating behaviors in both groups (all P-values 1.1). Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss induces remission of FA and improves several eating behaviors that are associated with FA. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Exploring media representations of weight-loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; McGannon, Kerry R; Spence, John C

    2013-05-01

    Scholars have problematized popular culture and media (re)presentations of obesity/overweight. However, few have considered the ways bariatric surgery, a rapidly growing treatment for morbid obesity, fits within the discussion. In this article, we explore news media (re)presentations of bariatric surgery using an eclectic approach to critical discourse analysis. Our findings reveal dominant discourses about bariatric surgery and the surgical population, providing an understanding of media (re)presentations as possible contributors to bias, stigmatization, and discrimination. Novel in our findings was our identification of subject positions in the dominant discourses (which were biomedical and benevolent government). We argue that existing (re)presentations of bariatric surgery are highly problematic because they reinforce oversimplistic and binary understandings of weight-loss surgery and obesity, weaving a highly gendered fairy-tale narrative and ultimately promoting weight-based stigmatization.

  7. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  8. Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A; Wyatt, Holly R; Melanson, Edward L; Johnson, Ginger C; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Brown, Ian E; Hill, James O

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations. Obesity was induced in obesity-prone rats with 16 wk of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. Obese rats were then weight reduced (approximately 14% of body wt) with a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet and maintained at that reduced weight for 8 wk by providing limited provisions of the diet with (EX) or without (SED) a daily bout of treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 6 days/wk). Weight regain, energy balance, fuel utilization, adipocyte cellularity, and humoral signals of adiposity were monitored during eight subsequent weeks of ad libitum feeding while the rats maintained their respective regimens of physical activity. Regular exercise decreased the rate of regain early in relapse and lowered the defended body weight. During weight maintenance, regular exercise reduced the biological drive to eat so that it came closer to matching the suppressed level of energy expenditure. The diurnal extremes in fuel preference observed in weight-reduced rats were blunted, since exercise promoted the oxidation of fat during periods of feeding (dark cycle) and promoted the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO) later in the day during periods of deprivation (light cycle) . At the end of relapse, exercise reestablished the homeostatic steady state between intake and expenditure to defend a lower body weight. Compared with SED rats, relapsed EX rats exhibited a reduced turnover of energy, a lower 24-h oxidation of CHO, fewer adipocytes in abdominal fat pads, and peripheral signals that overestimated their adiposity. These observations indicate that regimented exercise altered several metabolic adaptations to weight reduction in a manner that would coordinately attenuate the propensity to regain lost weight.

  9. Influence of weight loss on pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, U Evers

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of weight reduction by dieting on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in everyday life. : Female outpatients in weight-loss programmes at the Karolinska Hospital, who met the criteria for participating in this study: age 20-65 y and body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m(2). In all, 57 entered the programme studied and 43 completed it. Diet programmes for 8-12 weeks and thereafter 6688 kJ/day for >52 weeks. Questionnaires on musculoskeletal symptoms and obesity-specific questions on basic activities of daily living (ADL), mobility, housework, occupational disability and activities outside home. Test protocol developed for observation of functional limitations in obese women. Assessments at baseline, after 12 and after 64 weeks of dieting. In all, 75% completed the study. Weight loss was 14% (14.7+/-6.1 kg) at 12 weeks and, due to a weight relapse, 10% (10.1+/-8.1 kg) at 64 weeks. At the end of the study period, the proportion of current pain from lower backs and feet had normalised. Important perceived improvements were ability to rise from having fallen over, to walk up stairs and to lift heavy things. Most functional limitations improved, such as climbing onto high stools, walking up stairs with grocery bags, doing pedicure, rising from floor or low furniture. The questionnaire results partly followed the weight development, but the observed improvements were long-lasting. Weight reduction had positive short-term effects on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations. A partial weight relapse had some impact on perceived pain and disability, but not on observed limitations. The maintained improvements may be due to weight loss, but also less pain and increased physical activity.

  10. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Yoshino, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; He, Songbing; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-04-12

    Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and β cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved β cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  12. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  13. CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior for weight-loss in a Mediterranean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma López-Guimerà

    Full Text Available The goals of this research was (1 to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2 to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on the effectiveness of the weight-loss program.A total of 1,272 overweight and obese participants (BMI: 31±5 kg/m2, aged 20 to 65 years, attending outpatient weight-loss clinics were recruited for this analysis. Emotional eating behavior was assessed by the Emotional Eating Questionnaire (EEQ, a questionnaire validated for overweight and obese Spanish subjects. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake and weight-loss progression were assessed and analyzed throughout the 30-week program. Multivariate analysis and linear regression models were performed to test for gene-environment interaction.Weight-loss progression during the 30-week program differed significantly according to the degree of emotional eating behavior. Participants classified as 'very emotional eaters' experienced more irregular (P = 0.007 weight-loss, with a lower rate of weight decline (-0.002 vs. -0.003, P = 11, lost significantly less weight than those C carriers with a low emotional score (<11 (P = 0.005.Emotional eating behavior associates with weight-loss pattern, progression and total weight-loss. Additionally, CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior to modulate total weight loss. These results suggest that the assessment of this locus and emotional eating behavior could improve the development of effective, long-tern weight-management interventions.

  14. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software was used to evaluate the nutrients of 112 diets. Micronutrient content was compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. All diets were inadequate in at least one of the evaluated items. Less than 25.0% of the diets presented adequate macronutrient distribution. Calcium, iron, and vitamin E were also predominantly inadequate (85.7, 97.3, and 91.9%, respectively. Non-scientific publications should not be allowed to advertise weight-loss diets. In addition, their chemical composition is inadequate and they are not accompanied by important instructions for such therapy.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Weight Loss: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Cowan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.

  16. Thermodynamics and metabolic advantage of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2003-09-01

    Published reports show that low carbohydrate weight loss diets provide a metabolic advantage, a greater weight loss per calorie consumed compared to isocaloric high carbohydrate diets. These reports have not been refuted but rather largely ignored, presumably because of the apparent violation of the laws of thermodynamics ("a calorie is a calorie"). In this review, we show that there is no such violation of thermodynamic laws. Energy utilization of different diets depends on the chemical pathway taken and a metabolic analysis of the efficiency of different pathways reveals large differences. Likewise, thermogenesis produced by diets of different macronutrient composition varies widely. We present a plausible mechanism that depends on the inefficiency of metabolic cycles and, in particular, protein turnover. A low carbohydrate diet makes demands on protein turnover for gluconeogenesis. From a theoretical point of view,energy balance between two diets is to be expected only if the subjects have the same final physiologic state, and only if all of the changes contributing to the energy, heat, work and chemical effects are known. Most diet experiments do not conform to this ideal. There is no theoretical contradiction in metabolic advantage and no theoretical barrier to accepting reports describing this effect.

  17. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  18. Modeling and simulation of orlistat to predict weight loss and weight maintenance in obesity patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kiyohiko; Wada, Russell; Iida, Satofumi; Kawanishi, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Orlistat is used clinically worldwide as anti-obesity drug. It is a chemically synthesized hydrogenated derivative of lipstatin and is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipases. It has been found to reduce the absorption of dietary fat in the gastrointestinal tract. Modeling and simulation based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis is becoming increasingly used in the design of clinical trials to assure that the trials are of high quality and are conducted efficiently. We developed a clinical trial simulation model for orlistat based on Phase III clinical study data. This innovative weight loss model includes the relationships between orlistat dose, changes in fecal fat excretion, and weight loss, and also incorporates a dropout function. The model guided the dose-finding strategy and allowed simulation of long-term clinical outcomes of orlistat.

  19. The effect of weight loss on sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation in morbidly obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, E M; Wynne, J W; Block, A J

    1982-09-01

    Four morbidly obese men who had been found to have significant sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation were restudied after an average weight loss of 108 kg (range 53-155 kg). In all subjects, weight loss was accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of episodes per hour of sleep-disordered breathing events. In three of the four subjects, there was improvment in the severity of desaturation accompanying abnormal breathing. The two subjects with daytime somnolence and hypercapnia prior to weight loss showed the most dramatic improvement in desaturation. This suggests that obesity is a cause, rather than an effect, of the sleep apnea syndrome.

  20. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  1. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross Tim JS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L. A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean, purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

  2. Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel. The feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme with minimal face to face support was evaluated using a non-randomised design, based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, and Implementation (RE-AIM) dimensions of a framework designed for analysing implementation of interventions in practice. It was estimated that 6% (n = 58) of eligible NS personnel at recruitment sites were reached, based on personnel's expressions of interest to take part in the study. The potential efficacy of the intervention was evaluated by analysing participants' change in weight (kg) in the two groups. Forty-three participants were allocated to the intervention (n = 21) or control group (n = 22). Website usage was low, with 1.5 sessions accessed on average, over a 12-week follow-up. Changes in body weight over 12 weeks appeared to be observed for participants in the intervention group but not in the control group. The average weight loss observed in the intervention group (mean = -1.9 kg, SD = 2.1) appeared to reach significance, 95% CI [-2.8, -1.0], whereas no significant weight loss was apparent among control group participants (mean = -0.8 kg, SD = 3.8), 95% CI [-2.4, 0.8]. However, this feasibility study was not powered to test for within or group differences. Recruitment rates varied across five NS establishments invited to take part in the study, suggesting that the web-based weight loss programme was not adopted to the same extent across all bases. The online programme was not implemented as intended in terms of regular usage by participants and support provision by physical training instructors. The results suggest that the intervention may warrant further investigation

  3. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    , adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...... diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain weight (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total testosterone and low SHBG are predictors of weight loss......OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  4. Body mass index and weight loss in overweight and obese korean women: the mediating role of body weight perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2013-12-01

    This study were to assess the relationships among BMI, body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of Korean women who are overweight and obese and to examine the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample was 1,739 Korean women 20 years old or older with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m(2). Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates of weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in Korean women. In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health consequences associated with obesity, Korean women should be aware of a healthy body weight and try to achieve that weight. Nursing interventions should consider body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese Korean women to lose weight, as necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Postnatal weight loss in term infants: what is "normal" and do growth charts allow for it?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is a well known phenomenon, limited normative data on neonatal weight loss and subsequent gain are available, making it hard to assess individual children with prolonged weight loss.

  6. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincon, Emiliano; Calderon, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics...

  7. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  8. Having Baby Too Soon After Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161572.html Having Baby Too Soon After Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risks A suitable interval, plus ... News) -- Infants born to mothers who've had weight-loss surgery have a higher risk for complications, and ...

  9. Swipe out Stroke: Feasibility and efficacy of using a smart-phone based mobile application to improve compliance with weight loss in obese minority stroke patients and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika, Nneka Lotea; Noser, Elizabeth Anne; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2016-07-01

    Swipe out Stroke (SOS) examines the use of a smartphone-based mobile application to reduce obesity in high-risk minority stroke patients. At record-high levels in the United States, obesity disproportionately affects minorities and is highly correlated with cerebrovascular disease. Unfortunately, structured weight loss programs are expensive, and compliance significantly decreases upon program completion. Mobile health (mHealth) technology is an innovative, cost-effective way to bridge this gap. Minorities spend over 4.5 billion dollars annually on consumer electronics, making studies that utilize mHealth applications ideal for health promotion and disease prevention. SOS is a prospective, randomized-controlled trial with open blinded endpoint comparing an mHealth based dietary intervention to usual care to facilitate weight reduction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke survivors and their carers are recruited from the acute care service of a Houston-based comprehensive stroke center. A neurorehabilitation physician or vascular neurologist meets with participants during the index hospitalization, a baseline clinic visit, followed by visits at 1, 3, and 6 month intervals. The SOS Team focuses on feasible modifications to the Southern dietary pattern (fried foods, fatty foods, added fats, eggs, processed meats, such as bacon and ham, organ meats (e.g., liver), and sweetened drinks) and caloric restriction to facilitate a 5% reduction in total body weight. Practical barriers to adherence are addressed, such as access to transportation, financial limitations, and depression. The primary dependent measure is a reduction of total body weight. Secondary outcomes include systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and Factor VIII. SOS will determine whether a Phase III effectiveness trial of a smartphone-based mobile application to address obesity-related health disparities is warranted throughout the Southeastern United States (Stroke

  10. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pekkarinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69 and one year later (week 121. Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P=0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P=0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655.

  11. On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Porcelli, Elio B

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.

  12. Study on the Dietary Plan of Boxing Athletes during the Period of Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Ma

    2015-01-01

    The study combined with the principle of reasonable weight loss for the boxing athletes by stating the overview of the boxing athlete's weight loss, as well as its influence on the function index of boxing athletes as the weight loss of boxing athletes can directly affect sports performance. It discusses the nutritional supplement measures of boxing athletes during the period of the slow and rapid weight loss stage.

  13. Study on the Dietary Plan of Boxing Athletes during the Period of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined with the principle of reasonable weight loss for the boxing athletes by stating the overview of the boxing athlete's weight loss, as well as its influence on the function index of boxing athletes as the weight loss of boxing athletes can directly affect sports performance. It discusses the nutritional supplement measures of boxing athletes during the period of the slow and rapid weight loss stage.

  14. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roel G; Roumans, Nadia J T; Arkenbosch, Laura A J; Mariman, Edwin C M; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of rate of weight loss, with similar total weight loss, on weight regain in individuals with overweight and obesity. Fifty-seven participants (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2) ) underwent a dietary intervention (DI). They were randomized to a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks (slow weight loss) or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks (rapid weight loss) (weight loss (WL) period) followed by a 4-week weight-stable (WS) period and 9 months follow-up. Body weight and body composition (BodPod) were determined at study start and after each period. Weight change was similar in both groups after WL (LCD: -8.2 kg and VLCD: -9.0 kg, P = 0.24). Weight regain after follow-up was not significantly different between groups (LCD: 4.2 kg and VLCD: 4.5 kg, P = 0.73). Percentage fat-free mass loss (%FFML) was higher in the VLCD-group compared to the LCD-group after DI (8.8% and 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.034) and was associated with weight regain during follow-up in the whole group (r = 0.325, P = 0.018). The present study showed that, with similar total weight loss, rate of weight loss did not affect weight regain. However, %FFML after DI was associated with weight regain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. The effects of weight loss surgery on blood rheology in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiora, Maciej; Piecuch, Jerzy; Glűck, Marek; Slowinska-Lozynska, Ludmila; Sosada, Krystyn

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dieting on blood rheology in obese individuals suggest that improving the rheologic profiles depends on the amount of weight lost and its long-term maintenance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of weight loss after surgery on blood rheology at 12-month follow-up. We studied 38 obese patients who underwent laparoscopic weight loss surgery, 22 of whom had sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and 16 of whom had gastric banding (LAGB). We evaluated rheologic parameters such as blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte deformability (as measured by elongation index [EI]) preoperatively and 12 months after surgery. Whole blood viscosity at 150 s(-1) shear rate (Prheology in obese patients at 12 months after surgery. The increased red blood cell rigidity after surgery requires further study because the physiologic importance of this change has not yet been established. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug abuse and weight loss in HIV-infected Hispanic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in HIV, but the role of drug use in HIV-related weight loss is not well described. We conducted this study to determine the role of drug abuse in HIV-related weight loss. Men (n=304), all of whom were Hispanic, were recruited into one of three ...

  17. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...... psychosocial problems. In a linear regression model, the predictors together explained about 11 % of the weight loss. Important predictors were: obesity (explained 4 %), pre-interventional consideration of weight loss within 30 days (3 %), and having a preventive health consultation with weight loss......-45 years with psychosocial problems for a randomized general preventive study to increase self-efficacy to achieve a self-prioritised goal for a better life by discussions of resources and barriers for reaching the goal. The present study is a post hoc analysis of possible predictors of weight loss among...

  18. Adverse effects of weight loss: Are persistent organic pollutants a potential culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, M; Karelis, A D; St-Pierre, D H; Lamontagne, L

    2016-09-01

    Health professionals commonly recommend weight loss to individuals with obesity. However, unexpected adverse health effects after a weight-loss program have been reported in several studies. The factors that could explain this phenomenon are currently poorly understood. However, one potential factor that has emerged is persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Due to their lipophilic nature, POPs are known to accumulate in the adipose tissue and their concentrations are found to be higher in obese individuals than lean subjects. There is evidence to suggest that weight loss induces a significant increase in POPs levels in the bloodstream. Furthermore, the increases in plasma POPs levels after weight loss are even greater with an intensive weight loss. Thus, a critical question that remains unresolved is whether POPs released from the adipose tissue to the bloodstream during intensive weight loss could increase the risk of cardiometabolic disturbances. In turn, the accumulation of POPs released in response to an intensive weight loss may impair energy metabolism and stimulate a subsequent weight regain. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide insights about the role of POPs on cardiometabolic risk factors during weight loss and weight regain that could potentially explain, at least in part, the adverse effects observed in certain weight-loss studies. We will also discuss the potential synergistic or antagonistic POPs-dependent risks following weight-loss programs. Ultimately, this may lead in establishing new therapeutic boundaries to minimize potential health hazards related to weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Weight loss and its relation to fat aspiration yields in liposuction: a survey in 48 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeni, R

    2012-01-01

    Liposuction surgeons often observe individually fluctuating amounts of aspirated fat. In patients with sagging skin due to previous weight loss there is a tendency of decreased fat aspiration volumes. To study the influence of weight loss on fat aspiration volumes in a series of 48 patients. We matched individuals of the same gender, but with a different weight history from a vast number of patients who had undergone liposuction surgery. The aspirated fat to wetting solution ratio (FWR) of the circumferential abdominal region was evaluated in three groups: A - patients with no weight loss (n = 16; 8 males/ 8 females), B - patients with a history of moderate weight loss (weight loss 5-10% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females), and C - patients who had a massive weight loss prior to surgery (weight loss exceeding 15% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females). The aspirated FWR was 3.4 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p loss in regard to fat aspiration volumes compared to patients without prior weight loss. These findings point to the importance of a weight loss history prior to surgery. Regardless of lower fat aspiration yields in patients with massive weight loss, good results are still achievable. This is not only due to volume reduction but to skin tightening. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  1. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women's weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmar, Isaac E; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m(2)) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women.

  2. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss.

  3. Weight loss intervention before total knee arthroplasty-feasibility and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljensøe, A.; Laursen, J. O.; Bliddal, H.

    2015-01-01

    to implement an intensive weight loss program in order to reduce preoperative body weight of obese patients before TKA surgery. The primary aim of the Weight Loss Intervention before Total Knee Arthroplasty (WITKA) study is to investigate whether weight loss interventions before total knee arthroplasty (TKA...... or a weight loss group that followed a low-energy diet (810 kcal/day) 8 weeks before surgery. Outcomes were assessed before intervention for the weight loss group, and within 1 week preoperatively for both the weight loss group and the control group. The primary outcome in the WITKA study was the Short......-Form 36 (SF-36). Secondary outcomes were Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 6 Minutes' Walk Test, and body composition. Results: Included were 77 patients (weight loss group n=38; control group n=39), 71% were females, the mean age was 65 years (range 46-85), and the average BMI was 31...

  4. Maintaining a clinical weight loss after intensive lifestyle intervention is the key to cardiometabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Skovborg, Camilla; Præst, Charlotte Boslev

    2016-01-01

    maintenance (>10% weight loss), moderate maintenance (1-10%), and weight regain based on weight loss at follow-up (5.3±0.4years). Weight loss during the ILI was achieved by increased physical activity and hypo-caloric diet. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, blood sample, skeletal muscle biopsy and VO2max test were......OBJECTIVE: Intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) are criticised for ineffective obesity treatment because weight loss over time is modest and thus of limited clinical relevance. However, a subgroup (5-30%) maintains a clinical weight loss >10%, but it is not clear if cardiometabolic health...... follows this pattern. The aim was to study the effect of different magnitudes of weight loss maintenance after ILI on cardiometabolic health. METHODS: Eighty out of 2420 former participants (age: 36±1, BMI: 38±1, (means ±SE)) in an 11-12-week ILI were recruited into 3 groups; clinical weight loss...

  5. Sleeve gastrectomy induces loss of weight and fat mass in obese rats, but does not affect leptin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, Margaret A; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Sandoval, Darleen A; Berger, José; Toure, Mouhamadoul; Tschöp, Matthias; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2010-06-01

    Surgical intervention produces sustainable weight loss and metabolic improvement in obese individuals. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces dramatic, sustained weight loss; we investigated whether these changes result from improved sensitivity to leptin. VSG was performed in Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Naïve or sham-operated rats, fed either ad libitum or pair-fed with the VSG group, were used as controls. Following surgery, body weights and food intake were monitored. We investigated energy expenditure, meal patterns, leptin sensitivity, and expression of pro-opiomelanocortin/agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus of the rats. We observed sustained losses in weight and body fat in male and female rats after VSG. Weight loss persisted after the disappearance of a transient, postsurgical food intake reduction. Resting energy expenditure was similar between control and VSG rats. VSG rats maintained their reduced body weights. However, they responded to a chronic food restriction challenge by overeating, which resulted in prerestriction, rather than pre-VSG, body weights. Consistent with lower adiposity, VSG decreased plasma leptin levels. Although VSG slightly improved leptin's anorectic action, the response was comparable to that observed in controls matched for adiposity by caloric restriction. Changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide expression were consistent with the lower body weight and lower leptin levels but cannot account for the sustained weight loss. VSG causes sustained reduction in body weight, which results from loss of fat mass. The maintenance of weight loss observed did not result from changes in sensitivity to leptin. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T.; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R.; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss. PMID:26434764

  7. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-10-05

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss.

  8. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  9. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  10. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  11. Effect of weight loss and ketosis on postprandial cholecystokinin and free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chearskul, Supornpim; Delbridge, Elizabeth; Shulkes, Arthur; Proietto, Joseph; Kriketos, Adamandia

    2008-05-01

    Weight regain after weight loss may not be due primarily to voluntary return to social habits but may be explained by changes in peripheral hormonal signals activating hunger and encouraging feeding behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate physiologic adaptations to weight loss that may encourage weight regain. The study had a within-subject repeated-measure design [12 healthy, obese men, 33-64 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 30-46] and was a clinical intervention investigation of circulating metabolites and hunger-satiety responses before and after weight loss. Measures included anthropometry (bioelectrical impedance, body weight, and waist circumference), concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites [ketone bodies, free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, leptin, glucose, and cholecystokinin (CCK)], and measures of hunger and satiety at baseline, 8 wk after weight loss with a very-low-energy diet, and 1 wk after weight maintenance. Weight loss led to a reduction in postprandial CCK secretion (P = 0.016). However, when subjects were ketotic (elevated circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations), CCK secretion was sustained at concentrations before weight loss. After weight loss, there were reduced postprandial FFA concentrations (P = 0.0005). The presence of ketosis sustained FFA to concentrations before weight loss (P = 0.60). Rapid weight loss of approximately 10% of initial body weight results in a reduction in postprandial CCK and FFA concentrations.

  12. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  13. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  14. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  15. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Ian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38 were allocated to follow one of the four diets or control group. Subjects completed a 7-day food and activity diary at baseline (prior to randomisation and after 2 months. Diet records were analysed for nutrient composition using WinDiets (research version. Results A significant shift in the macronutrient composition of the diet with concurrent alteration of the micronutrient profile was apparent with all diets. There was no evidence to suggest micronutrient deficiency in subjects on any of the dietary regimens. However, those sub-groups with higher needs for specific micronutrients, such as folate, iron or calcium may benefit from tailored dietary advice. Conclusion The diets tested all resulted in considerable macronutrient change and resulted in an energy deficit indicating dietary compliance. Health professionals and those working in community and public health should be reassured of the nutritional adequacy of the diets tested. Trial Registration Number NCT00327821

  17. Cognitive Effects of Intentional Weight Loss in Elderly Obese Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Nidia Celeste; Serrao, Valeria T; Simon, Sharon Sanz; Gascon, Maria Rita Polo; Dos Santos, Alessandra Xavier; Zambone, Maria Aquimara; Del Bigio de Freitas, Marta Merenciana; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Marques, Emerson Leonildo; Halpern, Alfredo; de Melo, Maria Edna; Mancini, Marcio C; Cercato, Cintia

    2016-03-01

    Obesity in midlife is a risk factor for dementia, but it is unknown if caloric restriction-induced weight loss could prevent cognitive decline and therefore dementia in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. To evaluate the cognitive effect of intentional weight loss in obese elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), considering the influence of age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, physical activity, biochemical markers, and diet. Single-center, prospective controlled trial. Academic medical center. Eighty obese patients with MCI, aged 60 or older (68.1 ± 4.9 y, body mass index [BMI] 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), 83.7% women, 26.3% APOE allele ϵ4 carriers). Random allocation to conventional medical care alone (n = 40) or together with nutritional counselling (n = 40) in group meetings aiming to promote weight loss through caloric restriction for 12 months. clinical data, body composition, neuropsychological tests (main outcome), serum biomarkers, APOE genotype, physical performance, dietary recalls. Seventy-five patients completed the follow-up. BMI, on average, decreased 1.7 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) (P = .021), and most of the cognitive tests improved, without difference between the groups. In analysis with linear generalized models, the BMI decrease was associated with improvements in verbal memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and global cognition, after adjustment for education, gender, physical activity, and baseline tests. This association was strongest in younger seniors (for memory and fluency) and in APOE allele ϵ4 carriers (for executive function). Changes in homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, leptin and intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fats were associated with improvement in cognitive tests. Intentional weight loss through diet was associated with cognitive improvement in patients with MCI.

  18. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yost Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216 were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight

  19. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. Noteworthy, maximal fat oxidation was equally high after clinical weight loss maintenance and weight regain compared with moderate weight loss. A high maximal fat oxidation after clinical weight loss maintenance was related to higher maximal oxygen updake, content of key proteins involved in transport of lipids across the plasma membrane and β-oxidation. In contrast, a high maximal fat oxidation after weight regain was related to higher availability of lipids, i.e., general adiposity and plasma concentration of triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Effects of pronounced weight loss on adiponectin oligomer composition and metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Julia; Bobbert, Thomas; Ciardi, Christian; Laimer, Markus; Tatarczyk, Tobias; Kaser, Susanne; Weiss, Helmut; Molnar, Clemens; Tilg, Herbert; Patsch, Josef R; Spranger, Joachim; Ebenbichler, Christoph F

    2007-05-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine secreted into circulation in three isoforms. The aim of the study was to investigate changes of adiponectin isoforms during profound weight loss and its relation to anthropomorphometric and metabolic parameters. Thirteen severely obese female subjects were examined before and 1 year after surgical treatment. Total adiponectin was determined by radioimmunosorbent assay, and oligomer composition was detected by nondenaturing Western blot. BMI decreased substantially (p < 0.001), which was associated with an increase of total adiponectin from 12.9 +/- 5.9 to 14.3 +/- 6.1 microg/mL (p = 0.055). Medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin increased from 7.5 +/- 3.6 to 9.1 +/- 4.1 microg/mL (p = 0.009), whereas high (HMW) and low molecular weight adiponectin remained unchanged. Delta values of total adiponectin correlated significantly with Delta values of anthropometric parameters. Similar correlations were found for Delta values of MMW (Delta weight: r(2) = 0.4132, p = 0.0178; Delta BMI: r(2) = 0.3319, p = 0.0393; Delta fat mass: r(2) = 0.5202, p = 0.0054). Thus, profound weight loss was associated with an increase in total adiponectin, which was mainly and consistently caused by increases in MMW adiponectin (p = 0.009). These changes result in a shift from low molecular weight to MMW and HMW adiponectin isoforms, which may be related to improvements in both anthropometric and metabolic parameters.

  1. Determinants of Weight Loss prior to Diagnosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Elsherif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To identify prevalence, severity, and environmental determinants of weight loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients just prior to time of formal diagnosis. Methodology. IBD patients attending outpatient clinic were questioned about weight loss prior to diagnosis and other environmental and demographic variables. The percentage BMI loss was calculated for each subject and factors associated with weight loss were determined. Results. Four hundred and ninety-four subjects were recruited (237 cases of Crohn’s disease (CD and 257 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC. Overall, 57% of subjects with CD and 51% of subjects with UC experienced significant weight loss prior to diagnosis (>5% BMI loss. Younger age at diagnosis and history of previous IBD surgery were significantly associated with both lower BMI at diagnosis and increased weight loss prior to diagnosis. In CD patients, increasing age at diagnosis was inversely associated with weight loss prior to diagnosis. Ileal disease was a risk factor of weight loss, whereas prior appendectomy was associated with reduced risk of weight loss. Conclusions. Weight loss is a significant problem for many IBD patients at presentation, especially in younger age and CD with ileal involvement. Appendectomy is associated with diminished weight loss.

  2. Do more specific plans help you lose weight? Examining the relationship between plan specificity, weight loss goals, and plan content in the context of a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Endevelt, Ronit; Steinberg, David M; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-11-01

    The conditions under which planning for behaviour change is most effective are not fully understood. In the context of a weight management programme, we examined the interrelationship between plan specificity, type of behaviour planned (diet vs. exercise), and weight loss goals. Prospective design and content analysis of plans formed by participants of a 10-week weight management programme. Participants (n = 239) formulated two plans, for dietary and exercise behaviours, respectively. Plans were rated for specificity by examining the number of plan components. Weight loss goals were assessed by asking how much weight participants intend to lose. Weight was measured objectively each of the 10 weeks. Changes in body mass index (BMI) over time and the interactions between plan specificity and weight loss goals, for all plans and separately for diet and exercise, were estimated using linear mixed models. Plan specificity was unrelated to weight loss, but interacted with weight loss goals in predicting linear change in BMI (t = -2.48): More specific plans were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals. Separate interaction tests for plans formulated for diet and exercise change showed that more specific dietary plans, but not exercise plans, were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals (t = -2.21). Within a population that is highly motivated to lose weight, the combination of high weight loss goals and formulating detailed plans for changing dietary behaviours may be most effective in supporting weight loss. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? More specific plans are associated with increased performance of health-related behaviours. More motivated individuals form more specific plans. The interrelationship between plan specificity, plan content and behaviour-related goals in relation intervention effectiveness has not been explored to date

  3. New Nordic Diet induced weight loss is accompanied by changes in metabolism and AMPK signalling in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms behind diet-induced metabolic improvements remain to be studied. The Objective was to investigate whether expression of proteins in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue could explain improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis after weight loss. DESIGN: Volunteers...... adipose tissue (SCAT) were obtained at week 0 and 26. OUTCOME: Gene and protein expressions were analysed by real time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Improved HOMA-IR index and lowered plasma triacylglycerol concentration after NND coincided with molecular adaptations in SCAT, but not in skeletal...... regulation of key glucose and lipid handling proteins suggests an improved metabolic capacity in adipose tissue after weight loss....

  4. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  5. The correlation between hygienic parameters of milk and weight loss of semihard cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić-Rašović M.; Mirecki S.; Nikolić N.; Katić V.; Rašović R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine weight loss and correlation between total bacteria count and the somatic cells count and weight loss of semihard naturally dried cheese, product of dairy plant ZZ“Cijevna“ in Podgorica. Weigt loss was calculated on the base of difference in mass of cheese at the beginning of ripening and after specified period of ripening, exposed in percents. Examination of weight loss was done on total six product series of cheese d...

  6. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.

  7. Weight loss and Alzheimer's disease: temporal and aetiologic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Coin, Alessandra; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Manzato, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    The intermediate and advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are frequently associated with weight loss (WL), but WL may even precede the onset of cognitive symptoms. This review focuses on the possible aetiologic and temporal relationships between AD and WL. When WL occurs some years before any signs of cognitive impairment, it may be a risk factor for dementia due to deficiency of several micronutrients, such as vitamins and essential fatty acids, and consequent oxidative tissue damage. The leptin reduction associated with WL may also facilitate cognitive decline. The mechanisms potentially inducing WL in AD include lower energy intake, higher resting energy expenditure, exaggerated physical activity, or combinations of these factors. A hypermetabolic state has been observed in animals with AD, but has not been confirmed in human subjects. This latter mechanism could involve amyloid assemblies that apparently increase the circulating cytokine levels and proton leakage in mitochondria. WL may be caused by patients' increased physical activity as they develop abnormal motor behaviour (restlessness and agitation) and waste energy while trying to perform daily activities. During the course of AD, patients usually find it increasingly difficult to eat, so they ingest less food. AD-related neurodegeneration also affects brain regions involved in regulating appetite. The caregiver has an important role in ensuring an adequate food intake and controlling behavioural disturbances. In conclusion, WL is closely linked to AD, making periodic nutritional assessments and appropriate dietary measures important aspects of an AD patient's treatment.

  8. Perceived helpfulness of the individual components of a behavioural weight loss program: results from the Hopkins POWER Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin, A T; Jerome, G J; Fitzpatrick, S L; Louis, T A; Wang, N-Y; Bennett, W L; Durkin, N; Clark, J M; Daumit, G L; Appel, L J; Coughlin, J W

    2015-10-01

    Behavioural weight loss programs are effective first-line treatments for obesity and are recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Gaining an understanding of intervention components that are found helpful by different demographic groups can improve tailoring of weight loss programs. This paper examined the perceived helpfulness of different weight loss program components. Participants (n = 236) from the active intervention conditions of the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Hopkins Trial rated the helpfulness of 15 different components of a multicomponent behavioural weight loss program at 24-month follow-up. These ratings were examined in relation to demographic variables, treatment arm and weight loss success. The components most frequently identified as helpful were individual telephone sessions (88%), tracking weight online (81%) and coach review of tracking (81%). The component least frequently rated as helpful was the primary care providers' general involvement (50%). Groups such as older adults, Blacks and those with lower education levels more frequently reported intervention components as helpful compared with their counterparts. Weight loss coaching delivered telephonically with web support was well received. Findings support the use of remote behavioural interventions for a wide variety of individuals.

  9. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Nathalie Lyzwinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity