WorldWideScience

Sample records for weight loss improves

  1. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.Keywords: adherence, obesity, diet, exercise, self-monitoring, biomarkers

  2. Instrumentalization of eating improves weight loss maintenance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bodil Just; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss...... weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance....

  3. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...

  4. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  5. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Instrumentalization of Eating Improves Weight Loss Maintenance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Just Christensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss maintenance were identified in two contrasting groups: weight reducers and weight regainers. Groups were defined by health-relevant weight maintenance (additional weight loss > 3% at week 52, n = 9 versus weight gain > 3%, at week 52, n = 20. Results: Weight reducers reported structured meal patterns (p = 0.008, no comfort eating (p = 0.016 and less psychosocial stress (p = 0.04 compared to weight regainers. The ability to instrumentalize eating behavior emerged as an important factor (p = 0.007. Nutritional knowledge, motivation or exercise level did not differ between groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Successful weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance.

  7. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  8. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  9. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  10. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although postmenopausal associated disorders are important public health problems worldwide, to date limited studies evaluated the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the endothelial function ...

  11. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....

  12. Interventions to improve long-term weight loss in patients following bariatric surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrice M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanie McGrice, Kathlene Don Paul Nutrition Plus Enterprises, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments.Keywords: weight, bariatric, surgery

  13. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  14. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  15. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  16. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were ra...

  17. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1-Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John

    2016-11-01

    To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  18. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  19. Formal Nutritional Education Improves Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Christopher Wesley; Strode, Matthew A

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an increasingly performed procedure in the bariatric surgery armamentarium. This study evaluates our experience with LSG at Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center (DDEAMC) during the time period of 2008-2010. We found that the inclusion of formal nutritional education significantly increased our weight loss results following LSG. This is a retrospective review from our LSG caseload from 2008 to 2010. During that time, we performed 159 LSG. In our review, we performed comparative data of all operative years during 2008-2010 for up to 3 years postoperatively. Our main focus was in regard to weight loss as measured by percentage of excess body weight loss (%EWL), percentage of total weight loss (%TWL), and percentage of excess BMI loss (%EBL). We also evaluated the effect of LSG on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) postoperatively. We found an improvement in our %EWL, %TWL, and %EBL rates in our LSG cases following the inclusion of formal nutritional education. There was a mean increase in %EWL of 15 %, %TWL of 7 %, and %EBL of 21 %, which were statistically significant, that was present at all postoperative years of follow-up. We determined the only variable that changed in our bariatric program starting in 2010 was the inclusion of formal nutritional education. We also found a statistically significant improvement in resolution of HTN with the inclusion of formal nutritional education. The addition of formal nutritional education can enhance weight loss following bariatric surgery. We have shown a significant improvement in weight loss results following LSG with the implementation of formal nutritional education; this is the only study to our knowledge evaluating formal nutritional education and LSG.

  20. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  1. Heart rate recovery improves after weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Supervised Physical Training Improves Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Cecere, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces cardiovascular morbidity. However, a large variation in postsurgery weight loss is seen. Physical activity promotes weight loss in nonsurgically treated subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  3. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  4. Short-term weight loss attenuates local tissue inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity without affecting adipose inflammation in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Lichtman, Eben I; Lee, Eunjung; Lawton, Elizabeth; Ong, Helena; Yu, Kristine; Azuma, Yoshihiro; Friedline, Randall H; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance, and weight loss is shown to improve glucose homeostasis. But the underlying mechanism and the role of inflammation remain unclear. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 wk. After HFD, weight loss was induced by changing to a low-fat diet (LFD) or exercise with continuous HFD. The weight loss effects on energy balance and insulin sensitivity were determined using metabolic cages and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in awake mice. Diet and exercise intervention for 3 wk caused a modest weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis. Weight loss dramatically reduced local inflammation in skeletal muscle, liver, and heart but not in adipose tissue. Exercise-mediated weight loss increased muscle glucose metabolism without affecting Akt phosphorylation or lipid levels. LFD-mediated weight loss reduced lipid levels and improved insulin sensitivity selectively in liver. Both weight loss interventions improved cardiac glucose metabolism. These results demonstrate that a short-term weight loss with exercise or diet intervention attenuates obesity-induced local inflammation and selectively improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and liver. Our findings suggest that local factors, not adipose tissue inflammation, are involved in the beneficial effects of weight loss on glucose homeostasis.

  5. Banding the Sleeve Improves Weight Loss in Midterm Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jodok M; Hoffmann, Natalie; Kuesters, Simon; Seifert, Gabriel; Laessle, Claudia; Glatz, Torben; Hopt, Ulrich T; Konrad Karcz, W; Marjanovic, Goran

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) can achieve excellent weight loss, yet sleeve dilatation with concomitant weight regain proves to be a relevant issue. Hence, additional restriction might improve results after LSG. In a retrospective matched-pair analysis, 42 patients who underwent banded LSG (BLSG) using a MiniMizer® ring between January 2012 and October 2014 were analysed regarding weight loss, complications and comorbidity. Median follow-up was 3 years. Forty-two patients who had undergone conventional LSG were selected as matched pairs. Mean preoperative BMI was 54.93 ± 7.42 kg/m 2 for BLSG and 53.46 ± 6.69 kg/m 2 for LSG (Mann-Whitney P = 0.540). Total weight loss (%TWL) was significantly greater in the BLSG group 3 years after surgery (BLSG 38.22% ± 7.26; n = 26 vs. LSG 32.69 ± 9.47; n = 26; P = 0.0154). Ring placement had no relevant impact on new-onset reflux (Fisher's exact test P = 1.0) but a tendency towards reflux improvement when reflux pre-existed (odds ratio 1.96). The major side effect of ring implantation was regurgitation with over 44% of patients presenting with regurgitation >1 per week (Fisher's exact test P = 0.0019, odds ratio 18.07). BLSG is a safe procedure showing similar comorbidity to conventional LSG. However, BLSG leads to a higher rate of postoperative regurgitation. Weight loss is significantly improved 3 years after surgery. Hence, additional ring implantation might be an option for increased restriction in LSG surgery.

  6. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  7. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  8. Adolescent exergame play for weight loss and psychosocial improvement: a controlled physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2013-03-01

    Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e., videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African-American adolescents. Participants were recruited from a public high school and randomly assigned to competitive exergame, cooperative exergame, or control conditions. All exergame participants were encouraged to play the Nintendo Wii Active game for 30-60 min per school day in a lunch-time or after-school program. Cooperative exergame participants worked with a peer to expend calories and earn points together, whereas competitive exergame participants competed against a peer. Control participants continued regular daily activities. Outcome measures included changes in weight, peer support, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, measured at baseline, and at ∼10 and 20 weeks. Growth curve analysis revealed that cooperative exergame players lost significantly more weight (mean = 1.65 kg; s.d. = 4.52) than the control group, which did not lose weight. The competitive exergame players did not differ significantly from the other conditions. Cooperative exergame players also significantly increased in self-efficacy compared to the control group, and both exergame conditions significantly increased in peer support more than the control group. Exergames, especially played cooperatively, can be an effective technological tool for weight loss among youth. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  9. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  10. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  11. Text messaging approach improves weight loss in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axley, Page; Kodali, Sudha; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ravi, Sujan; Seay, Toni; Parikh, Nina M; Singal, Ashwani K

    2018-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease. The only effective treatment is 7%-10% weight loss. Mobile technology is increasingly used in weight management. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of text messaging intervention on weight loss in patients with NAFLD. Thirty well-defined NAFLD patients (mean age 52 years, 67% females, mean BMI 38) were randomized 1:1 to control group: counselling on healthy diet and exercise, or intervention group: text messages in addition to healthy life style counselling. NAFLD text messaging program sent weekly messages for 22 weeks on healthy life style education. Primary outcome was change in weight. Secondary outcomes were changes in liver enzymes and lipid profile. Intervention group lost an average of 6.9 lbs. (P = .03) compared to gain of 1.8 lbs. in the control group (P = .45). Intervention group also showed a decrease in ALT level (-12.5 IU/L, P = .035) and improvement in serum triglycerides (-28 mg/dL, P = .048). There were no changes in the control group on serum ALT level (-6.1 IU/L, P = .46) and on serum triglycerides (-20.3 mg/dL P = .27). Using one-way analysis of variance, change in outcomes in intervention group compared to control group was significant for weight (P = .02) and BMI (P = .02). Text messaging on healthy life style is associated with reduction in weight in NAFLD patients. Larger studies are suggested to examine benefits on liver histology, and assess long-term impact of this approach in patients with NAFLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: the MATADOR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N M; Sainsbury, A; King, N A; Hills, A P; Wood, R E

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. Subjects/Methods: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total). Forty-seven participants completed a 4-week baseline phase and commenced the intervention (CON: N=23, 39.4±6.8 years, 111.1±9.1 kg, 34.3±3.0 kg m−2; INT: N=24, 39.8±9.5 years, 110.2±13.8 kg, 34.1±4.0 kg m−2). During ER, energy intake was equivalent to 67% of weight maintenance requirements in both groups. Body weight, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured throughout the study. Results: For the N=19 CON and N=17 INT who completed the intervention per protocol, weight loss was greater for INT (14.1±5.6 vs 9.1±2.9 kg; Penergy balance blocks was minimal (0.0±0.3 kg). While reduction in absolute REE did not differ between groups (INT: -502±481 vs CON: −624±557 kJ d−1; P=0.5), after adjusting for changes in body composition, it was significantly lower in INT (INT: −360±502 vs CON: −749±498 kJ d−1; Penergy balance ‘rest periods’ may reduce compensatory metabolic responses and, in turn, improve weight loss efficiency. PMID:28925405

  14. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  15. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-to-normal intervals for each 5-min period (SDNNindex). Baseline body fat mass (FM%) and changes in body composition was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Before and after the weight-loss period, total abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat (IAAT), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SCAT) were measured by single...

  16. “Living High-Training Low” improved weight loss and glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a 4-week weight loss program in adolescents with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Huang, Guoyuan; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiangdong; Li, Na; Sun, Shunli; Zhou, Tang; Wu, Nana; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: “Living High-Training Low” (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to “Living Low-Training Low” (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14.7% PO2 ∼2700 m). Both groups underwent the same aerobic exercise training program. Morphological, blood lipids, and appetite hormones were measured and assessed. Results: After the intervention, the body composition improved in both groups, whereas reductions in body weight (BW), BMI, and lean body mass increased significantly in the LHTL group (all, P weight loss safely and efficiently as compared to LLTL and increase the plasma GLP-1 levels that may be mediated by IL-6 to rebalance the appetite. Thus, an efficient method to treat obesity and prevent weight regain by appetite rebalance in hypoxia condition was established. PMID:29465583

  17. Improved nutritional status and bone health after diet-induced weight loss in sedentary osteoarthritis patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P; Bartels, E M; Riecke, B F; Bliddal, H; Leeds, A R; Astrup, A; Winther, K; Christensen, R

    2012-04-01

    Obese subjects are commonly deficient in several micronutrients. Weight loss, although beneficial, may also lead to adverse changes in micronutrient status and body composition. The objective of the study is to assess changes in micronutrient status and body composition in obese individuals after a dietary weight loss program. As part of a dietary weight loss trial, enrolling 192 obese patients (body mass index >30 kg/m2) with knee osteoarthritis (>50 years of age), vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12 and body composition were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. All followed an 8-week formula weight-loss diet 415-810 kcal per day, followed by 8 weeks on a hypo-energetic 1200 kcal per day diet with a combination of normal food and formula products. Statistical analyses were based on paired samples in the completer population. A total of 175 patients (142 women), 91%, completed the 16-week program and had a body weight loss of 14.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 13.3-14.7; Pdiet resulted in increased BMD and improved vitamin D and B12 levels. Ferritin and BMC were unchanged and loss of LBM was only 13% of the total weight loss. This observational evidence supports use of formula diet-induced weight loss therapy in obese osteoarthritis patients.

  18. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Aggerholm, Anette Skærbech

    2011-01-01

    A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved...

  19. Qualitative Perspectives from African American Youth and Caregivers for Developing the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather E; Wilson, Dawn K; Lyerly, Jordan E

    2016-09-01

    This study obtained qualitative data from African American (AA) youth and caregiver dyads to inform the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial. Focus groups were conducted with 55 AA parent and caregiver dyads to gather perspectives on facilitators and barriers, motivators, and program preferences for health and weight loss using a socio-ecological framework. Four main themes emerged: using a positive health promotion framework for weight loss programs, social support and the role of parents in providing positive support, using a socio-ecological approach to examine factors that contribute to weight, and creating programs that are convenient, fun, and reduce barriers to participation. The findings from this study were used to develop the FIT intervention and indicate important individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors to consider when developing weight management and healthy lifestyle programs for AA families.

  20. Daily high doses of fluoxetine for weight loss and improvement in lifestyle before bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, JG; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Oei, HI; ten Hoor-Aukerna, NM; Schweitzer, DH

    Background: The number of gastric restrictive bariatric operations is increasing each year, but about one-fifth of patients will become disappointed due to unsatisfactory weight reduction or annoying complications. We questioned whether weight reduction by taking high doses of fluoxetine improves

  1. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon I. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-protein (HP intake during weight loss (WL therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found that HP intake reduced the WL-induced decline in lean tissue mass by ∼45%. However, HP intake also prevented the WL-induced improvements in muscle insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the WL-induced adaptations in oxidative stress and cell structural biology pathways. Our data demonstrate that the protein content of a WL diet can have profound effects on metabolic function and underscore the importance of considering dietary macronutrient composition during WL therapy for people with obesity.

  2. A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Kirstin F; Christianson, Dawn R; Hanley, Patrick W; Driessen, Wouter H P; Bernacky, Bruce J; Baze, Wallace B; Wen, Sijin; Tian, Mei; Ma, Jingfei; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Saha, Pradip K; Do, Kim-Anh; Hulvat, James F; Gelovani, Juri G; Chan, Lawrence; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-11-09

    Obesity, defined as body mass index greater than 30, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a financial burden worldwide. Despite significant efforts in the past decade, very few drugs have been successfully developed for the treatment of obese patients. Biological differences between rodents and primates are a major hurdle for translation of anti-obesity strategies either discovered or developed in rodents into effective human therapeutics. Here, we evaluate the ligand-directed peptidomimetic CKGGRAKDC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) (henceforth termed adipotide) in obese Old World monkeys. Treatment with adipotide induced targeted apoptosis within blood vessels of white adipose tissue and resulted in rapid weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry confirmed a marked reduction in white adipose tissue. At experimentally determined optimal doses, monkeys from three different species displayed predictable and reversible changes in renal proximal tubule function. Together, these data in primates establish adipotide as a prototype in a new class of candidate drugs that may be useful for treating obesity in humans.

  3. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  4. Reciprocal effects of exercise and nutrition treatment-induced weight loss with improved body image and physical self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in self-image and mood are often reported as outcomes of obesity interventions. However, they may also concurrently influence weight loss, suggesting a reciprocal effect. Although previously reported for overweight women, such relationships were untested in morbidly obese women whose psychosocial responses to treatment may be different, and health-risks greater. Women (N = 161, Meanage = 42 years) with morbid obesity (MeanBMI = 45.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month, behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment. Significant within-group improvements in weight-loss behaviors (physical activity and eating), weight, body satisfaction, physical self-concept, and depression were found. After controlling for age, mediation analyses indicated that, as a result of the treatment, weight loss was both an outcome and mediator of improvements in body-areas satisfaction and physical self-concept (reciprocal effects), but not depression. Results replicated findings from women with lower degrees of overweight, and suggested that weight-loss treatments emphasize changes in self-perception.

  5. Can exercise or physical activity help improve postnatal depression and weight loss? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligheh, Maryam; Hackett, Daniel; Boyce, Philip; Cobley, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Despite exercise or physical activity (PA) being effective on depression and weight management generally, its effectiveness remains uncertain during postpartum. This systematic review aimed to determine the efficacy of exercise or PA interventions on postnatal depression (PND) and weight loss, with a subsequent aim to identify more effective intervention approaches. Using PRISMA guidelines, data searches conducted across six databases. Nine studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on identified studies (some with high-quality RCT designs), there was inconsistency as to whether exercise or PA simultaneously reduced PND symptoms and assisted weight loss (or related body composition indices). Two (22.2%) identified changes in both outcomes with small effect sizes. Four studies (44.4%) reported changes in one outcome, typically PND with variable effect sizes, while three studies (33.3%) reported no effect. Studies implemented different exercise/PA modalities (commonly walking) and incorporated various support strategies to assist intervention participation and adherence. Studies identified as most likely to associate with PND and/or weight loss changes were those with supervision (1-1, group), structure (weekly frequency, scheduled durations and moderate intensity), which adhered to specific exercise/PA guidelines over an extended postpartum period (e.g. 12 weeks +) and were supplemented by several psycho-social support strategies (e.g. educational information, exercise/PA advice, and counselling). Future studies need to carefully address prior study methodological weaknesses (e.g. study design, inclusion criteria, measurement, reporting, assessing confounding factors), further examine proposed more beneficial exercise/PA intervention approaches, and consider how exercise/PA could be best delivered in practice to benefit women's postpartum health.

  6. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon I. Smith; Jun Yoshino; Shannon C. Kelly; Dominic N. Reeds; Adewole Okunade; Bruce W. Patterson; Samuel Klein; Bettina Mittendorfer

    2016-01-01

    High-protein (HP) intake during weight loss (WL) therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found ...

  7. Mechanisms underlying weight loss and metabolic improvements in rodent models of bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Deanna M.; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health risk with few successful treatment options and fewer still that target both obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities. Despite ongoing scientific efforts, the most effective treatment option to date was not developed from basic research but by surgeons observing outcomes in the clinic. Bariatric surgery is the most successful treatment for significant weight loss, resolution of type 2 diabetes and the prevention of future weight gain. Recent work with animal models has shed considerable light on the molecular underpinnings of the potent effects of these ‘metabolic’ surgical procedures. Here we review data from animal models and how these studies have evolved our understanding of the critical signalling systems that mediate the effects of bariatric surgery. These insights could lead to alternative therapies able to accomplish effects similar to bariatric surgery in a less invasive manner. PMID:25374275

  8. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  9. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R

    2007-11-14

    Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 +/- 9.5 years) were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01) and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002). While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08). Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  10. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  11. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  12. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  13. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Small Intestinal Bypass Induces a Persistent Weight-Loss Effect and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaqing; Ren, Quan; Tan, Cai; Duan, Jinyuan

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the role of proximal small intestinal bypass (PSIB) and distal small intestinal bypass (DSIB) as well as their long-term effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism in high-sugar and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: PSIB, bypassing 60% of the proximal small intestine length; DSIB, bypassing 60% of the distal small intestine length; sham-operated (Sham) animals; and control animals. All rats were fed a high-sugar and high-fat diet after surgery. The primary outcome measures were body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Global body weight (BW) and food intake in the PSIB and DSIB groups were lower than those in the Sham group at postoperative week 2. BW and food intake in the PSIB group were lower than those in the DSIB group at postoperative week 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in glucose tolerance at postoperative weeks 4, 8, and 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in FBG at postoperative week 24, and only the DSIB group exhibited improvement in insulin sensitivity. This study provides experimental evidence that PSIB surgery induced a better and more persistent weight loss effect than DSIB surgery and that the two types of intestinal bypass surgeries yielded equivalent and stable long-term improvement in glucose tolerance in an obese rat model.

  15. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? results from a cohort of severely obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Emil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high body mass index (BMI has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reproductive indicators. Methods In this pilot cohort study, 43 men with BMI > 33 kg/m2 were followed through a 14 week residential weight loss program. The participants provided semen samples and had blood samples drawn, filled in questionnaires, and had clinical examinations before and after the intervention. Conventional semen characteristics as well as sperm DNA integrity, analysed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA were obtained. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B (Inh-B were measured. Results Participants were from 20 to 59 years of age (median = 32 with BMI ranging from 33 to 61 kg/m2. At baseline, after adjustment for potential confounders, BMI was inversely associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.02, total sperm count (p = 0.02, sperm morphology (p = 0.04, and motile sperm (p = 0.005 as well as testosterone (p = 0.04 and Inh-B (p = 0.04 and positively associated to estradiol (p Conclusion This study found obesity to be associated with poor semen quality and altered reproductive hormonal profile. Weight loss may potentially lead to improvement in semen quality. Whether the improvement is a result of the reduction in body weight per se or improved lifestyles remains unknown.

  16. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  17. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  18. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium...... were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey.......58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite...

  19. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body weight loss by very-low-calorie diet program improves small artery reactive hyperemia in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J; Megias-Rangil, I; Ferré, R; Plana, N; Girona, J; Rabasa, A; Aragonés, G; Cabré, A; Bonada, A; Heras, M; Masana, L

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased body weight. We aimed to assess the impact of weight loss induced by an intensive very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) on arterial wall function in severely obese patients (SOP). Thirty-four SOP were admitted to the metabolic ward of the hospital for a 3-week period. A VLCD characterized by a liquid diet providing 800 kcal/day was administered. The small artery reactivity to postischemic hyperemia index (saRHI), a surrogate marker of endothelial function, was assessed before and 1 week after hospital discharge. Anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also measured. Obese and non-obese age- and gender-matched groups were recruited for baseline comparisons. SOP had significantly lower saRHI compared with obese and non-obese individuals. SaRHI significantly increased after the intervention in SOP (1.595 ± 0.236 vs. 1.737 ± 0.417, p = 0.015). A significant improvement in glucose (p = 0.026), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.049), LDLc (p reactivity, and it was associated with the amelioration of metabolic and inflammation markers. Endothelial dysfunction may be softened by body weight loss interventions and useful in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in SOP.

  1. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  2. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  3. An overview of the Families Improving Together (FIT) for weight loss randomized controlled trial in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken; Van Horn, M Lee; St George, Sara M; Siceloff, E Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A; McDaniel, Tyler; Heatley, VaShawn; Huffman, Lauren; Coulon, Sandra; Prinz, Ron

    2015-05-01

    The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents. The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11-16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M + FWL (Motivational Plus Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M + FWL vs. CHE group) × 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Eating patterns and food choice as determinant of weight loss and improvement of metabolic profile after RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin Netto, Bárbara Dal; Earthman, Carrie P; Farias, Gisele; Landi Masquio, Deborah Cristina; Grotti Clemente, Ana Paula; Peixoto, Priscilla; Bettini, Solange Cravo; von Der Heyde, Maria Emilia; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2017-01-01

    Significant changes in the preference for different dietary components have been observed after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the early post-RYGB changes in quality of eating patterns and their relationship to weight loss and metabolic parameters. The sample was composed of 41 extremely obese individuals undergoing RYGB. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire in Brazil. A food intake evaluation was conducted with a focus on the frequency of consumption (≥4 times/wk) of markers for healthy eating and markers for unhealthy eating. Furthermore, anthropometric and metabolic markers were collected before surgery and 6 mo post-RYGB. Compared with baseline, the postsurgery body mass index was reduced by 12.9 kg/m 2 , corresponding to an excess weight loss of 63.5%. Blood glucose, insulin, ferritin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG), and hemoglobin were reduced 6 mo after RYGB (P hamburger), and some healthy food increased (e.g., from 0% to 5.1% for fish and from 0% to 25.6% for plain yogurt). There was a decrease in the frequency of individuals who reported consuming fruit and vegetables. Conversely, insulin, glucose, and TG levels were positively associated with intake of chocolates/truffles and ice cream/sundaes. Participants in the present study appeared to develop a healthier dietary pattern by 6 mo after RYGB. These results show that a healthier dietary pattern is associated with a significant improvement of metabolic profile and weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss–induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. PMID:28507015

  6. HNF1A variant, energy-reduced diets and insulin resistance improvement during weight loss: The POUNDS Lost trial and DIRECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Ivey, Kerry; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Stampfer, Meir J; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2018-06-01

    To determine whether weight-loss diets varying in macronutrients modulate the genetic effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) rs7957197 on weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance. We analysed the interaction between HNF1A rs7957197 and weight-loss diets with regard to weight loss and insulin resistance improvement among 722 overweight/obese adults from a 2-year randomized weight-loss trial, the POUNDS Lost trial. The findings were replicated in another independent 2-year weight-loss trial, the Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT), in 280 overweight/obese adults. In the POUNDS Lost trial, we found that a high-fat diet significantly modified the genetic effect of HNF1A on weight loss and reduction in waist circumference (P for interaction = .006 and .005, respectively). Borderline significant interactions for fasting insulin and insulin resistance (P for interaction = .07 and .06, respectively) were observed. We replicated the results in DIRECT. Pooled results showed similar significant interactions with weight loss, waist circumference reduction, and improvement in fasting insulin and insulin resistance (P values for interaction = .001, .005, .02 and .03, respectively). Greater decreases in weight, waist circumference, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance were observed in participants with the T allele compared to those without the T allele in the high-fat diet group (P = .04, .03 and .01, respectively). Our replicable findings provide strong evidence that individuals with the HNF1A rs7957197 T allele might obtain more benefits in weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by choosing a hypocaloric and high-fat diet. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Weight loss and improved gross motor coordination in children as a result of multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Gentier, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Tanghe, Ann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program by describing changes in body weight, related measures, and gross motor co-ordination. Secondarily, it was examined to what extent the amount of relative weight loss achieved by overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants explained the projected improvement in gross motor co-ordination. Thirty-six OW/OB children (aged 10.5 ± 1.4 years, 12 girls and 24 boys) were recruited at the Zeepreventorium VZW (De Haan, Belgium), where they followed a specific program consisting of moderate dietary restriction, psychological support, and physical activity. For reference purposes, an additional group of 36 age- and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross motor co-ordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) on two occasions with an interval of 4 months. Regardless of the test moment, OW/OB participants displayed significantly poorer KTK performances (P motor co-ordination performance, with a greater increase in KTK score(s) from baseline to re-test as compared to HW peers (P motor co-ordination, which in turn may promote physical activity participation.

  8. Weight Loss and Lowering Androgens Predict Improvements in Health-Related Quality of Life in Women With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Milman, Lauren; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Fleming, Jennifer; Coutifaris, Christos; Legro, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and increased prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The impact of PCOS-specific treatments on these co-morbidities is unclear. To assess the impact of weight loss and decreasing hyperandrogenism on HRQOL and mood and anxiety disorders in women with PCOS. A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of preconception treatment conducted at two academic centers in women (age, 18-40 years; body mass index, 27-42 kg/m(2)) with PCOS defined by Rotterdam criteria. Continuous oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or intensive lifestyle intervention or the combination (Combined) for 16 weeks. Changes in HRQOL assessed by PCOSQ and SF-36 and prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder assessed by PRIME-MD PHQ. The lowest scores were noted on the general health domain of the SF-36 and the weight and infertility domains on the PCOSQ. All three interventions resulted in significant improvement in the general health score on the SF-36. Both the OCP and Combined groups showed improvements in all domains of the PCOSQ (P symptoms, and anxiety disorders, and combined therapies offer further benefits in overweight/obese women with PCOS.

  9. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine

    OpenAIRE

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m2, but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body...

  10. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  11. Weight loss and waist reduction is associated with improvement in gastroesophageal disease reflux symptoms: A longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects undergoing health checkups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-K; Lee, T; Yang, H-J; Park, J H; Sohn, C I; Ryu, S; Park, D I

    2017-05-01

    General obesity and abdominal obesity is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the influence of weight or waist change on improvement of GERD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate if weight loss or waist reduction improves GERD symptoms and esophagitis. A retrospective longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects who underwent gastroscopy for a health checkup and reported GERD symptoms between 2011 and 2013, and repeated a checkup until 2014 was conducted. The improvement of GERD symptoms and esophagitis according to weight loss (≥-2, -0.5 to -2 kg/m 2 in body mass index [BMI]), waist reduction (≥-5, -0.1 to -0.5 cm) and baseline BMI/waist circumference (WC) categories was assessed using logistic regression. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Among subjects with general obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and decreased ≥2 kg/m 2 in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of improvement in GERD symptoms was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.83). Among subjects with abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm) and decreased ≥5 cm in WC, the corresponding OR was 2.16 (95% CI 1.56-2.90). There was no association between weight loss or waist reduction and improvement in esophagitis. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Weight loss or waist reduction will be an important treatment option in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-11-08

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m(2), but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body weight attained through an altered diet and exercise regime, which resulted in him attaining a normal BMI of 24.8 kg/m(2).

  13. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehestanie, P.; Dogan, K.; Berends, F.; Janssen, I.; Wahab, P.J.; Groenen, M.; Müller, M.R.; Wit, de N.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this

  14. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  15. Dietary self-monitoring, but not dietary quality, improves with use of smartphone app technology in an 8-week weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S; Cunningham, Barbara K; Sterner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is linked to improved weight loss success. Mobile technologies, such as smartphone applications (apps), might allow for improved dietary tracking adherence. The authors assessed the use of a popular smartphone app for dietary self-monitoring and weight loss by comparing it with traditional diet counseling and entry methods. Diet tracking and weight loss were compared across participants during an 8-week weight loss trial. Participants tracked intake using 1 of 3 methods: the mobile app "Lose It!", the memo feature on a smartphone, or a traditional paper-and-pencil method. App users (n = 19) recorded dietary data more consistently compared with the paper-and-pencil group (n = 15; P = .042) but not the memo group (n = 13). All groups lost weight over the course of the study (P = .001), and no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Smartphone apps could represent a novel and feasible dietary self-monitoring method for individuals. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Point of no return for improvement of cartilage quality indicated by dGEMRIC before and after weight loss in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangaard, Stine; Gudbergsen, Henrik; Skougaard, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that weight loss improves symptoms in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). A parallel change in cartilage morphology remains to be demonstrated. Purpose To demonstrate a parallel change in cartilage morphology. Material and Methods Obese patients...... with KOA were examined before and after weight loss over 16 weeks. Target knee joints were radiographically assessed by the Kellgren/Lawrence grading (KLG) system. Patients with KLG-1 and 2 changes in the lateral compartment were included. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (d...... in body mass index (BMI) after 16 weeks: 12.8% versus 11.4% ( P = 0.74). In the KLG-1 group, several cases of increased dGEMRIC T1 values were seen and median value decreased significantly less than in KLG-2 group (15 ms versus 41 ms, P = 0.03) after weight loss. Conclusion Improvement of cartilage...

  17. A novel Dual Amylin and Calcitonin Receptor Agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges – hence, development of weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities is key. Experimental Approach The effect of the dual...... amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on bodyweight, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue, food preference was investigated. Further, we elucidate weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Key Results High fat diet fed...... improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight-matching led to improved glucose homeostasis through lowered plasma insulin; however, these were inferior to the effect of KBP-089...

  18. "Living High-Training Low" improved weight loss and glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a 4-week weight loss program in adolescents with obesity: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Huang, Guoyuan; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiangdong; Li, Na; Sun, Shunli; Zhou, Tang; Wu, Nana; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru

    2018-02-01

    "Living High-Training Low" (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m] were randomly assigned to "Living Low-Training Low" (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14.7% PO2 ∼2700 m). Both groups underwent the same aerobic exercise training program. Morphological, blood lipids, and appetite hormones were measured and assessed. After the intervention, the body composition improved in both groups, whereas reductions in body weight (BW), BMI, and lean body mass increased significantly in the LHTL group (all, P weight loss safely and efficiently as compared to LLTL and increase the plasma GLP-1 levels that may be mediated by IL-6 to rebalance the appetite. Thus, an efficient method to treat obesity and prevent weight regain by appetite rebalance in hypoxia condition was established.

  19. Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Jonathan; Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Lois; Chapin, Sarah

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss. Juicing or detoxification diets tend to work because they lead to extremely low caloric intake for short periods of time, however tend to lead to weight gain once a normal diet is resumed. Both intermittent fasting and the paleo diet lead to weight loss because of overall decreased caloric intake as well. Lastly, studies on short bursts of high intensity training have shown remarkable weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular health. Review of the literature does suggest that some fad diets and exercise plans do lead to weight loss; however, the studies are quite limited and are all based on the concept of caloric restriction.

  20. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  1. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  2. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  3. Diabesity: are weight loss medications effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C

    2005-01-01

    Weight reduction has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic options for these patients include promoting weight loss (non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment) and improving glycemic control, as well as treating common associated risk factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias. This article provides an overview of anti-obesity drugs used in the treatment of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The most widely investigated drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, result in modest, clinically worthwhile weight loss, with demonstrable improvements in many co-morbidities, among them, type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials with these anti-obesity medications in cohorts of obese diabetic patients have been reviewed as well as cathecolaminergic agents (diethylpropion [amfepramone], fenproporex, mazindol, ephedrine-caffeine combination), serotoninergic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine), and other drugs that have some action on weight loss (the antidiabetic agent metformin, anti-epileptic agents topiramate and zonisamide, and the antidepressive bupropion [amfebutamone]). These trials show variable benefits in terms of effects on glucose profiles.

  4. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The term “inability to gain weight” means that there has been substantial weight loss with inability... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  5. Does the incorporation of portion-control strategies in a behavioral program improve weight loss in a 1-year randomized controlled trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Roe, L S; James, B L; Sanchez, C E

    2017-03-01

    Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a 1-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of the two portion-control strategies instead of standard advice about eating less. The Portion-Control Strategies Trial included 186 women with obesity (81%) or overweight (19%). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three equally intensive behavioral programs, consisting of 19 individual sessions over 12 months. The Standard Advice Group was instructed to eat less food while making healthy choices, the Portion Selection Group was instructed to choose portions based on the energy density using tools such as food scales and the Pre-portioned Foods Group was instructed to structure meals around pre-portioned foods such as single-serving main dishes, for which some vouchers were provided. In an intention-to-treat analysis, a mixed-effects model compared weight loss trajectories across 23 measurements; at month 12, weight was measured for 151 participants (81%). The trajectories showed that the Pre-portioned Foods Group initially lost weight at a greater rate than the other two groups (P=0.021), but subsequently regained weight at a greater rate (P=0.0005). As a result, weight loss did not differ significantly across groups at month 6 (mean±s.e. 5.2±0.4 kg) or month 12 (4.5±0.5 kg). After 1 year, measured weight loss averaged 6% of baseline weight. The frequency of using portion-control strategies initially differed across groups, then declined over time and converged at months 6 and 12. Incorporating instruction on portion-control strategies within a 1-year behavioral program did not lead to a greater weight loss than standard advice. Using pre-portioned foods enhanced early weight loss, but this was not sustained over time. Long-term maintenance of behavioral strategies to

  6. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  7. The Role of Bile After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Promoting Weight Loss and Improving Glycaemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaras, Dimitri J.; Glicksman, Clare; Vincent, Royce P.; Kuganolipava, Shophia; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamie; Mahon, David; Bekker, Jan H.R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Walters, Julian R.F.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric bypass leads to the remission of type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss. Our hypothesis is that changes in bile flow due to the altered anatomy may partly explain the metabolic outcomes of the operation. We prospectively studied 12 patients undergoing gastric bypass and six patients undergoing gastric banding over a 6-wk period. Plasma fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, stimulated by bile acid absorption in the terminal ileum, and plasma bile acids were measured. In canine and rodent models, we investigated changes in the gut hormone response after altered bile flow. FGF19 and total plasma bile acids levels increased after gastric bypass compared with no change after gastric banding. In the canine model, both food and bile, on their own, stimulated satiety gut hormone responses. However, when combined, the response was doubled. In rats, drainage of endogenous bile into the terminal ileum was associated with an enhanced satiety gut hormone response, reduced food intake, and lower body weight. In conclusion, after gastric bypass, bile flow is altered, leading to increased plasma bile acids, FGF19, incretin. and satiety gut hormone concentrations. Elucidating the mechanism of action of gastric bypass surgery may lead to novel treatments for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22673227

  8. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  10. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years.......Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  11. First-day newborn weight loss predicts in-hospital weight nadir for breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B

    2010-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing > or =10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at or =10%. For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 +/- 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 +/- 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost > or =10% of birth weight. Infants losing > or =4.5% birth weight at or =10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Early weight loss predicts higher risk of > or =10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding.

  12. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  13. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (ΔHOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (Δadiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (Δcarotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ΔHOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.

  15. Diet in the management of weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and charac...

  16. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    : Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  17. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustained weight loss and improvement of quality of life after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity: a single surgeon experience in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, K H

    2010-03-01

    Although substantial weight loss is the primary outcome following bariatric surgery, changes in obesity-related morbidity and quality of life (QoL) are equally important. This study reports on weight loss, QoL and health outcomes following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB).

  19. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    OpenAIRE

    Galioto, R.; Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty?three adult patients (age 50.4???15.1, BMI 44.2???8.8, 68% female, 92% White)...

  20. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  1. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  2. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  3. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  4. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  5. My Quest, an Intervention Using Text Messaging to Improve Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors and Promote Weight Loss in Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jamie B; Struempler, Barb; Funderburk, Katie; Parmer, Sondra M; Tran, Cecilia; Wadsworth, Danielle D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors and weight after implementation of a 12-week text messaging initiative (My Quest). The researchers conducted a 1-group, pre- to posttest study design to determine changes after implementation of a text messaging initiative developed using the tenets of the Social Cognitive Theory. A total of 55 Alabama counties (84% rural) with high rates of poverty, overweight/obesity, and chronic diseases. Convenience sample of low-income, primarily overweight/obese women (n = 104). Short texts (n = 2-3/d) provided health tips, reminders, and goal-setting prompts. Weekly electronic newsletters provided tips and recipes. Participant self-monitored body weight weekly. Outcomes included goal setting, self-efficacy, behavioral and environmental factors, self-monitoring, and body weight; data collection occurred through text message response and online surveys. Analyses were conducted using McNemar test (dichotomous data), Wilcoxon signed rank test (ordinal data), or paired t test (continuous data). Participants significantly (P text messaging initiative particularly targeting women residing in rural communities with high rates of poverty and obesity can promote weight loss and improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. Future studies may include a control group and social support component such as group text messaging. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvements in insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise and weight loss in older women with a history of gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether a hypocaloric diet alone (WL) or with exercise training (AEX + WL) is effective in improving body composition, fitness, glucose utilization and CVD risk factors in sedentary women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) and with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Longitudinal clinical investigation of 25 overweight/obese (BMI: 32 ± 1 kg/m(2)) women (59 ± 1 yrs) with a GDM history (n = 20) or T2DM (n = 5). Women completed 6 months WL (n = 10) or AEX+WL (n = 15) with VO2max, body composition, and glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity was measured during the last 30 min of 2 h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU·m(-2.)min(-1)) before and after interventions. Body weight decreased ~7% after WL and AEX+WL (p exercise program combined with moderate weight loss reduces body weight, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat, and improves insulin sensitivity in older women who had previously been diagnosed with GDM and those with T2DM. These findings should encourage women with a history of GDM to engage in an active lifestyle and reduce caloric intake to lower the risk for the development of T2DM.

  7. The novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor tesofensine induces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control in the diet-induced obese rat: comparison to sibutramine and rimonabant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...... of rimonabant (10mg/kg, p.o.) only produced a transient weight reduction. While all compounds exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on food intake which gradually wore off, the hypophagic effect of tesofensine was longer lasting than sibutramine and rimonabant. In contrast to tesofensine, the body weight...

  8. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  9. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  10. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  11. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  12. A "small-changes" workplace weight loss and maintenance program: examination of weight and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.

  13. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight-loss

  14. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  15. Directionality in the Relationship of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, and Mood Changes in Facilitating Improved Physical Activity and Nutrition Behaviors: Extending Behavioral Theory to Improve Weight-Loss Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2017-06-01

    To improve understanding of directionality in the dynamic relationships among psychosocial predictors of behavioral changes associated with weight loss. In women with obesity participating in a new behavioral weight-loss treatment that emphasizes physical activity (n = 53; body mass index = 34.7 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ), mediation and moderated-mediation models were fit to assess directionality in the self-efficacy-self-regulation change relationship and additional effects of mood change and its basis on fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity behaviors through month 6 and from months 6 to 24. Self-regulation was a stronger predictor of change in self-efficacy than vice versa. Mood change did not moderate the relationships significantly between changes in self-efficacy and/or self-regulation, and weight loss behavior. Emotional eating significantly changed mediated relationships between changes in mood and fruit/vegetable intake through month 6 (95% confidence interval, -0.05 to 0.00). Findings clarified relationships of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and mood in the prediction of weight loss behaviors, and informed behavioral treatments for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight....../obese subjects (N = 10 744), =55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...

  17. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  18. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  19. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...

  1. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  2. FORUM Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.

  3. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338

  4. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  5. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C

    2007-02-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  6. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murer, S.B.; Knopfli, B.H.; Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic

  7. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  8. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  9. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship...... between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10...... resistance in young obese women and do not support a direct relationship between IMTG and insulin sensitivity in young obese women during weight loss....

  10. The relationship between prevalence and duration of weight loss strategies and weight loss among overweight managed care organization members enrolled in a weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.

  11. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  12. Dietary patterns in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Brikou, Dora; Mamalaki, Eirini; Bersimis, Fragiskos; Anastasiou, Costas A; Hill, James O; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and either had maintained this loss for over a year, or had regained weight. Questionnaires on demographics and lifestyle habits were completed online. Dietary assessment was carried out by two telephone 24-h recalls. Present analysis focused on 361 participants (32 years old, 39 % men): 264 maintainers and 97 regainers. Energy and macronutrient intake did not differ by maintenance status (1770 ± 651 kcal in maintainers vs. 1845 ± 678 kcal in regainers, p = 0.338), although protein intake per kg of body weight was higher in maintainers (1.02 ± 0.39 vs. 0.83 ± 0.28 g/kg in regainers, p meal preparation and eating at home for men, and a higher eating frequency and slower eating rate for women. Men maintaining weight loss were much more likely to adhere to a healthy eating pattern. Eating at home, involvement in meal preparation, higher eating frequency and slower eating rate were also associated with maintenance. These lifestyle habits of successful maintainers provide target behaviors to improve obesity treatment.

  13. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  14. The weight-loss experience: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rogerson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight-loss experiences of a sample of participants not aligned to clinical intervention research, in order to understand the weight-loss experiences of a naturalistic sample. Methods Participants (n = 8 with weight-loss (n = 4 and weight-maintenance experiences (n = 4 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to understand the weight-loss experience. Interview data was analysed thematically using Framework Analysis and was underpinned by realist meta-theory. Results Weight loss was experienced as an enduring challenge, where factors that assisted weight loss were developed and experienced dichotomously to factors that hindered it. Participants described barriers to (dichotomous thinking, environments, social pressures and weight centeredness and facilitators of (mindfulness, knowledge, exercise, readiness to change, structure, self-monitoring and social support their weight-loss goals in rich detail, highlighting that weight loss was a complex experience. Conclusions Weight loss was a difficult task, with physical, social, behavioural and environmental elements that appeared to assist and inhibit weight-loss efforts concurrently. Health professionals might need to better understand the day-to-day challenges of dieters in order to provide more effective, tailored treatments. Future research should look to investigate the psycho-social consequences of weight-loss dieting, in

  15. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  16. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    Background : High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL. Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control. Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion. Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile. Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of

  17. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  18. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  19. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  20. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645

  1. Social networks for improving healthy weight loss behaviors for overweight and obese adults: A randomized clinical trial of the social pounds off digitally (Social POD) mobile app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wilcox, Sara; Fahim, Arjang; Davis, Rachel E; Huhns, Michael; Valafar, Homayoun

    2016-10-01

    To test the efficacy of a weight loss mobile app based on recommender systems and developed by experts in health promotion and computer science to target social support and self-monitoring of diet, physical activity (PA), and weight (Social POD app), compared to a commercially available diet and PA tracking app (standard). Overweight adults [N=51] were recruited and randomly assigned to either the experimental group [n=26; theory-based podcasts (TBP)+Social POD app] or the comparison group (n=25; TBP+standard app). The Social POD app issued notifications to encourage users to self-monitor and send theory-based messages to support users who had not self-monitored in the previous 48h. Independent samples t-test were used to examine group differences in kilograms lost and change in BMI. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze secondary outcomes while controlling for baseline values. Participant attrition was 12% (n=3 experimental and n=3 comparison). Experimental group participants lost significantly more weight (-5.3kg, CI: -7.5, -3.0) than comparison group (-2.23kg, CI: -3.6, -1.0; d=0.8, r=0.4, p=0.02) and had a greater reduction in BMI (p=0.02). While there were significant differences in positive outcome expectations between groups (p=0.04) other secondary outcomes (e.g., caloric intake and social support) were not significant. Use of the Social POD app resulted in significantly greater weight loss than use of a commercially available tracking app. This mobile health intervention has the potential to be widely disseminated to reduce the risk of chronic disease associated with overweight and obesity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Distance weighting for improved tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for the reconstruction of emission computed axial tomography images has been developed. The method is a modification of filtered back-projection, where the back projected values are weighted to reflect the loss of formation, with distance from the camera, which is inherent in gamma camera imaging. This information loss is a result of: loss of spatial resolution with distance, attenuation, and scatter. The weighting scheme can best be described by considering the contributions of any two opposing views to the reconstruction image pixels. The weight applied to the projections of one view is set to equal the relative amount of the original activity that was initially received in that projection, assuming a uniform attenuating medium. This yields a weighting value which is a function of distance into the image with a value of one for pixels ''near the camera'', a value of .5 at the image center, and a value of zero on the opposite side. Tomographic reconstructions produced with this method show improved spatial resolution when compared to conventional 360 0 reconstructions. The improvement is in the tangential direction, where simulations have indicated a FWHM improvement of 1 to 1.5 millimeters. The resolution in the radial direction is essentially the same for both methods. Visual inspection of the reconstructed images show improved resolution and contrast

  3. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions.......This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...

  4. Motivations for Weight Loss Among Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve

  5. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  6. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...... % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients....

  7. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  8. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  9. Repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Ritz, Christian; Verdich, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    in one to four 11-12 week lifestyle interventions (residential weight loss programme, mixed activities). Weight loss was promoted through a hypocaloric diet (-500 to -700 kcal/day) and daily physical activity (1-3 hours/day). Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in body composition (bioimpedance...

  10. The Effect of Adherence to Dietary Tracking on Weight Loss: Using HLM to Model Weight Loss over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, John Spencer; Misra, Ranjita; Stewart, Jonathan; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary tracking on weight loss remains unexplored despite being part of multiple diabetes and weight management programs. Hence, participants of the Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program (12 months, 22 sessions) tracked their food intake for the duration of the study. A scatterplot of days tracked versus total weight loss revealed a nonlinear relationship. Hence, the number of possible tracking days was divided to create the 3 groups of participants: rare trackers (66% total days tracked). After controlling for initial body mass index, hemoglobin A 1c , and gender, only consistent trackers had significant weight loss (-9.99 pounds), following a linear relationship with consistent loss throughout the year. In addition, the weight loss trend for the rare and inconsistent trackers followed a nonlinear path, with the holidays slowing weight loss and the onset of summer increasing weight loss. These results show the importance of frequent dietary tracking for consistent long-term weight loss success.

  11. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  12. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. C. Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1 Cafeteria diet; (2 Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg; and (3 Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides (TG (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment.

  13. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  14. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hollywood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  15. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  16. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana M; Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-03-01

    Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve's capacity to classify participants likely to lose models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  18. Weight loss in obese women - exercise v. dietary education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight loss, body fat loss (%) and daily energy intake reductions were equally reduced in the subjects in all three groups who completed the programme. There was, however, a significantly higher dropout rate in the control group. Taking this into account, the weight loss in the two test groups was similar and greater than ...

  19. The rs10401670 variant in resistin gene improved insulin resistance response and metabolic parameters secondaries to weight loss after a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Bachiller, R

    2016-08-01

    The SNP 3'UTR C/T (rs10401670), it is a polymorphism that has been associated with diabetes mellitus and it has been scarcely studied before. As far as we know, no studies on interaction among diet intervention, rs10401670 variant of RETN and metabolic response has been realized. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs10401670 RETN gene polymorphism on insulin resistance response and metabolic changes secondary to weight loss after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet in adults obese patients without diabetes mellitus. A Caucasian population of 135 obese patients without diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Before and after 3 months on a low fat hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined CT and TT as a group (minor allele group) and wild type CC as second group (major allele group) (dominant model). Forty nine patients (36.3%) had the genotype CC (major allele group) and 86 (63.7%) patients had the next genotypes; CT (67 patients, 49.6%) or TT (19 patients, 14.1%) (minor allele group). After dietary treatment and in major allele group, weight, BMI, fat mass, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreases were similar than minor allele group. In T allele carriers, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels decreased significantly. In non T allele carriers and after dietary treatment, only LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol decreased. In non T Allele carriers, the decrease in total cholesterol was -15.1 ± 18.3 mg/dl (decrease in T Allele carriers -18.3 ± 15.7 mg/dl: p > 0.05), LDL-cholesterol was -14.3 ± 18.5 mg/dl (decrease in T Allele carriers -17.3 ± 10.1 mg/dl:p > 0.05), fasting glucose plasma -2.2 ± 1.5 mg/dL (decrease in T Allele carriers -4.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL: p = 0.02), insulin -1.1 ± 2.0 mUI/L (decrease in T Allele carriers -6.3

  20. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne; Wycherley, Thomas P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Woods, Stephen C; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-04-29

    Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an overview of the literature that explores the mechanisms of action after acute protein consumption and the clinical health outcomes after consumption of long-term, higher-protein diets. Several meta-analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also reported. In addition, a review of the acute feeding trials confirms a modest satiety effect, including greater perceived fullness and elevated satiety hormones after higher-protein meals but does not support an effect on energy intake at the next eating occasion. Although shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide

  1. Metabolic Benefits of Prior Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Subsequent 6-Month Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain. Women (n = 65, BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX + WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up. Insulin sensitivity (M) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Thirty WL and thirty-five AEX + WL women completed a follow-up at 12 months. Similar weight loss was observed (-8%) in both groups from 0 to 6 months. Total fat mass, fat-free mass, visceral fat area, subcutaneous abdominal and midthigh fat areas, fasting glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curve, and triglyceride levels decreased similarly after WL and AEX + WL and remained lower at 12 months than at baseline, despite weight regain at 12 months. Initial M was associated with weight regain (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). Weight regain was related to independent changes in leptin and HOMA-IR from 6 to 12 months in a multiple regression model (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). Reductions in body fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity after AEX + WL and WL were maintained at 12 months despite modest weight regain. Baseline insulin resistance partially predicted the magnitude of weight regain in postmenopausal women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  3. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  4. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  5. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  6. Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi

    2018-08-01

    Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  8. Early-treatment weight loss predicts 6-month weight loss in women with obesity and depression: implications for stepped care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Some adults with comorbid depression and obesity respond well to lifestyle interventions while others have poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early-treatment weight loss progress predicts clinically significant 6-month weight loss among women with obesity and depression. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 75 women with obesity and depression who received a standard lifestyle intervention. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for achieving ≥5% weight loss by 6 months were calculated based on whether they achieved ≥1 lb/week weight loss in weeks 2-8. Among those on target at week 3, we examined potential subsequent time points at which weight loss progress might identify additional individuals at risk for treatment failure. At week 2, women who averaged ≥1 lb/week loss were twice as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months than those who did not (RR=2.40; 95% CI: 2.32-4.29); weight loss at weeks 3-8 was similarly predictive (RRs=2.02-3.20). Examining weight loss progress at week 3 and subsequently at a time point during weeks 4-8, 52-67% of participants were not on target with their weight loss, and those on target were 2-3 times as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months (RRs=1.82-2.92). Weight loss progress as early as week 2 of treatment predicts weight loss outcomes for women with comorbid obesity and depression, which supports the feasibility of developing stepped care interventions that adjust treatment intensity based on early progress in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioural factors related with successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2012-07-01

    As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. An online survey was completed 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme to assess weight-related behaviours and current weight. Participants were classified as successful if they had lost ≥5 % of their starting weight after 15 months. Commercial users of a web-based weight-loss programme. Participants enrolled in the commercial programme between August 2007 and May 2008. Six hundred and seventy-seven participants completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) weight change was -2·7 (-8·2, 1·6) % of enrolment weight, with 37 % achieving ≥5 % weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found success was associated with frequency of weight self-monitoring, higher dietary restraint score, lower emotional eating score, not skipping meals, not keeping snack foods in the house and eating takeaway foods less frequently. The findings suggest that individuals trying to achieve or maintain ≥5 % weight loss should be advised to regularly weigh themselves, avoid skipping meals or keeping snack foods in the house, limit the frequency of takeaway food consumption, manage emotional eating and strengthen dietary restraint. Strategies to assist individuals make these changes to behaviour should be incorporated within obesity treatments to improve the likelihood of successful weight loss in the long term.

  10. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...

  11. Weight Loss Five Years After Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Leonard S.; And Others

    The behaviorally-based weight control program conducted by Levitz and Jordan at the University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Behavioral Education is tailored to patient needs and includes stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, and nutrition education. The success of patients in maintaining the clinically meaningful weight losses…

  12. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  13. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  14. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  16. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kale vitamin D—cereals or soy-based beverages Myth: “Going vegetarian” will help you lose weight and be healthier. Some research shows that a healthy vegetarian eating plan may be linked to lower obesity levels. ...

  17. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical ... skills and techniques to make permanent changes in eating habits and levels of physical activity to prevent weight ...

  18. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the extra body weight. The body mass index (BMI) measures below are used by many doctors ... Saunders; 2015:chap 29. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the ...

  19. Gender Differences in Weight Loss: Evidence from a NHS Weight Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.

  20. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We search...

  1. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M

    2014-01-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owin...

  2. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  3. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaan G. Abildso; Olivier Schmid; Megan Byrd; Sam Zizzi; Alessandro Quartiroli; Sean J. Fitzpatrick

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored wei...

  4. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  5. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  6. Telephone based weight loss intervention: Relevance for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi Addo, Sandra; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2018-02-08

    Obesity is a major public health challenge not only for developed but developing countries as well. The World Health Organization recommends the immediate use of effective, efficient and widely accessible weight loss interventions. Telephone based weight loss intervention could provide a cheaper and wider reach of obese participants. Previous systematic reviews on telephone based weight loss interventions either excluded studies that had obese participants with co-morbidities or were silent on their inclusion. Obese/overweight individuals with co-morbidities constitute an important population in any weight loss intervention study due to the strong association of obesity with major chronic health conditions. This paper, reviews the efficacy of telephone based weight loss intervention solely in overweight/obese individuals with obesity related diseases and discusses its relevance for developing countries.

  7. Ineffectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs for achieving modest but meaningful weight loss: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Sullivan-Mort, Gillian; McLean, Siân A; Pascoe, Michaela C; Paxton, Susan J

    2017-10-01

    This study collates existing evidence regarding weight loss among overweight but otherwise healthy adults who use commercial weight-loss programs. Systematic search of 3 databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies of commercial meal-replacement, calorie-counting, or pre-packaged meal programs which met inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis using intention-to-treat data, 57 percent of individuals who commenced a commercial weight program lost less than 5 percent of their initial body weight. One in two (49%) studies reported attrition ≥30 percent. A second meta-analysis found that 37 percent of program completers lost less than 5 percent of initial body weight. We conclude that commercial weight-loss programs frequently fail to produce modest but clinically meaningful weight loss with high rates of attrition suggesting that many consumers find dietary changes required by these programs unsustainable.

  8. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Zonisamide-induced weight loss in schizophrenia: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain and metabolic disturbances constitute bothersome problems in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Several medications, exercise regimens, and lifestyle changes have been used in attempts to ameliorate these problems. We describe 3 patients with schizophrenia who manifested distinct weight loss and reduction in waist circumference during medication with zonisamide. This report suggests that zonisamide might be associated with weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Getting Past a Weight-Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America. 2018;102:49. Smethers AD, et al. Dietary management of obesity — Cornerstones of healthy eating patterns. Medical Clinics of ... and factors favouring weight regain. International Journal of Obesity. ... In: The Mayo Clinic Diet. 2nd ed. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  11. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  12. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  13. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during massive weight loss following gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2007-11-01

    Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.

  14. Young adults, technology, and weight loss: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  15. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Obino KF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss

  16. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  17. Treatment for snoring. Combined weight loss, sleeping on side, and nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, H M; Block, A J; Perri, M G

    1995-05-01

    We sought to find a combination of noninvasive treatments for snoring by adding weight loss to previously studied treatments, including the combination of sleeping on one's side and using a decongestant nasal spray. Twenty asymptomatic men who snore heavily were studied previously on a control night and on a night when they slept on their side and used a nasal spray. With these two treatments, minor improvements in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were seen, but no improvement occurred in snoring frequency. Nineteen of these subjects subsequently completed a 6-month weight loss program, and 12 lost weight. These 19 subjects comprise the study population of this report. At the conclusion of the weight loss program, a repeated sleep study was done from which the effect of adding weight loss to the two previously studied treatments could be assessed. Those 12 subjects who lost any amount of weight showed a very mild reduction in snores per hour from 328 using two modalities of treatment to 232 per hour with the addition of weight loss (p = 0.15). The nine subjects who lost > or = 3 kg reduced the number of snores per hour from 320 to 176 (p = 0.0496). Three subjects losing an average of only 7.6 kg showed virtual elimination of snoring after weight loss. Subjects who gained weight had no improvement in snoring. Weight loss added to the other two modalities of treatment had no effect on the AHI. In most cases, the combination of weight loss, sleeping on one's side, and the administration of a nasal decongestant significantly reduces the frequency of snoring in asymptomatic men who snore heavily. The major effect appears to be related to weight loss.

  18. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  19. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  20. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P framing the future of weight management. Long-term follow-up of Small Changes is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Life after weight-loss surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eliminate many health problems Improve your quality of life Live longer It is important to understand that there will be many other changes in your life. These include the way you eat, what you ...

  2. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    the primary and sensitivity analysis results. While this suggests that, on average, clinically important weight loss may be achieved, further research is required to evaluate the efficacy of this commercial Web-based weight loss program prospectively using objective measures. The potential association between greater website use and increased weight loss also requires further evaluation, as strategies to improve participants' use of Web-based program features may be required.

  3. Rosiglitazone delayed weight loss and anorexia while attenuating adipose depletion in mice with cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Asp, Michelle L.; Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L.; Belury, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by severe weight loss, including adipose and muscle wasting, and occurs in a large percentage of cancer patients. Insulin resistance contributes to dysregulated metabolism in cachexia and occurs prior to weight loss in mice with colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, would attenuate the loss of adipose and muscle to result in improved outcomes for mice with late-stage cachexia. Male CD2F1 mice were inoc...

  4. A systematic review of the relationship between weight status perceptions and weight loss attempts, strategies, behaviours and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, I.; Sutin, A.; Daly, M.; Robinson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and (i) weight loss attempts, (ii) weight control strategies (healthy and unhealthy), (iii) weight‐related behaviours (physical activity and eating habits), (iv) disordered eating and (v) weight change. We synthesized evidence from 78 eligible studies and evaluated evidence linking perceived overweight with outcome variables separately according to the gender, age and objective weight status of study participants. Results indicated that perceived overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting weight loss and with healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies in some participant groups. However, perceived overweight was not reliably associated with physical activity or healthy eating and was associated with greater disordered eating in some groups. Rather than being associated with improved weight management, there was consistent evidence that perceived overweight was predictive of increased weight gain over time. Individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are more likely to report attempting weight loss but over time gain more weight. PMID:29266851

  5. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  6. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Randomized Pilot Study of a Phone-Based Mindfulness and Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kelly M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Salmon, Erica E; Javitz, Harold S; Epel, Elissa S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C

    2017-10-06

    This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25). Both programs consisted of 11 coaching calls with health coaches and registered dietitians with supplemental online materials. Satisfaction, engagement, and percent weight lost did not significantly differ for intervention vs. control at six months. Intervention participants had significantly better scores at six-month follow-up on mindful eating, binge eating, experiential avoidance, and one mindfulness subscale. Exploratory analyses showed that improvements on several measures predicted more weight loss in the intervention group. This pilot study found that integrating mindfulness into a brief phone-based behavioral weight loss program was feasible and acceptable to participants, but did not produce greater weight loss on average, despite hypothesized changes in mindful eating. Only one third of intervention participants reported participating in mindfulness exercises regularly. Mechanisms of change observed within the intervention group suggest that for adults with high levels of emotional eating those who embrace mindful eating and meditation may lose more weight with a mindfulness intervention.

  8. Preoperative thyroid function and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide

    2018-05-16

    Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  9. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  10. Weight loss is superior to exercise in improving the atherogenic lipid profile in a sedentary, overweight population with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Anholm, Christian

    2016-01-01

    disease (CAD). METHODS: Seventy non-diabetic participants with CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2), age 45-75 years were randomized to 12 weeks' aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of peak heart rate three times/week or a low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day) for 8-10 weeks followed by 2-4 weeks' weight...... maintenance diet. Lipid profile atherogenicity was described using lipoprotein particle size and density profiling. Low-grade inflammation was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor. RESULTS: Twenty-six (74%) AIT...

  11. Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world [1]. It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile [2]. Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero

    2017-01-01

    Coaching is proposed to raise a patient's awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional-patient relationship. To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient's state of health. An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators.

  13. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be with other people. Exercise classes or exercising with a buddy are both good social outlets. You may have a hard time starting an exercise routine, but once you do, you will begin to notice other benefits. Improved sleep and self-esteem might be a ...

  14. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  15. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough sleep, changes in work schedules, lack of motivation, and injury or illness? Is the program in ... physical activity, behavior change, and weight loss? What type of certifications, education, experience, and training do staff members ...

  16. Weight Loss: Choosing a Diet That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes, heart disease or allergies? Do you have cultural or ethnic requirements or preferences regarding food? It's tempting to buy into promises of rapid and dramatic weight loss, but a slow and steady approach is easier ...

  17. Weight loss practices among newly enrolling clients in a commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... Background: In Ghana, obesity is showing a rising trend and there are weight loss initiatives being practised by .... tients seeking treatment in Italian medical centres, the .... Childhood Obesity: Need for a Trans-Sectoral.

  18. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  19. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...

  20. How family interactions about lifestyle changes affect adolescents' possibilities for maintaining weight loss after a weight loss intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Vamosi, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    -loss programme. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews stretching over 5 years (2010-2015) were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using Kvale and Brinkmann's framework for working with qualitative research interviews. FINDINGS: Five years after the intervention ended, we found that a family's interactions...... support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 families selected among participants in a 1-year multidisciplinary family-based weight...

  1. A Weight-Loss Diet Including Coffee-Derived Mannooligosaccharides Enhances Adipose Tissue Loss in Overweight Men but Not Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Salinardi, Taylor; Herron-Rubin, Kristin; Black, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, have been shown to promote a decrease in body fat when consumed as part of free-living, weight-maintaining diets. Our objective was to determine if MOS consumption (4 g/day), in conjunction with a weight-loss diet, would lead to greater reductions in adipose tissue compartments than placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled weight-loss study in which 60 overweight men and women consumed study beverages and received weekly group counseling for 12 weeks. Weight and blood pressure were measured weekly, and adipose tissue distribution was assessed at baseline and at end point using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 54 subjects completed the study. Men consuming the MOS beverage had greater loss of body weight than men consuming the Placebo beverage (−6.0 ± 0.6% vs. −2.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, P coffee-derived MOS to a weight-loss diet enhanced both weight and adipose tissue losses in men, suggesting a potential functional use of MOS for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution. More studies are needed to investigate the apparent gender difference in response to MOS consumption. PMID:21938072

  2. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  3. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  4. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  5. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  6. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...

  7. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Weight loss versus muscle loss: re-evaluating inclusion criteria for future cancer cachexia interventional trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeland, Eric J; Ma, Joseph D; Nelson, Sandahl H; Seibert, Tyler; Heavey, Sean; Revta, Carolyn; Gallivan, Andrea; Baracos, Vickie E

    2017-02-01

    Participation in cancer cachexia clinical trials requires a defined weight loss (WL) over time. A loss in skeletal muscle mass, measured by cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) image analysis, represents a possible alternative. Our aim was to compare WL versus muscle loss in patients who were screened to participate in a cancer cachexia clinical trial. This was a single-center, retrospective analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients screened for an interventional cancer cachexia trial requiring a ≥5 % WL over the preceding 6 months. Concurrent CT images obtained as part of standard oncology care were analyzed for changes in total muscle and fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total). Of patients screened (n = 36), 3 (8 %) enrolled in the trial, 17 (47 %) were excluded due to insufficient WL (20 %), and 16 (44 %) met inclusion criteria for WL. Patients who met screening criteria for WL (5-20 %) had a mean ± SD of 7.7 ± 8.7 % muscle loss, 24.4 ± 37.5 % visceral adipose loss, 21.6 ± 22.3 % subcutaneous adipose loss, and 22.1 ± 24.7 % total adipose loss. Patients excluded due to insufficient WL had 2 ± 6.4 % muscle loss, but a gain of 8.5 ± 39.8 % visceral adipose, and 4.2 ± 28.2 % subcutaneous adipose loss and 0.8 ± 28.4 % total adipose loss. Of the patients excluded due to WL 5 %. Defining cancer cachexia by WL over time may be limited as it does not capture skeletal muscle loss. Cross-sectional CT body composition analysis may improve early detection of muscle loss and patient participation in future cancer cachexia clinical trials.

  9. Relationship Between Tobacco Use and Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Federico; Signorini, Franco J; Maldonado, Pablo S; Lopez Sivilat, Arturo; Gorodner, Verónica; Viscido, Germán; Saleg, Patricia; Obeide, Lucio R

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation had been typically associated with weight gain. So far, there are no reports documenting the relationship between weight loss after bariatric surgery and smoking habit. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between weight loss and smoking habit in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and to analyze weight loss on severe smokers and on those patients who stopped smoking during the postoperative period. All patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with at least 2-year follow-up were included. Patients were divided into three groups: (A) smokers, (B) ex-smokers, and (C) non-smokers. Demographics and weight loss at 6, 12, and 24 months were analyzed. Smokers were subdivided for further analysis into the following: group A1: heavy smokers, group A2: non-heavy smokers, group A3: active smokers after surgery, and group A4: quitters after surgery. Chi-square test was used for statistics. One hundred eighty-four patients were included; group A: 62 patients, group B: 57 patients, and group C: 65 patients. Mean BMI was 34 ± 6, 31 ± 6, and 31 ± 6 kg/m2; mean %EWL was 63 ± 18, 76 ± 21, and 74 ± 22 % at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The subgroup analysis showed the following composition: group A1: 19 patients, group A2: 43 patients, group A3: 42 patients, and group A4: 20 patients. Weight loss difference among groups and subgroups was statistically non-significant. Our study shows that weight loss evolution was independent from smoking habit. Neither smoking cessation during the postoperative period nor smoking severity could be related to weight loss after LSG.

  10. Leisure-time activity is an important determinant of long-term weight maintenance after weight loss in the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (STORM trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Baak, M. A.; van Mil, E.; Astrup, A.

    2003-01-01

    The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified.......The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified....

  11. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  12. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  13. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products as a potential biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity by a very low calorie diet of obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Imke; Schulte, Dominik M; Müller, Nike; Martinsen, Jessica; Türk, Kathrin; Hedderich, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation which is thought to trigger the development of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) belongs to the innate immune system and has been linked to obesity, recently. The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum sRAGE concentrations are related to the grade of weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD). 22 severe obese subjects (Median Body Mass Index (BMI): 44.5kg/m(2)) were included in a dietary intervention study of 6month, consisting of a very low calorie formula diet phase (VLCD: 800kcal/d) for 12 weeks and a following 12 week weight maintenance phase. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, adiponectin, leptin and sRAGE were determined from sera. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio (LAR). Mean body weight reduction by VLCD accounted to 21.7kg with a significant improvement of insulin resistance. At baseline, sRAGE serum levels were significantly inversely related to BMI (rS=-0.642, p=0.001) and HOMA (rS=-0.419, p=0.041). Of interest, sRAGE serum levels at baseline were significantly lower in study subjects with greater reduction of BMI (p=0.017). In addition, a significantly greater HOMA reduction was observed in subjects with lower sRAGE serum levels at baseline (p=0.006). Finally, correlation analysis revealed, that changes of sRAGE serum levels were significantly correlated to changes of BMI (rS=-0.650, p=0.022) during intervention. Anti-inflammatory sRAGE might be a potential future biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by a VLCD whereby lower baseline sRAGE serum levels indicate a better outcome of the dietary intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight loss treatment versus combined weight loss/depression treatment among women with comorbid obesity and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Simon, Gregory E; Ludman, Evette J; Ichikawa, Laura E; Operskalski, Belinda H; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A; Jeffery, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n = 102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n = 101). Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m(2). Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p = 0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p = 0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women.

  15. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  16. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Tylka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma. Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure, behavioral (e.g., binge eating, and psychological (e.g., depression indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community.

  17. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Financial Incentives: Factors Affecting Health Behaviors and Weight Loss in a Workplace Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P self-efficacy (P = 0.00) on weight loss. Self-efficacy and FI may affect weight loss and play a role in weight-loss interventions.

  18. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects...... of weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY......; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight...

  19. Psychological predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    factors are thought to play animportant role for maintaining the surgical weight loss. However, results from priorresearch examining preoperative psychological predictors of weight loss outcomeare inconsistent. The aim of this article was to review more recent literature onpsychological predictors...... studies published after 2003 were included.Results: 19 eligible studies were identified. Psychological predictors of surgicalweight loss investigated in the reviewed studies include cognitive function, per-sonality, psychiatric disorder, and eating behaviour.......Background: Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regardto a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological...

  20. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  1. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  2. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.

  3. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  4. Psychological changes following weight loss in overweight and obese adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Jackson

    Full Text Available Participation in weight loss programs is often associated with improved wellbeing alongside reduced cardio-metabolic risk. In contrast, population-based analyses have found no evidence of psychological benefits of weight loss, but this may be due to inclusion of healthy-weight individuals. We therefore examined cardio-metabolic and psychological changes following weight loss in a cohort of overweight/obese adults.Data were from 1,979 overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2; age ≥ 50 y, free of long-standing illness or clinical depression at baseline, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants were grouped according to four-year weight change into those losing ≥ 5% weight, those gaining ≥ 5%, and those whose weight was stable within 5%. Logistic regression examined changes in depressed mood (eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 4, low wellbeing (Satisfaction With Life Scale score <20, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or anti-hypertensives, and high triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l, controlling for demographic variables, weight loss intention, and baseline characteristics.The proportion of participants with depressed mood increased more in the weight loss than weight stable or weight gain groups (+289%, +86%, +62% respectively; odds ratio [OR] for weight loss vs. weight stable = 1.78 [95% CI 1.29-2.47]. The proportion with low wellbeing also increased more in the weight loss group (+31%, +22%, -4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 1.16 [0.81-1.66]. Hypertension and high triglyceride prevalence decreased in weight losers and increased in weight gainers (-28%, 4%, +18%; OR = 0.61 [0.45-0.83]; -47%, -13%, +5%; OR = 0.41 [0.28-0.60]. All effects persisted in analyses adjusting for illness and life stress during the weight loss period.Weight loss over four years in initially healthy overweight/obese older adults was associated with reduction in cardio

  5. Is it the resistance training itself or the combined associated weight loss that improves the metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyluk O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Soyluk,1 Gulistan Bahat21Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the article entitled “Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women” by Oliveira et al1 with great interest. In the study, the authors examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. They reported that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were all significantly reduced with RT (P<0.01. Accordingly, they concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. View original paper by Oliveira and colleagues.

  6. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and...

  8. Effect of weight loss in obese dogs on indicators of renal function or disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; German, A J

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a common medical disorder in dogs, and can predispose to a number of diseases. Human obesity is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. To investigate the possible association of weight loss on plasma and renal biomarkers of kidney health. Thirty-seven obese dogs that lost weight were included in the study. Prospective observational study. Three novel biomarkers of renal functional impairment, disease, or both (homocysteine, cystatin C, and clusterin), in addition to traditional markers of chronic renal failure (serum urea and creatinine, urine specific gravity [USG], urine protein-creatinine ratio [UPCR], and urine albumin corrected by creatinine [UAC]) before and after weight loss in dogs with naturally occurring obesity were investigated. Urea (P = .043) and USG (P = .012) were both greater after weight loss than before loss, whilst UPCR, UAC, and creatinine were less after weight loss (P = .032, P = .006, and P = .026, respectively). Homocysteine (P canine obesity, which improve with weight loss. Further work is required to determine the nature of these alterations and, most notably, the reason for the association between before loss plasma clusterin and subsequent lean tissue loss during weight management. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Christine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713

  10. Liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management: weight-loss dependent and independent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Hemmingsson, Joanna Uddén; Claudius, Birgitte; Jensen, Christine B; Van Gaal, Luc

    2017-02-01

    As an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management provides a statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss of 5.7%-8.0% compared to 1.6%-2.6% with placebo. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to quantify the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key efficacy endpoints. The analysis utilized data from 4725 participants across three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01272219, NCT01272232 and NCT01557166). The duration of two of the trials was 56 weeks; one trial was of 32 weeks' duration. A mediation analysis was performed, which ranked the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key cardiometabolic efficacy endpoints, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and health-related quality of life (QoL). A limitation of this type of analysis is that it cannot conclusively prove a causal relationship. In individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endpoints predominantly driven by liraglutide-induced weight loss included waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, AHI, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total and physical function scores. Endpoints predominantly independent of weight loss included the glycemic endpoints hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose in individuals with and without T2DM. Regardless of the degree of dependence on weight loss according to the mediation analysis, greater weight loss was associated with greater improvement in all endpoints. Treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg contributes to improved cardiometabolic parameters, AHI and health-related QoL through both weight-loss

  11. Changes in lifestyle habits and behaviours are associated with weight loss maintenance in members of a commercial weight loss organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, RJ; McConnon, A; Gibbs, M; Raats, M; Whybrow, S

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examined the lifestyle correlates of weight loss maintenance in 1428 participants of a slimming organisation, who had been members for a mean SD of 16 16 months, had lost 13.8% 9.2% weight and were trying to maintain, or increase, their weight loss during a subsequent 6 month study period. Data were collected as part of the DiOGenes study(1). Ethical approval was given by the University of Surrey Ethics Committee. Adults were recruited between August 2006 and July 2008 from Slim...

  12. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. (Dis-)solving the Weight Problem in Binge-Eating Disorder: Systemic Insights From Three Treatment Contexts With Weight Stability, Weight Loss, and Weight Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lene Bomholt; Waaddegaard, Mette; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss. Using systems theory, the study proposed a relational weight problem that embeds feelings of non-acceptance due to weight, a merge of weight and identity, and an internalized body- and weight-critical gaze of others. Contrary to critical claims that weight acceptance discourages people with obesity from engaging in weight loss efforts, this study suggests that acceptance and a disentanglement of weight and identity are prerequisites for weight loss for this group.

  15. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention groups...

  16. Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrand, H; Lindström, T; Dizdar, B; Bunjaku, B; Östgren, C J; Nystrom, F H; Bachrach-Lindström, M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD. Prospective, randomized trial of 61 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SF-36 questionnaire was used at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients on LFD aimed for 55-60 energy percent (E%) and those on LCD for 20 E% from carbohydrates. The patients were interviewed about their experiences of the intervention. Mean body-mass-index was 32.7 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) at baseline. Weight-loss did not differ between groups and was maximal at 6 months, LFD: -3.99 ± 4.1 kg, LCD: -4.31 ± 3.6 kg (p<0.001 within groups). There was an increase in the physical component score of SF-36 from 44.1 (10.0) to 46.7 (10.5) at 12 months in the LCD group (p < 0.009) while no change occurred in the LFD group (p < 0.03 between groups). At 12 months the physical function, bodily pain and general health scores improved within the LCD group (p values 0.042-0.009) while there was no change within the LFD group. Weight-changes did not differ between the diet groups while improvements in HRQoL only occurred after one year during treatment with LCD. No changes of HRQoL occurred in the LFD group in spite of a similar reduction in body weight. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic review of patient education practices in weight loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groller, Karen D

    2017-06-01

    Education plays a key role in adherence to lifestyle modifications after weight loss surgery (WLS). Education given before and after surgery may decrease weight recidivism rates and improve outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze educational practices in bariatric centers. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health and PubMed databases were searched in May 2016 for English-language, peer-reviewed studies about WLS patient education practices from 1999 to 2016. Publications were: (1) rated with the Advancing Research and Clinical Practice through Close Collaboration levels of evidence hierarchy (see Melnyk's pryamid [http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=282802&p=1888246]) and (2) analyzed according to surgical phase, curriculum, program delivery, and educator. Twenty-four publications met the study criteria. Evidence ratings for preoperative (n = 16) and postoperative studies (n = 8) were levels I to III (n = 5) and IV to VII (n = 17). Two publications were not ratable. Preoperative and postoperative education programs varied in curriculum, teaching methods, and educator. Topics varied in depth. Commonalities were surgical procedure, nutrition, activity, and psychosocial behaviors. Preoperative education was mostly provided in small groups, whereas individual sessions were used postoperatively. Lecture and discussion provided by myriad of healthcare experts from multiple disciplines were typical in both phases. Written or web-based aides supported learning needs in both phases. WLS patient education varied by curriculum and dose and commonly used passive learning methods (e.g., traditional lecture style instruction with minimal engagement from learners). Results shared can inform future bariatric education programs and accreditation standard development (e.g., Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program patient education standards). Additional study is needed, but existing evidence can guide improvements

  18. The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our 20-week “Wii Club” intervention for overweight and obese adolescents demonstrated weight loss, increased self-efficacy, and improved peer support from cooperative exergame play. Videogames that require motor activity in a social context may be a fun, effective tool to promote healthy weight and physical activity among youth. PMID:23565349

  19. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n =...

  20. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...... and energy, and increased physical activity, has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in two major trials. In post hoc analyses the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fibre were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes protective effects. It remains...... to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence...

  1. Weight loss interventions for breast cancer survivors: impact of dietary pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J Thompson

    Full Text Available Body weight management is not emphasized in clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, reflecting the lack of evidence that weight loss improves prognosis. Even if this situation changes, the optimal design for weight loss interventions is unclear. We conducted a 6-month non-randomized, controlled weight loss intervention in 249 post-menopausal breast cancer survivors. This paper reports effects on two secondary endpoints, change in body weight and composition. Participants were predominantly non-Hispanic whites (89% with a mean age of 54.9 ± 9.2 years, a mean BMI of 29.0 ± 2.6 kg/m: (2 and an average of 43 ± 5% body fat. Two dietary interventions, low fat or low carbohydrate, were investigated and consisted of a 42 day cycle of menus and recipes. Weight loss counseling and anthropometric assessment were provided at monthly clinic visits. One hundred ninety-two women completed the trial (77% retention. In comparison to the nonintervention control, both intervention arms achieved significant decreases in body weight (12.5%, body fat (27.5%, waist circumference (9.5%, and hip circumference (7.8% (all p < 0.001 with minimal effects on lean mass (1.3% decrease. Median time to 5 and 10% weight loss was 2 (95% confidence interval = 1 to 3 and 4 (95% confidence interval = 3 to 5 months, respectively, and 23% of participants experienced ≥ 15% weight loss. Loss of body weight and fat mass was rapid and substantial irrespective of dietary approach when a structured program was provided with monthly anthropometric assessment and weight loss counseling.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01315483.

  2. Weight loss in orthognathic surgery: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas; Williams, Rhodri W; Juj, Kiranjit; O'Connell, Susan; Isherwood, Grant; Hammond, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    To analyse weight change, body composition change and Body Mass Index change in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A service evaluation was undertaken in orthognathic patients pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham outpatient department. Thirty-one patients scheduled for single- or two-jaw orthognathic surgery and rigid internal fixation. Immediately pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery the following information was gathered: (1) patient height; (2) patient weight (kg); (3) Patient Body Mass Index; and (4) patient body fat percentage. In the 4-week post-operative period, the average weight loss was -4·96 kg (range: -9·6 to +3·0 kg), with a body fat reduction of -3·07% (range: -5·80% to +2·30%) and an average reduction in Body Mass Index of -1·63 (range: -3·4 to +0·8). There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·1562) or body fat composition change (P = 0·2391) between single- or two-jaw surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·4858) or body fat composition change (P = 0·5321) between male and female patients. Weight loss observed was similar to that reported in studies using inter-maxillary fixation. Closer psychological and dietetic support is needed for patients who have a low normal or underweight Body Mass Index. Better and more bespoke tailored Oral Nutritional Supplementation must be provided for all orthognathic surgery patients to potentially reduce this significant weight loss.

  3. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  4. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  5. Weight loss and fatigue in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, W S; McKnight, J A

    2005-02-01

    We report a recent clinical case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss and fatigue and who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Some time later, he was discovered to have underlying oesophageal lymphoma. The latter diagnosis was believed to contribute, at least in part, to his symptoms at the time of initial presentation. The case illustrates the potential difficulties associated with establishing the diagnosis of oesophageal lymphoma. Furthermore, symptoms of weight loss and fatigue are commonly encountered in general medical patients. This case reminded us that even when a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been established, these symptoms may be attributable to other pathology.

  6. Weight loss for overweight patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Lund, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows:  To determine the benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight individuals with knee or hip osteoarthritis in terms of pain, physical function, quality of life, and safety.  Further we will have...... an explicit focus on quality of the weight loss intervention (including magnitude and intensity) (Herbert 2005), to see whether there is a dose-response relationship at the trial (i.e. group) level....

  7. Weight Gain and Hair Loss during Anti-TNF Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Lutf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.

  8. [The effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ruth Rocha; Cominato, Louise; Damiani, Durval

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents. A double-blind controlled study lasting 13 months. The study included 73 obese adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 and 18 years. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were performed before, during wash-out, and at the end of 13 months. The percentage of patients who lost 10% of their initial weight in the placebo group was 46%, and in the sibutramine group was 75%. When placebo was used, average weight rose by 1.61 kg, and BMI decreased by 0.24 kg/m(2) whereas with the use of sibutramine, weight decreased by 4.47 kg, and average BMI decreased, 2.38 kg/m(2), with p Sibutramine induced significantly more weight loss in obese adolescents compared with placebo, without significant side effects. The weight loss curve was different depending on the moment sibutramine was introduced. This finding indicates that the best time to start sibutramine is when adhesion begins to fail.

  9. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  10. Nutritional Approaches to Achieve Weight Loss in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christine C; Ness, Erik; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range in spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by lipotoxicity, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and can progress to cirrhosis. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment for NAFLD and NASH. Various randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss of ≥5-10% leads to significant improvements in hepatic steatosis. Diets high in sodium and fructose have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although some clinical studies suggest that an isocaloric high-fructose diet does not worsen NAFLD, these clinical studies are often short in duration. More recently, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, a sodium-restricted diet, has been associated with less prevalence of NAFLD and has been shown to improve NAFLD. In addition, the Mediterranean diet has been promising in improving hepatic steatosis, and a larger randomized controlled trial is currently enrolling subjects. For those who are unable to pursue weight loss through dietary approaches, bariatric surgery has been shown to improve hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. This method has been variable in improving hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, weight loss is crucial to the improvement of NAFLD and NASH, and patients should attempt various diets in an attempt to achieve weight loss. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Nutritional Approaches to Achieve Weight Loss in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christine C; Ness, Erik; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range in spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by lipotoxicity, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and can progress to cirrhosis. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment for NAFLD and NASH. Various randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss of ≥5–10% leads to significant improvements in hepatic steatosis. Diets high in sodium and fructose have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although some clinical studies suggest that an isocaloric high-fructose diet does not worsen NAFLD, these clinical studies are often short in duration. More recently, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, a sodium-restricted diet, has been associated with less prevalence of NAFLD and has been shown to improve NAFLD. In addition, the Mediterranean diet has been promising in improving hepatic steatosis, and a larger randomized controlled trial is currently enrolling subjects. For those who are unable to pursue weight loss through dietary approaches, bariatric surgery has been shown to improve hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. This method has been variable in improving hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, weight loss is crucial to the improvement of NAFLD and NASH, and patients should attempt various diets in an attempt to achieve weight loss. PMID:28298270

  12. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  13. Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9 kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV, peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV, and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6 months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p baPWV. Conclusions Young adults with excess weight who both lower their insulin levels and lose weight see the greatest improvement in vascular stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial registration NCT00366990

  14. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  15. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  16. [Weight loss in overweight or obese patients and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica

    2012-01-01

    to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.

  17. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, moderately obese patients (BMI 2 were compared to severely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results: Out of 311 participants, 217 individuals completed the program. Their mean baseline BMI was 41.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2. Average weight loss was 17.9 ± 0.6%, resulting in a BMI of 34.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2 after 1 year (p Conclusion: 1-year weight loss intervention improves body weight as well as lipid and glucose metabolism not only in moderately, but also in severely obese individuals.

  18. Behavioral therapy for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.

  19. The applicability of a weight loss grading system in cancer cachexia: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnildhaug, Ola Magne; Blum, David; Wilcock, Andrew; Fayers, Peter; Strasser, Florian; Baracos, Vickie E; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Kaasa, Stein; Laird, Barry; Solheim, Tora S

    2017-10-01

    A body mass index (BMI) adjusted weight loss grading system (WLGS) is related to survival in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the WLGS by confirming its prognostic validity, evaluating its relationship to cachexia domains, and exploring its ability to predict cachexia progression. An international, prospective observational study of patients with incurable cancer was conducted. For each patient, weight loss grade was scored 0-4. Weight loss grade 0 represents a high BMI with limited weight loss, progressing through to weight loss grade 4 representing low BMI and a high degree of weight loss. Survival analyses were used to confirm prognostic validity. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate the relationship between the WLGS and cachexia domains [anorexia, dietary intake, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and physical and emotional functioning]. Cox regression was used to evaluate if the addition of cachexia domains to the WLGS improved prognostic accuracy. Predictive ability of cachexia progression was assessed by estimating proportion of patients progressing to a more advanced weight loss grade. One thousand four hundred six patients were analysed (median age 66 years; 50% female, 63% KPS ≤ 70). The overall effect of the WLGS on survival was significant as expressed by change in -2 log likelihood (P cachexia domains significantly deteriorated with increasing weight loss grade, and deterioration was greatest for dietary intake, with a difference corresponding to 0.87 standard deviations between weight loss grades 0 and 4. The addition of KPS, anorexia, and physical and emotional functioning improved the prognostic accuracy of the WLGS. Likelihood of cachexia progression was greater in patients with weight loss grade 2 (39%) than that with weight loss grade 0 (19%) or 1 (22%). The WLGS is related to survival, cachexia domains, and the likelihood of progression. Adding certain cachexia domains to the WLGS

  20. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  1. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  2. Metabolism and Weight Loss: How You Burn Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy ... Aug. 7, 2017. Obesity for Adults, Prevention and Management of. ... weight loss. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ ...

  3. Effective strategies for weight loss in post-partum women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Behrens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Post-partum weight loss is critical to preventing and managing obesity in women, but the results from lifestyle interventions are variable and the components associated with successful outcomes are not yet clearly identified. This study aimed to identify lifestyle intervention strategies associated...

  4. Abandoning weight-loss programmes | Van Staden | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "ies in maintaining weight loss. A study of unsuccessful dieters focused on a group of 50 obese subjects who had previously joined a slimming organisation, but who had dropped out. They were interviewed with emphasis on factors relating to ...

  5. Weight loss in bamboo ( Bambusa vulgaris ) treated with neem seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% moisture content were converted to test specimens for Percentage Weight Loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in oil at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours ...

  6. Abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour in female Jewish adolescents. Teachersf awareness of these factors and their attitudes towards a school programme to address these were also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.

  7. Alterations of plasma lysophosphatidylcholine species in obesity and weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Heimerl

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diseases of the metabolic syndrome contribute to the major health problems in industrialized countries. Alterations in the metabolism of lipid classes and lipid species may significantly be involved in these metabolic overload diseases. However, little is known about specific lipid species in this syndrome and existing data are contradictive.In this study, we quantified plasma lipid species by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS in obese subjects before and after 3 month weight loss as well as in a control group.The comparison of obese subjects with control subjects before weight loss revealed significantly lower lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC concentrations in obesity. LPC concentrations did not significantly increase during the observed period in the weight loss group. Analysis of LPC species revealed a decrease of most species in obesity and negative correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP and body mass index (BMI. Correlating BMI ratio before and after weight loss with the ratio of total LPC and individual LPC species revealed significant negative relationships of LPC ratios with BMI ratio.Our findings contribute to the contradictive discussion of the role of LPC in obesity and related chronic inflammation strongly supporting pre-existing data in the literature that show a decrease of LPC species in plasma of obese and a potentially anti-inflammatory role in these subjects.

  8. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  9. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  10. Overweight men's motivations and perceived barriers towards weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.

    2007-01-01

    motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated......Objective: To explore motivation and perceived barriers towards weight loss among Danish men. Design: The study was of an explorative nature, using qualitative focus group interviews as a method. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: Twenty-two overweight men, at the age of 25-44 years...... and motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants. Intervention: The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes...

  11. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Arrhythmogenicity of weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Wilson, James M; Frank, Christopher M; Bensler, Michael; Cheng, Jie; Saeed, Mohammad; Rasekh, Abdi; Razavi, Mehdi

    2009-05-01

    We examined nonprescription weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet for ingredients with potential arrhythmogenic and life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. We aimed to define the risks of life-threatening cardiac adverse effects that are associated with weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet. We entered the key words "weight-loss supplements" and "diet pills" into three popular Internet search engines. The top four nonoverlapping hits from each search engine were purchased. After receipt, the products and their ingredient lists were inspected, and Medline and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database were searched for reports of significant associations between each ingredient and various key words for life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. All supplements had the list of ingredients on the label. We identified 60 different ingredients (7.25 +/- 4.66 per supplement; range 1-21). Eleven ingredients representing eight different substances (because multiple names were used for some substances) were each associated with two or more reports of life-threatening cardiac complications or death. Eight of the 12 products contained one or more such ingredients, but none of these eight products had warnings about life-threatening cardiac adverse effects on the Web pages, on the labels, or in the package inserts. One product contained ma huang (Chinese ephedra), even though the marketing of ephedra-containing products is banned in the United States. The Internet provides easy access to weight-loss supplements, several of which contain ingredients with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. There is a need for increased public education and awareness regarding such weight-loss products.

  13. Efficacy of a Weight Loss Intervention for African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda; Sheean, Patricia; Gerber, Ben; Arroyo, Claudia; Schiffer, Linda; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Visotcky, Alexis; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Strahan, Desmona; Matthews, Lauren; Dakers, Roxanne; Carridine-Andrews, Cynthia; Seligman, Katya; Springfield, Sparkle; Odoms-Young, Angela; Hong, Susan; Hoskins, Kent; Kaklamani, Virginia; Sharp, Lisa

    2017-08-20

    Purpose African American women with breast cancer have higher cancer-specific and overall mortality rates. Obesity is common among African American women and contributes to breast cancer progression and numerous chronic conditions. Weight loss interventions among breast cancer survivors positively affect weight, behavior, biomarkers, and psychosocial outcomes, yet few target African Americans. This article examines the effects of Moving Forward, a weight loss intervention for African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) on weight, body composition, and behavior. Patients and Methods Early-stage (I-III) AABCS were randomly assigned to a 6-month interventionist-guided (n = 125) or self-guided (n = 121) weight loss program supporting behavioral changes to promote a 5% weight loss. Anthropometric, body composition, and behavioral data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6 months), and follow-up (12 months). Descriptive statistics and mixed models analyses assessed differences between groups over time. Results Mean (± standard deviation) age, and body mass index were 57.5 (± 10.1) years and 36.1 (± 6.2) kg/m 2 , respectively, and 82% had stage I or II breast cancer. Both groups lost weight. Mean and percentage of weight loss were greater in the guided versus self-guided group (at 6 months: 3.5 kg v 1.3kg; P 3% at 6 months is associated with improved health outcomes. Affordable, accessible health promotion programs represent a critical resource for AABCS.

  14. Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Khashab, Mouen A; Kalloo, Anthony N; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Expert panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George L; Hutter, Matthew M; Harvey, Alan M; Apovian, Caroline M; Boulton, Hannah R W; Cummings, Susan; Fallon, John A; Greenberg, Isaac; Jiser, Michael E; Jones, Daniel B; Jones, Stephanie B; Kaplan, Lee M; Kelly, John J; Kruger, Rayford S; Lautz, David B; Lenders, Carine M; Lonigro, Robert; Luce, Helen; McNamara, Anne; Mulligan, Ann T; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Perna, Frank M; Pratt, Janey S A; Riley, Stancel M; Robinson, Malcolm K; Romanelli, John R; Saltzman, Edward; Schumann, Roman; Shikora, Scott A; Snow, Roger L; Sogg, Stephanie; Sullivan, Mary A; Tarnoff, Michael; Thompson, Christopher C; Wee, Christina C; Ridley, Nancy; Auerbach, John; Hu, Frank B; Kirle, Leslie; Buckley, Rita B; Annas, Catherine L

    2009-05-01

    Rapid shifts in the demographics and techniques of weight loss surgery (WLS) have led to new issues, new data, new concerns, and new challenges. In 2004, this journal published comprehensive evidence-based guidelines on WLS. In this issue, we've updated those guidelines to assure patient safety in this fast-changing field. WLS involves a uniquely vulnerable population in need of specialized resources and ongoing multidisciplinary care. Timely best-practice updates are required to identify new risks, develop strategies to address them, and optimize treatment. Findings in these reports are based on a comprehensive review of the most current literature on WLS; they directly link patient safety to methods for setting evidence-based guidelines developed from peer-reviewed scientific publications. Among other outcomes, these reports show that WLS reduces chronic disease risk factors, improves health, and confers a survival benefit on those who undergo it. The literature also shows that laparoscopy has displaced open surgery as the predominant approach; that government agencies and insurers only reimburse procedures performed at accredited WLS centers; that best practice care requires close collaboration between members of a multidisciplinary team; and that new and existing facilities require wide-ranging changes to accommodate growing numbers of severely obese patients. More than 100 specialists from across the state of Massachusetts and across the many disciplines involved in WLS came together to develop these new standards. We expect them to have far-reaching effects of the development of health care policy and the practice of WLS.

  16. Relationship between weight loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients and serum biomarkers of cartilage breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Henrotin, Y; Bliddal, H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of weight loss and maintenance on serum cartilage biomarkers denaturation neoepitope for Collagen2 (Coll2-1) and Fibulin3 fragment (Fib3-2), as well as correlations between Coll2-1 and Fib3-2 and symptomatic improvement, in a knee osteoarthritis (KOA) population....... DESIGN: 192 obese KOA patients followed a 16 week weight loss intervention and 52 weeks weight maintenance (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00655941). Assessments were at 0, 8, 16 and 68 weeks. Serum Coll2-1 and Fib3-2 were determined with ELISA, and symptoms by the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score...

  17. Early weight loss while on lorcaserin, diet, and exercise as a predictor of week 52 weight-loss outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven R; O'Neil, Patrick M; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify an early treatment milestone that optimizes sensitivity and specificity for predicting ≥5% weight loss at Week (W) 52 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes on lorcaserin or placebo. METHODS: Post hoc area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analyses...

  18. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-08-19

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Perceived helpfulness of the individual components of a behavioural weight loss program: results from the Hopkins POWER Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dalcin, A. T.; Jerome, G. J.; Fitzpatrick, S. L.; Louis, T. A.; Wang, N?Y.; Bennett, W. L.; Durkin, N.; Clark, J. M.; Daumit, G. L.; Appel, L. J.; Coughlin, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Behavioural weight loss programs are effective first?line treatments for obesity and are recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Gaining an understanding of intervention components that are found helpful by different demographic groups can improve tailoring of weight loss programs. This paper examined the perceived helpfulness of different weight loss program components. Methods Participants (n?=?236) from the active intervention conditions of the Practice?bas...

  20. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  1. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  2. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  3. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  4. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Innovation in weight loss programs: a 3-dimensional virtual-world approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jeanne D; Massey, Anne P; Devaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-09-20

    virtual-world-based weight loss program can be as effective as a face-to-face one relative to biometric changes. In addition, our results suggest that a virtual world may be a more effective platform to influence meaningful behavioral changes and improve self-efficacy.

  6. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also...... to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets...... that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide improvements in appetite, body weight management, cardiometabolic risk factors, or all of these health outcomes; however, further strategies to increase...

  7. Community Weight Loss to Combat Obesity and Disability in At-Risk Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Ambrosius, Walter T; Burdette, Jonathan H; Walkup, Michael P; Marsh, Anthony P

    2017-10-12

    Among older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or the metabolic syndrome, reduced mobility and loss of leg strength are important risk factors for morbidity, disability, and mortality. It is unclear whether community-based approaches to weight loss may be an effective solution to this public health challenge. An 18-month three-site, randomized controlled trial conducted by YMCA staff, with blinded assessors, enrolled 249 older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome with randomization to three interventions: weight loss alone (WL), weight loss + aerobic training (WL + AT), and weight loss + resistance training (WT + RT). The dual primary outcomes were 400-m walk time in seconds and knee extensor strength in Newton meters. All groups lost weight from baseline: average baseline adjusted change of -6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.5 to -4.7) for WL only, -8.6% (95% CI: -10.0 to -7.2) for WL + AT, and -9.7% (95% CI: -11.1 to -8.4) for WL + RT. Combined, the two physical activity + WL training groups had greater improvement in walk time than WL alone (mean difference 16.9 seconds [95% CI: 9.7 to 24.0], p < .0001). Baseline adjusted change in knee extensor strength was no greater with WL + RT than WL + AT (mean difference -3.6 Nm [95% CI: -7.5 to 0.3], p = .07). At risk, older, overweight and obese adults can achieve clinically significant reductions in body weight with community-based weight loss programs. The change in percent weight loss and improvements in mobility are significantly enhanced when either RT or AT is combined with dietary WL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Changes in glucose-elicited blood metabolite responses following weight loss and long term weight maintenance in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidenstam, Nina; Danielsson, Anders P H; Spégel, Peter; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but the long term dynamic effects on blood metabolites other than glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), are largely unknown. Here, we studied changes in OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns in obese subjects during a diet-induced weight loss study. Blood samples from 14 obese individuals with IGT were collected at 0, 30 and 120 min during a standard 75 g OGTT at baseline (BMI 44 ± 2 kg/m(2)), after weight loss (BMI 36 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and after weight maintenance (BMI 35 ± 2 kg/m(2)). Serum metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to a lean glucose tolerant group. Changes in the OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns occurred differentially during weight loss and weight maintenance. Enhanced suppression of aromatic amino acids were associated with decreased insulinogenic index observed after weight loss (tyrosine: r=0.72, p=0.013; phenylalanine: r=0.63, p=0.039). The OGTT-elicited suppression and/or lack of increase in levels of glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, and the fatty acids laurate, oleate and palmitate, improved towards the lean profile after weight maintenance, paralleling an improvement in glucose tolerance. The greater heterogeneity in the response before and after weight loss in the obese, compared to lean subjects, was markedly reduced after weight maintenance. Diet-induced weight loss followed by weight maintenance results in changes in metabolite profiles associated with either hepatic insulin sensitivity or peripheral glucose tolerance. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of weight loss and weight maintenance separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative...... effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40.......53 ± 1.16, -0.59 ± 1.06, and -0.71 ± 1.17 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Self-reported compliance with the recommendation was 93.6% for the breakfast group and 92.4% for the NB group.Conclusions: A recommendation to eat or skip breakfast for weight loss was effective...

  10. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBosy-Westphal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normalization of resting energy expenditure (REE for body composition using the 2-compartment model (fat mass, FM and fat-free mass, FFM has inherent limitations for the interpretation of REE and may lead to erroneous conclusions when comparing people with a wide range of adiposity as well as before and after substantial weight loss. We compared different methods of REE normalization: (i for FFM and FM (ii by the inclusion of %FM as a measure of adiposity and (iii based on organ and tissue masses. Results were compared between healthy subjects with different degrees of adiposity as well as within subject before and after weight loss. Normalizing REE from an REE vs. FFM and FM equation that (i was derived in obese participants and applied to lean people or (ii was derived before weight loss and applied after weight loss leads to the erroneous conclusion of a lower metabolic rate (i in lean persons and (ii after weight loss. This is revealed by the normalization of REE for organ and tissue masses that was not significantly different between lean and obese or between baseline and after weight loss. There is evidence for an increasing specific metabolic rate of FFM with increasing %FM that could be explained by a higher contribution of liver, kidney and heart mass to FFM in obesity. Using REE vs. FFM and FM equations specific for different levels of adiposity (% fat mass eliminated differences in REE before and after weight loss in women. In conclusion, the most established method for normalization of REE based on FFM and FM may lead to spurious conclusions about metabolic rate in obesity and the phenomenon of weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis. Using % fat mass-specific REE prediction from FFM and FM in kg may improve the normalization of REE when subjects with wide differences in % fat mass are investigated.

  13. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  14. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por

  15. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  16. Determinants of weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, K R; Saris, W H; Soeters, P B; ten Hoor, F

    1991-08-01

    Weight loss after gastric partition is highly variable even when the operation itself has been successful. We studied changes in body composition in relation to energy expenditure before and one year after surgery in one woman and five men, age 20-38 years, and BMI 42-62 kg/m2. Observations were performed shortly before, and 6, 12, 27 and 54 weeks after surgery. Body composition was measured with hydrostatic weighing and isotope dilution, and energy expenditure over 24 h (24EE) and during complete rest (sleeping metabolic rate (SMR)) with a respiration chamber and in five of the six subjects under daily living conditions over two-week intervals with doubly labeled water (average daily metabolic rate (ADMR). Weight loss and fat loss over the full observation period until 54 weeks after surgery was 54 +/- 8 and 43 +/- 9 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.), respectively. There was a more than three-fold difference in fat loss between the subject losing most, i.e. 70 kg, and the subject losing least, i.e. 20 kg. Fat loss was not related to initial fat mass in this group of six subjects but there was a significant negative relation with the loss of protein mass. There was a strong negative relation between fat loss and activity level of the subjects expressed as the quotient ADMR/SMR. These results show the contrary from what would be expected. Reduction of fat mass after successful gastric partition is highest in those subjects having the lowest physical activity level (before and) after surgery; these subjects lose less fat-free mass.

  17. [A teenager presenting with vomiting, general malaise and weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, M E; Visser, R; van Vliet, W; Wielders, J P; Hogeman, P H

    2004-02-28

    A 16-year-old girl had symptoms of vomiting, malaise and weight loss for two months. Blood tests revealed an elevated activity of liver enzymes and hyperthyroidism. Although the patient at first denied the possibility of pregnancy, a pregnancy was subsequently confirmed. Hyperemesis gravidarum was diagnosed based on the combination of the clinical symptoms, pregnancy and increased serum human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestradiol. Hyperemesis gravidarum also explained the demonstrated biochemical hyperthyroidism and elevated liver enzyme levels. Rapid alleviation of all the clinical symptoms was seen after termination of this unwanted pregnancy. Although vomiting, malaise and weight loss in children can have many different causes, in girls at a sexually mature age a pregnancy with possible hyperemesis gravidarum should certainly also be considered and a gynaecological examination performed.

  18. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vicente Stanton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  19. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  20. Radiologic findings and weight loss following gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskowiak, J.; Fleckenstein, P.; Andersen, B.

    Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty.

  1. Weight loss during therapy with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report weight loss in patients with schizophrenia after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In the first case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 20 mg, while in the second case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 15 mg, and weight loss was similar (14 kg vs. 15 kg). Switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained during 12 months in both case reports. Further controlled clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate change in weight during treatment with olanzapine ODT, and to improve our understanding of this change.

  2. Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Martinez, J.A.; Saris, Wim H.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kunesova, Marie; Jebb, Susan; Blundell, John; Lawton, Clare; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-01

    People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy,

  3. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  4. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  5. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  7. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  8. Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy in Super Superobesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Catheline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for its safety and efficiency in excess weight loss (%EWL in super superobese patients (BMI >60 Kg/m2. Results. Thirty patients (33 women and 7 men were included, with mean age of 35 years (range 18 to 59. Mean preoperative BMI was 66 Kg/m2 (range 60 to 85. The study included one patient with complete situs inversus and 4 (14% with previous restrictive gastric banding. The mean operative time was 120 minutes (range 80 to 220 min and the mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (4 to 28 days. There was no postoperative mortality or need for a laparotomy conversion. Two subphrenic hematomas, one gastric fistula, and one pulmonary embolism, were the major complications. After 18 months 17 (77% had sufficient weight loss and six had insufficient results, leading to either re-sleeve gastrectomy (3, or gastric bypass (2. Three years after the initial laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the mean EWL was 51% (range 21 to 82. Conclusion. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and efficient operating procedure for treating super superobesity. In the case of insufficient weight loss, a second-stage operation like resleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass can be proposed.

  9. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation

  10. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  11. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  12. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  13. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  15. Wearable devices and mobile technologies for supporting behavioral weight loss among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-10-30

    Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868

  17. Musculoskeletal findings in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, M M; Stellato, T A; Hallowell, P T; Seitz, B A; Moskowitz, R W

    2007-01-01

    To determine the point prevalence of painful musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery. Longitudinal, interventional, unblended. Forty-eight obese subjects (47 women, one man, mean age 44+/-9 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 51+/-8 kg/m(2)) recruited from an academic medical center bariatric surgery program. Comorbid medical conditions; MSK findings; BMI; Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness and function; and SF-36 for quality of life. Consecutive subjects were recruited from the University Hospitals of Cleveland Bariatric Surgery Program. Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms and non-MSK comorbid conditions were documented at baseline and at follow-up. SUBJECTS completed the SF-36 and the WOMAC questionnaires. Analyses were carried out for each MSK site, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and for the cumulative effect on the spine, upper and lower extremities. The impact of change in comorbid medical conditions, BMI, physical and mental health domains of the SF-36 on the WOMAC pain subscale score was evaluated. SF-36 outcomes were compared to normal published controls. Forty-eight subjects were available for baseline and a follow-up assessment 6-12 months after gastric bypass surgery. They lost an average of 41+/-15 kg and the mean BMI decreased from 51+/-8 to 36+/-7 kg/m(2). Baseline comorbid medical conditions were present in 96% before surgery and 23% after weight loss. There was an increased prevalence of painful MSK conditions at baseline compared to general population frequencies. Musculoskeletal complaints had been present in 100% of obese subjects before, and 23% after weight loss. The greatest improvements occurred in the cervical and lumbar spine, the foot and in FMS (decreased by 90, 83, 83 and 92%, respectively). Seventy-nine percent had upper extremity MSK conditions before and 40% after weight loss. Before surgery, 100% had lower extremity MSK conditions and

  18. The relationship between pretreatment dietary composition and weight loss during a randomised trial of different diet approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, M A; Jeffreys, A S; King, H A; Olsen, M K; Voils, C I; Yancy, W S

    2015-02-01

    Identifying pretreatment dietary habits that are associated with weight-loss intervention outcomes could help guide individuals' selection of weight-loss approach among competing options. A pretreatment factor that may influence weight-loss outcomes is macronutrient intake. Overweight and obese Durham Veterans Affairs outpatients were randomised to a weight-loss intervention with a low-carbohydrate diet (n = 71) or orlistat medication therapy plus a low-fat diet (n = 73). Percentage fat, carbohydrate and protein intake prior to treatment were measured using 4-day food records. Linear mixed-effects models were used to determine whether pretreatment percentage macronutrient intake influenced weight trajectories and weight loss in each weight-loss condition. Participant's mean age was 53 years, baseline body mass index was 39.3 kg m(-2) and 72% were male. A higher pretreatment percentage carbohydrate intake was associated with less rapid initial weight loss (P = 0.02) and less rapid weight regain (P = 0.03) in the low-carbohydrate diet condition but was not associated with weight trajectories in the orlistat plus low-fat diet condition. In both conditions, a higher pretreatment percentage fat intake was associated with more rapid weight regain (P loss on study completion in either condition. Selection of a weight-loss approach on the basis of pretreatment macronutrient intake is unlikely to improve weight outcomes at the end of a 1-year treatment. However, pretreatment macronutrient intake may have implications for tailoring of interventions to slow weight regain after weight loss. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  20. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  1. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Systematic Review of the Mediterranean Diet for Long-Term Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Joseph G; Filion, Kristian B; Atallah, Renée; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    Although the long-term health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are well established, its efficacy for weight loss at ≥12 months in overweight or obese individuals is unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels after ≥12 months. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials for RCTs published in English or French and with follow-up ≥12 months that examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels in overweight or obese individuals trying to lose weight. Five RCTs (n = 998) met our inclusion criteria. Trials compared the Mediterranean diet to a low-fat diet (4 treatment arms), a low-carbohydrate diet (2 treatment arms), and the American Diabetes Association diet (1 treatment arm). The Mediterranean diet resulted in greater weight loss than the low-fat diet at ≥12 months (range of mean values: -4.1 to -10.1 kg vs 2.9 to -5.0 kg), but produced similar weight loss as other comparator diets (range of mean values: -4.1 to -10.1 kg vs -4.7 to -7.7 kg). Moreover, the Mediterranean diet was generally similar to comparator diets at improving other cardiovascular risk factor levels, including blood pressure and lipid levels. Our findings suggest that the Mediterranean diet results in similar weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor level reduction as comparator diets in overweight or obese individuals trying to lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  4. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth

    2012-12-12

    Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar

  5. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); M.T. Mulder (Monique); A.J.M. Verhoeven; Van Wietmarschen, H. (Herman); Boessen, R. (Ruud); Pellis, L.P. (Linette P.); Van Spijker, A.T. (Adriaan T); R. Timman (Reinier); B. Özcan (Behiye); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2

  6. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, K.A.; Mulder, M.T.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Boessen, R.; Pellis, L.P.; Spijker, A.T. van; Timman, R.; Ozcan, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods

  7. Gastric Bypass May Promote Weight Loss in Overweight Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N. E.; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. Methods: In

  8. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  9. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, J?rg-Dieter; Valentini, Luzia

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program curre...

  10. [Diagnostic value of selective anorexia in pathological weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquet, P; Mercier, G; Reynes, J; Jeandel, C; Pinzani, V; Guilpain, P; Rivière, S; Le Quellec, A

    2016-02-01

    The diagnostic value of selective anorexia is debated. Some authors have suggested an association between meat aversion and cancer, but most do not use it as a diagnostic tool. We aimed to characterize anorexia of different diseases to search for an association between selective aversions and diagnostic groups. All the patients admitted to three departments of a teaching hospital were included consecutively for 22months if they had more than 10 % weight loss in less than one year. Patients were excluded if history taking was not reliable, or if they suffered from anorexia nervosa. We compiled diagnoses at discharge and validated them six months later. We used logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with selective anorexia. Inclusion criteria were met in 106patients (female 44 %, median age 65years). Most frequent diagnoses were: cancer (36 %), infection (35 %), digestive diseases (19 %), non organic diseases (21 %). Recent selective anorexia was found in 46 % of the cases. It was significantly associated with female gender (P=0.002), marginally with young age (P=0.069) and long duration of weight loss (P=0.079). Opioid use at admission was negatively associated with selective anorexia (P=0.001). No specific diagnostic category was found to be associated. Selective anorexia does not appear to be a useful symptom to investigate pathological weight loss. It behaves more like a non-specific reactivation by current disease of earlier latent personal food aversions. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Cattivelli, Roberto; Rossi, Alessandro; Novelli, Margherita; Varallo, Giorgia; Molinari, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy, and sequential binge, are discussed in this review. The issue of long-term weight management of obesity, the real challenge in outpatient settings and in lifestyle modification, is discussed taking into account the possible contribution of mHealth and the stepped-care approach in health care.

  13. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.

  14. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome? on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...

  15. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  16. Weight loss and weight maintenance obtained with or without GLP-1 analogue treatment decrease branched chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson

    2016-01-01

    increased during weight loss (p = 5.2 × 10−15) and showed inverse correlation with insulin resistance measured by HOMA–IR levels (r = −0.318, p = 0.025). Valine concentrations were lower in the control group compared to the GLP-1RA group during weight maintenance (p = 0.005). Conclusion Weight loss...

  17. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Weight Loss: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Cowan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.

  19. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  20. Electrochemical and weight-loss study of carbon steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.J.; Olive, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) will undergo an 18 month refurbishment project beginning in April, 2008. During this time, most of the carbon steel piping in the primary loop will be drained of water and dried. However, some water will remain during the shutdown due to the lack of drains in some lower points in the piping system. As a result, it is necessary to examine the effect of corrosion during the refurbishment. This study examined the effect of several variables on the corrosion rate of clean carbon steel. Specifically, the effect of oxygen in the system and the presence of chloride ions were evaluated. Corrosion rates were determined using both a weight-loss technique and electrochemical methods. The experiment was conducted at room temperature. The corrosion products from the experiment were analyzed using a Raman microscope. The results of the weight-loss measurements show that the corrosion rate of polished carbon steel is independent of both the presence of oxygen and chloride ions. The electrochemical method failed to yield meaningful results due to the lack of clearly interpretable data and the inherent subjectivity in the analysis. Lepidocricite was found to be the main corrosion product using the Raman microscope. (author)

  1. The Role of Stigma in Weight Loss Maintenance Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Suh, Young J

    2017-10-01

    Challenges of maintaining long-term weight loss are well-established and present significant obstacles in obesity prevention and treatment. A neglected but potentially important barrier to weight-loss maintenance is weight stigmatization. We examined the role of weight stigma-experienced and internalized-as a contributor to weight-loss maintenance and weight regain in adults. A diverse, national sample of 2702 American adults completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing demographics, weight-loss history, subjective weight category, experienced and internalized weight stigma, weight-monitoring behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, and physical health. Analyses focused exclusively on participants who indicated that their body weight a year ago was at least 10% less than their highest weight ever (excluding pregnancy), the weight loss was intentional, and that attempts to lose or maintain weight occurred during the past year (n = 549). Participants were further classified as weight regainers (n = 235) or weight-loss maintainers (n = 314) based on subsequent weight loss/gain. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that internalized weight stigma and subjective weight category made significant individual contributions to prediction of weight-loss maintenance, even after accounting for demographics, perceived stress, experienced stigma, physical health, and weight-loss behaviors. For every one-unit increase in internalized weight stigma, the odds of maintaining weight loss decreased by 28% (95% CI: 14-40%, p < .001). Findings provide initial evidence that overlooked psychosocial factors, like weight stigma, may hinder weight-loss maintenance. Implications for addressing stigma in obesity-focused clinical interventions are highlighted.

  2. Rosiglitazone delayed weight loss and anorexia while attenuating adipose depletion in mice with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Michelle L; Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L; Belury, Martha A

    2011-12-01

    Cachexia is characterized by severe weight loss, including adipose and muscle wasting, and occurs in a large percentage of cancer patients. Insulin resistance contributes to dysregulated metabolism in cachexia and occurs prior to weight loss in mice with colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, would attenuate the loss of adipose and muscle to result in improved outcomes for mice with late-stage cachexia. Male CD2F1 mice were inoculated with colon-26 adenocarcinoma cells or vehicle. Treatments included vehicle, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg body weight/day) or rosiglitazone plus pair-feeding to food intake of vehicle-treated mice with tumors. Rosiglitazone delayed weight loss onset by 2 d over the 16 d duration of this aggressive tumor model. This finding was associated, in part, with increased food intake. In addition, adipose mass, adipocyte cross-sectional area and inflammation were improved with rosiglitazone. However, at the time of necropsy 16 d after tumor inoculation rosiglitazone had no effect on retention of muscle mass, strength or proteolysis in late-stage cachexia. We did not measure stamina or endurance in this study. In early-stage cachexia, rosiglitazone normalized PDK4 and PPAR-delta mRNA in quadriceps muscle and rescued the decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance in mice with tumors. Rosiglitazone may delay weight loss onset by decreasing tumor-induced markers of metabolic change in early-stage cachexia. These changes predict for modest improvement in adipose, but no improvement in muscle strength in late-stage cachexia.

  3. Early Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Outcomes in Terms of Weight Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, G.; Aziz, W.; Pervez, M. B.; Haider, M. I.; Hussain, S. V.; Khan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in terms of weight loss. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2009 to January 2015. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients were included in the study through retrospective chart review. A 5-port technique was utilized with the gastric sleeve being created using endostapler. Postoperatively, patients gradually progressed from clear liquid diet and oral rehydration salts to nutritional supplements over three days. By two weeks postoperatively, patients had progressed to a solid diet. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and weight in kg were determined. Results: From 100 patients, 17 were lost to follow-up less than a week into the postoperative period. Of the remaining, average age of the patients was 34.7 ±11.3 years at the time of surgery. The majority of patients were females (72 percentage). Mean preoperative and postoperative BMI was 45.3 ±10.4 kg/m2 and 35.0 ±10 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 83 patients, 62 were followed-up for longer than 1 month (average 419 days). For patients in this category, mean reduction in BMI was 10.3 ±6.5 kg/m2 with average weight loss of 34.3 ±18.2 kg. There were no mortalities associated with LSG. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective intervention in young Pakistani females with encouraging outcomes at a mean follow-up of over one year. (author)

  4. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  5. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  7. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross Tim JS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L. A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean, purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

  8. Effect of Weight Loss, Diet, Exercise, and Bariatric Surgery on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William N; Harrison, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is the most common liver disease in developed countries. Weight reduction of 3% to 5% is associated with improved steatosis; reductions of 5% to 7% are necessary for decreased inflammation; with 7% to 10%, individuals may experience NAFLD/NASH remission and regression of fibrosis. No specific dietary intervention has proven beneficial beyond calorie restriction. Physical activity without weight loss seems to decrease hepatic steatosis. Bariatric surgery is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk and improved overall mortality in addition to reduction in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Implementation of a financially incentivized weight loss competition into an already established employee wellness program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess improvement in clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction of a financially incentivized weight loss competition adjunct to a currently established pharmacist-directed employee wellness program. Design: Retrospective, cohort, pilot study Setting: 6 independent community pharmacy chain locations, two long-term care pharmacies, and a pharmacy corporate office in northwest and central Missouri, from January 2013 to April 2013. Participants: 24 benefit-eligible patients employed by the self- insured pharmacy chain. Intervention: A financially incentivized weight loss competition focusing on healthy lifestyle practices was implemented at nine pharmacy locations over an eight week period. Main outcome measure(s: Change from baseline in mean total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, weight, and body mass index (BMI. Patient satisfaction was also assessed after completion. Results:24 patients completed the competition. The average weight loss among all participants was 10 ± 7.3 pounds. A mean decrease in serum triglycerides was significant at 36.9 mg/dL per participant (p Conclusion: The implementation of a financially incentivized weight loss competition provided significant short-term weight loss to a patient population that was already enrolled in an established pharmacist-directed employee wellness program and had not shown clinical improvement prior to the intervention. Overall the patients were satisfied, felt healthier, and agreed to continue following the recommendations of the program.   Type: Original Research

  10. The Effect of Weight Loss on Health, Productivity and Medical Expenditures among Overweight Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Kruger, Eliza; Tate, Deborah F.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether overweight or obese employees who achieve clinically significant weight loss of 5% or greater have reduced medical expenditures, absenteeism, presenteeism, and/or improved Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL). Methods The sample analyzed combines data from full-time overweight or obese employees who took part in one of the WAY to Health weight loss studies: one that took place in 17 community colleges (935 employees) and another in 12 universities (933), all in North Carolina. The estimations are performed using non-linear difference-in-difference models where groups are identified by whether the employee achieved a 5% or greater weight loss (treated) or not (control) and the treatment variable indicates pre- and post-weight loss intervention. The outcomes analyzed are the average quarterly (90 days) amount of medical claims paid by the health insurer, number of days missed at work during the past month, Stanford Presenteeism Scale SPS-6 and the EQ-5D-3L measure of HRQOL. Results We find statistical evidence supporting that 5% or greater weight loss prevents deterioration in EQ-5D-3L scores by 0.026 points (p-value: 0.03) and reduces both absenteeism by 0.258 days per month (p-value: 0.093) and the likelihood of showing low presenteeism (Stanford SPS-6 score between 7 and 9) by 2.9 percentage points (p-value: 0.083). No reduction in medical expenditures was observed. Conclusions Clinically significant weight loss among overweight or obese employees prevents short term deterioration in HRQOL and there is some evidence that employee productivity is increased. We find no evidence of a quick return on investment from reduced medical expenditures, although this may occur over longer periods. PMID:23632594

  11. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  12. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Whole-systems Ayurvedic Medicine and Yoga Therapy for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jennifer; Thomson, Cynthia; Howerter, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To develop and test the feasibility of a whole-systems lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment based on the practices of Ayurvedic medicine/ Yoga therapy. A pre-post weight loss intervention pilot study using conventional and Ayurvedic diagnosis inclusion criteria, tailored treatment within a standardized treatment algorithm, and standardized data collection instruments for collecting Ayurvedic outcomes. A convenience sample of overweight/obese adult community members from Tucson, Arizona interested in a "holistic weight loss program" and meeting predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. A comprehensive diet, activity, and lifestyle modification program based on principles of Ayurvedic medicine/yoga therapy with significant self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviors. The 3-month program was designed to change eating and activity patterns and to improve self-efficacy, quality of life, well-being, vitality, and self-awareness around food choices, stress management, and barriers to weight loss. Changes in body weight, body mass index; body fat percentage, fat/lean mass, waist/hip circumference and ratio, and blood pressure. Diet and exercise self-efficacy scales; perceived stress scale; visual analog scales (VAS) of energy, appetite, stress, quality of life, well-being, and program satisfaction at all time points. Twenty-two adults attended an in-person Ayurvedic screening; 17 initiated the intervention, and 12 completed the 3-month intervention. Twelve completed follow-up at 6 months and 11 completed follow-up at 9 months. Mean weight loss at 3 months was 3.54 kg (SD 4.76); 6 months: 4.63 kg, (SD 6.23) and 9 months: 5.9 kg (SD 8.52). Self-report of program satisfaction was more than 90% at all time points. An Ayurveda-/yoga-based lifestyle modification program is an acceptable and feasible approach to weight management. Data collection, including self-monitoring and conventional and Ayurvedic outcomes, did not unduly burden participants, with attrition similar to

  13. Personal digital assistants are comparable to traditional diaries for dietary self-monitoring during a weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Gold, Beth Casey; Howard, Alan B

    2007-04-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is considered the core of behavioral weight control programs. As software for personal digital assistants (PDA) has become more available, this study investigated whether the use of a PDA would improve dietary self-monitoring frequency and subsequent weight loss over the use of traditional paper diaries. One-hundred-seventy-six adults (BMI 25-39.9) participated in a 6-month behavioral weight control program. Treatment subjects (n = 61) were provided with a PalmZire 21 with Calorie King's Diet Diary software installed. Their self-monitoring habits and weight loss were compared with the results from a previous program (n = 115) which followed the same protocol using paper diaries for self-monitoring. No significant differences in weight loss or dietary self-monitoring were found. More frequent self-monitoring correlated with weight loss in both groups (pself-monitoring that is fitting to their lifestyle and skills.

  14. Meal replacements as a weight loss tool in a population with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Hollie A; Kwan, Crystal L; Mena, Shirley J; Erickson, Zachary D; Baker, Matthew R; Chamberlin, Valery; Nguyen, Charles; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Ames, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Weight gain and worsening metabolic parameters are often side effects of antipsychotic medications used by individuals with severe mental illness. To address this, a randomized, controlled research study of a behavioral weight management program for individuals with severe mental illness was undertaken to assess its efficacy. Patients unable to meet weight loss goals during the first portion of the year-long study were given the option of using meal replacement shakes in an effort to assist with weight loss. Specific requirements for use of meal replacement shakes were specified in the study protocol; only five patients were able to use the shakes in accordance with the protocol and lose weight while improving metabolic parameters. Case studies of two subjects are presented, illustrating the challenges and obstacles they faced, as well as their successes. Taking responsibility for their own weight loss, remaining motivated through the end of the study, and incorporating the meal replacement shakes into a daily routine were factors found in common with these patients. Use of meal replacements shakes with this population may be effective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  16. Comparing Weight Loss-Maintenance Outcomes of a Worksite-Based Lifestyle Program Delivered via DVD and Face-to-Face: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Claire Townsend; Miyamoto, Robin E S; Fang, Rui; Antonio, Mapuana; Paloma, Diane; Braun, Kathryn L; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2018-03-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders have high rates of overweight and obesity compared with other ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Effective weight loss and weight loss-maintenance programs are needed to address obesity and obesity-related health inequities for this group. Compare the effectiveness of a 9-month, worksite-based, weight loss-maintenance intervention delivered via DVD versus face-to-face in continued weight reduction and weight loss maintenance beyond the initial weight loss phase. We tested DVD versus face-to-face delivery of the PILI@Work Program's 9-month, weight loss-maintenance phase in Native Hawaiian-serving organizations. After completing the 3-month weight loss phase, participants ( n = 217) were randomized to receive the weight loss-maintenance phase delivered via trained peer facilitators or DVDs. Participant assessments at randomization and postintervention included weight, height, blood pressure, physical functioning, exercise frequency, and fat intake. Eighty-three face-to-face participants were retained at 12 months (74.1%) compared with 73 DVD participants (69.5%). There was no significant difference between groups in weight loss or weight loss maintenance. The number of lessons attended in Phase 1 of the intervention (β = 0.358, p = .022) and baseline systolic blood pressure (β = -0.038, p = .048) predicted percent weight loss at 12 months. Weight loss maintenance was similar across groups. This suggests that low-cost delivery methods for worksite-based interventions targeting at-risk populations can help address obesity and obesity-related disparities. Additionally, attendance during the weight loss phase and lower baseline systolic blood pressure predicted greater percent weight loss during the weight loss-maintenance phase, suggesting that early engagement and initial physical functioning improve long-term weight loss outcomes.

  17. [Weight loss and healing of ulcers - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinović, Marin

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds.

  18. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pekkarinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69 and one year later (week 121. Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P=0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P=0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655.

  19. Comparison of glucostatic parameters after hypocaloric diet or bariatric surgery and equivalent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, Leona; Ahmed, Leaque; Febres, Gerardo; Bessler, Marc; Inabnet, William; Kunreuther, Elizabeth; McMahon, Donald J; Korner, Judith

    2011-11-01

    Weight-loss independent mechanisms may play an important role in the improvement of glucose homeostasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The objective of this analysis was to determine whether RYGB causes greater improvement in glucostatic parameters as compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) or low calorie diet (LCD) after equivalent weight loss and independent of enteral nutrient passage. Study 1 recruited participants without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent LAGB (n = 8) or RYGB (n = 9). Study 2 recruited subjects with T2DM who underwent LCD (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7). Insulin-supplemented frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (fsIVGTT) was performed before and after equivalent weight reduction. MINMOD analysis of insulin sensitivity (Si), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and C-peptide (ACPRg) response to glucose, and insulin secretion normalized to the degree of insulin resistance (disposition index (DI)) were analyzed. Weight loss was comparable in all groups (7.8 ± 0.4%). In Study 1, significant improvement of Si, ACPRg, and DI were observed only after LAGB. In Study 2, Si, ACPRg, and plasma adiponectin increased significantly in the RYGB-DM group but not in LCD. DI improved in both T2DM groups, but the absolute increase was greater after RYGB (258.2 ± 86.6 vs. 55.9 ± 19.9; P diet at equivalent weight loss in T2DM subjects. Such a beneficial effect was not observed in nondiabetic subjects at this early time-point.

  20. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Swipe out Stroke: Feasibility and efficacy of using a smart-phone based mobile application to improve compliance with weight loss in obese minority stroke patients and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika, Nneka Lotea; Noser, Elizabeth Anne; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2016-07-01

    Swipe out Stroke (SOS) examines the use of a smartphone-based mobile application to reduce obesity in high-risk minority stroke patients. At record-high levels in the United States, obesity disproportionately affects minorities and is highly correlated with cerebrovascular disease. Unfortunately, structured weight loss programs are expensive, and compliance significantly decreases upon program completion. Mobile health (mHealth) technology is an innovative, cost-effective way to bridge this gap. Minorities spend over 4.5 billion dollars annually on consumer electronics, making studies that utilize mHealth applications ideal for health promotion and disease prevention. SOS is a prospective, randomized-controlled trial with open blinded endpoint comparing an mHealth based dietary intervention to usual care to facilitate weight reduction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke survivors and their carers are recruited from the acute care service of a Houston-based comprehensive stroke center. A neurorehabilitation physician or vascular neurologist meets with participants during the index hospitalization, a baseline clinic visit, followed by visits at 1, 3, and 6 month intervals. The SOS Team focuses on feasible modifications to the Southern dietary pattern (fried foods, fatty foods, added fats, eggs, processed meats, such as bacon and ham, organ meats (e.g., liver), and sweetened drinks) and caloric restriction to facilitate a 5% reduction in total body weight. Practical barriers to adherence are addressed, such as access to transportation, financial limitations, and depression. The primary dependent measure is a reduction of total body weight. Secondary outcomes include systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and Factor VIII. SOS will determine whether a Phase III effectiveness trial of a smartphone-based mobile application to address obesity-related health disparities is warranted throughout the Southeastern United States (Stroke

  2. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  3. One-year health-related quality of life outcomes in weight loss trial participants: comparison of three measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolotkin Ronette L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL in weight loss studies is inconsistent, and few studies use more than one type of measure. The purpose of the current study was to compare one-year changes in HRQOL as a function of weight change using three different measures: a weight-related measure (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite [IWQOL-Lite] and two generic measures (SF-36; EQ-5D. Methods Data were obtained from 926 participants (mean Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 = 35.4; 84% female; mean age = 49.5 years in a placebo-controlled randomized trial for weight loss. At baseline and one-year, participants completed all three HRQOL measures. HRQOL was compared across weight change categories (≥ 5% and 0–4.9% gain, 0–4.9%, 5.0–9.9% and ≥ 10% loss, using effect sizes. Results The weight-related measure of HRQOL exhibited greater improvements with one-year weight loss than either of the generic instruments, with effect sizes ranging from 0.24 to 0.62 for 5–9.9% weight reductions and 0.44 to 0.95 for ≥ 10% reductions. IWQOL-Lite Self-Esteem also showed a small improvement with weight gain. Changes in the two generic measures of HRQOL were inconsistent with each other, and in the case of the SF-36, variable across domains. For participants gaining ≥ 5% of weight, the greatest reductions in HRQOL occurred with respect to SF-36 Mental Health, MCS, and Vitality, with effect sizes of -0.82, -0.70, and -0.63 respectively. Conclusion This study found differences between weight-related and generic measures of health-related quality of life in a one-year weight loss trial, reflecting the potential value of using more than one measure in a trial. Although weight loss was generally associated with improved IWQOL-Lite, physical SF-36 subscale and EQ-5D scores, a small amount of weight gain was associated with a slight improvement on weight-specific HRQOL and almost no change on the EQ-5D, suggesting the

  4. Impact of weight loss on markers of systemic inflammation in obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Weight loss studies were conducted in children without asthma have demonstrated a reduction in systemic inflammation. However, the impact of weight loss in the obese paediatric population with asthma has not been investigated. Objective: To measure the effects of weight loss on markers of systemic ...

  5. [Intractable diarrhoea and severe weight loss by roflumilast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horna, Oihana; Toyas, Carla

    2013-08-04

    Roflumilast is a recently marketed drug, indicated for maintenance treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations as add on to bronchodilator treatment. The safety data of this drug have always been subjected to controversy and concerns. The Food and Drug Administration rejected the drug after the first evaluation, asking the company to clarify the adverse reactions during the investigation process, the European Medicines Agency approved the drug including a Risk Management Plan, designed to promote a safe use of the drug. During the first months after the marketing process, the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System has already been acquainted of several adverse events notifications; therefore, these patients may be closely monitored, mainly because of digestive and psychiatric disorders. Here we report the case of a female patient who showed a serious digestive clinical profile and a severe weight loss, more than 25% of her initial weight, when a treatment with roflumilast was started. The suspicion of a side effect as the cause of the reported clinical profile and its resolution required 3 hospital admissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  7. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitger, Anne D; Stallknecht, Bente M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-15

    To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogs during a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness and better preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. 19 client-owned overweight or obese dogs. All dogs were fed the same calorie-restricted diet rationed to achieve a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk for 12 weeks. The fitness-and-diet (FD) group participated in a training program that included underwater and land-based treadmill exercise 3 times/wk. The diet-only (DO) group had no change in exercise routines. Daily activity before and during the intervention was recorded by accelerometry. Before and after intervention, heart rate during exercise was recorded to assess cardiovascular fitness, and body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were evaluated with t tests and multiple regression analysis. Mean weight loss was 13.9% and 12.9% for the FD and DO groups, respectively (n = 8 dogs/group that completed the study). Mean accelerometer counts during intervention were 13% higher than baseline counts for the FD group. Heart rate during exercise declined after intervention in both groups. Lean body mass was preserved in the FD group and lost in the DO group during intervention. The controlled exercise plan used with a dietary weight loss program prevented loss of lean body mass in dogs. This finding supports inclusion of controlled physical training for obesity management in dogs.

  8. Effects of motivational interviewing to promote weight loss in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study

  9. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  10. In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrand, H; Dizdar, B; Bunjaku, B; Lindström, T; Bachrach-Lindström, M; Fredrikson, M; Ostgren, C J; Nystrom, F H

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the effects of a 2 year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), based on four group meetings to achieve compliance. This was a prospective randomised parallel trial involving 61 adults with type 2 diabetes consecutively recruited in primary care and randomised by drawing ballots. Patients that did not speak Swedish could not be recruited. The primary outcomes in this non-blinded study were weight and HbA(1c). Patients on the LFD aimed for 55-60 energy per cent (E%) and those on LCD for 20 E% from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and HbA(1c) of the participants were 32.7 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) and 57.0 ± 9.2 mmol/mol, respectively. No patients were lost to follow-up. Weight loss did not differ between groups and was maximal at 6 months: LFD -3.99 ± 4.1 kg (n=31); LCD -4.31 ± 3.6 kg (n=30); p carbohydrates is safe with respect to cardiovascular risk compared with the traditional LFD and this approach could constitute a treatment alternative. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01005498 University Hospital of Linköping Research Funds, Linköping University, the County Council of Östergötland, and the Diabetes Research Centre of Linköping University.

  11. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  12. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  13. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  14. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  15. Smartphone Technology and Text Messaging for Weight Loss in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna D; Yager, Allison M; Allen, Jerilyn

    Using smartphone technology and text messaging for health is a growing field. This type of technology is well integrated into the lives of young adults. However, few studies have tested the effect of this type of technology to promote weight loss in young adults OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a behaviorally based smartphone application for weight loss combined with text messaging from a health coach on weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in young adults as compared with a control condition. Sixty-two young adults, aged 18 to 25 years, were randomized to receive (1) a smartphone application + health coach intervention and counseling sessions or (2) control condition with a counseling session. All outcome measures were tested at baseline and 3 months. These included weight, BMI, waist circumference, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity. The sample was 71% female and 39% white, with an average age of 20 years and average BMI of 28.5 kg/m. Participants in the smartphone + health coach group lost significantly more weight (P = .026) and had a significant reduction in both BMI (P = .024) and waist circumference (P technology and feedback from a health coach on improving weight in a group of diverse young adults.

  16. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Acceptability of financial incentives for maintenance of weight loss in mid-older adults: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne C; Bauman, Adrian; Osborne, Dale; Lawler, Luke; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-02-13

    Health insurers worldwide implement financial incentive schemes to encourage health-related behaviours, including to facilitate weight loss. The maintenance of weight loss is a public health challenge, and as non-communicable diseases become more prevalent with increasing age, mid-older adults could benefit from programs which motivate weight loss maintenance. However, little is understood about their perceptions of using financial incentives to maintain weight loss. We used mixed methods to explore the attitudes and views of participants who had completed an Australian weight loss and lifestyle modification program offered to overweight and obese health insurance members with weight-related chronic diseases, about the acceptability and usefulness of different types of financial incentives to support weight loss maintenance. An online survey was completed by 130 respondents (mean age = 64 years); and a further 28 participants (mean age = 65 years) attended six focus groups. Both independent samples of participants supported a formalised maintenance program. Online survey respondents reported that non-cash (85.2%) and cash (77%) incentives would be potentially motivating; but only 40.5% reported that deposit contracts would motivate weight loss maintenance. Results of in-depth discussions found overall low support for any type of financial incentive, but particularly deposit contracts and lotteries. Some participants expressed that improved health was of more value than a monetary incentive and that they felt personally responsible for their own health, which was at odds with the idea of financial incentives. Others suggested ongoing program and peer support as potentially useful for weight loss maintenance. If financial incentives are considered for mid-older Australian adults in the health insurance setting, program planners will need to balance the discordance between participant beliefs about the individual responsibility for health and their desire

  18. Psychiatric Factors and Weight Loss Patterns Following Gastric Bypass Surgery in a Veteran Population

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, Thomas; Groesz, Lisa M.; Savu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Although pre-surgical psychological evaluations are commonly administered to patients considered for weight loss surgeries, the value of these evaluations for predicting weight loss success has been questioned. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining patient’s total number of psychiatric indicators rather than individual psychological factors as predictors of weight loss/weight regain. Methods Sixty adult veterans completed gastric bypass surgery or laparoscopic gastric...

  19. The Exposure Effects of Online Model Pictures and Weight-Related Persuasive Messages on Women's Weight-Loss Planned Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.

  20. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  1. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  2. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  4. Long-term maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle intervention in frail, obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D L; Vawter, R; Qualls, C; Chode, S; Armamento-Villareal, R; Villareal, D T

    2013-01-01

    To determine if long-term weight loss with associated improvement in physical and metabolic health can be maintained after lifestyle intervention in frail, obese older adults. Thirty-month follow-up pilot study of a 1-year lifestyle intervention trial. Community. Sixteen frail, obese (body mass index=36±2 kg/m2) older (71±1 yr.) adults. Body weight and composition, physical function, markers of the metabolic syndrome, glucose and insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, bone mineral density (BMD), liver and renal function tests, and food diaries. At 30-month follow-up, weight (101.5±3.8 vs. 94.5±3.9 kg) and BMI (36.0 ±1.7 vs. 33.5±1.7 kg/m2) remained significantly below baseline (all plean mass (24.1±1.0 vs. 24.1±1.1kg, all p>0.05) occurred between 12 months (end of trial) and 30 months. Improvements in the physical performance test (PPT 27±0.7 vs. 30.2±0.6), insulin sensitivity (4.1±0.8 vs. 3.0±0.6), and insulin area under the curve (12484±2042 vs. 9270±1139 min.mg/dl) remained at 30 months compared to baseline (all pmaintenance of clinically important weight loss is possible in frail, obese older adults. Weight maintenance appears to be achieved through continued caloric restriction. Larger, long-term studies are needed to follow up on these findings and investigate mechanisms and behaviors underlying maintenance of weight loss and physical function.

  5. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  6. Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Williams, Gemma; Norman, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common condition in women, improves with weight loss. Meal replacements in short-term weight loss and strategies for weight maintenance have not been investigated in PCOS. We compared in overweight women with PCOS the effects of meal replacements in short-term weight-loss and longer-term carbohydrate- or fat-restriction strategies on weight maintenance and improvements in reproductive and metabolic variables. Overweight women with PCOS (n = 43; x +/- SD age: 32.1 +/- 5.2 y; weight: 96.1 +/- 18.4 kg) followed an 8-wk weight-loss regimen (2 meal replacements/d, 4904.4 +/- 127 kJ; phase 1) and then a 6-mo weight-maintenance carbohydrate- (weight (5.6 +/- 2.4 kg), waist circumference (6.1 +/- 2.5 cm), body fat (4.1 +/- 2.2 kg), insulin (2.8 +/- 1.1 mU/L), total testosterone (0.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/L), and free androgen index (3.1 +/- 4.6) occurred; these changes were sustained during phase 2. No significant differences between diet groups were seen for any variables. At 6 mo, both approaches resulted in a net weight loss of 4.7 +/- 4.6 kg. Improvements in menstrual cyclicity occurred for 16 (57.1%) of 28 subjects. Meal replacements are an effective strategy for the short-term management of PCOS. Advice on moderate fat or carbohydrate restriction was equally effective in maintaining weight reduction and improving reproductive and metabolic variables.

  7. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  8. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  9. Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well-being and weight loss in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J; Hallgren, P; Kral, J; Lindroos, A K; Sjöström, L; Sullivan, M

    1994-08-01

    Sixty moderately obese women (mean BMI = 33, mean age = 43), randomized to a lactovegetarian or regular 1300-kcal weight-reducing diet were followed at 3, 8 and 24 months. Weight follow-up was 92%, while 47% complied with the program throughout with no differences between the two diets with respect to compliance rate, weight loss or behavioral test results. Over 24 months compliers lost a mean 3.9 kg compared to a gain of 1.8 kg in the non-compliers. Short-term improvements in mental well-being measured by the Mood Adjective Check List deteriorated after 2 years to lower levels than at entry. Self-assessed motivation to diet was inversely related to mental well-being at two years. Positive long-term changes of functional status (Sickness Impact Profile) were found. Though subjective prediction of success measured after 3 weeks on diet predicted short-term and maximum weight loss, it did not predict ultimate outcome. More difficulties in resisting emotional and social eating cues (high disinhibition score on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) before and during the diet predicted weight gain. The more initial health-related dysfunction (SIP) the greater the weight regain. Psychological characteristics at baseline did not predict compliance or overall weight loss. The magnitude of weight loss after 24 months was related to amount and duration of maximum weight loss.

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile devices and weight loss with an intervention content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-06-30

    Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen's d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252-0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Nathalie Lyzwinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609 (p-value ≤ 0.01, favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common

  13. Continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation in obese persons with schizophrenia: a pilot open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C-S; Yang, F-W; Huang, S-Y; Ho, P-S

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the likelihood of weight maintenance in obese persons with schizophrenia after their initial successful weight loss. This pilot open-label study examined the efficacy of topiramate in weight loss and the trajectory of weight changes after topiramate discontinuation. This study enrolled 10 obese persons with schizophrenia. A 4-month treatment phase was started, followed by a 12-month discontinuation phase. Body weight was measured as the primary outcome every month. Secondary outcomes included leptin levels, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance index. After the 4-month addition of topiramate, participants lost 1.79 kg of their body weight (95% CI=-3.03 to -0.56, p=0.005). The maximum weight reduction was 4.32 kg, occurring when topiramate had been discontinued for 12 months (95% CI=-6.41 to -2.24, p<0.001). The continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation might have resulted from topiramate's potential to improve leptin functioning. These findings demonstrate that topiramate's weight-loss effect could not only persist during its administration, but also continue to improve after its discontinuation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Maintaining a clinical weight loss after intensive lifestyle intervention is the key to cardiometabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Skovborg, Camilla; Præst, Charlotte Boslev

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) are criticised for ineffective obesity treatment because weight loss over time is modest and thus of limited clinical relevance. However, a subgroup (5-30%) maintains a clinical weight loss >10%, but it is not clear if cardiometabolic health foll...... activity (155±6, 130±5, 113±5μmol/g/min) and VO2max (49±1, 43±1, 41±1mL/min/FFM) (p10% weight loss compared to moderate weight loss and weight regain....

  15. Impact of intermittent fasting on the lipid profile: Assessment associated with diet and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Heitor O; Macedo, Rodrigo C O

    2018-04-01

    Intermittent fasting, whose proposed benefits include the improvement of lipid profile and the body weight loss, has gained considerable scientific and popular repercussion. This review aimed to consolidate studies that analyzed the lipid profile in humans before and after intermittent fasting period through a detailed review; and to propose the physiological mechanism, considering the diet and the body weight loss. Normocaloric and hypocaloric intermittent fasting may be a dietary method to aid in the improvement of the lipid profile in healthy, obese and dyslipidemic men and women by reducing total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and increasing HDL levels. However, the majority of studies that analyze the intermittent fasting impacts on the lipid profile and body weight loss are observational based on Ramadan fasting, which lacks large sample and detailed information about diet. Randomized clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to evaluate the IF effects mainly in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative weight loss in super-obese patients: study of the rate of weight loss and its effects on surgical morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Santo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59. The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98 and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%. The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight, the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study.

  17. Effect of weight loss on menstrual function in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Rollyn M; Copperman, Nancy M; Jacobson, Marc S

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of a hypocaloric low-fat diet with those of a very low carbohydrate diet on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and menstrual function in overweight adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized pilot trial of two diets in a prospective, 12-week study. A hospital-based, academic adolescent medicine division. 24 females, age 12-22 years (mean 15.8 ± 2.2), with PCOS and a BMI above the 85(th) percentile for age (mean 35.7 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)). Nutrition counseling was given biweekly, and dietary compliance, menstrual history, and weight were recorded. WC was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Changes in weight, BMI, WC, and improvement in menstrual function over the course of the study period. 16 participants completed the study. 12 completers menstruated during the study period, 8 with regularity. The number of periods over 3 months increased from 0.6 ± 0.6 pre-treatment to 1.6 ± 1.3 post-treatment (P = 0.003). Overall, weight loss averaged 6.5% (P weight were 3.4 times more likely to have improved menstrual function (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Weight loss is feasible in adolescents with PCOS and results in significant improvements in BMI, WC, and menstrual function. Weight management may be preferable as first-line treatment in adolescents, because it targets both the menstrual dysfunction and risk factors for long-term morbidity associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....

  19. Weight loss in Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the roost and after capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the weight loss in Oystercatchers on the roost and after capture and attempts to investigate to what degree this weight loss is due to defecation of digested food, to dehydration and to utilisation of nutrient stores. The study emphasizes the need to record weight changes

  20. Amino Acid Signatures to Evaluate the Beneficial Effects of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Geidenstam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We investigated the relationship between circulating amino acid levels and obesity; to what extent weight loss followed by weight maintenance can correct amino acid abnormalities; and whether amino acids are related to weight loss. Methods. Amino acids associated with waist circumference (WC and BMI were studied in 804 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC. Changes in amino acid levels were analyzed after weight loss and weight maintenance in 12 obese subjects and evaluated in a replication cohort (n=83. Results. Out of the eight identified BMI-associated amino acids from the MDC-CC, alanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and glutamate decreased after weight loss, while asparagine increased after weight maintenance. These changes were validated in the replication cohort. Scores that were constructed based on obesity-associated amino acids and known risk factors decreased in the ≥10% weight loss group with an associated change in BMI (R2=0.16–0.22, p<0.002, whereas the scores increased in the <10% weight loss group (p<0.0004. Conclusions. Weight loss followed by weight maintenance leads to differential changes in amino acid levels associated with obesity. Treatment modifiable scores based on epidemiological and interventional data may be used to evaluate the potential metabolic benefit of weight loss.

  1. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. The Use of Biosimulation in the Design of a Novel Multi-level Weight Loss Maintenance Program for Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Van Buren, Dorothy J.; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Ezzet, Farkad; Russian, Angela C.; Perri, Michael G.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Weight loss outcomes achieved through conventional behavior change interventions are prone to deterioration over time. Basic learning laboratory studies in the area of behavioral extinction and renewal and multi-level models of weight control offer clues as to why newly acquired weight loss skills are prone to relapse. According to these models, current clinic-based interventions may not be of sufficient duration or scope to allow for the practice of new skills across the multiple community contexts necessary to promote sustainable weight loss. Although longer, more intensive interventions with greater reach may hold the key to improving weight loss outcomes, it is difficult to test these assumptions in a time efficient and cost-effective manner. A research design tool that has been increasingly utilized in other fields (e.g., pharmaceuticals) is the use of biosimulation analyses. The present paper describes our research team's use of computer simulation models to assist in designing a study to test a novel, comprehensive socio-environmental treatment approach to weight loss maintenance in children ages 7 to 12 years. Methods Weight outcome data from the weight loss, weight maintenance, and follow-up phases of a recently completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used to describe the time course of a proposed, extended multi-level treatment program. Simulations were then conducted to project the expected changes in child percent overweight trajectories in the proposed study. Results A 12.9% decrease in percent overweight at 30 months was estimated based upon the midway point between models of “best-case” and “worst-case” weight maintenance scenarios. Conclusions Preliminary data and further analyses, including biosimulation projections, suggest that our socio-environmental approach to weight loss maintenance treatment is promising and warrants evaluation in a large-scale RCT. Biosimulation techniques may have utility in the design of future

  3. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  4. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and polypathology: factors favoring weight loss in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Ferrér, M Carmen Olivé; Nuñez Juarez, Montserrat; Nuñez Juarez, Esther; Maciá Soler, Loreto; López Matheu, Carmen; Rigol Cuadra, Assumpta; Pérez, María Honrubia; Marre, Diana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore the meaning of obesity in elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis (KO) and to determine the factors that encourage or discourage weight loss. Various studies have demonstrated that body mass index is related to KO and that weight loss improves symptoms and functional capacity. However, dietary habits are difficult to modify and most education programs are ineffective. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Intentional sampling was performed in ten older persons with KO who had lost weight and improved their health-related quality of life after participating in a health education program. A thematic content analysis was conducted following the stages proposed by Miles and Huberman. Participants understood obesity as a risk factor for health problems and stigma. They believed that the cause of obesity was multifactorial and criticized health professionals for labeling them as "obese" and for assigning a moral value to slimness and diet. The factors identified as contributing to the effectiveness of the program were a tolerant attitude among health professionals, group education that encouraged motivation, quantitative dietary recommendations, and a meaningful learning model based on social learning theories. Dietary self-management without prohibitions helped participants to make changes in the quantity and timing of some food intake and to lose weight without sacrificing some foods that were deeply rooted in their culture and preferences. Dietary education programs should focus on health-related quality of life and include scientific knowledge but should also consider affective factors and the problems perceived as priorities by patients.

  5. The effect of modifying dietary protein and carbohydrate in weight loss on arterial compliance and postprandial lipidemia in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    In overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss improves arterial compliance and postprandial lipidemia. Modifying dietary carbohydrate or protein in weight loss provided similar improvements in arterial compliance and postprandial lipidemia. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of weight loss on the severity of psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, R

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis.......Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis....

  7. Overnight weight loss: relationship with sleep structure and heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Moraes; Dalva Poyares; Christian Guilleminault; Agostinho Rosa; Marco Tulio Mello; Adriana Rueda; Sergio Tufik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Weight loss can be caused by a loss of body mass due to metabolism and by water loss as unsensible water loss, sweating, or excretion in feces and urine. Although weight loss during sleep is a well-known phenomenon, it has not yet been studied in relation to sleep structure or autonomic tonus during sleep. Our study is proposed to be a first step in assessing the relationship between overnight weight loss, sleep structure, and HRV (heart rate variability) parameters.Methods: Twent...

  8. Can alginate-based preloads increase weight loss beyond calorie restriction? A pilot study in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Kristensen, M; Astrup, A

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, controlled, 2-week intervention study in 24 obese subjects tested the effect on body weight loss and gastrointestinal tolerance of consuming low viscous alginate fibre-based preloads of 3% concentration (500 ml volume) three times a day as an adjuvant to a calorie-restricted diet. The pilot study showed that intake of the alginate preloads was moderately acceptable to the majority of subjects but did not produce additional body weight loss beyond calorie restriction (-1.42 ± 0.38 kg) (n=12) compared to control group (-1.56 ± 0.21 kg) (n=8). These results do not support that alginate supplementation enhance the weight loss effects of a hypo-caloric diet, but a sufficiently powered long-term study is needed to explore whether alginate could be an aid for improving weight loss during caloric-restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Best Practice Updates for Pediatric/Adolescent Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Janey S.A.; Lenders, Carine M.; Dionne, Emily A.; Hoppin, Alison G.; Hsu, George L.K.; Inge, Thomas H.; Lawlor, David F.; Marino, Margaret F.; Meyers, Alan F.; Rosenblum, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Vivian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to update evidence-based best practice guidelines for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery (WLS). We performed a systematic search of English-language literature on WLS and pediatric, adolescent, gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric banding, and extreme obesity published between April 2004 and May 2007 in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords were used to narrow the search for a selective review of abstracts, retrieval of full articles, and grading of evidence according to systems used in established evidence-based models. In light of evidence on the natural history of obesity and on outcomes of WLS in adolescents, guidelines for surgical treatment of obesity in this age group need to be updated. We recommend modification of selection criteria to include adolescents with BMI ≥ 35 and specific obesity-related comorbidities for which there is clear evidence of important short-term morbidity (i.e., type 2 diabetes, severe steatohepatitis, pseudotumor cerebri, and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea). In addition, WLS should be considered for adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and other comorbidities associated with long-term risks. We identified >1,085 papers; 186 of the most relevant were reviewed in detail. Regular updates of evidence-based recommendations for best practices in pediatric/adolescent WLS are required to address advances in technology and the growing evidence base in pediatric WLS. Key considerations in patient safety include carefully designed criteria for patient selection, multidisciplinary evaluation, choice of appropriate procedure, thorough screening and management of comorbidities, optimization of long-term compliance, and age-appropriate fully informed consent. PMID:19396070

  10. Iatrogenic Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Does Not Promote Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Rohit; Lowes, Alicia; Gillis, Sarah; Markert, Ronald; Koroscil, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Among patients who have undergone total thyroidectomy, do those with thyroid cancer being kept iatrogenically subclinical hyperthyroid (SCH) differ from euthyroid patients in long-term weight change? In a retrospective study, medical records identified 291 patients who had undergone a thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer or benign thyroid disease. Weight, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and levothyroxine dose were measured presurgery and 1, 2, and 3 years postsurgery. Of 291 patients, 147 were in the SCH group and 144 were in the euthyroid group. At all 3 years both groups gained weight from baseline, but the two groups did not differ in weight change from baseline at any time period: year 1 (SCH mean 0.4% ± 6.2% weight gain vs euthyroid group mean 2.2% ± 6.6% weight gain; P = 0.12), year 2 (SCH mean 1.1% ± 9.1% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 2.9% ± 7.8% weight gain; P = 0.22), and year 3 (SCH mean 2.6% ± 9.2% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 3.1% ± 11.1% weight gain; P = 0.49). Among total thyroidectomy patients, weight change did not differ between SCH patients and euthyroid patients at years 1 through 3. As such, the use of levothyroxine to induce SCH did not lead to long-term weight change when compared with euthyroid patients.

  11. Adipose gene expression prior to weight loss can differentiate and weakly predict dietary responders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to identify obese individuals who will successfully lose weight in response to dietary intervention will revolutionize disease management. Therefore, we asked whether it is possible to identify subjects who will lose weight during dietary intervention using only a single gene expression snapshot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study involved 54 female subjects from the Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity-Implications for Dietary Guidelines (NUGENOB trial to determine whether subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression could be used to predict weight loss prior to the 10-week consumption of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Using several statistical tests revealed that the gene expression profiles of responders (8-12 kgs weight loss could always be differentiated from non-responders (<4 kgs weight loss. We also assessed whether this differentiation was sufficient for prediction. Using a bottom-up (i.e. black-box approach, standard class prediction algorithms were able to predict dietary responders with up to 61.1%+/-8.1% accuracy. Using a top-down approach (i.e. using differentially expressed genes to build a classifier improved prediction accuracy to 80.9%+/-2.2%. CONCLUSION: Adipose gene expression profiling prior to the consumption of a low-fat diet is able to differentiate responders from non-responders as well as serve as a weak predictor of subjects destined to lose weight. While the degree of prediction accuracy currently achieved with a gene expression snapshot is perhaps insufficient for clinical use, this work reveals that the comprehensive molecular signature of adipose tissue paves the way for the future of personalized nutrition.

  12. Active Mothers Postpartum: a randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Morey, Miriam C; Bastian, Lori A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Swamy, Geeta K; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-09-01

    Pregnancy may contribute to overweight and obesity. The primary objective of Active Mothers Postpartum was to promote a reduction in BMI through 24-months postpartum via sustainable lifestyle changes. Behavioral intervention RCT to enhance postpartum weight loss. A total of 450 overweight or obese women, enrolled 6-weeks postpartum, were recruited through obstetrics clinics and community posters in the Durham NC area. Intervention participants were offered eight healthy-eating classes, ten physical-activity classes, and six telephone-counseling sessions over 9 months. Changes from baseline (6-weeks postpartum) to 1-month post-intervention (12-months postpartum) in: (1) diet (caloric intake, calories from fat, intake of certain foods); (2) physical activity (self-reported physical activity, television time); and (3) weight (collected 2004-2007, analyzed 2007-2008). Mean weight loss was 0.90 kg (+/-5.1 kg) in the intervention group and 0.36 kg (+/-4.9 kg) in the control group; this difference was not significant. There were also no significant group differences in improvement of diet or increased physical activity. In secondary analyses, there was a positive bivariate relationship between classes attended and weight loss (p=0.01). There were no significant differences among the arms in diet, physical activity, or weight change. Home-based interventions via mail, telephone, or Internet/e-mail may be more feasible and successful in this population. The postpartum period is an important phase in women's lives with regard to weight retention, but engaging them during this busy period remains a challenge. NCT00212251.

  13. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of a Conservative Weight Loss Program in the Long-Term Management of Chronic Upper Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Case

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is a significant contributor to oxygen demand and dynamic airway obstruction. The objective of the current study is to determine the long-term success of conservative measures directed toward weight reduction on airway management without respect to specific airway disease etiology. Methods. Patients with chronic airway obstruction secondary anatomic lesions or obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and followed prospectively. Demographics, initial and final weights, diagnosis, and followup information were recorded. Patients were referred to a registered dietician, provided counseling, and started on a weight-loss regimen. Outcome measures were change in body mass index (BMI and rate of decannulation from weight loss alone. Results. Of fourteen patients, ten remained tracheostomy-dependent and four had high-grade lesions with the potential for improvement in oxygen demand and dynamic airway collapse with weight loss. The mean follow up period was 25 months. The mean change in BMI was an increase of 1.4 kg/m2 per patient. Conclusions. Conservative measures alone were not effective in achieving weight reduction in the population studied. This may be due to comorbid disease and poor compliance. The promise of decannulation was an insufficient independent motivator for weight loss in this study. Although the theoretical benefits of weight loss support its continued recommendation, the long-term success rate of conservative measures is low. More aggressive facilitated interventions including pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of treating airway disease complicated by obesity.

  15. Does Weight Gain During the Operation Wait Time Have an Impact on Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Karaman, Kerem; Budak, Ersin; Taymur, İbrahim; Buyukuysal, Cagatay

    2017-02-01

    The effect of preoperative weight changes on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative weight gain on postoperative weight loss outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Ninety-two morbidly obese patients undergoing SG from January 2014 to April 2016 were separated into two groups according to whether they gained weight or not during the waiting time prior to surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42.4 %) gained weight during the waiting time and 53 patients (57.6 %) did not. The median body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) at surgery was significantly higher in weight-gained patients (47.8 (min-max, 40-62)) compared to patients who had not gained weight (45.10 (min-max, 41-67)), (P = 0.034). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the distribution of age, gender, family history of obesity, existence of comorbidity, smoking, weight gain during childhood or adulthood, preoperative Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores, waiting time period, and body weight at the initial visit (P > 0.05). The ASA I score was higher in weight-gained patients whereas ASA II score was higher in those who did not gain, and the difference was significant (P = 0.046). Postoperative % BMI loss and % weight loss were not significantly different between the two groups at the first, third, sixth months, and the end of the first year (P > 0.05). Weight gain during waiting time has no negative impact on % weight loss and % BMI loss after SG.

  16. Preoperative weight loss with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment predicts greater weight loss achieved by the combination of medical weight management and bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tien; Abbott, Sally; le Roux, Carel W; Wilson, Violet; Singhal, Rishi; Bellary, Srikanth; Tahrani, Abd A

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between weight changes after preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) until 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 45 patients (64.4% women, median [interquartile range] age 49 [45-60] years) were included. The median (interquartile range) weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1RA treatment during MWM resulted in 5.0% (1.9%-7.7%) weight loss. Weight loss during GLP-1RA treatment predicted weight loss from the start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery, but not postoperative weight loss after adjustment. The proportion of weight loss from start of MWM to 12 months post-surgery attributed to GLP-1RA treatment was negatively associated with that attributed to surgery, after adjustment. In conclusion, weight change after GLP-1RA treatment predicted the weight loss achieved by a combination of MWM and bariatric surgery, but not weight loss induced by surgery only. Failure to lose weight after GLP-1RA treatment should not be considered a barrier to undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Weight Loss Expectations and Attrition in Treatment-Seeking Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The analysis of the relation between weight loss goals and attrition in the treatment of obesity has produced conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of weight loss goals on attrition in a cohort of obese women seeking treatment at 8 Italian medical centres. Methods: 634 women with obesity, consecutively enrolled in weight loss programmes, were included in the study. Weight loss goals were evaluated with the Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire (GRWQ, reporting a sequence of unrealistic (‘dream' and ‘happy' and more realistic (‘acceptable' and ‘disappointing' weight loss goals. Attrition was assessed at 12 months on the basis of patients' medical records. Results: At 12 months, 205/634 patients (32.3% had interrupted their programme and were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for age, baseline weight, education and employment status, attrition was significantly associated with higher percent acceptable and disappointing weight loss targets, not with dream and happy weight loss. Conclusion: In ‘real world' clinical settings, only realistic expectations might favour attrition whenever too challenging, whereas unrealistic weight loss goals have no effect. Future studies should assess the effect of interventions aimed at coping with too challenging weight goals on attrition.

  18. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  19. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  20. Predictors of Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A Berk

    Full Text Available A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes.192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2-8.5; p<0.001 and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18, p = 0.001, anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11, p = 0.001, numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87, p = 0.002, insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02, p = 0.014 and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78, p = 0.003. This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5% weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.82, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97 and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.42. When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181 were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11, p = 0.008, whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not.Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. A pilot study of the effects of behavioral weight loss treatment on fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.

  3. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; Mcewen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that required for health benefits, and costs for treatment

  4. Influence of depressive and eating disorders on short- and long-term course of weight after surgical and nonsurgical weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Petrak, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of depressive and eating disorders on short- and long-term weight loss after surgical and non-surgical weight-reduction treatment. Covariations between the disorders were considered. In a longitudinal naturalistic study, current diagnoses at baseline and lifetime diagnoses of depressive and eating disorders were assessed in participants who were undertaking a very-low-calorie diet (n = 250) and in bariatric surgery patients (n = 153). Lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder was defined as presence of a mental disorder only in the past. Body weight was measured at baseline, 1 year after baseline, and 4 years after baseline. Mental comorbidity was assessed through use of standardized interviews at baseline. A structural equation modeling procedure was applied to test the associations between course of weight and mental disorders. Analyses were based on the intention to treat samples. Missing values were replaced by use of multiple imputation procedures. Neither depression nor eating disorders were associated with weight changes at the 1-year follow-up, but a specific effect emerged for bariatric surgery patients after 4 years: depression (current and lifetime) predicted smaller body mass index loss, whereas lifetime diagnosis of eating disorder was associated with greater weight loss. Individuals who report depressive disorders prior to bariatric surgery should be monitored more closely in order to identify patients who would benefit from additional therapy with the goal of improving weight-loss outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery in patients visited at home outside the study environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2006-11-01

    Bariatric surgery results in sustained weight loss in the majority of patients. The controlled setting of a trial, however, does not necessarily reflect the everyday routine practice. Therefore, to investigate the results of bariatric surgery in a more natural setting, patients were visited at home, outside a study and hospital environment. Patients who underwent a vertical banded gastroplasty or a gastric bypass between 1980 and 1997 were eligible. Body weight and height were measured. Patients filled out general and health status questionnaires (Nottingham Health Profile (NHP)). Responses were obtained from 236/313 subjects (75%) with a mean +/- SD age of 42.9 +/- 10.2 years and a mean current body weight of 100.3 +/- 20.7 kg. A maximum weight loss of 48.2 +/- 18.4 kg or 70.8 +/- 22.4% excess weight loss was obtained after 17 +/- 15 months, of which 32.1 +/- 22.6 kg or 45.2 +/- 29.3%, respectively, was maintained at 8.2 +/- 4.5 years after the intervention. Males and females did not differ in weight loss. The type of operation had no influence. Age >50 years and a BMI >50 kg/m(2) were not related to a poor outcome, but a time lapse of >5 years since the operation resulted in a less well sustained weight loss. The subjective health status improved considerably, but less so with a smaller weight loss and longer lapse of time since the operation. Especially in females, the NHP still deviated substantially from Dutch norm values. Surgically obtained weight loss is satisfactory in patients outside a strictly controlled study setting. Health benefits are substantial, but are adversely affected by weight gain and time elapsed since the operation.

  6. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1 was ...... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....

  7. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Ploss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Ploss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Indirect effects of exercise on emotional eating through psychological predictors of weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of how weight-loss interventions might be tailored to improve emotional eating is required. This study aimed to assess mediation of the relationship between increased exercise and decreased emotional eating so that behavioral treatments might be optimized. After randomization, women with obesity (N = 108; mean age = 48 years) were assigned to either a previously tested treatment of manual-based self-help for nutrition and exercise plus brief phone follow-ups, or a new protocol of cognitive-behavioral methods of exercise support intended to carry-over psychological improvements to better controlled eating and weight loss. A community-based field setting was incorporated. Validated self-report measures were administered over 6 months. Significant overall improvements in exercise outputs, emotional eating, mood, and self-regulation and self-efficacy for controlled eating were found. The newly developed treatment protocol demonstrated significantly greater improvements in exercise outputs and self-regulation. In a multiple mediation analysis, changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood significantly mediated the relationship between changes in exercise and emotional eating. Changes in self-efficacy and mood were significant independent mediators. Within follow-up analyses, the substitution of emotional eating subscales that addressed specific moods, and a subscale of self-efficacy for controlled eating that addressed that factor specifically in the presence of negative emotions, yielded results generally consistent with those of the multiple mediation analysis. Results suggested a psychological pathway of exercise's association with emotional eating changes in women with obesity. Guided by the present findings, tailoring exercise support and leveraging it to induce specific psychological improvements might reduce emotional eating and improve weight-management outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  10. Patient and Physician Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Weight Loss Counseling in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Herman, Katharine G.; Tan, Fei; Goble, Mary; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Van Vessem, Nancy; Ard, Jamy D.

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of physician and patient characteristics may influence whether weight loss counseling occurs in primary care encounters. Objectives This study utilized a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients, which examined patient characteristics, physician characteristics, and characteristics of the physician-patient relationship associated with weight loss counseling and recommendations provided by physicians. Participants Participants (N=143, mean age=46.8 years, mean BMI=36.9 kg/m2, 65% Caucasian) were overweight and obese primary care patients participating in a managed care weight loss program. Measures Participants completed self-report surveys in the clinic prior to the initial weight loss session. Surveys included items assessing demographic/background characteristics, weight, height, and a health care questionnaire evaluating whether their physician had recommended weight loss, the frequency of their physicians’ weight loss counseling, and whether their physician had referred them for obesity treatment. Results Patient BMI and physician sex were most consistently associated with physicians’ weight loss counseling practices. Patients seen by female physicians were more likely to be told that they should lose weight, received more frequent obesity counseling, and were more likely to have been referred for obesity treatment by their physician. Length and frequency of physician-patient contacts were unrelated to the likelihood of counseling. Conclusions These findings add to previous evidence suggesting possible differences in the weight loss counseling practices of male and female physicians, although further research is needed to understand this potential difference between physicians. PMID:24743007

  11. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  12. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter

    2014-03-14

    Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss.

  13. Mechanisms of weight loss, diabetes control and changes in food choices after gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamargaritis, Dimitrios; Panteliou, Eleftheria; Miras, Alexander D; le Roux, Carel W

    2012-12-01

    The long-term effects of lifestyle changes, diet and medical therapy on obesity are limited. Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment with the greatest chances for amelioration of obesity-associated complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence in the literature that bariatric operations have a profound effect on human physiology, by reducing hunger, increasing satiety, paradoxically increasing energy expenditure, and even promoting healthy food preferences. Some of these operations improve glucose homeostasis in patients with T2DM independently of weight loss. Changes in the gut hormone levels of glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY and ghrelin have been proposed as some of the mediators implicated in changing physiology. The aim of this review is to critically explore the current knowledge on the putative mechanisms of the change in weight and improvement in T2DM glycaemic control after the most commonly performed bariatric operations.

  14. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...

  15. Application of Machine Learning to Predict Dietary Lapses During Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Zhang, Fengqing; Thomas, John G; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2018-05-01

    Individuals who adhere to dietary guidelines provided during weight loss interventions tend to be more successful with weight control. Any deviation from dietary guidelines can be referred to as a "lapse." There is a growing body of research showing that lapses are predictable using a variety of physiological, environmental, and psychological indicators. With recent technological advancements, it may be possible to assess these triggers and predict dietary lapses in real time. The current study sought to use machine learning techniques to predict lapses and evaluate the utility of combining both group- and individual-level data to enhance lapse prediction. The current study trained and tested a machine learning algorithm capable of predicting dietary lapses from a behavioral weight loss program among adults with overweight/obesity (n = 12). Participants were asked to follow a weight control diet for 6 weeks and complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA; repeated brief surveys delivered via smartphone) regarding dietary lapses and relevant triggers. WEKA decision trees were used to predict lapses with an accuracy of 0.72 for the group of participants. However, generalization of the group algorithm to each individual was poor, and as such, group- and individual-level data were combined to improve prediction. The findings suggest that 4 weeks of individual data collection is recommended to attain optimal model performance. The predictive algorithm could be utilized to provide in-the-moment interventions to prevent dietary lapses and therefore enhance weight losses. Furthermore, methods in the current study could be translated to other types of health behavior lapses.

  16. The effects of diet- and RYGB-induced weight loss on insulin sensitivity in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael Taulo; Jørgensen, Anne Line Kjærholm

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The impact of diet-induced weight loss and weight loss due to RYGB in patients with (T2DM, N = 16) and without (OB, N = 27) type 2 diabetes was studied. METHODS: At inclusion (A), after diet-induced weight loss (B), 4 months post-surgery (C) and 18 months post-surgery (D) body composition......, and approximately one-third of the total improvement in GIR in T2DM was observed after the diet-induced weight loss of only ~6 kg (B). Insulin clearance, visceral fat and fasting plasma insulin also improved significantly after the diet (P ... not change significantly, but IMTG decreased significantly consistent with significant increases in GIR. Metabolic flexibility and hepatic insulin sensitivity improved after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic improvements of RYGB are present already after the diet-induced weight loss prior to surgery. GLUT4...

  17. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Zaira; Bonetto, Andrea; Costelli, Paola; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Penna, Fabio; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Lucia, Simone; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, improves muscle mass and function. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of HMB administration in an experimental in vivo model of cancer cachexia (CC). Wistar rats were randomized to receive standard or 4% HMB-enriched chow. Rats from both groups were randomized to receive an i.p. inoculum of AH-130 cells (TB). All rats were weighed and sacrificed at day 24. Liver, heart and muscles were dissected and weighed. The protein levels of p-p70S6k, p-eIf2α, p-mTOR and p-4-EB-P1 were evaluated by Western blotting on gastrocnemius muscle (GSN). As expected, the growth of the AH-130 ascites hepatoma induced significant carcass weight and GSN muscle loss. HMB treatment significantly increased GSN and heart weight in controls (p=0.002 and pHMB-treated TB, body weight was not lost but significantly (p=0.003) increased, and GSN loss was significantly (p=0.04) attenuated with respect to TB. Phosphorylated eIF2α markedly decreased in TB-rats vs. C. Feeding the HMB-enriched diet resulted in decreased p-eIF2α levels in control animals, while no changes could be observed in the TB group. Phosphorylated p70S6K and phosphorylated mTOR were markedly increased by HMB treatment in controls and further increased in TB. Phosphorylated 4-EB-P1 was markedly increased in TB but substantially unaffected by HMB treatment. Administration of HMB attenuates body weight and muscle loss in experimental CC. Increased phosphorylation of key anabolic molecules suggests that these actions are mediated by improved protein anabolism in muscle.

  18. The Breathe Easier through Weight Loss Lifestyle (BE WELL Intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and asthma have reached epidemic proportions in the US. Their concurrent rise over the last 30 years suggests that they may be connected. Numerous observational studies support a temporally-correct, dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and incident asthma. Weight loss, either induced by surgery or caloric restriction, has been reported to improve asthma symptoms and lung function. Due to methodological shortcomings of previous studies, however, well-controlled trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of weight loss strategies to improve asthma control in obese individuals. Methods/Design BE WELL is a 2-arm parallel randomized clinical trial (RCT of the efficacy of an evidence-based, comprehensive, behavioral weight loss intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, as adjunct therapy to usual care in the management of asthma in obese adults. Trial participants (n = 324 are patients aged 18 to 70 years who have suboptimally controlled, persistent asthma, BMI between 30.0 and 44.9 kg/m2, and who do not have serious comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, stroke. The 12-month weight loss intervention to be studied is based on the principles of the highly successful Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention. Intervention participants will attend 13 weekly group sessions over a four-month period, followed by two monthly individual sessions, and will then receive individualized counseling primarily by phone, at least bi-monthly, for the remainder of the intervention. Follow-up assessment will occur at six and 12 months. The primary outcome variable is the overall score on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire measured at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include lung function, asthma-specific and general quality of life, asthma medication use, asthma-related and total health care utilization. Potential mediators (e.g., weight loss and change in physical

  19. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...

  20. EFFECTS OF AQUA-AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AND WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OBESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR among obese students. Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2 and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2. The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively. Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001 improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg, and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2, WHR (-0.056±0.035, resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp, and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1 in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students. Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.

  1. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  2. Weight Loss and Health Status 3 Years after Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Thomas H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Jenkins, Todd M; Michalsky, Marc P; Helmrath, Michael A; Brandt, Mary L; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Chen, Mike K; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, C Ralph

    2016-01-14

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related quality of life and postoperative complications were evaluated through 3 years after the procedure. The mean (±SD) baseline age of the participants was 17±1.6 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 53; 75% of the participants were female, and 72% were white. At 3 years after the procedure, the mean weight had decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 29) in the total cohort, by 28% (95% CI, 25 to 30) among participants who underwent gastric bypass, and by 26% (95% CI, 22 to 30) among those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. By 3 years after the procedure, remission of type 2 diabetes occurred in 95% (95% CI, 85 to 100) of participants who had had the condition at baseline, remission of abnormal kidney function occurred in 86% (95% CI, 72 to 100), remission of prediabetes in 76% (95% CI, 56 to 97), remission of elevated blood pressure in 74% (95% CI, 64 to 84), and remission of dyslipidemia in 66% (95% CI, 57 to 74). Weight-related quality of life also improved significantly. However, at 3 years after the bariatric procedure, hypoferritinemia was found in 57% (95% CI, 50 to 65) of the participants, and 13% (95% CI, 9 to 18) of the participants had undergone one or more additional intraabdominal procedures. In this multicenter, prospective study of bariatric surgery in adolescents, we found significant improvements in weight

  3. Step Tracking with Goals Increases Children's Weight Loss in Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Beyl, Robbie A; Hsia, Daniel S; Jarrell, Amber R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Mantzor, Savarra; Newton, Robert L; Tyson, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the influence of step goals with pedometers to improve children's weight loss, physical activity, and psychosocial health during obesity treatment. Overweight and obese children ages 8-17 years (n = 105) participated in a 10-week family-based weight management intervention, including physical activity, nutrition, and behavioral modification. A quasi-experimental design was used to group eight cohorts into three conditions: no pedometer (n = 24), pedometer only (n = 25), and pedometer with step goals (i.e., 500 steps/day weekly increase above baseline; n = 56). Height and weight were measured at baseline and week 10 and used to calculate BMI. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine difference by condition for change in weight, BMI, and BMI z-score, controlling for age and baseline value. Differences in steps per day and psychosocial health were compared between the two pedometer conditions. Participants were 12.4 ± 2.5 years of age, including 70% girls and 64% African Americans. The pedometer with goals condition significantly reduced BMI (p = 0.02) and BMI z-score (p = 0.01) compared with the no-pedometer group. The pedometer with goals condition significantly increased steps per day (+1185 ± 425 steps/day) compared with the pedometer-only condition (-162 ± 620 steps/day; p goals was an effective approach to produce weight loss. Further work is needed to increase the strength of interventions to achieve clinically meaningful weight reduction for children with obesity.

  4. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen LM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rossen,1,2 Vanessa A Milsom,1,3 Kathryn R Middleton,1,4 Michael J Daniels,5,6 Michael G Perri1,71Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Statistics and Scientific Computation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 7College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury.Objective: To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years and older (65–74 years, obese women.Materials and methods: Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study.Results: Both middle-aged (n = 162 and older (n = 56 women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further

  5. The effect of training in reduced energy density eating and food self-monitoring accuracy on weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Annunziato, Rachel A; Riddell, Lynnette J; Coletta, Maria C; Crerand, Canice E; Didie, Elizabeth R; Ochner, Christopher N; McKinney, Shortie

    2008-09-01

    Failure to maintain weight losses in lifestyle change programs continues to be a major problem and warrants investigation of innovative approaches to weight control. The goal of this study was to compare two novel group interventions, both aimed at improving weight loss maintenance, with a control group. A total of 103 women lost weight on a meal replacement-supplemented diet and were then randomized to one of three conditions for the 14-week maintenance phase: cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT); CBT with an enhanced food monitoring accuracy (EFMA) program; or these two interventions plus a reduced energy density eating (REDE) program. Assessments were conducted periodically through an 18-month postintervention. Outcome measures included weight and self-reported dietary intake. Data were analyzed using completers only as well as baseline-carried-forward imputation. Participants lost an average of 7.6 +/- 2.6 kg during the weight loss phase and 1.8 +/- 2.3 kg during the maintenance phase. Results do not suggest that the EFMA intervention was successful in improving food monitoring accuracy. The REDE group decreased the energy density (ED) of their diets more so than the other two groups. However, neither the REDE nor the EFMA condition showed any advantage in weight loss maintenance. All groups regained weight between 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Although no incremental weight maintenance benefit was observed in the EFMA or EFMA + REDE groups, the improvement in the ED of the REDE group's diet, if shown to be sustainable in future studies, could have weight maintenance benefits.

  6. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  7. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.

  8. Weight Loss and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... engaging in this behavior; however, evidence for any benefit on weight is mixed. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence ...

  9. Exercise for Weight Loss: Calories Burned in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines ... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. Losing weight. Centers for ...

  10. Identification of factors contributing to successful self-directed weight loss: a qualitative study.