WorldWideScience

Sample records for weight loss diets

  1. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  2. Geophysical weight loss diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  3. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  4. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  5. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  6. Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan, S H; Lobley, G E; Holtrop, G; Ince, J; Johnstone, A M; Louis, P; Flint, H J

    2008-01-01

    ...) in obese and non-obese subjects under conditions of weight maintenance, and in obese male volunteers undergoing weight loss on two different reduced carbohydrate weight-loss diets given successively for 4 weeks each...

  7. Weight Loss: Choosing a Diet That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples: Ornish, Pritikin Flexible? No. Total fat and saturated fat are limited. Because even lean cuts of meat, ... of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review of randomized controlled ...

  8. Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162874.html Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss ... row, U.S. News & World Report has named the plant-based eating plan as the best choice overall, ...

  9. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software was used to evaluate the nutrients of 112 diets. Micronutrient content was compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. All diets were inadequate in at least one of the evaluated items. Less than 25.0% of the diets presented adequate macronutrient distribution. Calcium, iron, and vitamin E were also predominantly inadequate (85.7, 97.3, and 91.9%, respectively. Non-scientific publications should not be allowed to advertise weight-loss diets. In addition, their chemical composition is inadequate and they are not accompanied by important instructions for such therapy.

  10. Thermodynamics and metabolic advantage of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2003-09-01

    Published reports show that low carbohydrate weight loss diets provide a metabolic advantage, a greater weight loss per calorie consumed compared to isocaloric high carbohydrate diets. These reports have not been refuted but rather largely ignored, presumably because of the apparent violation of the laws of thermodynamics ("a calorie is a calorie"). In this review, we show that there is no such violation of thermodynamic laws. Energy utilization of different diets depends on the chemical pathway taken and a metabolic analysis of the efficiency of different pathways reveals large differences. Likewise, thermogenesis produced by diets of different macronutrient composition varies widely. We present a plausible mechanism that depends on the inefficiency of metabolic cycles and, in particular, protein turnover. A low carbohydrate diet makes demands on protein turnover for gluconeogenesis. From a theoretical point of view,energy balance between two diets is to be expected only if the subjects have the same final physiologic state, and only if all of the changes contributing to the energy, heat, work and chemical effects are known. Most diet experiments do not conform to this ideal. There is no theoretical contradiction in metabolic advantage and no theoretical barrier to accepting reports describing this effect.

  11. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  13. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  14. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  15. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Popkin, Barry M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however. This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the Stanford A TO Z weight loss intervention on 173 premenopausal overweight women (aged 25-50 years) who reported water at baseline. Diet, physical activity, body weight, percent body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference were assessed at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. At each time point, mean daily intakes of drinking water, noncaloric, unsweetened caloric (e.g., 100% fruit juice, milk) and sweetened caloric beverages, and food energy and nutrients were estimated using three unannounced 24-h diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in absolute (g) and relative terms (% of beverages). Mixed models were used to test for effects of absolute and relative increases in drinking water on changes in weight and body composition, controlling for baseline status, diet group, and changes in other beverage intake, the amount and composition of foods consumed and physical activity. Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women.

  16. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  17. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD......Thirty-eight consecutive obese persons were treated as outpatients. The treatment commenced with VLCD formula diet NUPO (females 388 kcal, 1600 kJ, 56 g protein; males 446 kcal, 1864 kJ, 69 g protein). VLCD had no untoward effects and was continued for as long as the patient would accept. After...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...

  18. Caffeine treatment prevented from weight regain after calorie shifting diet induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p after 4-weeks of CSD (p after week 7 (p caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet.

  19. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  20. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  1. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Ian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38 were allocated to follow one of the four diets or control group. Subjects completed a 7-day food and activity diary at baseline (prior to randomisation and after 2 months. Diet records were analysed for nutrient composition using WinDiets (research version. Results A significant shift in the macronutrient composition of the diet with concurrent alteration of the micronutrient profile was apparent with all diets. There was no evidence to suggest micronutrient deficiency in subjects on any of the dietary regimens. However, those sub-groups with higher needs for specific micronutrients, such as folate, iron or calcium may benefit from tailored dietary advice. Conclusion The diets tested all resulted in considerable macronutrient change and resulted in an energy deficit indicating dietary compliance. Health professionals and those working in community and public health should be reassured of the nutritional adequacy of the diets tested. Trial Registration Number NCT00327821

  2. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  3. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  5. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults.......The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  6. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years. Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2. Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

  7. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  8. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, Pweight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, Pweight loss relative to energy deficit in mice. PMID:26784324

  9. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  10. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pcarb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006 separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  12. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-06-21

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  13. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all Pdiet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet.

  14. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  15. "Thinspiration" vs. "fear of fat". Using prototypes to predict frequent weight-loss dieting in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether frequent weight-loss dieting in females is predominantly a manifestation of being inspired to approach the cultural aesthetic thinness standard, or predominantly of a fear to avoid becoming over-fat. Female volunteers completed questionnaires concerning their perceptions

  16. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73 years

  17. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73 years

  18. "Thinspiration" vs. "fear of fat". Using prototypes to predict frequent weight-loss dieting in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    This study examined whether frequent weight-loss dieting in females is predominantly a manifestation of being inspired to approach the cultural aesthetic thinness standard, or predominantly of a fear to avoid becoming over-fat. Female volunteers completed questionnaires concerning their perceptions

  19. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.

  20. Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet maintenance protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Lodi, Alessandra; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-12-18

    Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen.

  1. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Pdiet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Pdiet composition on weight loss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weigh...

  3. Weight loss and biomedical health improvement on a very low calorie diet: the moderating role of history of weight cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kenneth E; Warriner, Erin M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined biomedical consequences of participation in a professionally delivered, multifaceted very low calorie diet (VLCD) program and whether the degree of benefit associated with treatment was moderated by history of weight cycling. The authors monitored body weight and biomedical health indicators in 66 severely obese outpatients on a VLCD liquid fast. Participants remained on the VLCD for a median of 55 (range 9 to 247) days. Treatment was associated with significant pre-to-post improvements on body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol. History of weight cycling (independent of age) was inversely related to the magnitude of absolute pre-to-post treatment changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as to the rate of weight change. More intensive, longer term, and explicit maintenance components, especially aimed at individuals with multiple weight loss-regain episodes, may be necessary to facilitate weight loss and attain optimal health benefits from VLCDs.

  4. Diet induced weight loss accelerates onset of negative alliesthesia in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankham Patrick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®. Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2. At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min. The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min. There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not

  5. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4

  6. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  7. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  8. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  9. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.

  10. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  11. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  13. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss. AIM: We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods. RESULTS: EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain

  14. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  16. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  17. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. METHODS: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared.......09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.47 ± 0.09 compared with -0...

  18. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2017-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated mRNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in the liver, caused liver steatosis, affected liver function markers, increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared to controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  19. Long Term Successful Weight Loss with a Combination Biphasic Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet and Mediterranean Diet Maintenance Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25% there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58 and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6% during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen.

  20. A randomized clinical trial of a standard versus vegetarian diet for weight loss: the impact of treatment preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L E; Warziski, M; Styn, M A; Music, E; Hudson, A G; Sereika, S M

    2008-01-01

    With obesity rampant, methods to achieve sustained weight loss remain elusive. To compare the long-term weight-loss efficacy of 2 cal and fat-restricted diets, standard (omnivorous) versus lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and to determine the effect of a chosen diet versus an assigned diet. A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 176 adults who were sedentary and overweight (mean body mass index, 34.0 kg/m(2)). Participants were first randomly assigned to either receive their preferred diet or be assigned to a diet group and second, were given their diet of preference or randomly assigned to a standard weight-loss diet or a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. Participants underwent a university-based weight-control program consisting of daily dietary and exercise goals plus 12 months of behavioral counseling followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. Percentage change in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, low- and high-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and macronutrient intake. The program was completed by 132 (75%) of the participants. At 18 months, mean percentage weight loss was greater (P=0.01) in the two groups that were assigned a diet (standard, 8.0% (s.d., 7.8%); vegetarian, 7.9% (s.d., 8.1%)) than in those provided the diet of their choice (standard, 3.9% (s.d., 6.1%); vegetarian, 5.3% (s.d., 6.2%)). No difference was observed in weight loss between the two types of diet. Over the 18-month program, all groups showed significant weight loss. Participants assigned to their dietary preference did not have enhanced treatment outcomes. However, all groups lost weight with losses ranging from 4 to 8% at 18 months.

  1. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  2. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  3. The relationship between pretreatment dietary composition and weight loss during a randomised trial of different diet approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, M A; Jeffreys, A S; King, H A; Olsen, M K; Voils, C I; Yancy, W S

    2015-02-01

    Identifying pretreatment dietary habits that are associated with weight-loss intervention outcomes could help guide individuals' selection of weight-loss approach among competing options. A pretreatment factor that may influence weight-loss outcomes is macronutrient intake. Overweight and obese Durham Veterans Affairs outpatients were randomised to a weight-loss intervention with a low-carbohydrate diet (n = 71) or orlistat medication therapy plus a low-fat diet (n = 73). Percentage fat, carbohydrate and protein intake prior to treatment were measured using 4-day food records. Linear mixed-effects models were used to determine whether pretreatment percentage macronutrient intake influenced weight trajectories and weight loss in each weight-loss condition. Participant's mean age was 53 years, baseline body mass index was 39.3 kg m(-2) and 72% were male. A higher pretreatment percentage carbohydrate intake was associated with less rapid initial weight loss (P = 0.02) and less rapid weight regain (P = 0.03) in the low-carbohydrate diet condition but was not associated with weight trajectories in the orlistat plus low-fat diet condition. In both conditions, a higher pretreatment percentage fat intake was associated with more rapid weight regain (P < 0.01). Pretreatment percentage protein intake was not associated with weight trajectories. None of the pretreatment macronutrients were associated with weight loss on study completion in either condition. Selection of a weight-loss approach on the basis of pretreatment macronutrient intake is unlikely to improve weight outcomes at the end of a 1-year treatment. However, pretreatment macronutrient intake may have implications for tailoring of interventions to slow weight regain after weight loss. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L

    2012-05-15

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (pcortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; pemotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss.

  5. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  7. Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis before and after a weight loss by diet and RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael T; Gregers, Emilie; Kraunsøe, Regitze; Van Hall, Gerrit; Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming

    2015-10-01

    To study adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis following a massive weight loss. High resolution respirometry of adipose tissue biopsies and tracer determined whole body lipolysis. Sixteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 27 without (OB) were studied following a massive weight loss by diet and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The mitochondrial respiratory rates were similar in OB and T2DM, and the mass-specific oxygen flux increased significantly 4 and 18 months post-surgery (P Lipolysis per fat mass was similar in the two groups and was increased (P Lipolysis increases in the short term post-surgery, and insulin sensitivity for suppression of lipolysis increases with RYGB. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  9. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Anton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one year weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1 Atkins; (2 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH; (3 Glycemic-Index; (4 Mediterranean; (5 Ornish; (6 Paleolithic; and (7 Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one-year weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets.

  10. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Hida, Azumi; Heekin, Kacey; Sowalsky, Kristen; Karabetian, Christy; Mutchie, Heather; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. PMID:28758964

  11. High protein weight loss diets in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E; Jesudason, D R; Clifton, P M

    2014-05-01

    Diets where carbohydrate has been partially exchanged for protein have shown beneficial changes in persons with type 2 diabetes but no studies have enrolled people with albuminuria. We aim to determine if a high protein to carbohydrate ratio (HPD) in an energy reduced diet has a beneficial effect on metabolic control and cardiovascular risk factors without negatively affecting renal function. Adult, overweight participants with type 2 diabetes, with albuminuria (30-600 mg/24 h or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 3.0-60 mg/mmol), and estimated GFR of >40 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were enrolled. Participants were randomized to an HPD or an SPD. Protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio was 30:30:40% of energy for the HPD and 20:30:50% for the SPD. Main outcomes were renal function, weight loss, blood pressure, serum lipids and glycaemic control. We recruited 76 volunteers and 45 (35 men and 10 women) finished. There were no overall changes in renal function at 12 months and no significant differences in weight loss between groups (9.7 ± 2.9 kg and 6.6 ± 1.4 kg HPD and SPD group respectively; p = 0.32). Fasting blood glucose decreased significantly with no treatment effect. The decrease in HbA1c differed between treatments at 6 months (HPD -0.9 vs. SPD -0.3%; p = 0.039) but not at 12 months. HDL increased significantly with no treatment effects. There were no changes in LDL or blood pressure overall but DBP was lower in the HPD group (p = 0.024) at 12 months. Weight loss improved overall metabolic control in this group of well controlled participants with type 2 diabetes regardless of diet composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.

  13. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  14. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomi

  15. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  16. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van;

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  17. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  18. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  19. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of an energy-reduced, isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate, high-fat (VLCHF) diet and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on weight loss and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes. Despite the popularity of the VLCHF diet, no studies have compared the chronic effects of weight loss and metabolic change to a conventional HCLF diet under isocaloric conditions. A total of 88 abdominally obese adults were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6 to 7 MJ, 30% deficit), planned isocaloric VLCHF or HCLF diet for 24 weeks in an outpatient clinical trial. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at weeks 0 and 24. Weight loss was similar in both groups (VLCHF -11.9 +/- 6.3 kg, HCLF -10.1 +/- 5.7 kg; p = 0.17). Blood pressure, CRP, fasting glucose, and insulin reduced similarly with weight loss in both diets. The VLCHF diet produced greater decreases in triacylglycerols (VLCHF -0.64 +/- 0.62 mmol/l, HCLF -0.35 +/- 0.49 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (VLCHF 0.25 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, HCLF 0.08 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; p = 0.002). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the HCLF diet but remained unchanged in the VLCHF diet (VLCHF 0.06 +/- 0.58 mmol/l, HCLF -0.46 +/- 0.71 mmol/l; p response in the VLCHF diet was observed, with 24% of individuals reporting an increase of at least 10%. The apoB levels remained unchanged in both diet groups. Under isocaloric conditions, VLCHF and HCLF diets result in similar weight loss. Overall, although both diets had similar improvements for a number of metabolic risk markers, an HCLF diet had more favorable effects on the blood lipid profile. This suggests that the potential long-term effects of the VLCHF diet for CVD risk remain a concern and that blood lipid levels should be monitored. (Long-term health effects of high and

  20. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Diet Composition and Insulin Resistance Status on Plasma Lipid Levels in a Weight Loss Intervention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran; Flatt, Shirley W; Natarajan, Loki; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Rock, Cheryl L

    2016-01-25

    Optimal macronutrient distribution of weight loss diets has not been established. The distribution of energy from carbohydrate and fat has been observed to promote differential plasma lipid responses in previous weight loss studies, and insulin resistance status may interact with diet composition and affect weight loss and lipid responses. Overweight and obese women (n=245) were enrolled in a 1-year behavioral weight loss intervention and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 study groups: a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich, higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. Blood samples and data available from 213 women at baseline and at 6 months were the focus of this analysis. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were quantified and compared between and within groups. Triglycerides decreased in all study arms at 6 months (Pdiet increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol more than either the lower fat or lower carbohydrate diet (Pdiet also reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in insulin-sensitive women, whereas the lower fat diet reduced both total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in insulin-sensitive women (Pdiet groups, although insulin-sensitive women lost more weight with a lower fat, higher carbohydrate diet versus a higher fat, lower carbohydrate diet. The walnut-rich, higher fat diet resulted in the most favorable changes in lipid levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01424007. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bradley C; Kanters, Steve; Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wu, Ping; Naji, Faysal; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Ball, Geoff D C; Busse, Jason W; Thorlund, Kristian; Guyatt, Gordon; Jansen, Jeroen P; Mills, Edward J

    2014-09-03

    Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear. To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet. Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from inception of each database to April 2014. Overweight or obese adults (body mass index ≥25) randomized to a popular self-administered named diet and reporting weight or body mass index data at 3-month follow-up or longer. Two reviewers independently extracted data on populations, interventions, outcomes, risk of bias, and quality of evidence. A Bayesian framework was used to perform a series of random-effects network meta-analyses with meta-regression to estimate the relative effectiveness of diet classes and programs for change in weight and body mass index from baseline. Our analyses adjusted for behavioral support and exercise. Weight loss and body mass index at 6- and 12-month follow-up (±3 months for both periods). Among 59 eligible articles reporting 48 unique randomized trials (including 7286 individuals) and compared with no diet, the largest weight loss was associated with low-carbohydrate diets (8.73 kg [95% credible interval {CI}, 7.27 to 10.20 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.25 kg [95% CI, 5.33 to 9.25 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and low-fat diets (7.99 kg [95% CI, 6.01 to 9.92 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.27 kg [95% CI, 5.26 to 9.34 kg] at 12-month follow-up). Weight loss differences between individual diets were minimal. For example, the Atkins diet resulted in a 1.71 kg greater weight loss than the Zone diet at 6-month follow-up. Between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the influence of behavioral support (3.23 kg [95% CI, 2.23 to 4.23 kg] at 6-month follow-up vs 1.08 kg [95% CI, -1.82 to 3.96 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and exercise (0.64 kg [95% CI, -0.35 to 1.66 kg] vs 2.13 kg [95% CI, 0.43 to 3.85 kg], respectively

  3. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, T.M.; Dalskov, S.M. (S.M.); Van-Baak, M.A. (M.A.); Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Martinez, J A; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; Kunesova, M; Pihlsgård, M. (M.); Stender, S; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS: We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain...

  4. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or SSMP diet.

  5. Pro- and mature IGF-II during diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Richelsen, Bjørn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    2005-12-01

    In normal subjects up to 10% of circulating insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) consists of pro-IGF-II. However, its regulation and biological impact remains unknown. In obese subjects, serum free and total IGF-II are increased, and we therefore investigated the impact of obesity and diet on serum pro-IGF-II. Non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 34) with a body mass index (BMI) of 38.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m2 were subjected to 8 weeks with very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day) followed by 12 weeks with a weight-stabilizing diet. Fasting serum was collected before the study, and after 8 and 20 weeks. Pro-IGF-II was determined after acid-gel chromatography using a novel, highly specific in-house assay, free and total IGFs were measured after ultrafiltration and acid-ethanol extraction, respectively, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured with specific immunoassays. Diet reduced BMI and fasting levels of insulin and glucose (P < 0.001). Serum pro-IGF-II was markedly reduced in obese subjects as compared with matched normal-weight controls (means and 95% confidence intervals: 93 microg/l (82-104 microg/l) versus 171 microg/l (152-192 microg/l), respectively; P < 0.001), and levels remained unchanged after the weight loss. In contrast, during the study period total and free IGF-II decreased (P < 0.05), whereas total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 increased (P < 0.001). Serum free IGF-I remained unaltered. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation analyses showed that pro-IGF-II was closer and more consistently associated with IGF-I than IGF-II. This study demonstrates that pro-IGF-II is reduced in obesity, in contrast to mature IGF-II. This indicates a hitherto unrecognized link between nutrition and pro-IGF-II. In addition, our data indicate that pro-IGF-II is regulated independently of mature IGF-II.

  6. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  7. Weight Loss Decreases Inherent and Allergic Methacholine Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Models of Diet-Induced Obese Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ather, Jennifer L; Chung, Michael; Hoyt, Laura R; Randall, Matthew J; Georgsdottir, Anna; Daphtary, Nirav A; Aliyeva, Minara I; Suratt, Benjamin T; Bates, Jason H T; Irvin, Charles G; Russell, Sheila R; Forgione, Patrick M; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    Obese asthma presents with inherent hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or augmented allergen-driven allergic asthma, with an even greater magnitude of methacholine hyperresponsiveness. These physiologic parameters and accompanying obese asthma symptoms can be reduced by successful weight loss, yet the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We implemented mouse models of diet-induced obesity, dietary and surgical weight loss, and environmental allergen exposure to examine the mechanisms and mediators of inherent and allergic obese asthma. We report that the methacholine hyperresponsiveness in these models of inherent obese asthma and obese allergic asthma manifests in distinct anatomical compartments but that both are amenable to interventions that induce substantial weight loss. The inherent obese asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in distal airspace tissue resistance and tissue elastance, is associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines that are reduced with dietary weight loss. Surprisingly, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss further elevates these cytokines while reducing methacholine responsiveness to levels similar to those in lean mice or in formerly obese mice rendered lean through dietary intervention. In contrast, the obese allergic asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in central airway resistance, is not associated with increased adaptive immune responses, yet diet-induced weight loss reduces methacholine hyperresponsiveness without altering immunological variables. Diet-induced weight loss is effective in models of both inherent and allergic obese asthma, and our examination of the fecal microbiome revealed that the obesogenic Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was normalized after diet-induced weight loss. Our results suggest that structural, immunological, and microbiological factors contribute to the manifold presentations of obese asthma.

  8. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  9. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Psweight loss clustered within games (Pweight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced excellent 4-week weight loss results. Given its reach and potential public health

  10. HIV infection does not prevent the metabolic benefits of diet-induced weight loss in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeds, Dominic N; Pietka, Terri A; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Cade, W Todd; Patterson, Bruce W; Okunade, Adewole; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that HIV infection impairs the beneficial effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. A prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of moderate diet-induced weight loss on body composition, metabolic function, and adipose tissue biology in women with obesity who were HIV-seronegative (HIV-) or HIV-positive (HIV+). Body composition, multiorgan insulin sensitivity (assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions), and adipose tissue expression of markers of inflammation, autophagy, and ER stress were evaluated in 8 HIV- and 20 HIV+ women with obesity before and after diet-induced weight loss of 6% to 8%. Although weight loss was not different between groups (∼7.5%), the decrease in fat-free mass was greater in HIV+ than HIV- subjects (-4.4 ± 0.7% vs. -1.7 ± 1.0%, P diet-induced weight loss improves multiorgan insulin sensitivity in HIV+ women to the same extent as women who are HIV-. However, weight loss causes a greater decline in fat-free mass in HIV+ than HIV- women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term...

  12. Diet-induced weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomby, A; Simonyte, K; Mellberg, C; Ryberg, M; Stimson, R H; Larsson, C; Lindahl, B; Andrew, R; Walker, B R; Olsson, T

    2015-05-01

    Tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, and may increase cardiovascular risk. This dysregulation is normalized by short-term calorie restriction and weight loss, an effect that varies with dietary macronutrient composition. However, tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has not been studied during long-term (>6 months) dietary interventions. Therefore our aim was to test whether long-term dietary interventions, either a paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) could normalize tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight and obese women. Forty-nine overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomized to a paleolithic diet or a diet according to NNR for 24 months. At baseline, 6 and 24 months anthropometric measurements, insulin sensitivity, excretion of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites in 24-hour collections, conversion of orally administered cortisone to plasma cortisol and transcript levels of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied. Both diet groups achieved significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss with the PD was greater than on NNR diet after 6 months (Pdiet groups (P=0.036). Consistent with increased liver 11βHSD1, conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol increased at 6 months (P=0.023) but was unchanged compared with baseline by 24 months. Long-term weight loss in postmenopausal women has tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on glucocorticoid metabolism. This may alter local-tissue cortisol exposure contributing to improved metabolic function during weight loss.

  13. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlotti, C; Ceriani, V; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2017-05-01

    Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analyzed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and expressed as thickness, weight, area and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was formally assessed. The result was that subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; decrease of subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; percent decrease of visceral fat was always greater than percent decrease of subcutaneous fat, with no differences between different strategies. No intervention preferentially targets visceral fat. Basal visceral fat depots are smaller than basal subcutaneous fat depots. Visceral fat loss is linked to subcutaneous fat loss. With all strategies, percent decrease of visceral fat prevails on subcutaneous fat loss.

  14. Center-size as a predictor of weight-loss outcome in multicenter trials including a low-calorie diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasteyger, Christoph Rolf; Christensen, Robin; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    It has not been studied yet whether factors such as the number of subjects recruited by specialized centers for multicenter trials may influence weight loss during a low-calorie diet (LCD). This study aimed at determining whether the number of recruited subjects per center might predict relative...

  15. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Swain, Janis; Goldfine, Allison B; Rifai, Nader; Ludwig, David S

    2004-11-24

    Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39 overweight or obese young adults aged 18 to 40 years who received an energy-restricted diet, either low-glycemic load or low-fat. Participants were studied in the General Clinical Research Centers of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, before and after 10% weight loss. The study was conducted from January 4, 2001, to May 6, 2003. Resting energy expenditure measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported hunger. Resting energy expenditure decreased less with the low-glycemic load diet than with the low-fat diet, expressed in absolute terms (mean [SE], 96 [24] vs 176 [27] kcal/d; P = .04) or as a proportion (5.9% [1.5%] vs 10.6% [1.7%]; P = .05). Participants receiving the low-glycemic load diet reported less hunger than those receiving the low-fat diet (P = .04). Insulin resistance (P = .01), serum triglycerides (P = .01), C-reactive protein (P = .03), and blood pressure (P = .07 for both systolic and diastolic) improved more with the low-glycemic load diet. Changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) in both groups were very similar (P = .85 and P = .45, respectively). Changes in dietary composition within prevailing norms can affect physiological adaptations that defend body weight. Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  17. Loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced glycemic dysregulation independent of changes in body weight in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Gastecki, Michelle L; Welly, Rebecca J; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Karasseva, Natalia G; Kanaley, Jill A; Sacks, Harold S; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week-old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 wk. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass. Despite similar susceptibility to weight gain compared with WT, UCP1(-/-) exhibited whitening of brown AT evidenced by a striking ~500% increase in mass and appearance of large unilocular adipocytes, increased expression of genes related to inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress (P diet (P diet. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced whitening of brown AT, glucose intolerance, and induces liver steatosis. Notably, the adverse metabolic manifestations of UCP1(-/-) were independent of changes in body weight, visceral adiposity, and energy expenditure. These novel findings uncover a previously unrecognized metabolic protective role of UCP1 that is independent of its already established role in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P changes in LM (-0.323; P changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  19. A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adults...

  20. Changes in skeletal integrity and marrow adiposity during high-fat diet and after weight-loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lynn Scheller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight-loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD and subsequent weight-loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND or 60% HFD at 6-weeks of age for 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12-weeks and then on ND for 8-weeks to mimic weight-loss. After these dietary challenges the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by microCT for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight-loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT volume in the tibia increased after 16-weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight-loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20-weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight-loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse model of diet

  1. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansinger, Michael L; Gleason, Joi Augustin; Griffith, John L; Selker, Harry P; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2005-01-05

    The scarcity of data addressing the health effects of popular diets is an important public health concern, especially since patients and physicians are interested in using popular diets as individualized eating strategies for disease prevention. To assess adherence rates and the effectiveness of 4 popular diets (Atkins, Zone, Weight Watchers, and Ornish) for weight loss and cardiac risk factor reduction. A single-center randomized trial at an academic medical center in Boston, Mass, of overweight or obese (body mass index: mean, 35; range, 27-42) adults aged 22 to 72 years with known hypertension, dyslipidemia, or fasting hyperglycemia. Participants were enrolled starting July 18, 2000, and randomized to 4 popular diet groups until January 24, 2002. A total of 160 participants were randomly assigned to either Atkins (carbohydrate restriction, n=40), Zone (macronutrient balance, n=40), Weight Watchers (calorie restriction, n=40), or Ornish (fat restriction, n=40) diet groups. After 2 months of maximum effort, participants selected their own levels of dietary adherence. One-year changes in baseline weight and cardiac risk factors, and self-selected dietary adherence rates per self-report. Assuming no change from baseline for participants who discontinued the study, mean (SD) weight loss at 1 year was 2.1 (4.8) kg for Atkins (21 [53%] of 40 participants completed, P = .009), 3.2 (6.0) kg for Zone (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P = .002), 3.0 (4.9) kg for Weight Watchers (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P diet significantly reduced the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio by approximately 10% (all Pdiet type (r = 0.07; P = .40). For each diet, decreasing levels of total/HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were significantly associated with weight loss (mean r = 0.36, 0.37, and 0.39, respectively) with no significant difference between diets (P = .48, P = .57, P = .31, respectively). Each popular diet modestly reduced body weight

  2. Circulating MicroRNA Responses between 'High' and 'Low' Responders to a 16-Wk Diet and Exercise Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Camera, Donny M; Burke, Louise M; Phillips, Stuart M; Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between diet, physical activity and genetic predisposition contribute to variable body mass changes observed in response to weight loss interventions. Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) may act as 'biomarkers' that are associated with the rate of change in weight loss, and/or play a role in regulating the biological variation, in response to energy restriction. To quantify targeted c-miRNAs with putative roles in energy metabolism and exercise adaptations following a 16 wk diet and exercise intervention in individuals with large (high responders; HiRes) versus small (low responders; LoRes) losses in body mass. From 89 male and female overweight/obese participants who completed the intervention (energy restriction from diet, 250 kcal/d, and exercise, 250 kcal/d), subgroups of HiRes (>10% body mass loss, n = 22) and LoRes (loss, n = 18) were identified. From resting plasma samples collected after an overnight fast pre and post intervention, RNA was extracted, quantified and reverse transcribed. Thirteen c-miRNA selected a priori were analysed using a customised 96-well miScript miRNA PCR Array. Loss of body mass (-11.0 ± 2.3 kg vs. -3.0 ± 1.3 kg; Pweight loss interventions.

  3. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gogebakan, O.; Kohl, A.; Osterhoff, M.A. (Martin A.); Baak, M. A.; Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Martinez, J A; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hlavaty, P.; Weickert, M.O.; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A; Pfeiffer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). METHODS AND RESULTS: DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 week...

  4. A dual epigenomic approach for the search of obesity biomarkers: DNA methylation in relation to diet-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Cordero, Paúl; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Gómez-Uriz, Ana M; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, Maria A; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    Epigenetics could help to explain individual differences in weight loss after an energy-restriction intervention. Here, we identify novel potential epigenetic biomarkers of weight loss, comparing DNA methylation patterns of high and low responders to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty-five overweight or obese men participated in an 8-wk caloric restriction intervention. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with bisulfite. The basal and endpoint epigenetic differences between high and low responders were analyzed by methylation microarray, which was also useful in comparing epigenetic changes due to the nutrition intervention. Subsequently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate several relevant CpGs and the surrounding regions. DNA methylation levels in several CpGs located in the ATP10A and CD44 genes showed statistical baseline differences depending on the weight-loss outcome. At the treatment endpoint, DNA methylation levels of several CpGs on the WT1 promoter were statistically more methylated in the high than in the low responders. Finally, different CpG sites from WT1 and ATP10A were significantly modified as a result of the intervention. In summary, hypocaloric-diet-induced weight loss in humans could alter DNA methylation status of specific genes. Moreover, baseline DNA methylation patterns may be used as epigenetic markers that could help to predict weight loss.

  5. Weight loss following diet-induced obesity does not alter colon tumorigenesis in the AOM mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Carson, Meredith S; Cranford, Taryn L; Bader, Jackie E; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-10-01

    Obesity presents a significant public health concern given its association with increased cancer incidence, unfavorable prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is very little literature on the effects of weight loss, following obesity, on risk for colon cancer or liver cancer. Therefore, we sought to study whether intentional weight loss through diet manipulation was capable of mitigating colon and liver cancer in mice. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) comprised of 47% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 13% protein for 20 wk to mimic human obesity. Subsequently, azoxymethane (AOM) was used to promote colon and liver carcinogenesis. A subset of obese mice was then switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) containing 67.5% carbohydrate, 12.2% fat, and 20% protein to promote intentional weight loss. Body weight loss and excess fat reduction did not protect mice from colon cancer progression and liver dysplastic lesion in the AOM-chemical-cancer model even though these mice had improved blood glucose and leptin levels. Intentional weight loss in AOM-treated mice actually produced histological changes that resemble dysplastic alterations in the liver and presented a higher percentage of F4/80(+)CD206(+) macrophages and activated T cells (CD4(+)CD69(+)) in the spleen and lymph nodes, respectively. In addition, the liver of AOM-treated mice exposed to a HFD during the entire period of the experiment exhibited a marked increase in proliferation and pNF-κB activation. Altogether, these data suggest that intentional weight loss following chemical-induced carcinogenesis does not affect colon tumorigenesis but may in fact negatively impact liver repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Campos-Nonato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have shown that protein-enriched diets can lead to greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MeS than standard protein diets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased protein intake on weight loss in Mexican adults with MeS. Methods: Randomized controlled trial in 118 adults aged 47.4 ± 11.5 years and meeting the established criteria for MeS were randomized to prescribed hypocaloric diets (500 kcal less than resting metabolic rate providing either 0.8 g/kg body weight (standard protein diet (SPD or 1.34 g/kg body weight (higher protein diet (HPD for 6 months. Body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat by bioimpedance analysis, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were measured at baseline, 3 months and at 6 months. Results: There were 105 subjects (51 for SPD and 54 for HPD who completed the trial. Overall weight loss was 5.1 ± 3.6 kg in the SPD group compared to 7.0 ± 3.7 kg in the in HPD group. Both groups lost a significant percent of centimeters of waist circumference (SPD -6.5 ± 2.6 cm and HPD -8.8 ± 2.6 cm. There was no statistical difference Except for the varying weight losses the two groups did not show any further differences overall. However in the subgroup judged to be adherent more than 75% of the time with the prescribed diets, there was a significant difference in mean weight loss (SPD -5.8% vs. HPD -9.5% after adjusting for baseline BMI. Both groups demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol, but there were no differences between the groups. There were no changes in blood tests for

  7. New Nordic Diet induced weight loss is accompanied by changes in metabolism and AMPK signalling in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms behind diet-induced metabolic improvements remain to be studied. The Objective was to investigate whether expression of proteins in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue could explain improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis after weight loss. DESIGN: Volunteers...... adipose tissue (SCAT) were obtained at week 0 and 26. OUTCOME: Gene and protein expressions were analysed by real time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Improved HOMA-IR index and lowered plasma triacylglycerol concentration after NND coincided with molecular adaptations in SCAT, but not in skeletal...... regulation of key glucose and lipid handling proteins suggests an improved metabolic capacity in adipose tissue after weight loss....

  8. Comparison of voluntary food intake and palatability of commercial weight loss diets in healthy dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hours, Marie Anne; Sagols, Emmanuelle; Junien-Castagna, Ariane; Feugier, Alexandre; Moniot, Delphine; Daniel, Ingrid; Biourge, Vincent; Samuel, Serisier; Queau, Yann; German, Alexander J

    2016-12-05

    Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets. The relative performance of two canine (C1 and C2) and two feline (F1 and F2) diets was assessed in groups of healthy adult dogs and cats, respectively. Diets varied in energy, protein, fibre, and fat content. To assess canine VFI, 12 (study 1) and 10 (study 2) dogs were offered food in 4 meals, for 15 min on each occasion, with hourly intervals between the meals. For feline VFI, 12 cats were offered food ad libitum for a period of 18 h per day over 5 consecutive days. The palatability studies used separate panels of 37 dogs and 30 cats, with the two diets being served, side-by-side, in identical bowls. In dogs, VFI was significantly less for diet C1 than diet C2 when assessed on energy intake (study 1, 42% less, P = 0.032; study 2, 28% less, P = 0.019), but there was no difference in gram weight intake (study 1: P = 0.964; study 2: P = 0.255). In cats, VFI was 17% less for diet F1 than diet F2 when assessed by energy intake (P Foods with different characteristics can decrease VFI without affecting palatability in both dogs and cats. The effects seen could be due to decreased energy content, decreased fat content, increased fibre content, different fibre source, and increased protein content. Further studies are now needed to determine whether similar findings occur in obese dogs and cats on controlled weight loss programmes.

  9. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Ilana; Stampfer, Meir J; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shai, Iris

    2009-04-01

    Data are limited as to whether participants in diet trials truly adhere to their assigned diet and the factors that affect their adherence. We evaluated success and adherence in a two-year dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT) in which 322 moderately obese participants (mean age 52 yrs, mean body-mass-index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2), 86% men) were randomized to one of three groups: low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets. Overall compliance at month-24 was 85%, with 90% in low-fat, 85% in Mediterranean, and 78% in low-carbohydrate diet (p = .042 between groups). Attrition was higher in women (29% vs. 14% men, p = .001) and current smokers (25% vs. 14% among maintainers, p = 0.04). In a multivariate model, independent predictors of dropping-out were: higher baseline BMI (OR = 1.11; CI: 1.03-1.21) and less weight loss at month-6 (OR = 1.20; CI: 1.1-1.3). In a multivariate model, greater weight loss achieved at month-6 was the main predictor associated with success in weight loss (> 5%) over 2 years (OR = 1.5; CI: 1.35-1.67). Self-reported complete adherence score to diet was greater on low-carbohydrate diet (p low-fat) until month-6, but dropped overall from 81% at month-1 to 57% at month-24. Holidays were a trigger to a significant decrease in adherence followed by a partial rebound. Changes in diet composition from month-1 to month-12 were more pronounced in the multi-stage low-carbohydrate diet-group (p < .05). Generally, the most irresistible restricted food items were cookies (45% of dieters) and fruits (30%). Among the physically active (n = 107), 44% reported a tendency to eat less after exercising compared to 10% who tended to eat more. Initial 6-month reduction in weight is the main predictor of both long-term retention and success in weight loss. Special attention is needed for women, current smokers, and during holidays. Physical activity is associated with subsequent reduction in energy intake.

  10. The effects of diet- and RYGB-induced weight loss on insulin sensitivity in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael Taulo; Jørgensen, Anne Line Kjærholm

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The impact of diet-induced weight loss and weight loss due to RYGB in patients with (T2DM, N = 16) and without (OB, N = 27) type 2 diabetes was studied. METHODS: At inclusion (A), after diet-induced weight loss (B), 4 months post-surgery (C) and 18 months post-surgery (D) body composition......, and approximately one-third of the total improvement in GIR in T2DM was observed after the diet-induced weight loss of only ~6 kg (B). Insulin clearance, visceral fat and fasting plasma insulin also improved significantly after the diet (P ... not change significantly, but IMTG decreased significantly consistent with significant increases in GIR. Metabolic flexibility and hepatic insulin sensitivity improved after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic improvements of RYGB are present already after the diet-induced weight loss prior to surgery. GLUT4...

  11. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  12. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Mary C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC or reduced fat (RF weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Methods Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of ~2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30% intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Results Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p > 0.05. The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  13. Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kim, Soowon; Bersamin, Andrea; Dopler-Nelson, Mindy; Otten, Jennifer; Oelrich, Beibei; Cherin, Rise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. Objective: Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. Design: Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction. Nutrient intakes were compared between groups at 8 wk and within groups for 8-wk changes in risk of micronutrient inadequacy. Results: At 8 wk, significant differences were observed between groups for all macronutrients and for many micronutrients (P Zone group, the risk of inadequacy significantly decreased for vitamins A, E, K, and C (P diets that focus on macronutrient composition should attend to the overall quality of the diet, including the adequacy of micronutrient intakes. Concerning calorie-restricted diets, there may be a micronutrient advantage to diets providing moderately low carbohydrate amounts and that contain nutrient-dense foods. PMID:20573800

  14. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  15. Vegetarian Diet: Will It Help Me Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...

  16. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  17. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M V; Laaksonen, D E; Karhu, T; Karhunen, L; Laitinen, T; Kainulainen, S; Rissanen, A; Niskanen, L; Herzig, K H

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes signaling molecules involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake and inflammation. Apelin is a peptide secreted by adipose tissue that has been shown to modulate cardiovascular tone in animals. The aim of this study was to measure abdominal fat, blood pressure and circulating apelin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome after a diet-induced weight loss. 35 obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome underwent an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) and a 6-month weight maintenance period (WM) with 120mg orlistat or placebo administered 3 times daily. VLCD and WM (-15.1+/-1.0kg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), insulin, leptin, triglycerides and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Moreover, adiponectin increased in response to the weight loss. However, the overall changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were non-significant. A correlation between plasma apelin and TNF-alpha was observed at baseline (0.41, pmetabolism and adiponectin in response to weight loss, no significant changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. However, apelin significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and MAP. These results suggest that apelin may not be that strongly correlated with the fat mass as an adipokine like the more abundant adipokines adiponectin or leptin and it might be involved in the regulation of inflammation and cardiovascular tone.

  18. Effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on apolipoprotein AI kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on HDL and apoAI metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Subjects (19 men with MetS [NCEP-ATPIII]) were fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks (all foods provided). Participants then underwent a 20-week free-living period during which they were counseled to restrict energy intake, after which they were again fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks. At the end of the two controlled diets, participants received a single bolus of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] (L)-leucine, and fasting blood samples were collected over a 96 h period. ApoAI kinetic was assessed using multicompartmental modeling of the tracer enrichment data. Participants achieved a 9.1 ± 2.8% reduction in body weight (P diet composition, increases plasma HDL primarily by delaying the catabolism of apoAI.

  19. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  20. Diet-induced weight loss and exercise alone and in combination enhance the expression of adiponectin receptors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but only diet-induced weight loss enhanced circulating adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M

    2009-01-01

    and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM). Design and Methods: Seventy-nine obese males and females were randomized into the following: 1) exercise only (12 wk of exercise without diet restriction); 2) hypocaloric diet [8 wk of very low energy diet (600 kcal/d) followed...... by 4 wk with a weight maintenance diet]; and 3) hypocaloric diet and exercise (DEX; 8 wk very low energy diet 800 kcal/d followed by 4 wk weight maintenance diet combined with exercise throughout the 12 wk). Blood samples and biopsies from sc abdominal AT and SM were collected at baseline and after 12...

  1. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd......, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...

  2. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  3. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  4. Quality of diet plans for weight loss featured in women's magazines. A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinighi, Maiara; Koga da Silva, Edina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has the fifth largest population of obese individuals in the world. Women's magazines publish a large number of diet plans, and therefore the objective of this study was to assess the quality of these plans. Cross-sectional descriptive study. We included the Brazilian women's magazines of highest circulation published between January and June 2014 that advertised diets for weight loss on their covers. We extracted the quantities of macro and micronutrients from each of these diet plans and compared these quantities with the World Health Organization nutritional guidelines for adult women. We also checked the total energy quantities of these plans, and any recommendations about water intake and physical activity. We identified 136 potentially eligible magazine issues; 41 were excluded and 95 issues of 6 different magazines were included in the study. We found that 83.1 % of the plans had carbohydrate and fiber levels below the recommendations. On the other hand, the protein and saturated fatty acid levels were above the recommendations in 97.8% and 95.7% of the plans, respectively; 75.7% of the diets had inadequate calcium levels and 70.5% had low iron levels. Only 30 plans specified the total daily quantity of dietary energy and in 53.3% of these, the information was inconsistent with our estimates; 20% of the plans had no recommendations on daily water intake and 37.5% did not give recommendations regarding physical activity practices. The diet plans for weight loss featured in Brazilian women's magazines are of low quality.

  5. Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis before and after a weight loss by diet and RYGB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael T.; Gregers, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis following a massive weight loss. METHODS: High resolution respirometry of adipose tissue biopsies and tracer determined whole body lipolysis. Sixteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 27 without (OB) were...... fat mass was always higher relative to the body fat mass (%) compared to OB. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiratory capacity increases with RYGB. Adipocytes adapt to massive weight......, no differences in oxidative capacity after RYGB were seen. The ratio between the oxidative phosphorylation system capacity (P) and the capacity of the electron transfer system (E) increased 18 months after RYGB in both groups (P fat mass was similar in the two groups and was increased (P...

  6. Weight loss induced by chronic dapagliflozin treatment is attenuated by compensatory hyperphagia in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, James J; Godonis, Helen E; Harvey, Susan J; Rooney, Suzanne; Cullen, Mary J; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann

    2012-08-01

    Dapagliflozin is a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor which promotes urinary glucose excretion and induces weight loss. Since metabolic compensation can offset a negative energy balance, we explored the potential for a compensatory physiological response to the weight loss induced by dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin was administered (0.5-5 mpk; p.o.) to diet-induced obese (DIO) rats with or without ad libitum access to food for 38 days. Along with inducing urinary glucose excretion, chronic administration of dapagliflozin dose-dependently increased food and water intake relative to vehicle-treated controls. Despite this, it reduced body weight by 4% (relative to controls) at the highest dose. The degree of weight loss was increased by an additional 9% if hyperphagia was prevented by restricting food intake to that of vehicle controls. Neither oxygen consumption (vO2) or the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were altered by dapagliflozin treatment alone. Animals treated with dapagliflozin and pair-fed to vehicle controls (5 mpk PF-V) showed a reduction in RER and an elevation in nonfasting β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) relative to ad libitum-fed 5 mpk counterparts. Fasting BHBA was elevated in the 1 mpk, 5 mpk, and 5 mpk PF-V groups. Serum glucose was reduced in the fasted, but not the unfasted state. Insulin was reduced in the non-fasted state. These data suggest that in rodents, the persistent urinary glucose excretion induced by dapagliflozin was accompanied by compensatory hyperphagia, which attenuated the weight loss induced by SGLT2 inhibition. Therefore, it is possible that dapagliflozin-induced weight loss could be enhanced with dietary intervention.

  7. Effects of low calorie diet-induced weight loss on post-exercise heart rate recovery in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Maeng Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) after maximum exercise is a reactivation function of vagus nerve and an independent risk factor that predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Weight loss obtained through dietary programs has been employed as a therapy to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Eighteen subjects of middle aged obese men (age 44.8 ± 1.6 yrs, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were selected for this study. As a weight loss direction, the nutritional direction of low-calorie diet mainly consisted of carbohydrate, protein, and fat has been conducted for 3 months. Blood pressure was measured after overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after weight loss program. All the pre- and post-exercise 'HRR decay constant's were assessed by using values of HRR (heart recovery rate; 2 minutes) and HR measured after reached to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) exploited the bicycle ergometer. After the completion of weight loss program, body weight and BMI were significantly decreased, but the Heart Rate (HR) after maximum exercise and in steady state were not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The post-exercise HRR after the weight loss did not show significant changes in perspectives of 30 seconds (-16.6 ± 2.3 to -20.2 ± 2.1 beats/min, p > 0.05) and 60 seconds (-33.5 ± 3.4 to -34.6 ± 2.8 beats/min, p > 0.05) respectively but in perspectives of 90 seconds (-40.9 ± 2.6 to -48.1 ± 3.1 beats/min, p exercise, and this improvement in cardiovascular autonomic nerve system was estimated to be involved with improvements in blood glucose and maximal oxygen consumption.

  8. Plasma Taurine, Diabetes Genetic Predisposition, and Changes of Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Bray, George A; Thiery, Joachim; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial. Seven-hundred eleven overweight or obese participants (age 30-70 y; 60% females) had genetic variants genotyped and blood taurine levels measured. Participants went on 2-year weight-loss diets, which were different in macronutrient composition. Improvements in glycemic traits were measured. We found that baseline taurine levels significantly modified the effects of diabetes GRS on changes in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the 2-year diet intervention (P-interaction = .04, .01, .002, respectively), regardless of weight loss. High baseline taurine levels were associated with a less reduction in both glucose and HOMA-IR among the participants with the lowest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .02), and with a greater reduction in both insulin and HOMA-IR among those with the highest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .04). Our data suggest that blood taurine levels might differentially modulate the effects of diabetes-related genes on improvement of insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese patients on weight-loss diets.

  9. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg;

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...... in TAG (P LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS...

  10. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  11. Lifestyle Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Diet Composition, Food Provision, and Treatment Modality on Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significant...

  12. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L; Chung, Jay H; Grøntved, Lars

    2017-01-10

    Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome.

  13. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van Willemijn A.M.; Palen, van der Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  14. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  15. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Larsen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss i

  16. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  17. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications Dietas para perda de peso anunciadas na imprensa leiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software was used to evaluate the nutrients of 112 diets. Micronutrient content was compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. All diets were inadequate in at least one of the evaluated items. Less than 25.0% of the diets presented adequate macronutrient distribution. Calcium, iron, and vitamin E were also predominantly inadequate (85.7, 97.3, and 91.9%, respectively. Non-scientific publications should not be allowed to advertise weight-loss diets. In addition, their chemical composition is inadequate and they are not accompanied by important instructions for such therapy.Diversas dietas para redução de peso, anunciadas em periódicos não-científicos de grande circulação, foram avaliadas em relação ao teor energético e de macronutrientes, cálcio, ferro, vitaminas A e E, colesterol e presença de informações sobre a duração da dieta, ingestão de fluidos, atividade física e dieta de manutenção. Duas publicações foram selecionadas em função da periodicidade, tiragem, número de leitores e anos de publicação. Foi utilizado o programa Virtual Nutri para medir os nutrientes de 112 dietas. Os teores de micronutrientes foram comparados com as Dietary Reference Intakes. Todas as dietas eram inadequadas em relação a uma ou mais substâncias avaliadas. Menos de 25,0% das dietas apresentaram distribuição adequada de macronutrientes. Predominavam os níveis inadequados de cálcio, ferro e vitamina E (85,7, 97,3, e 91,9%, respectivamente. Não deveria

  18. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kari; Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  20. Low-calorie diet induced weight loss may alter regulatory hormones and contribute to rebound visceral adiposity in obese persons with a family history of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, Jacquelyn L; Walker, Marilee K; Randall, Judith M; Netjes, Robert B; Foutz, Mary S

    2013-08-01

    To examine potential detrimental long-term effects of acute diet-induced weight loss on visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, cortisol, and adipokines in obese individuals at risk for type-2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures (height, weight, waist circumference), self-report instruments, abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and blood samples (glucose, insulin, interleukin-6, leptin, adiponectin) were obtained from a convenience sample of 20 participants at baseline, after a 28-day low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) intervention, and again 6 months later. Fifteen of 20 participants completed the 28-day diet intervention and had a mean weight loss of 15 pounds. Comparison between baseline, postdiet, and 6-month data, demonstrated that although participants had significant improvements after the diet, they regained fat mass, particularly in the visceral area. Clinicians may need to revise recommendations for using low-calorie diets to achieve weight loss. Diet-induced weight cycling may contribute to dysregulation of metabolism and have long-term detrimental consequences for accumulation of visceral adipose tissue. The likelihood of success is low, with high dropout rates, and those patients who achieve weight loss are very likely to regain it. Thus, the perceived short-term benefits of calorie-restricted diets in this population likely do not outweigh the potential long-term detrimental effects. ©2012 The Author(s) ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases...

  2. Genetic Variations of Circulating Adiponectin Levels Modulate Changes in Appetite in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Dianjianyi; Tong, Jenny; Williamson, Donald A; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays key roles in regulating appetite and food intake. To investigate interactions between the genetic risk score (GRS) for adiponectin levels and weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on long-term changes in appetite and adiponectin levels. A GRS was calculated based on 5 adiponectin-associated variants in 692 overweight adults from the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Repeated measurements of plasma adiponectin levels and appetite-related traits, including cravings, fullness, prospective consumption, and hunger. Dietary fat showed nominally significant interactions with the adiponectin GRS on changes in appetite score and prospective consumption from baseline to 6 months (P for interaction = 0.014 and 0.017, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, and baseline respective outcome values. The GRS for lower adiponectin levels was associated with a greater decrease in appetite (P adiponectin levels (P for interaction = 0.021). The lower GRS was associated with a greater increase in adiponectin in the low-fat group (P = 0.02), but it was not associated with adiponectin changes in the high-fat group (P = 0.31). Our findings suggest that individuals with varying genetic architecture of circulating adiponectin may respond divergently in appetite and adiponectin levels to weight-loss diets varying in fat intake.

  3. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  4. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  6. Impact of diet and weight loss on iron and zinc status in overweight and obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley J; Bryant, Christian E; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S; O'Connor, Helen T

    2013-01-01

    Young overweight women are at risk of iron and zinc deficiency. This study assessed iron, zinc and inflammatory status during a 12-month weight loss trial in young women (18-25 y; BMI >=27.5 kg/m2) randomised to a higher-protein (HP: 32% protein; 12.2 mg/day iron; 11.7 mg/day zinc) or lower-protein (LP: 20%; 9.9 mg/day; 7.6 mg/day respectively) diet with contrasting haem iron and zinc content. In completers (HP: n=21; LP: n=15), HP participants showed higher median ferritin (52.0 vs 39.0 μg/L; p=0.021) and lower median soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR-F; 0.89 vs 1.05; p=0.024) although concentrations remained within normal range for both diets. Median C-reactive protein (CRP; HP: 3.54; LP: 4.63 mg/L) and hepcidin (HP: 5.70; LP: 8.25 ng/mL) were not elevated at baseline, and no longitudinal between-diet differences were observed for zinc and CRP. Compared to those with =10% weight showed lower median sTfR-F (0.76 vs 1.03; p=0.019) at six months. Impact of >=10% weight loss on iron was more apparent in LP participants who exhibited greater mean serum iron (20.0 vs 13.5 μmol/L; p=0.002), transferrin saturation (29.8% vs 19.4%; p=0.001) and lower sTfR (1.24 vs 1.92 mg/L; p=0.034) at 12 months. Results show normal iron and zinc status can be maintained during 12 months of energy restriction. In the absence of elevated baseline inflammation and hepcidin, a more favourable iron profile in those with >=10% weight loss may reflect stronger compliance or the potential influence of iron regulatory mechanisms unrelated to inflammatory hepcidin reduction.

  7. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  8. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....... of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers......, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were...

  9. Gastric Bypass Promotes More Lipid Mobilization Than a Similar Weight Loss Induced by Low-Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Kullberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, we found large reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat one month after gastric bypass (GBP, without any change in liver fat content. Purpose. Firstly to characterize weight loss-induced lipid mobilization after one month with preoperative low-calorie diet (LCD and a subsequent month following GBP, and secondly, to discuss the observations with reference to our previous published findings after GBP intervention alone. Methods. 15 morbidly obese women were studied prior to LCD, at GBP, and one month after GBP. Effects on metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance techniques and blood tests. Results. Body weight was similarly reduced after both months (mean: −8.0 kg, n=13. Relative body fat changes were smaller after LCD than after GBP (−7.1±3.6% versus −10±3.2%, P=.029, n=13. Liver fat fell during the LCD month (−41%, P=.001, n=13 but was unaltered one month after GBP (+12%. Conclusion. Gastric bypass seems to cause a greater lipid mobilization than a comparable LCD-induced weight loss. One may speculate that GBP-altered gastrointestinal signalling sensitizes adipose tissue to lipolysis, promoting the changes observed.

  10. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

  11. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  12. Weight-loss medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  13. "They all work...when you stick to them": A qualitative investigation of dieting, weight loss, and physical exercise, in obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausman Rick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the extent to which people living with obesity have attempted to lose weight, their attitudes towards dieting, physical exercise and weight loss solutions, why their weight loss attempts have failed, and their opinions about what would be most beneficial to them in their struggle with their weight. Method Qualitative study, using open-ended interviews, of 76 people living with obesity in Victoria, Australia in 2006/7. Individuals with a BMI of 30 or over were recruited using articles in local newspapers, convenience sampling, and at a later stage purposive sampling techniques to diversify the sample. Data analysis was conducted by hand using a constant, comparative method to develop and test analytical categories. Data were interpreted both within team meetings and through providing research participants the chance to comment on the study findings. Results Whilst participants repeatedly turned to commercial diets in their weight loss attempts, few had used, or were motivated to participate in physical activity. Friends or family members had introduced most individuals to weight loss techniques. Those who took part in interventions with members of their social network were more likely to report feeling accepted and supported. Participants blamed themselves for being unable to maintain their weight loss or 'stick' to diets. Whilst diets did not result in sustained weight loss, two thirds of participants felt that dieting was an effective way to lose weight. Conclusion Individuals with obesity receive numerous instructions about what to do to address their weight, but very few are given appropriate long term guidance or support with which to follow through those instructions. Understanding the positive role of social networks may be particularly important in engaging individuals in physical activity. Public health approaches to obesity must engage and consult with those currently living with obesity, if patterns of

  14. Adipose tissue meal-derived fatty acid uptake before and after diet-induced weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Roel G.; Roumans, Nadia J.T.; Kolk, van der Birgitta W.; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Mariman, Edwin C.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether diet-induced weight loss alters indices of in vivo postprandial fat uptake in adipose tissue (AT) and whether these changes are associated with weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 16 (6 male)

  15. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term

  16. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term ef

  17. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term ef

  18. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  19. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  20. The novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor tesofensine induces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control in the diet-induced obese rat: comparison to sibutramine and rimonabant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein-Associated miR-223 Is Altered after Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Tabet

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.

  2. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). Design: We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  3. The Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project: Rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq, Andrea M; Lien, Lillian F; Boan, Jarol; Arlotto, Michelle; Slentz, Cris A; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Rochon, James; Gallup, Dianne; McMahon, Ross L; Bain, James R; Stevens, Robert; Millington, David; Butler, Mark D; Newgard, Christopher B; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-12-01

    This paper outlines the rationale and design of the Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project, in which detailed biologic profiling of three hundred and fifty obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 30-50 kg/m(2)) will be conducted as they lose weight via seven distinct interventions. These profiles will be compared to those of fifty normal, healthy, control participants (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The interventions include the following: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, dietary interventions of differing macronutrient composition and diverse pharmacologic interventions. Outcome variables include eight conventional metabolites and CRP measured by standard clinical chemistry techniques, twenty hormones of energy balance and fuel homeostasis measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ten pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines measured using Luminex xMAP technology, one hundred and one intermediary metabolites measured by targeted mass-spectrometry-based methods, and physiologic variables such as body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), air displacement plethysmography, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT), insulin sensitivity measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) and metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. Results from this study will expand our knowledge of the biology of obesity and weight regulation and may lead to targeted strategies for its treatment and control.

  4. Expression of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in human adipose tissue—the effect of obesity and diet-induced weight loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wamberg, L; Christiansen, T; Paulsen, S K; Fisker, S; Rask, P; Rejnmark, L; Richelsen, B; Pedersen, S B

    2012-01-01

    ... diet- and exercise-induced weight loss, both increased (9-11) and unaltered (12,13) circulating levels of 25OHD have been reported. Likewise, after major weight loss by bariatric surgery, both temporary (14-16) and long-term increases (16-18) in circulating levels of 25OHD have been reported, along with reports of no changes one year after surger...

  5. Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Madalina; Fyfe, Claire; Horgan, Graham; Johnstone, Alexandra M

    2014-08-01

    There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety. The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers. Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m²): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period. Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8), fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different. Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. RCT of a high-protein diet on hunger motivation and weight-loss in obese children: an extension and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Lauren C; Gately, Paul J; Radley, Duncan; Cooke, Carlton B; King, Roderick F G J; Hill, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the weight loss and hunger motivation effects of an energy-restricted high-protein (HP) diet in overweight and obese children. In total, 95 overweight and obese children attended an 8-week (maximum) program of physical activity, reduced-energy intake, and behavior change education. Children were randomly assigned to one of two isoenergetic diets (standard (SP): 15% protein; HP: 25% protein), based on individually estimated energy requirements. Anthropometry and body composition were assessed at the start and end of the program and appetite and mood ratings completed on the first 3 consecutive weekdays of each week children attended camp. The HP diet had no greater effect on weight loss, body composition, or changes in appetite or mood when compared to the SP diet. Overall, campers lost 5.2 +/- 3.0 kg in body weight and reduced their BMI standard deviation score (sds) by 0.25. Ratings of desire to eat increased significantly over the duration of the intervention, irrespective of diet. This is the third time we have reported an increase in hunger motivation in weight-loss campers and replicates our previous failure to block this with a higher protein diet. Further work is warranted into the management of hunger motivation as a result of negative energy balance.

  7. Lifestyle interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction: a systematic review of the effects of diet composition, food provision, and treatment modality on weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R; Laitner, Melissa H; Perri, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided.

  8. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  9. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions ha

  10. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions ha

  11. [Quality of the diet "before and during" a weight loss treatment based on Mediterranean Diet; behavioural therapy and nutritional education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Falo, Eva María; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Esteban, Alberto; Alburquerque, Juan José; Garaulet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El método de pérdida de peso (dieta mediterránea, terapia de comportamiento y educación nutricional) ha mostrado ser efectivo en el tratamiento de la obesidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar y comparar la calidad de las dietas ingeridas antes y durante el tratamiento mediante el Índice de Alimentación Saludable (IAS) y su relación con diferentes variables. Materiales y métodos: La muestra fue de 392 pacientes (330 mujeres, 62 hombres), edad 39,3 ± 11,5 años y IMC de 31,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. A partir del recuerdo-24 h previo al tratamiento y del registro dietético 7 días se estimó el IAS de “antes” y “durante” tratamiento. El IAS consta de 10 variables que representan el cumplimiento de objetivos nutricionales para la población española (SENC, 2004). Resultados: Dieta previa, presentó un IAS “necesita mejorar” (68,6 ± 11,6) con lípidos (%) (43,9 ± 8,4) y AGS (% lípidos) (67,4 ± 20,1) elevados, además el contenido en AGM (% lípidos) (27,8 ± 15,1) fue insuficiente. El IAS varió en función del IMC siendo el de obesos inferior al de personas con sobrepeso (65,1 ± 11,6 vs 69, 2 ± 13,9; P dieta ingerida durante el tratamiento mejoró notablemente IAS (91,4 ± 9,7). El IAS de las mujeres fue superior (92,3 ± 9,1) al de los hombres (84,4 ± 12,0) (P dieta estudiada durante el tratamiento de pérdida de peso mejoró significativamente en relación a la dieta habitual del paciente. El IAS de la dieta durante el tratamiento se asocia con el sexo, el estado ponderal (sobrepeso y obesidad) y con el éxito del tratamiento (> 5% de pérdida del peso inicial).

  12. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kiazand, Alexandre; Alhassan, Sofiya; Kim, Soowon; Stafford, Randall S; Balise, Raymond R; Kraemer, Helena C; King, Abby C

    2007-03-07

    Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately. To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables. Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up. Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing. Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (PZone, -1.6 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.4 kg), LEARN, -2.6 kg (-3.8 to -1.3 kg), and Ornish, -2.2 kg (-3.6 to -0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups. In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic

  13. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Offringa, Lisa C; Hartle, Jennifer C; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2016-01-01

    To test for differential weight loss response to low-fat (LF) vs. low-carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) , were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. Baseline % carbohydrate:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6 months, the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; there was no significant diet × IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet × IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Energy-restricted diets based on a distinct food selection affecting the glycemic index induce different weight loss and oxidative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2008-08-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) based diets could influence the accompanying physiological adaptations to energy restriction in the treatment of obesity. It was aimed to investigate the effects of two energy-restricted diets with different food distribution and GI values on weight loss and energy metabolism in the nutritional treatment of obesity. Participants (n=32; BMI: 32.5+/-4.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to follow two energy-restricted diets with higher-GI or lower-GI for 8 weeks. The energy restriction was -30% in relation to energy expenditure. Anthropometry, energy expenditure and mitochondrial oxidation were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the intervention. Body weight was also measured one year after the treatment. The work was approved by the ethical committees of the University of Navarra (54/2006). Volunteers consuming the lower-GI diet showed a significantly higher weight loss than their counterparts (-5.3+/-2.6% vs -7.5+/-2.9%; p=0.032), although the decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) was similar between groups (p=0.783). Mitochondrial oxidation was significantly affected by the type of diet (p=0.001), being activated after the lower-GI treatment (p=0.022). Interestingly, one year after the nutritional intervention weight regain was only statistically significant in the higher-GI group (p=0.033). Lower-GI energy-restricted diets achieved through a specific differential food selection can improve the energy adaptations during obesity treatment, favouring weight loss and probably weight maintenance compared with higher-GI hypocaloric diets.

  15. Long-term effects of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Renée; Filion, Kristian B; Wakil, Susan M; Genest, Jacques; Joseph, Lawrence; Poirier, Paul; Rinfret, Stéphane; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of the Atkins, South Beach, Weight Watchers (WW), and Zone diets, with a particular focus on sustained weight loss at ≥12 months. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English with follow-up ≥4 weeks that examined the effects of these 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors. We identified 12 RCTs (n=2559) with follow-up ≥12 months: 10 versus usual care (5 Atkins, 4 WW, and 1 South Beach) and 2 head-to-head (1 of Atkins, WW, and Zone, and 1 of Atkins, Zone, and control). At 12 months, the 10 RCTs comparing popular diets to usual care revealed that only WW was consistently more efficacious at reducing weight (range of mean changes: -3.5 to -6.0 kg versus -0.8 to -5.4 kg; PZone (-1.6 to -3.2 kg), and control (-2.2 kg) all achieved modest long-term weight loss. Twenty-four-month data suggest that weight lost with Atkins or WW is partially regained over time. Head-to-head RCTs, providing the most robust evidence available, demonstrated that Atkins, WW, and Zone achieved modest and similar long-term weight loss. Despite millions of dollars spent on popular commercial diets, data are conflicting and insufficient to identify one popular diet as being more beneficial than the others. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Sabine; Zittermann, Armin; Berthold, Heiner K; Götting, Christian; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Stehle, Peter; Körtke, Heinrich

    2009-07-18

    We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and Bluetooth technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg) in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg) in the low-fat group (p = 0.065). In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005-0.037). Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387.

  17. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  18. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  19. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Julie; Roberts, Susan B; Dallal, Gerard; Saltzman, Edward

    2002-07-01

    Recommendations for increased consumption of protein are among the most common approaches of popular or fad diets. This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on satiety, energy intake, thermogenesis, and weight loss, as well as its effect on a variety of health outcomes in adults. In short-term studies, dietary protein modulates energy intake via the sensation of satiety and increases total energy expenditure by increasing the thermic effect of feeding. Whereas these effects did not contribute to weight and fat loss in those studies in which energy intake was fixed, one ad libitum study does suggest that a high-protein diet results in a greater decrease in energy intake, and therefore greater weight and fat loss. In terms of safety, there is little long-term information on the health effects of high-protein diets. From the available data, however, it is evident that the consumption of protein greater than two to three times the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance contributes to urinary calcium loss and may, in the long term, predispose to bone loss. Caution with these diets is recommended in those individuals who may be predisposed to nephrolithiasis or kidney disease, and particularly in those with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-01-01

    Brackground: The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m−2 participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. Results: No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. Conclusions: The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients. PMID:27643725

  1. Effect of Ezetimibe on Hepatic Fat, Inflammatory Markers, and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics in Insulin-Resistant Obese Subjects on a Weight Loss Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C.; Watts, Gerald F.; Gan, Seng Khee; Ooi, Esther M.M.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is highly prevalent in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals and is strongly associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation. Weight loss and/or pharmacotherapy are commonly used to correct these abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a 16-week intervention trial of a hypocaloric, low-fat diet plus 10 mg/day ezetimibe (n = 15) versus a hypocaloric, low-fat diet alone (n = 10) on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, plasma high sensitivity–C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adipocytokines, and fetuin-A concentrations and apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 kinetics in obese subjects. ApoB-100 metabolism was assessed using stable isotope tracer kinetics and compartmental modeling; liver and abdominal fat contents were determined by magnetic resonance techniques. RESULTS Both weight loss and ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P triglycerides, VLDL–apoB-100, apoC-III, fetuin-A, and retinol-binding protein-4 and increased plasma adiponectin concentrations. Compared with weight loss alone, ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P < 0.05) decreased IHTG content (−18%), plasma hs-CRP (−53%), interleukin-6 (−24%), LDL cholesterol (−18%), campesterol (−59%), and apoB-100 (−14%) levels, with a significant increase in plasma lathosterol concentrations (+43%). The LDL–apoB-100 concentration also significantly fell with ezetimibe plus weight loss (−12%), chiefly owing to an increase in the corresponding fractional catabolic rate (+29%). The VLDL–apoB-100 secretion rate fell with both interventions, with no significant independent effect of ezetimibe. CONCLUSIONS Addition of ezetimibe to a moderate weight loss diet in obese subjects can significantly improve hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and LDL–apoB-100 metabolism. PMID:20185740

  2. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  3. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  4. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  5. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D C

    This article reviews popular diets for their ability to produce effective weight loss. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on anecdotal findings, theories and testimonials of short term results. The most prominent elements of fad diets are those of ritual and sacrifice. These diets offer quick and painless weight loss while allowing consumption of favourite or tasty foods, but place severe restrictions on certain other foods or food categories. Fad diets often work in the short term because they are low-kilojoule diets in disguise; that is, energy intake as a result of the diet is lower than the person's requirements. Successful long term weight loss depends on the consumption over a long period of time of less energy than is expended. The ideal approach is to increase physical activity while modifying eating behaviour to achieve a nutritionally balanced intake.

  6. Allelic Variants of Melanocortin 3 Receptor Gene (MC3R) and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José L.; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine; Naranjo, Carolina; Maiz, Alberto; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; MacDonald, Ian; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. Subjects and Methods This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat) diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Results No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04) and dominant models (p = 0.03). These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103–rs1543873 (p = 0.06), rs6014646–rs6024730 (p = 0.05) and rs3746619–rs3827103 (p = 0.10) displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Conclusion The study provided

  7. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  8. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic profile in Chinese women: a randomised controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Chen, Xiafei; Tang, Lixin; Feng, Ying; Shai, Iris; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156-205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35% average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96%) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1% of total energy, respectively (P diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC - 5·27 (95% CI - 6·08, - 4·46) kg; ER - 5·09 (95% CI - 5·50, - 4·67) kg, P = 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC - 1·19 (95% CI - 1·88, - 0·50)%; ER - 1·56 (95% CI - 2·20, - 0·92)%, P = 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.

  9. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  10. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-09-19

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients.

  11. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  12. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight loss. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You or a family member loses more ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The ... be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: How much weight have ...

  13. Comparison of high protein and high fiber weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that moderately high protein diets may be more appropriate than conventional low-fat high carbohydrate diets for individuals at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However in most such studies sources of dietary carbohydrate may not have been appropriate and protein intakes may have been excessively high. Thus, in a proof-of-concept study we compared two relatively low-fat weight loss diets - one high in protein and the other high in fiber-rich, minimally processed cereals and legumes - to determine whether a relatively high protein diet has the potential to confer greater benefits. Methods Eighty-three overweight or obese women, 18-65 years, were randomized to either a moderately high protein (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate diet (HP or to a high fiber, relatively high carbohydrate (50% carbohydrate, > 35 g total dietary fiber, 20% protein diet (HFib for 8 weeks. Energy intakes were reduced by 2000 - 4000 kJ per day in order to achieve weight loss of between 0.5 and 1 kg per week. Results Participants on both diets lost weight (HP: -4.5 kg [95% confidence interval (CI:-3.7, -5.4 kg] and HFib: -3.3 kg [95% CI: -4.2, -2.4 kg], and reduced total body fat (HP: -4.0 kg [5% CI:-4.6, -3.4 kg] and HFib: -2.5 kg [95% CI: -3.5, -1.6 kg], and waist circumference (HP: -5.4 cm [95% CI: -6.3, -4.5 cm] and HFib: -4.7 cm [95% CI: -5.8, -3.6 cm], as well as total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure. However participants on HP lost more body weight (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.5, -0.1 kg; p = 0.039] and total body fat (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.4, -0.1; p = 0.029]. Diastolic blood pressure decreased more on HP (-3.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -6.2, -1.1; p = 0.005]. Conclusions A realistic high protein weight-reducing diet was associated with greater fat loss and lower blood pressure when compared with a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet in high risk overweight and obese women.

  14. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight....../high GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12...

  15. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Casper, Markus; Lammert, Frank

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of gallstones is increasing in association with the obesity epidemic, but rapid weight loss also increases the risk of stone formation. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of strategies to prevent gallbladder stones in adults as they lose weight. Randomized controlled trials of nonsurgical strategies to prevent gallstones were identified by electronic and manual searches. Our final analysis included 13 trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials). The trials compared ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or high-fat weight loss diets with control interventions. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and evaluated heterogeneity and bias with subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analysis. UDCA reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions (risk ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.60; number needed to treat, 9). This effect was significantly larger in trials of diets alone (risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.11-0.25) than in trials of patients who underwent bariatric surgery (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83) (test for subgroup differences, P =.03). UDCA reduced the risk of cholecystectomy for symptomatic stones (risk ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.53). Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). The meta-analyses were confirmed in trials with a low risk of bias but not in sequential analysis. No additional beneficial or harmful outcomes were identified. On the basis of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, during weight loss, UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content appear to prevent formation of gallstones. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic feedback in a diet- and physical activity-based lifestyle intervention for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriwether Rebecca A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SenseWear™ Armband (SWA (BodyMedia, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA is a physical activity and lifestyle monitor that objectively and accurately measures free-living energy balance and sleep and includes software for self-monitoring of daily energy expenditure and energy intake. The real-time feedback of the SWA can improve individual self-monitoring and, therefore, enhance weight loss outcomes. Methods We recruited 197 sedentary overweight or obese adults (age, 46.8 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (BMI, 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2; 81% women, 32% African-American from the greater Columbia, South Carolina area. Participants were randomized into 1 of 4 groups, a self-directed weight loss program via an evidence-based weight loss manual (Standard Care, n = 50, a group-based behavioral weight loss program (GWL, n = 49, the armband alone (SWA-alone, n = 49, or the GWL plus the armband (GWL+SWA, n = 49, during the 9-month intervention. The primary outcome was change in body weight and waist circumference. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis compared change in the intervention groups to the standard care group on weight and waist circumference status after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, energy expenditure, and recruitment wave. Results Body weight was available for 62% of participants at 9 months (52% standard care, 70% intervention. There was significant weight loss in all 3 intervention groups (GWL, 1.86 kg, P = 0.05; SWA-alone, 3.55 kg, P = 0.0002; GWL+SWA, 6.59 kg, P Conclusions Continuous self-monitoring from wearable technology with real-time feedback may be particularly useful to enhance lifestyle changes that promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults. This strategy, combined with a group-based behavioral intervention, may yield optimal weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00957008

  18. Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuko; Kudo, Hideki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2005-01-01

    Zinc is required for many biological functions including DNA synthesis, cell division, gene expression and the activity of various enzymes in humans and animals. Zinc concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes are lower and urinary zinc excretion and serum insulin levels are higher in subjects with obesity. The effects of a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet were investigated on 23 obese females, who had a body mass index of more than 25.0 and had dieted for 6 months at the Nutrition Clinic, Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, Tokyo, Japan. The subjects ranged in age from 29 to 76 (54.3 +/- 13.0) years old. The hypocaloric balanced diet significantly reduced the body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and amount of body fat with a slight lowering of blood pressure and plasma levels of triglyceride. Interestingly, the plasma concentrations of zinc were markedly enhanced at the end of the program.

  19. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers...... fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....

  20. miRNAs in human subcutaneous adipose tissue: Effects of weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M; Davidsen, Peter K; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed......RNA-target relationships correlated negatively, indicating possible miRNA regulation, including miR-29a-3p and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels. Proteins involved in lipolysis were not affected by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss influenced several miRNAs, some of which were negatively correlated with predicted...

  1. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  2. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896

  3. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, C; Crispino, P; Gioia, S; La Sala, N; D'amico, L; La Grotta, M; Miro, O; Colarusso, D

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings.

  4. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-09-27

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at

  5. Dieta rica em proteína na redução do peso corporal High-protein diet for body weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Graça Pedrosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A proporção ideal dos macronutrientes em dietas de emagrecimento é atualmente bastante discutida. Existem evidências de que dietas com maior proporção de proteína aumentam a perda de peso e de gordura corporal e diminuem a perda de massa corporal magra durante o emagrecimento. Todavia, os mecanismos responsáveis por estes efeitos não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Além disso, existem poucas conclusões a respeito dos possíveis efeitos colaterais dessas dietas na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio. Assim, este artigo objetiva trazer informações atuais sobre os efeitos de dietas ricas em proteína na perda de peso e na composição corporal e dos mecanismos envolvidos, bem como seus efeitos na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio.The ideal proportion of macronutrients in weight loss diets is currently under debate. There are evidences indicating that a higher proportion of protein during weight loss diets enhances the loss of body weight and fat mass, and reduces the loss of lean body mass. Nevertheless, the responsible mechanisms for these effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies that evaluated the possible side effects of these diets on the renal function and on the nutritional state of calcium have shown inconclusive results. Therefore, this article has the objective to convey recent information about the effects of high-protein diets in the regulation of the body weight and body composition, besides its involved mechanisms, and its effects on the renal function and on the calcium nutritional status.

  6. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  7. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  8. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L

    2015-01-01

     Hg (-6.1, 0.4), P=0.11). Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results. Diastolic BP yielded similar results. These findings suggest that a BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense...

  10. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  11. Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Bray, George A; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat significantly modified genetic effects on changes in weight, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after adjustment for the confounders (all P for interaction ≤0.006). Further adjustment for weight change did not appreciably change the interactions for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In the high-fat diet group, the C allele was related to less weight loss and smaller decreases in serum insulin and HOMA-IR (all P ≤ 0.02 in an additive pattern), whereas an opposite genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR was observed in the low-fat diet group (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). At 2 years, the gene-diet interactions remained significant for weight loss (P=0.008) but became null for changes in serum insulin and HOMA-IR resulting from weight regain. Individuals carrying the C allele of the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 may benefit less in weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity than those without this allele when undertaking an energy-restricted high-fat diet. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00072995.

  12. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF.

  13. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

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    Louise F. Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  14. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is one of the fastest growing disease entities in the world. Weight loss is thought to be a key to improving all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Research studies have suggested benefits from diets rich in vegetables and fruits in helping individuals reach and achieve healthy weights. Objective To evaluate the effects of a ready to serve vegetable juice as part of a calorie-appropriate Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet in an ethnically diverse population of people with Metabolic Syndrome on weight loss and their ability to meet vegetable intake recommendations, and on their clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. A secondary goal was to examine the impact of the vegetable juice on associated parameters, including leptin, vascular adhesion markers, and markers of the oxidative defense system and of oxidative stress. Methods A prospective 12 week, 3 group (0, 8, or 16 fluid ounces of low sodium vegetable juice parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Participants were requested to limit their calorie intake to 1600 kcals for women and 1800 kcals for men and were educated on the DASH diet. A total of 81 (22 men & 59 women participants with Metabolic Syndrome were enrolled into the study. Dietary nutrient and vegetable intake, weight, height, leptin, metabolic syndrome clinical characteristics and related markers of endothelial and cardiovascular health were measured at baseline, 6-, and 12-weeks. Results There were significant group by time interactions when aggregating both groups consuming vegetable juice (8 or 16 fluid ounces daily. Those consuming juice lost more weight, consumed more Vitamin C, potassium, and dietary vegetables than individuals who were in the group that only received diet counseling (p

  15. Effect of rs6923761 gene variant of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor on metabolic response and weight loss after a 3-month intervention with a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Lopez, J J; Gomez, E; Torres, B; Soto, G Diaz

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) have been directed at identifying polymorphisms in the GLP-1 R gene that may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, the role of GLP-1 R variants on body weight response after dietary intervention has not been evaluated. We decided to analyze the effects of the rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism on body weight changes and metabolic parameters after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. A sample of 91 obese subjects was analyzed in a prospective way. The hypocaloric diet had 1,520 calories per day; 52 % of carbohydrates, 25 % of lipids and 23 % of proteins. Distribution of fats was: 50.7 % of monounsaturated fats, 38.5 % of saturated fats and 11.8 % of polyunsaturated fats. In both genotype groups (GG vs. GA + AA), weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, leptin, insulin and HOMA levels decreased. No statistical differences were detected in these changes between genotypes. In wild group (GG genotype) (pretreatment and posttreatment), BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and triglyceride levels were higher than (GA + AA) group. Our data showed better anthropometric parameters and triglyceride levels in obese subjects with the mutant allele (A) of rs6923761 GLP-1R polymorphism. A lack of association of this polymorphism with weight loss or biochemical changes after a hypocaloric diet was observed.

  16. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  17. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results.

  18. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  19. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-04-06

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  20. Effects of weight loss in metabolically healthy obese subjects after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and hypocaloric diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sesti

    Full Text Available Weight loss in metabolically healthy obese (MHO subjects may result in deterioration of cardio-metabolic risk profile. We analyzed the effects of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on cardio-metabolic risk factors in MHO and insulin resistant obese (IRO individuals. This study included 190 morbidly obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese individuals were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity index (ISI, estimated from an OGTT, into MHO (ISI index in the upper quartile and IRO (ISI in the three lower quartiles. Anthropometric and cardio-metabolic variables were measured at baseline and 6-months after LAGB. Six months after LAGB, anthropometric measures were significantly reduced in both MHO and IRO. Percent changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference did not differ between the two groups. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, triglycerides, AST, and ALT were significantly reduced, and HDL cholesterol significantly increased, in both MHO and IRO subjects with no differences in percent changes from baseline. Insulin sensitivity increased in both MHO and IRO group. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced in the IRO group only. However, the disposition index significantly increased in both MHO and IRO individuals with no differences in percent changes from baseline between the two groups. The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; P<0.0001. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the recommendation that weight loss in response to LAGB intervention should be considered an appropriate treatment option for morbidly obese individuals regardless of their metabolic status, i.e. MHO vs. IRO subjects.

  1. PPARγ Pro12Ala interacts with fat intake for obesity and weight loss in a behavioural treatment based on the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Hernández-González, Teresa; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, Jose M

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and weight loss and to analyze potential interactions between fat intake and PPARγ polymorphism in a Spanish overweight/obese population. We recruited 1465 subjects enrolled in a behavioural treatment program for obesity based on a Mediterranean diet, which included the following: dietary treatment, physical activity, nutritional education and behavioral techniques. A significant association was found between PPARγ2 Pro12Ala genotype and plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. Subjects with the Ala12 genotype had lower insulin levels than those with the Pro12Pro genotype. We detected a gene-diet interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and MUFA for BMI and body fat. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and fat intake for total weight loss (pPro12Ala and fat intake for weight loss may explain previous discrepancies among different studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  3. Weight reduction diets and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, L; Steen, S N; Brownell, K D

    1992-01-01

    Obesity is an important health problem. Despite record rates of dieting and the availability of numerous programs, the problem is not abating. This article discusses the popularity of fad diets, the safety and effectiveness of commonly used approaches to weight loss, and the health effects of weight change. We propose an approach in which the search for a best treatment is secondary to the development of criteria to match patients to different treatments. This approach provides an opportunity for the health professional to take advantage of the multiple weight reduction resources in the community.

  4. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of a conventional energy-restricted modified diet with or without meal replacement on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Sandy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension are essential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies showed favorable effects of weight loss in overweight subjects on cardiometabolic risk profile. Methods This open-label, randomized, controlled study investigated the effect of an energy-restricted modified diet with (MR or without meal replacements for weight control (C on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women. Of 105 randomized participants, 87 were eligible for per protocol analysis. Anthropometric, clinical, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Dietary intervention resulted in a significant weight loss in both groups (MR: -5.98 ± 2.82 kg; p 5% was higher in MR (77% versus C group (50% (p = 0.010. A significant reduction in waist circumference (WC and body fat mass (BFM was observed in both groups. Body cell mass (BCM and lean body mass (LBM decreased, while percentage of BCM of body weight increased in MR more than in C group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP significantly decreased and to a similar extent in both groups. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C but also HDL-C declined significantly in both groups, while no change occurred in triglycerides. Conclusions Both dietary intervention strategies had a similar effect on weight loss and body fat distribution, but rate of responder was significantly higher in MR group. Systolic BP decreased to a similar extent in both groups. Cardiometabolic risk profile improved only partly in both groups.

  6. The rs9939609 gene variant in FTO modified the metabolic response of weight loss after a 3-month intervention with a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Castrodeza Sanz, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity in some populations. Nevertheless, the role of FTO variants on body weight response after dietary intervention remains equivocal. We decided to analyze the effects of the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism on body weight changes and metabolic parameters after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet, a white population of 106 subjects with obesity was analyzed. Of the study subjects, 35 (33%) had the genotype TT and 71 (67%) had the next genotypes; TA (46 study subjects, 43.4%) or AA (25 study subjects, 23.6%). After dietary treatment and in TT group, weight, waist circumference, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment decreases were less than subjects carrying the A allele [-3.1 (3.6) vs -2.4 (4.1) kg: P weight loss in A carriers of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in TT genotype study subjects.

  7. Variants in glucose- and circadian rhythm-related genes affect the response of energy expenditure to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; de Jonge, Lilian; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank; Qi, Lu

    2014-02-01

    Circadian rhythm has been shown to be related to glucose metabolism and risk of diabetes, probably through effects on energy balance. Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in circadian rhythm-related genes (CRY2 and MTNR1B) associated with glucose homeostasis. We tested whether CRY2 and MTNR1B genotypes affected changes in measures of energy expenditure in response to a weight-loss diet intervention in a 2-y randomized clinical trial, the POUNDS (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) LOST Trial. The variants CRY2 rs11605924 (n = 721) and MTNR1B rs10830963 (n = 722) were genotyped in overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 weight-loss diets that differed in their proportions of macronutrients. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured. By 2 y of diet intervention, the A allele of CRY2 rs11605924 was significantly associated with a greater reduction in RQ (P = 0.03) and a greater increase in RMR and RMR/kg (both P = 0.04). The G allele of MTNR1B rs10830963 was significantly associated with a greater increase in RQ (P = 0.01) but was not related to changes in RMR and RMR/kg. In addition, we found significant gene-diet fat interactions for both CRY2 (P-interaction = 0.02) and MTNR1B (P-interaction genes CRY2 and MTNR1B may affect long-term changes in energy expenditure, and dietary fat intake may modify the genetic effects. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  8. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

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    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  9. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  10. Risk of symptomatic gallstones and cholecystectomy after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet in a commercial weight loss program: 1-year matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Sundström, J; Marcus, C; Hemmingsson, E; Neovius, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concern exists regarding gallstones as an adverse event of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs; gallstones requiring hospital care and/or cholecystectomy in a commercial weight loss program using VLCD or low-calorie diet (LCD). Design: A 1-year matched cohort study of consecutively enrolled adults in a commercial weight loss program conducted at 28 Swedish centers between 2006 and 2009. A 3-month weight loss phase of VLCD (500 kcal per day) or LCD (1200–1500 kcal per day) was followed by a 9-month weight maintenance phase. Matching (1:1) was performed by age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and gallstone history (n=3320:3320). Gallstone and cholecystectomy data were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. Results: One-year weight loss was greater in the VLCD than in the LCD group (−11.1 versus −8.1 kg; adjusted difference, −2.8 kg, 95% CI −3.1 to −2.4; Pgallstones requiring hospital care occurred in the VLCD and LCD groups, respectively, (152 versus 44/10 000 person–years; hazard ratio, 3.4, 95% CI 1.8–6.3; Pgallstone events, 38 (61%) resulted in cholecystectomy (29 versus 9; hazard ratio, 3.2, 95% CI 1.5–6.8; P=0.003; number-needed-to-harm, 151, 95% CI 94–377; Pgallstones (2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1; P=0.009) and became borderline for cholecystectomy (2.2, 95% CI 0.9–5.2; P=0.08). Conclusion: The risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospitalization or cholecystectomy, albeit low, was 3-fold greater with VLCD than LCD during the 1-year commercial weight loss program. PMID:23736359

  11. Master Amino acid Pattern as substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium with essentially no calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving 10 g (10 tablets) of Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a substitute for dietary proteins, once a day, to 114 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also preventing those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, or decreased libido, the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, allowed for mean weight loss of 1.4 kg (3 lb) per week.

  12. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment.

  13. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  14. The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshghinia Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a worldwide health problem with increasing prevalence. Decrease in energy intake has been shown to lower the risk of coronary artery disease in obese subjects. The common form of dietary restriction is daily calorie restriction (CR. Another form is alternate-day fasting (ADF. This study examined the ability of modified ADF to facilitate weight loss and lower cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women. Methods 15 adult subjects completed an 8 weeks trial (2 weeks observed and 6 weeks ADF. All women consumed very low calorie diet on the fast day and usually diet in every other day. Body weight (BW, fat mass and blood pressure (BP were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected at the first and 57th day of trial for biochemical analysis. Results During the course of the trial, BW of the subjects decreased (p Conclusion These finding suggest that short time ADF is a viable dietary option to help obese individuals lose weight and decrease some CAD risk factors. More and longer-term studies in human subjects are needed to support this important result.

  15. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  16. Exercise for Weight Loss: Calories Burned in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Weight loss By Mayo Clinic Staff Being active is an important part of any weight-loss or weight-maintenance program. When you're active, ... may need to be decreased further to continue weight loss. Both are important. However, while diet has a ...

  17. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  18. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  19. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (Pweight during ED regardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (Ploss of fat mass was higher (Presponse to a protein-rich meal during ED was not different (P>0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, Pmetabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.

  20. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades.......The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades....

  1. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy.

  2. Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high monounsaturated fat diet in obese non diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; De La Fuente, B; Conde, R; Eiros Bouza, J M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels to a high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 128 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way during 3 months. Eighty eight patients (21 males/67 females) (68.8%) had the genotype 55CC (wild genotype group) and 40 patients (8 males/32 females) (31.3%) 55CT (mutant genotype group). In wild genotype group, BMI (-1.6±1.3 kg/m2), weight (-4.3±3.7 kg), fat mass (-3.5±3.3 kg), waist circumference (-5.1±2.9 cm), total cholesterol (-7.2±10.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (-5.3±12.8 mg/dl) and leptin (-4.7±10.1 ng/ml) decreased. In mutant genotype group, BMI (1.3±2.2 kg/m2), weight (-3.0±1.4 kg), fat mass (-2.5±1.1 kg), waist circumference (-2.8±3.1 cm) and leptin (-5.8±10.7 decreased. In patients with -55CC UCP3 genotype, a high mono-unsaturated hypocaloric diet reduced BMI, weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, fat mass, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and leptin levels. Carriers of T allele had a different response than -55CC patients, with a significant decrease of the same antropometric parameters, but lower than in the wild genotype group, and without significant changes in cholesterol levels.

  3. Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among Overweight and Obese Women: A Parallel Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the effects of high protein (HP diets on cardiovascular (CVD risk factors have reported contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effects of an HP diet on CVD risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP among overweight and obese women. In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 60 overweight and obese women, aged 20–65, into an HP or energy-restricted control diet for three months (protein, carbohydrate, and fat: 25%, 45%, and 30% versus 15%, 55%, and 30%, resp.. Total protein was divided between animal and plant sources in a 1 : 1 ratio, and animal sources were distributed equally between meats and dairy products. Fasting blood samples, hs-CRP, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed using standard guidelines. Percent change was significantly different between the two diet groups for weight (standard protein (SP: −3.90 ± 0.26 versus HP: −6.10 ± 0.34%; , resp. and waist circumference (SP: −3.03 ± 0.21 versus HP: −5.06 ± 0.28%; , resp.. Percent change of fasting blood glucose (FBG substantially decreased in the control group compared to the HP group (−9.13 ± 0.67 versus −4.93 ± 1.4%; P = 0.01, resp.. Total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP decreased both in the HP and in the control diet groups (P = 0.06, P = 0.07, and P = 0.09, resp.; however, the results were marginally significant. Serum levels of hs-CRP were reduced both in the control (−0.08 ± 0.11%, P = 0.06 and in the high protein groups (−0.04 ± 0.09%, P = 0.06. The energy-restricted HP diet resulted in more beneficial effects on weight loss and reduction of waist circumference. CVD risk factors may improve with HP diets among overweight and obese women. When using isoenergetic weight loss diets, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, and SBP were marginally significantly reduced, independent of dietary protein content

  4. The effects on weight loss and gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissues of very-low carbohydrate and low-fat isoenergetic diets in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Okawa, Sumire; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is caused by excessive fat or carbohydrate intake. The improvement of obesity is an important issue, especially in Western societies. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) are used to achieve weight loss in humans. To clarify the mechanisms underlying LCD-induced weight loss, especially in early stage, we compared the gene expression in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD)- and LFD-fed diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO male ddY mice were divided into high-fat diet (HFD), and isoenergetic VLCD and LFD groups. Pair-feeding was performed in the VLCD and LFD groups. Three weeks later, the body, liver, WAT and BAT were weighed and the serum and hepatic lipids, the mRNA expression levels in each tissue, and energy metabolism were analyzed. The caloric intake of the VLCD-fed mice was initially reduced but was subsequently restored. The total energy intake was similar in the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice. There was a similar decrease in the BW of the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice. The VLCD-fed mice had elevated levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and ketone bodies, which are known to increase energy expenditure. The browning of WAT was observed to a greater extent in the VLCD-fed mice. Moreover, in the VLCD-fed mice, BAT activation was observed, the weight of the BAT was decreased, and the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor 120, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, and FGF21 in BAT was extremely increased. Although the energy expenditure of the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice did not differ, that of the VLCD-fed mice was sometimes higher during the dark cycle. Hepatic TG accumulation was reduced in LFD-fed mice due to their decreased fatty acid uptake but not in the VLCD-fed mice. The pro-inflammatory macrophage ratio was increased in the WAT of VLCD-fed mice. After 3 weeks, the isoenergetic VLCD- and LFD-fed DIO mice showed similar weight loss. The VLCD-fed mice increased serum

  5. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  6. [Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; GonzÁlez Sagrado, M; Conde, R; Ruiz Mambrilla, M

    2012-01-01

    The alteration in the protein expression of UCP3 could reduce energy consumption and increase energy storage as fat. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene in the metabolic response, weight loss and serum levels of adipokines following a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fat in obese patients. A sample of 133 obese patients were analyzed prospectively for 3 months. The hypocaloric diet was 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrate, 34.4% from 19.9% lipids and proteins. The fat distribution was, a 21.8% saturated fat, 55.5% monounsaturated and 22.7% of polyunsaturated fat (7 g per day of fatty acids w6, 2 g per day of w -3 and a ratio w6/w3 of 3.5). A total of 100 patients (28 males/72 females) (75.2%) had genotype - 55CC (wild genotype group) and 33 patients (8 males/25 females) (24.8%) -55CT genotype (group mutant genotype). In the wild genotype, body mass index (-2.5 ± 5.3 kg/m²), weight (-4.2 ± 3.7 kg), fat mass (-3,7 ± 3.3 kg), waist circumference (-4.1 ± 2.9 cm), systolic blood pressure (-4.9 ± 10.1 mmHg), total cholesterol levels (- 16.1 ± 23.6 mg / dl), LDL cholesterol (-11.1 ± 26.8 mg/dl), triglycerides (-12.0 ± 46.8 mg/dl), insulin (-1.8 ± 4.5 IU/L), HOMA-R (-0.6 ± 1.5) and leptin (-6.2 ± 8.4 ng/ml) decreased. In the mutant genotype anthropometric parameters were significantly decreased without significant changes in biochemical parameters. The T allele carriers of -55CT UCP3 polymorphism exhibit no metabolic response to weight loss induced by a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on factors relating to reasons why the weight loss programmes had ... the increase according to a National Health and Nutrition .... classes after weight gain. 7. 14. 26 .... 'slow metabolism' (8%), and a chronic problem of premenstrual.

  8. Role of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 2 Ala54Thr Genotype on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors after a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet during 9 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene mRNA is under dietary control. The polymorphism Ala54Thr of this protein was associated with high insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels secondary to high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. standard hypocaloric diets during 9 months. A population of 193 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 9-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet HP: high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. diet S: standard diet). With both diets and in both genotype groups, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and leptin levels decreased. With both diets and only in wild genotype (diet HP vs. diet S), glucose (-6.2 ± 2.1 vs. -4.9 ± 2.0 mg/dl; p metabolic response after weight loss than wild type non-A carriers obese, with a lack of decrease of LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-R. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Herreman, Laure; Palm, Inge; Hegeman, Maria A; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-05-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.

  10. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; Pfat distribution in men and women.

  11. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  12. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  13. Effect of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on markers of cardiovascular risk among premenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraker, Randi E; Pennell, Michael; Sprangers, Peter; Vitolins, Mara Z; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-08-01

    Low-fat and low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets can have a beneficial effect on longitudinal measures of blood pressure and blood lipids. We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in blood pressure and blood lipids in a population of premenopausal women. We hypothesized that results may differ by level of adherence to the respective diet protocol and baseline presence of hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomized to a low-fat (n=41) or low-carbohydrate (n=38) diet. As part of the 52-week Lifestyle Eating and Fitness (LEAF) intervention trial, we fit linear mixed models to determine whether a change in outcome differed by treatment arm. Within-group trends in blood pressure and blood lipids did not differ (p>0.30). Across study arms, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP, 3 mm Hg, p=0.01) over time, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not change significantly over the course of the study. Blood lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoproteins [LDL], and high-density lipoproteins [HDL]) all exhibited nonlinear trends over time (p0.20). We observed a decline in SBP among women who were hypertensive at baseline (p0.40). Our results support that dietary interventions may be efficacious for lowering blood pressure and blood lipids among overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, a decrease in SBP was the only favorable change that was sustained in this study population. These changes can be maintained over the course of a 1-year intervention, yet changes in blood lipids may be less sustainable.

  14. Tesofensine induces appetite suppression and weight loss with reversal of low forebrain dopamine levels in the diet-induced obese rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Jensen, Majbrit M; Overgaard, Agnete

    2013-01-01

    Tesofensine is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor which inhibits noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine reuptake. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong and sustained effects in obesity management is not clarif......, tesofensine produces weight loss together with reversal of lowered forebrain dopamine levels in DIO rats, suggesting that tesofensine's anti-obesity effects, at least in part, are associated with positive modulation of central dopaminergic activity....... is not clarified. Tesofensine effectively induces appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat partially being ascribed to an indirect stimulation of central dopamine receptor function subsequent to blocked dopamine transporter activity. This is interesting, as obese patients have reduced central...... dopaminergic activity thought to provide a drive for compensatory overeating, but whether treatment with an uptake inhibitor counteracts these changes or not has not been investigated. Tesofensine treatment (2.0mg/kg/day for 14days) caused a pronounced anorexigenic and weight-reducing response in DIO rats...

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely related to binge eating disorder in patients seeking a weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Ponissi, Veronica; Beggio, Valentina; Leone, Alessandro; Battezzati, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The key factors influencing the development of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are not well known. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been suspected to reduce the risk of several mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. There are no existing studies that have examined the relationships between BED and MD. Cross-sectional study of 1472 participants (71.3% women; mean age: 44.8 ± 12.7) at high risk of BED. A MD score (MED-score) was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire and BED by Binge Eating Scale questionnaire (BES). Body mass index, waist circumference and total body fat (%) were assessed by anthropometric measurements. 376 (25.5%) cases of self reported BED were identified. 11.1% of participants had a good adherence to MD (MED-score ≥ 9). After adjustments for age, gender, nutritional status, education, and physical activity level, high MED-score was associated with lower odds for BED (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of a BED disorder for successive levels of MED-score were 1 (reference), 0.77 (0.44, 1.36), 0.66 (0.37, 1.15), 0.50 (0.26, 0.96), and 0.45 (0.22, 0.55) (P for trend: binge eaters. These results demonstrate an inverse association between MD and the development of BED in a clinical setting among subjects at risk of BED. Therefore, we should be cautious about generalizing the results to the whole population, although reverse causality and confounding cannot be excluded as explanation. Further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  17. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman; Leila Azadbakht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight re...

  18. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case.

  19. [EFFECT OF LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIETS ON WEIGHT LOSS AND GLYCOSILATED HEMOGLOBIN IN PEOPLE WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Alcantara, Gloria; Jiménez Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí Gascón, Montserrat

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: algunos expertos señalan que las dietas bajas en carbohidratos (DBC) son más efectivas para la reducción de peso y el control glucémico. Sin embargo, los resultados a largo plazo son controversiales. Objetivo: realizar una revisión y análisis de estudios aleatorizados que estudien el efecto de la DBC sobre el control metabólico en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 en un periodo igual o superior a 10 meses. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de estudios aleatorizados controlados publicados en PubMed, EBSCOhost y Scielo hasta el 15 de mayo del 2015. Se buscaron estudios publicados en inglés y español, utilizando los términos de búsqueda: “diabetes mellitus” AND “carbohydrate restricted diet” OR “restricted carbohydrate diet” OR “low carbohydrate diet” AND “weight loss”. Resultados: cuatro estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El número de participantes fue de 444 individuos, el rango de edad fue de 18 a 70 años. El tiempo de seguimiento osciló entre los 10 y 24 meses. Tres de los cuatro estudios reportaron una reducción de peso con la DBC. Al compararlos con otras dietas no se observaron diferencias significativas en la pérdida de peso ni en los niveles de A1C. Conclusiones: esta revisión muestra que en tres de los cuatro estudios las DBC son efectivas para la pérdida de peso en un período de 10 a 24 meses. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias que demuestren mayor efectividad para la pérdida de peso o la reducción de AIC, cuando se comparan con otras dietas.

  20. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active.

  1. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in self-motivated patients: optimized diet, exercise, and medication for weight loss and cardiometabolic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem with significant lifetime health care costs. The majority of Americans do not achieve minimal targets for exercise, and individuals with T2DM typically engage in less exercise than the general adult population. However, those patients with T2DM who are sufficiently self-motivated to manage their condition have the potential to reverse diabetes and prevent its complications through behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. Marked improvements are possible through increased awareness and selection of healthy eating options, a willingness to incorporate vigorous exercise into their lifestyle, and the use of newer medications that essentially eliminate the risk of hypoglycemia while facilitating weight loss and the achievement of ideal glucose targets. For self-motivated patients, daily aerobic activity of 45 to 60 minutes per day may be a suitable target. For those who have cardiovascular clearance, high-intensity interval training accomplishes high levels of cardiometabolic fitness with shorter training periods by alternating moderate and intense exertion. Suitable medications that have a low risk of hypoglycemia during exercise include metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors. Specific daily caloric goals and incorporation of a mainly plant-based diet should be considered as a primary target for diabetes management. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals, and mobile applications can be useful tools to support lifestyle changes in patients with T2DM.

  2. Weight loss history as a predictor of weight loss: results from Phase I of the weight loss maintenance trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Valerie H.; McVay, Megan A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hollis, Jack F.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Funk, Kristine L.; Gullion, Christina M.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Stevens, Victor J; Svetkey, Laura P; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that weight loss history is associated with subsequent weight loss. However, questions remain whether method and amount of weight lost in previous attempts impacts current weight loss efforts. This study utilized data from the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial to examine the association between weight loss history and weight loss outcomes in a diverse sample of high-risk individuals. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine which specific aspects of ...

  3. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Messier, Stephen P; Loeser, Richard F; Miller, Gary D; Morgan, Timothy M; Rejeski, W Jack; Sevick, Mary Ann; Ettinger, Jr, Walter H; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff D

    2004-01-01

    ... long-term exercise and dietary weight loss are more effective, either separately or in combination, than usual care in improving physical function, pain, and mobility in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA...

  4. Promoting weight loss through diet and exercise in overweight or obese breast cancer survivors (InForma): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Dragà, Daniele; Baggi, Federica; Simoncini, Maria Claudia; Sabbatini, Annarita; Mazzocco, Ketti; Bassi, Fabio Domenico; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Most women with breast cancer experience a progressive weight gain during and after treatment. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, and death. Physical activity after cancer diagnosis has been reported to have positive effects on body composition and quality of life. We present the protocol of the InForma study, a trial testing the efficacy of an intervention on weight loss (≥5 % of the baseline body weight) in a group of overweig...

  5. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  6. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-02-06

    Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. We included 100 overweight and obese adults (55-80 year) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design and intention-to-treat analysis. During a 10-week weight loss program all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet. Subjects were randomly allocated to either a high protein (1.3 g/kg body weight) or normal protein diet (0.8 g/kg), with or without a resistance exercise program 3 times/week. FFM was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. At baseline, mean (±SD) BMI was 32 ± 4 kg/m(2). During intervention, protein intake was 1.13 ± 0.35 g/kg in the high protein groups vs. 0.98 ± 0.29 in the normal protein groups, which reflects a 16.3 ± 5.2 g/d higher protein intake in the high protein groups. Both high protein diet and exercise did not significantly affect change in body weight, FFM and fat mass (FM). No significant protein*exercise interaction effect was observed for FFM. However, within-group analysis showed that high protein in combination with exercise significantly increased FFM (+0.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.011). A high protein diet, though lower than targeted, did not significantly affect changes in FFM during modest weight loss in older overweight and obese adults. There was no significant interaction between the high protein diet and resistance exercise for change in FFM. However, only the group with the combined intervention of high protein diet and resistance exercise significantly increased in FFM. Dutch Trial Register, number NTR4556, date 05-01-2014.

  7. Biochemical parameters response to weight loss in patients with non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Weight loss modulates insulin resistance, adiponectin, leptin, inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of ..... had significant change in levels of AST and ALT from baseline .... World Health Organization: Diet, Nutrition and the.

  8. Supporting your child with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care provider can set healthy goals for weight-loss and help with monitoring and support. Getting support ... to get the whole family to join a weight-loss plan, even if weight loss is not the ...

  9. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  10. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  11. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  12. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...

  13. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES...... well to dietary, physical activity, or drug based weight loss interventions and thus genetic predisposition to obesity associated with the FTO minor allele can be at least partly counteracted through such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015015969.......: Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  14. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva; Polák, Jan; Marques, Marie A; Berlan, Michel; Van de Voorde, Johan; Bulow, Jens; Langin, Dominique; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Stich, Vladimir

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the adrenergic and insulin-mediated regulation of lipolysis during different phases of a 6-mo dietary intervention. Eight obese women underwent a 6-mo dietary intervention consisting of a 1-mo very low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by a 2-mo low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned to the prediet levels. Furthermore, no direct relationship between insulin sensitivity and the diet-induced changes in the regulation of lipolysis was found.

  15. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  16. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  17. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  18. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...... profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity...

  19. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  20. Differences in Weight Loss Across Different BMI Classes:A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Interventions with Diet and Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Veldwijk, J.; Teixeira, P.J.; Sacks, F.M.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions are effective for weight loss and are recommended for persons with a body mass index (BMI) of 25–40 kg m−2. However, this group is very heterogeneous, which could influence outcomes from lifestyle interventions. Purpose In this systematic review, differences in 1-y

  1. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on lipoprotein(a) levels in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Berk (Kirsten); R. Yahya (Reyhana); A.J.M. Verhoeven; J. Touw (Jeanette); F.P.J. Leijten (Frank); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); V.L. Wester (Vincent); M.A. Lips (Mirjam A.); H. Pijl (Hanno); R. Timman (Reinier); G. Erhart (Gertraud); F. Kronenberg (Florian); J.E. Roeters van Lennep (Jeanine); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.T. Mulder (Monique)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Aims/hypothesis:_ Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although weight loss improves conventional risk factors for CVD in type 2 diabetes, the effects on Lp(a) are

  2. Differences in weight loss across different BMI classes: A meta-analysis of the effects of interventions with diet and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Veldwijk, J.; Teixeira, P.J.; Sacks, F.M.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions are effective for weight loss and are recommended for persons with a body mass index (BMI) of 25–40 kg m−2. However, this group is very heterogeneous, which could influence outcomes from lifestyle interventions. Purpose In this systematic review, differences in 1-y

  3. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tate, Deborah F; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lyons, Elizabeth; Stevens, June; Erickson, Karen; Polzien, Kristen; Diamond, Molly; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    ...) as a method of weight loss over 6 mo in adults and attention controls (ACs). Overweight and obese adults [n = 318; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 36.3 ± 5.9; 84% female; age (mean ± SD): 42 ± 10.7 y; 54% black...

  4. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  5. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  6. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  7. Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Johnstone

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP or resistant starch (RS, above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS than observed with modest weight loss (WL. Obese male volunteers (n = 14 were given an energy-maintenance (M diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS, each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001, as did EGP (−11%, p = 0.006. Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001 and RS (p < 0.05 diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%–83%, p < 0.005. Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat improved IS.

  8. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  9. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  10. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  11. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  14. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-11-03

    To describe participants' adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m(2)). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 +/- 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.

  15. Exercise and diet induced weight loss improves measures of oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in adults with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, R. Scott; Warner, Shana O.; Ying LIU; Hinton, Pamela S.; Sun, Grace Y.; Cox, Richard H.; Stump, Craig S.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Thomas, Tom R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) increase the risk for coronary heart disease; however, much of this risk is not attributable to traditional risk factors. We sought to determine whether weight loss associated with supervised aerobic exercise beneficially alters biomarkers of oxidative stress and whether these alterations are associated with improvements in measures of insulin resistance. Twenty-five sedentary and overweight to obese [body mass index (BMI) = 33.0 ± 0.8 kg/m2] individuals, w...

  16. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  17. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  18. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R;

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  19. Dieta hiperlipídico-proteica utilizada para emagrecimento induz obesidade em ratos Low-carbohydrate diet used for weight loss induces obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, analisa-se o efeito de dieta hiperlipídico-proteica com baixo teor de carboidrato sobre o peso corporal, peso de órgãos, consumo de ração, parâmetros bioquímicos e alterações histopatológicas no fígado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 animais - 12 no grupo-controle e 12 no grupo-experimental - com peso médio de 160 gramas no início do experimento. Semanalmente, foram verificados o peso corporal e o consumo de ração, e ao final de oito semanas foram feitas as dosagens bioquímicas sanguíneas, pesagem de órgãos e análise histopatológica dos fígados. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo-experimental tiveram maior ganho de peso corporal e acumularam mais tecido adiposo que os animais do grupo-controle. Fígado, rins e baço não sofreram alterações quanto ao peso. Os animais que receberam dieta hiperlipídico-proteica tiveram um aumento na ingestão energética acumulada nas oito semanas do estudo. O grupo-experimental desenvolveu hiperglicemia e hipertrigliceridemia, aumento da fração lipoproteína de alta densidade do colesterol e da creatinina sérica quando comparado ao grupo-controle. Foi detectada esteatose hepática no grupo-experimental. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram que dietas pobres em carboidratos e ricas em gordura e proteínas podem acarretar alterações metabólicas prejudiciais ao organismo.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the effect of a high fat, high protein and low carbohydrate diet on the body weight, organ weight, food intake and biochemical parameters of rats and the histopathological changes in their livers. METHODS: A total of 24 animals were used, 12 in the control group and 12 in the experimental group, with a mean weight of 160 grams at baseline. Body weight and food intake were collected weekly. At the end of 8 weeks, the animals were killed for the biochemical tests and weighing of organs and the livers were submitted to histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The

  20. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of the various population groups with normal body weight also attempt to lose weight. These include you...

  1. Effect of short-term hyperglycemia on adipose tissue fluxes of selected cytokines in vivo during multiple phases of diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siklova, Michaela; Simonsen, Lene; Polak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    with the improvement of antilipolytic insulin sensitivity in scAT. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that short-term hyperglycemia induces an increase of the output of cytokines IL-6, IL-1Ra, and MCP-1 from adipose tissue, and this deleterious hyperglycemia effect may be attenuated by the diet-induced weight reduction......CONTEXT: Hyperglycemia is suggested to be one of the drivers of the proinflammatory state observed in obese and diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate whether sc abdominal adipose tissue (scAT) could be one of the important sources of proinflammatory cytokines......-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), serum amyloid A, and C-reactive protein] in arterial and venous plasma were measured during each dietary phase. The insulin sensitivity of scAT in respect to the antilipolytic effect of insulin during the clamp...

  2. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  3. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  4. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  5. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  6. Ways to Track Weight Loss Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165874.html Ways to Track Weight Loss Success There's more to it than the scale ... News) -- Self-monitoring is part of virtually every weight loss plan, and weighing yourself is a key part ...

  7. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  8. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  9. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP......Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  10. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition.

  11. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  12. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orreality.

  13. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    OpenAIRE

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orre...

  14. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  15. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  16. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...... regained 2.73 kg (95% CI 1.33 to 4.13; P weight regain on NNR compared to ADD (-4.21 kg [95% CI -6.83 to -1.59]; P = 0.002) and MUFA (95% CI -2.77 kg [-5.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  17. High-protein/high red meat and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets do not differ in their effect on faecal water genotoxicity tested by use of the WIL2-NS cell line and with other biomarkers of bowel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Evans, Bianca; Clifton, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Fenech, Michael

    2010-12-21

    The impact of popular weight-loss diets with different macronutrient profiles on bowel health in humans has not been previously assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a high-protein/high red meat (HP) diet influences faecal water genotoxicity and other standard biomarkers of bowel health differently compared with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Thirty-three male subjects were randomly assigned to a HP (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate) or HC (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate) isocaloric energy-restricted dietary intervention consisting of 12 weeks intensive weight loss followed by weight maintenance for up to 52 weeks. Faecal samples were collected at 0, 12 and 52 weeks. Faecal water genotoxicity was assessed in the WIL2-NS human B lymphoblastoid cell line by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Average weight loss after 12 weeks was 9.3 ± 0.7kg for both diets, with no further change in weight at 52 weeks. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect with time (Pacid excretion, phenol or p-cresol. Results suggest that HP and HC weight-loss diets may modify the carcinogenic profile of the bowel contents such that weight loss may exert a beneficial effect by reducing genotoxic load in the short term; however, these results require verification against a non-weight-loss control. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikokavoura EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods: The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS. Results: PCOS (n=508 and non-PCOS (n=508 participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit. A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137 and non-PCOS participants (n=137 (–18.5±6.6 kg vs –19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190. Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08. Conclusion: Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight

  19. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  20. Biology's response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Paul S; Bergouignan, Audrey; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Jackman, Matthew R

    2011-09-01

    Dieting is the most common approach to losing weight for the majority of obese and overweight individuals. Restricting intake leads to weight loss in the short term, but, by itself, dieting has a relatively poor success rate for long-term weight reduction. Most obese people eventually regain the weight they have worked so hard to lose. Weight regain has emerged as one of the most significant obstacles for obesity therapeutics, undoubtedly perpetuating the epidemic of excess weight that now affects more than 60% of U.S. adults. In this review, we summarize the evidence of biology's role in the problem of weight regain. Biology's impact is first placed in context with other pressures known to affect body weight. Then, the biological adaptations to an energy-restricted, low-fat diet that are known to occur in the overweight and obese are reviewed, and an integrative picture of energy homeostasis after long-term weight reduction and during weight regain is presented. Finally, a novel model is proposed to explain the persistence of the "energy depletion" signal during the dynamic metabolic state of weight regain, when traditional adiposity signals no longer reflect stored energy in the periphery. The preponderance of evidence would suggest that the biological response to weight loss involves comprehensive, persistent, and redundant adaptations in energy homeostasis and that these adaptations underlie the high recidivism rate in obesity therapeutics. To be successful in the long term, our strategies for preventing weight regain may need to be just as comprehensive, persistent, and redundant, as the biological adaptations they are attempting to counter.

  1. Biology's response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Jackman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is the most common approach to losing weight for the majority of obese and overweight individuals. Restricting intake leads to weight loss in the short term, but, by itself, dieting has a relatively poor success rate for long-term weight reduction. Most obese people eventually regain the weight they have worked so hard to lose. Weight regain has emerged as one of the most significant obstacles for obesity therapeutics, undoubtedly perpetuating the epidemic of excess weight that now affects more than 60% of U.S. adults. In this review, we summarize the evidence of biology's role in the problem of weight regain. Biology's impact is first placed in context with other pressures known to affect body weight. Then, the biological adaptations to an energy-restricted, low-fat diet that are known to occur in the overweight and obese are reviewed, and an integrative picture of energy homeostasis after long-term weight reduction and during weight regain is presented. Finally, a novel model is proposed to explain the persistence of the “energy depletion” signal during the dynamic metabolic state of weight regain, when traditional adiposity signals no longer reflect stored energy in the periphery. The preponderance of evidence would suggest that the biological response to weight loss involves comprehensive, persistent, and redundant adaptations in energy homeostasis and that these adaptations underlie the high recidivism rate in obesity therapeutics. To be successful in the long term, our strategies for preventing weight regain may need to be just as comprehensive, persistent, and redundant, as the biological adaptations they are attempting to counter. PMID:21677272

  2. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2010-03-25

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

  3. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P M Verhoef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males, age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod, protein levels (Western blot and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. RESULTS: A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4 during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc and lipolysis (ATGL were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION: Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  4. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2), followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  5. Role of G308 promoter variant of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene on weight loss and metabolic parameters after a high monounsaturated versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2013-09-07

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of G-308 promoter variant of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha gene on metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A sample of 261 obese subjects were enrolled in a consecutive prospective way, from May 2011 to July 2012 in a tertiary hospital. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). One hundred and ninety seven patients (73.2%) had the genotype G-308G and 64 (26.8%) patients had the genotype G-308A. There were no significant differences between the effects (on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass) in either genotype group with both diets. With the diet type P and in genotype G-308G, glucose levels (-6.7(22.1)mg/dl vs -3.7(2.2)mg/dl: p = 0.02), HOMA-R (-0.6(2.1)units vs -0.26(3.1)units: p = 0.01), insulin levels (-1.7(6.6)UI/L vs -0.6(7.1)UI/L: p = 0.009), total cholesterol levels (-15.3(31.1)mg/dl vs -8.4(22.1)mg/dl: p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol levels (-10.7(28.1)mg/dl vs -3.8(21.1)mg/dl: p = 0.008) and triglycerides (-12.1(52.1)mg/dl vs -6.6(43.1)mg/dl: p = 0.02) decreased. Carriers of the G-308G promoter variant of TNF alpha gene have a better metabolic response than A-308 obese with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Food preferences and weight change during low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Smith, Valerie A.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Mayer, Stephanie; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding associations between food preferences and weight loss during various effective diets could inform efforts to personalize dietary recommendations and provide insight into weight loss mechanisms. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial in which participants were randomized to either a ‘choice’ arm, in which they were allowed to select between a low-fat diet (n=44) or low-carbohydrate diet (n=61), or to a ‘no choice’ arm, in which they were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet (n=49) or low-carbohydrate diet (n=53). All participants were provided 48 weeks of lifestyle counseling. Food preferences were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks thereafter with the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire. Participants were 73% male and 51% African American, with a mean age of 55. Baseline food preferences, including congruency of food preferences with diet, were not associated with weight outcomes. In the low-fat diet group, no associations were found between changes in food preferences and weight over time. In the low-carbohydrate diet group, increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with weight loss from 12 to 24 weeks. Additionally, weight loss from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from 12 to 24 weeks. Results suggest that basing selection of low-carbohydrate diet or low-fat diet on food preferences is unlikely to influence weight loss. Congruency of food preferences and weight loss may influence each other early during a low-carbohydrate diet but not low-fat diet, possibly due to different features of these diets. PMID:27133551

  7. The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truby Helen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recognition of obesity in young people as a key health issue, there is limited evidence to inform health professionals regarding the most appropriate treatment options. The Eat Smart study aims to contribute to the knowledge base of effective dietary strategies for the clinical management of the obese adolescent and examine the cardiometablic effects of a reduced carbohydrate diet versus a low fat diet. Methods and design Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured. Discussion The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some

  8. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  9. Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dixon, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teevale, Tasileta

    2013-03-01

    The current research aims to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. New Zealand secondary schools, 2007. Secondary-school students (n 9107). Among young people who attempted weight loss in the previous year, 51% reported long-term weight loss (lost weight and maintained weight loss for 6 months). Students reporting long-term weight loss were more likely to be male, but did not differ by age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation or measured weight status from students who reported temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Students with long-term weight loss also reported healthier weight-control strategies (e.g., exercising, eating fewer fatty foods, eating fewer sweets), high parental support for healthy eating/activity and were less likely to report being teased about their weight by their family and having junk food available at home than students with temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Approximately 50% of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family.

  10. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  11. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Kristin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2 with clinically diagnosed knee OA participated in a 14-week exercise and weight loss program. Participants followed an isoenergenic low fat higher carbohydrate (HC or higher protein (HP diet while participating in a supervised 30-minute circuit resistance-training program three times per week for 14-weeks. In a randomized and double blind manner, participants ingested supplements containing 1,500 mg/d of glucosamine (as d-glucosamine HCL, 1,200 mg/d of chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium, and 900 mg/d of methylsulfonylmethane or a placebo. At 0, 10, and 14-weeks, participants completed a battery of assessments. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results Participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in body mass (-2.4 ± 3%, fat mass (-6.0 ± 6%, and body fat (-3.5 ± 4% with no significant changes in fat free mass or resting energy expenditure. Perception of knee pain (-49 ± 39% and knee stiffness (-42 ± 37% was decreased while maximal strength (12%, muscular endurance (20%, balance indices (7% to 20%, lipid levels (-8% to -12%, homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (-17%, leptin (-30%, and measures of physical functioning (59%, vitality (120%, and social function (66% were improved in both groups with no differences among groups. Functional aerobic capacity was increased to a greater degree for those in the HP and GCM groups while there were some trends suggesting that supplementation affected

  12. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  13. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  14. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  15. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  16. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped.......6%) groups than in the control group (2.6 +/- 0.5%) (P fasting insulin decreased by 2.6 +/- 3.5 pmol/L, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by 0.17 +/- 0.13, and the ratio of LDL to HDL by 0.33 +/- 0.13; in the LF group, these variables increased by 4.3 +/- 3...

  17. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  18. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else M; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...

  19. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  20. Local recruitment experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of a low glycaemic index diet with a low calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiomo, William; Read, Anna; Golding, Mary; Silcocks, Paul; Razali, Nuguelis; Sarkar, Sabitabrata; Hardiman, Paul; Thornton, Jim

    2009-09-01

    Feasibility of a clinical-trial comparing a low-glycaemic diet with a low-calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS. A pilot Randomised-Controlled-Trial using different recruitment strategies. A University Hospital in the United Kingdom. Women seen at specialist gynaecology clinics over a 12 month period in one University Hospital, and women self identified through a website and posters. Potential recruits were assessed for eligibility, gave informed consent, randomised, treated and assessed as in the definitive trial. Eligibility and recruitment rates, compliance with the allocated diet for 6 months and with clinical assessments, blood tests, pelvic ultrasound scans and endometrial biopsies. 1433 new and 2598 follow up patients were seen in 153 gynaecology clinics for over 12 months. 441 (11%) potentially eligible women were identified, 19 (0.4%) of whom met the trial entry criteria. Eleven consented to take part, of which 8 (73%) completed the study. Planned future trials on over-weight women with PCOS should be multicentre and should incorporate primary care. This data will help other researchers plan and calculate the sample size and potential recruitment rates in future clinical trials in PCOS. The results will also be useful for inclusion in future meta-analyses.

  1. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self, interpersonal/social and situational constraints, ... patterns sanctioned by cultural and social norms and styles.II ... tage, namely 61%, was reponed by the National Adolescent .... Having to disclose one's actual weight to other members.

  2. Internalized weight bias in weight-loss surgery patients: psychosocial correlates and weight loss outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Napolitano, Melissa A; Wood, G Craig; Argyropoulos, George; Gerhard, Glenn S; Hayes, Sharon; Foster, Gary D; Collins, Charlotte A; Still, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between pre-operative internalized weight bias and 12-month post-operative weight loss in adult bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery patients (n=170) from one urban and one rural medical center completed an internalized weight bias measure (the weight bias internalization scale, WBIS) and a depression survey (Beck depression inventory-II, BDI-II) before surgery, and provided consent to access their medical records. Participants (BMI=47.8 kg/m2, age=45.7 years) were mostly female (82.0 %), White (89.5 %), and underwent gastric bypass (83.6 %). The average WBIS score by item was 4.54 ± 1.3. Higher pre-operative WBIS scores were associated with diminished weight loss at 12 months after surgery (p=0.035). Pre-operative WBIS scores were positively associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). Greater internalized weight bias was associated with more depressive symptoms before surgery and less weight loss 1 year after surgery.

  3. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  4. Factors predictive of drop-out and weight loss success in weight management of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžiabdić, M Ortner; Mucalo, I; Hrabač, P; Matić, T; Rahelić, D; Božikov, V

    2015-02-01

    The prevention and treatment of overweight and obese individuals on a population-wide basis is challenging because patients have difficulties with adhering to weight loss programmes. The present study aimed to evaluate patients' adherence to the weight reduction programme by identifying factors predictive of both drop-out rate and weight loss success. One-hundred and twenty-four obese patients participated in a 12-month weight reduction programme, involving group therapy during an intensive 5-day educational intervention, followed by five, 2-h follow-up visits. The primary outcome measures included drop-out rate and percentage weight loss. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as type of diet, were explored as potential predictive factors. Type of diet was assigned based on randomisation. Regression analyses were conducted to identify predictive variables of drop-out and weight loss success. In total, 33.1% of all recruited participants were deemed successful because they reduced the initial weight by more than 5% after the 12-month intervention. The overall attrition rate was 32.3%. In a multiple regression model, initial weight loss and marital status were the strongest predictors of weight loss success after 1-year period (r(2) = 0.481, P drop-out were those with a lower educational level [odds ratio (OR) = 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-8.70, P = 0.018] and a higher level of obesity (OR = 0.974, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99, P = 0.010). The present study demonstrates that initial weight loss at 1 month made the strongest unique contribution to the prediction of percentage weight loss after 12 months, whereas being married was a negative predictor. Those with a lower educational level and a higher level of obesity were more likely to drop-out. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  6. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  7. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain.

  8. Weight-loss supplements: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Shewmake, Roger A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in this country. In an effort to address this major public health problem, people have adopted a variety of strategies. These include medical and surgical interventions, both rational and fad diets, exercise and assorted weight-loss dietary supplements. Recent U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) action involving some of these proprietary supplements raises questions of both their safety and efficacy. This article reviews the evidence behind the components of many of these supplements and discusses the role of nutrition in weight loss.

  9. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Few Evidence-Based Features of Dietary Interventions Included in Photo Diet Tracking Mobile Apps for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline; Wilcox, Sara; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-11-01

    Apps using digital photos to track dietary intake and provide feedback are common, but currently there has been no research examining what evidence-based strategies are included in these apps. A content analysis of mobile apps for photo diet tracking was conducted, including whether effective techniques for interventions promoting behavior change, including self-regulation, for healthy eating (HE) are targeted. An initial search of app stores yielded 34 apps (n = 8 Android and Apple; n = 11 Android; n = 15 Apple). One app was removed (unable to download), and other apps (n = 4) were unable to be rated (no longer available). Remaining apps (n = 29) were downloaded, reviewed, and coded by 2 independent reviewers to determine the number of known effective self-regulation and other behavior change techniques included. The raters met to compare their coding of the apps, calculate interrater agreement, resolve any discrepancies, and come to a consensus. Six apps (21%) did not utilize any of the behavior change techniques examined. Three apps (10%) provided feedback to users via crowdsourcing or collective feedback from other users and professionals, 7 apps (24%) used crowdsourcing or collective feedback, 1 app (3%) used professionals, and 18 apps (62%) did not provide any dietary feedback to users. Few photo diet-tracking apps include evidence-based strategies to improve dietary intake. Use of photos to self-monitor dietary intake and receive feedback has the potential to reduce user burden for self-monitoring, yet photo diet tracking apps need to incorporate known effective behavior strategies for HE, including self-regulation. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  11. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    , adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...... diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain weight (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total testosterone and low SHBG are predictors of weight loss......OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  13. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  14. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. PMID:25614203

  15. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-02-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity reviews © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. A twin study of weight loss and metabolic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Stunkard, A; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Allison, D B

    2001-04-01

    To assess the genetic contribution to determinants of therapeutic weight loss in obese female identical twins. Subjects were studied for 40 days on an inpatient unit in three phases: 7 baseline days; 28 days of weight reduction by a very low calorie diet (1.6 MJ per day); and 5 days after weight reduction. Fourteen pairs of premenopausal obese female identical twins (age: 39.0+/-1.7 y; body weight (BW): 93.9+/-21.2 kg; body mass index (BMI): 34.2+/-7.8 kg/m2). : Body composition by hydrodensitometry and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were assessed before and after weight loss. : There was great variability among pairs in loss of weight (5.9-12.4 kg) and body fat (3.1-12.4 kg). By contrast, the intraclass correlation (ICC) within twin pairs was 0.85, P<0.001 for weight and 0.88, P<0.001 for body fat. A measure of metabolic efficiency, calculated as the difference between 'estimated' and 'measured' energy deficit showed high intrapair correlation (ICC=0.77; P<0.001). The high correlation in metabolic efficiency within twin pairs in response to therapeutic weight loss suggests a strong genetic contribution.

  17. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to have problems such as: Low self-esteem Poor grades in school Depression ... weight-loss surgery should receive care at an adolescent bariatric surgery center. There, a team of experts ...

  19. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  20. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  1. La eficacia a largo plazo de los reemplazos dietéticos en la pérdida de peso: revisión sistemática Meal replacement efficacy on long-term weight loss: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López Barrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los reemplazos dietéticos (RD se han utilizado para substituir una o dos comidas al día. Sin embargo, pocos estudios aleatorios han valorado su eficacia a largo plazo. Objetivo: Valorar el efecto de los RD sobre la pérdida de peso a largo plazo (≥ 1 año, en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad, con y sin diabetes. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de todos los ensayos clínicos aleatorios de uno o más años de intervención, publicados hasta Noviembre del 2010, y registrados en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, EBSCO host y SciELO. Los términos MeSH utilizados fueron "weight loss", "overweight", "obesity" y "diabetes", además del término "meal replacement". Para evaluar la calidad de los estudios, se utilizó la escala de GRADE. Resultados: Se encontraron siete ensayos clínicos aleatorios que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Sólo cuatro de los estudios mostraron mayor pérdida de peso con las dietas con RD, en tres no se observaron diferencias significativas. Los dos estudios de mayor calidad presentaron resultados inconsistentes. Conclusión: No existe evidencia suficiente que respalde la eficacia del uso de RD sobre la pérdida de peso a largo plazo. Por lo que se requiere estudios mejor diseñados, con seguimiento a largo plazo.Meal replacement (MR has been frequently used to substitute one or more meals during the day. However, few randomized long-term studies have assessed its efficacy. Objective: To asses meal replacement use and its effectiveness on long-term weight loss (> 1 year in overweight and obese people with or without diabetes. Methods: A search of randomized clinical trials with an intervention period equal to or more than a year, published on Pubmed, EBSCO host and SciELO through November 2010 was performed. Mesh terms such as "meal replacement", "weight loss," "overweight," "obesity" and "diabetes" were used, plus the term "meal replacement." GRADE scale was used to assess the

  2. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  3. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  4. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Goday Arno, Alberto; D. Bellido; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A. B.; Burguera, B.; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Oleaga, A.; Moreno, B.; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2016-01-01

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (

  5. Crenças e influências sobre dietas de emagrecimento entre obesos de baixa renda Beliefs and influences on weight loss diets among low-income obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade tornou-se uma epidemia carente de controle imediato, principalmente entre pobres, mulheres e pessoas de baixa escolaridade. A OMS solicita e vários estudos corroboram que estudos esclarecedores sobre os comportamentos psicológicos e sociais interferentes na aderência terapêutica aos regimes devem ser encorajados. Este estudo usou a Teoria da Ação Racional - TAR, de M. Fishbein, em Psicologia Social, e comparou duas séries de entrevistas abertas (em 2001 e 2005 que eliciaram as crenças positivas (vantagens e negativas (desvantagens sobre fazer dieta entre obesos de baixa renda de João Pessoa, Paraíba, além dos referentes (pessoas de opinião influente destes pacientes quanto a segui-la. Os resultados de 2001 foram corroborados em 2005, revelando o medo das doenças relacionadas à obesidade e a vontade de sentir mais saúde e leveza de corpo. Mães, filhos e principalmente o cônjuge aparecem como apoiadores do regime. Ressaltou-se que não bastaria força de vontade, mas também reflexão e construção de habilidades de controle, apropriação e modificação das condições de vida. Preocupações estéticas não foram prioritárias. Estas informações podem fomentar melhores resultados na aderência terapêutica.Obesity has become an epidemic that requires immediate control, mainly among the poor, particularly women and the less educated. The WHO requests and several studies confirm that support is needed for research projects examining psychological and social behavior that hampers compliance with weight loss diets. This paper uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA of M. Fishbein (1975 in social psychology, comparing two series of open interviews (conducted in 2001 and 2005 that disclosed positive (advantageous and negative (harmful beliefs about weight loss diets among low-income obese patients in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, as well as their guides (people of influential opinion on following their diets. The 2001

  6. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss.

  7. One-year effectiveness of two hypocaloric diets with different protein/carbohydrate ratios in weight loss and insulin resistance Efectividad a un año de dos dietas hipocalóricas con diferente proporción de proteínas y carbohidratos en la pérdida de peso y en la resistencia a la insulina

    OpenAIRE

    A. Calleja Fernández; A. Vidal Casariego; I. Cano Rodríguez; M.ª D. Ballesteros Pomar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of weight loss may be influenced by the distribution of macronutrients in the diet and insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the longterm effect of two hypocaloric diets with different protein/carbohydrate ratios in overweight and obese individuals either with insulin resistance (IR) or without insulin resistance (IS). Design: Prospective, randomized, clinical intervention study. Forty patients were classified as IR/IS after a 7...

  8. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body

  9. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging.

  10. Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, George; Lean, Mike

    2017-02-15

    Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie)-restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate, and Mediterranean approaches, in addition to commercial slimming programs, meal replacements, and newly popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol the most, while lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, differences between diets are marginal. Weight loss improves almost all obesity-related co-morbidities and metabolic markers, regardless of the macronutrient composition of the diet, but individuals do vary in preferences and ability to adhere to different diets. Optimizing adherence is the most important factor for weight loss success, and this is enhanced by regular professional contact and supportive behavioral change programs. Maintaining weight losses in the long term remains the biggest challenge, and is undermined by an "obesogenic" environment and biological adaptations that accompany weight loss.

  11. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose and insulin modify dietary weight loss success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Ritz, Christian; Blaak, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through...... diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low...... in the NUGENOB (Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity) trial consumed a hypocaloric low-fat and high-carbohydrate or a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet for 10 wk. On the basis of FPG before treatment, participants were categorized as normoglycemic (FPG

  12. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey, Tricia M.; KUMAR, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on wei...

  13. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  14. [Fatigue and weight loss in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue is a common, under recognized, and poorly understood nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fatigue frequently presents early in PD, and its prevalence increases with disease progression, affecting up to 60% of patients. Fatigue has a negative impact on quality of life. Fatigue is often associated with other nonmotor symptoms, including sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depression. Only a few reports have been published on the treatment of fatigue in PD (methylphenidate, levodopa, and pramipexole). Further well-designed studies, including physiotherapy, are necessary to develop more effective treatments for PD-associated fatigue. A number of patients with PD lose weight because of loss of fat. However, the evolution and determinants of weight loss are not well established. Possible determinants of weight loss in PD include loss of appetite, impaired hand-mouth coordination, difficulty in chewing and dysphagia, nausea, intestinal hypomotility, and increased energy requirements because of muscular rigidity and involuntary movements. Noticeable weight gain has repeatedly been reported after subthalamic or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Because low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poor prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD.......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  16. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  17. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    -symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD...

  19. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  20. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  1. Weight loss intervention before total knee arthroplasty-feasibility and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljensøe, A.; Laursen, J. O.; Bliddal, H.

    2015-01-01

    to implement an intensive weight loss program in order to reduce preoperative body weight of obese patients before TKA surgery. The primary aim of the Weight Loss Intervention before Total Knee Arthroplasty (WITKA) study is to investigate whether weight loss interventions before total knee arthroplasty (TKA...... or a weight loss group that followed a low-energy diet (810 kcal/day) 8 weeks before surgery. Outcomes were assessed before intervention for the weight loss group, and within 1 week preoperatively for both the weight loss group and the control group. The primary outcome in the WITKA study was the Short......-Form 36 (SF-36). Secondary outcomes were Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 6 Minutes' Walk Test, and body composition. Results: Included were 77 patients (weight loss group n=38; control group n=39), 71% were females, the mean age was 65 years (range 46-85), and the average BMI was 31...

  2. Maintaining a clinical weight loss after intensive lifestyle intervention is the key to cardiometabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Skovborg, Camilla; Præst, Charlotte Boslev

    2016-01-01

    maintenance (>10% weight loss), moderate maintenance (1-10%), and weight regain based on weight loss at follow-up (5.3±0.4years). Weight loss during the ILI was achieved by increased physical activity and hypo-caloric diet. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, blood sample, skeletal muscle biopsy and VO2max test were......OBJECTIVE: Intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) are criticised for ineffective obesity treatment because weight loss over time is modest and thus of limited clinical relevance. However, a subgroup (5-30%) maintains a clinical weight loss >10%, but it is not clear if cardiometabolic health...... follows this pattern. The aim was to study the effect of different magnitudes of weight loss maintenance after ILI on cardiometabolic health. METHODS: Eighty out of 2420 former participants (age: 36±1, BMI: 38±1, (means ±SE)) in an 11-12-week ILI were recruited into 3 groups; clinical weight loss...

  3. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sénéchal; Jana Slaght; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strateg...

  4. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  5. Clinical correlates of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    clinical centres in 7 European countries, who underwent a 10-week dietary intervention study comparing two hypo-energetic (-600 kcal/day) diets varying in fat content. Results: The multiple regression model showed that weight loss at week 10 was predicted by: 6.55 + 1.27 × early weight loss (kg) at week 1...

  6. Weight loss and exercise training effect on oxygen uptake and heart rate response to locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Bryan, David R; Zuckerman, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of resistance and aerobic training on the ease of physical activity during and after weight loss are unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine what effect weight loss combined with either aerobic or resistance training has on the ease of locomotion (net V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and heart rate). It is hypothesized that exercise training will result in an increased ease, lowers heart rate during locomotion. Seventy-three overweight premenopausal women were assigned to diet and aerobic training, diet and resistance training, or diet only. Subjects were evaluated while overweight, after diet-induced weight loss (average, 12.5 kg loss), and 1 year after weight loss (5.5 kg regain). Submaximal walking, grade walking, stair climbing, and bike oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured at all time points. Weight loss diet was 800 kcal per day. Exercisers trained 3 times per week during weight loss and 2 times per week during 1-year follow-up. Resistance training increased strength, and aerobic training increased maximum oxygen uptake. Net submaximal oxygen uptake was not affected by weight loss or exercise training. However, heart rate during walking, stair climbing, and bicycling was reduced after weight loss. No significant differences in reduction in heart rate were observed among the 3 treatment groups for locomotion after weight loss. However, during 1-year follow-up, exercise training resulted in maintenance of lower submaximal heart rate, whereas nonexercisers increased heart rate during locomotion. Results suggest that moderately intense exercise is helpful in improving the ease of movement after weight loss. Exercise training may be helpful in increasing the participation in free-living physical activity.

  7. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yi; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hu, Frank B; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian diets may promote weight loss, but evidence remains inconclusive. PubMed, EMBASE and UpToDate databases were searched through September 22, 2014, and investigators extracted data regarding study characteristics and assessed study quality among selected randomized clinical trials. Population size, demographic (i.e., gender and age) and anthropometric (i.e., body mass index) characteristics, types of interventions, follow-up periods, and trial quality (Jadad score) were recorded. The net changes in body weight of subjects were analyzed and pooled after assessing heterogeneity with a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed based on type of vegetarian diet, type of energy restriction, study population, and follow-up period. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included, involving a total of 1151 subjects who received the intervention over a median duration of 18 weeks. Overall, individuals assigned to the vegetarian diet groups lost significantly more weight than those assigned to the non-vegetarian diet groups (weighted mean difference, -2.02 kg; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: -2.80 to -1.23). Subgroup analysis detected significant weight reduction in subjects consuming a vegan diet (-2.52 kg; 95 % CI: -3.02 to -1.98) and, to a lesser extent, in those given lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets (-1.48 kg; 95 % CI: -3.43 to 0.47). Studies on subjects consuming vegetarian diets with energy restriction (ER) revealed a significantly greater weight reduction (-2.21 kg; 95 % CI: -3.31 to -1.12) than those without ER (-1.66 kg; 95 % CI: -2.85 to -0.48). The weight loss for subjects with follow-up of Vegetarian diets appeared to have significant benefits on weight reduction compared to non-vegetarian diets. Further long-term trials are needed to investigate the effects of vegetarian diets on body weight control.

  8. Weight loss and weight maintenance obtained with or without GLP-1 analogue treatment decrease branched chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson

    2016-01-01

    -eight obese individuals underwent a diet-induced 12 % body weight loss during 8 weeks. Participants were randomized to weight maintenance with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/day) for 52 weeks. Metabolomic profiling by high-throughput proton nuclear magnetic resonance...

  9. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  10. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  11. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages.

  12. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...

  13. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  14. Successful weight loss maintenance includes long-term increased meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    -week very low-calorie diet (800kcal/day). After weight loss, participants entered a 52-week weight maintenance protocol. Plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY3-36, ghrelin, GIP and glucagon during a 600-kcal meal were measured before weight loss, after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance. Area...... to postprandial secretion to a sustained weight loss. DESIGN: The study was designed as a longitudinal prospective intervention study with data obtained at baseline, after 8 weeks of weight loss and 1 year after weight loss. METHODS: Twenty healthy obese individuals obtained a 13% weight loss by adhering to an 8...... under the curve (AUC) was calculated as total AUC (tAUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC). RESULTS: Weight loss was successfully maintained for 52 weeks. iAUC for GLP-1 increased by 44% after weight loss (Pweight loss...

  15. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; Ommen, B. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. Methods: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low calorie diet (800 kc

  16. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; van Ommen, B.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800 kc

  17. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, Johanna H.M.; Saccenti, Edoardo; Bouwman, Jildau; Dane, Adrie; Strassburg, Katrin; Vervoort, Jacques; Hankemeier, Thomas; Astrup, Arne; Smilde, Age K.; Ommen, Van Ben; Saris, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. Methods In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800 k

  18. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; van Ommen, B.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800

  19. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  20. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  1. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roel G; Roumans, Nadia J T; Arkenbosch, Laura A J; Mariman, Edwin C M; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of rate of weight loss, with similar total weight loss, on weight regain in individuals with overweight and obesity. Fifty-seven participants (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2) ) underwent a dietary intervention (DI). They were randomized to a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks (slow weight loss) or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks (rapid weight loss) (weight loss (WL) period) followed by a 4-week weight-stable (WS) period and 9 months follow-up. Body weight and body composition (BodPod) were determined at study start and after each period. Weight change was similar in both groups after WL (LCD: -8.2 kg and VLCD: -9.0 kg, P = 0.24). Weight regain after follow-up was not significantly different between groups (LCD: 4.2 kg and VLCD: 4.5 kg, P = 0.73). Percentage fat-free mass loss (%FFML) was higher in the VLCD-group compared to the LCD-group after DI (8.8% and 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.034) and was associated with weight regain during follow-up in the whole group (r = 0.325, P = 0.018). The present study showed that, with similar total weight loss, rate of weight loss did not affect weight regain. However, %FFML after DI was associated with weight regain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic patterns in successful weight loss maintainers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Maccani, Jennifer Z J; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R; Kelsey, Karl T; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese (OB) individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from OB to normal weight (NW; successful weight loss maintainers; SWLMs) vs currently OB or NW individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current body mass index (BMI)⩾30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ⩾30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across the groups were observed in ryanodine receptor-1 (RYR1; P=1.54E-6), myelin protein zero-like 3 (MPZL3; P=4.70E-6) and alpha 3c tubulin (TUBA3C; P=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; gene-wide P=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status.

  4. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hollywood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  5. Do more specific plans help you lose weight? Examining the relationship between plan specificity, weight loss goals, and plan content in the context of a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Endevelt, Ronit; Steinberg, David M; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-11-01

    The conditions under which planning for behaviour change is most effective are not fully understood. In the context of a weight management programme, we examined the interrelationship between plan specificity, type of behaviour planned (diet vs. exercise), and weight loss goals. Prospective design and content analysis of plans formed by participants of a 10-week weight management programme. Participants (n = 239) formulated two plans, for dietary and exercise behaviours, respectively. Plans were rated for specificity by examining the number of plan components. Weight loss goals were assessed by asking how much weight participants intend to lose. Weight was measured objectively each of the 10 weeks. Changes in body mass index (BMI) over time and the interactions between plan specificity and weight loss goals, for all plans and separately for diet and exercise, were estimated using linear mixed models. Plan specificity was unrelated to weight loss, but interacted with weight loss goals in predicting linear change in BMI (t = -2.48): More specific plans were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals. Separate interaction tests for plans formulated for diet and exercise change showed that more specific dietary plans, but not exercise plans, were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals (t = -2.21). Within a population that is highly motivated to lose weight, the combination of high weight loss goals and formulating detailed plans for changing dietary behaviours may be most effective in supporting weight loss. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? More specific plans are associated with increased performance of health-related behaviours. More motivated individuals form more specific plans. The interrelationship between plan specificity, plan content and behaviour-related goals in relation intervention effectiveness has not been explored to date

  6. Effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on short-term weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J B; Pedersen, E; Petersen, K S; Clifton, P M

    2014-06-01

    Effective strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on weight loss after 8 weeks and weight loss maintenance after 12 months. Secondary aims were to determine changes in waist and hip measurements and diet quality. In a randomized parallel study, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg m(-2)) women were stratified by age and BMI before randomization. Participants undertook an 8-week intensive period with weight, waist and hip circumference measured every 2 weeks, followed by 44 weeks of independent dieting. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and 12 months, from which diet quality was determined. Weight loss was not significantly different between the two groups at 8 weeks (-3.2 ± 2.1 kg CER, n = 20, -2.0 ± 1.9 kg IER, n = 25; P = 0.06) or at 12 months (-4.2 ± 5.6 kg CER, n = 17 -2.1 ± 3.8 kg IER, n = 19; P = 0.19). Weight loss between 8 and 52 weeks was -0.7 ± 49 kg CER vs. -1 ± 1.1 kg IER; P = 0.6. Waist and hip circumference decreased significantly with time (P intermittent dieting was as effective as continuous dieting over 8 weeks and for weight loss maintenance at 12 months. This may be useful for individuals who find CER too difficult to maintain.

  7. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Monami, Matteo; Saad, Farid; Luconi, Michaela; Lucchese, Marcello; Facchiano, Enrico; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Few randomized clinical studies have evaluated the impact of diet and physical activity on testosterone levels in obese men with conflicting results. Conversely, studies on bariatric surgery in men generally have shown an increase in testosterone levels. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available trials on the effect of body weight loss on sex hormones levels. Meta-analysis. An extensive Medline search was performed including the following words: 'testosterone', 'diet', 'weight loss', 'bariatric surgery', and 'males'. The search was restricted to data from January 1, 1969 up to August 31, 2012. Out of 266 retrieved articles, 24 were included in the study. Of the latter, 22 evaluated the effect of diet or bariatric surgery, whereas two compared diet and bariatric surgery. Overall, both a low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery are associated with a significant (Pweight as well as in younger, non-diabetic subjects with a greater degree of obesity. Body weight loss is also associated with a decrease in estradiol and an increase in gonadotropins levels. Multiple regression analysis shows that the degree of body weight loss is the best determinant of TT rise (B=2.50±0.98, P=0.029). These data show that weight loss is associated with an increase in both bound and unbound testosterone levels. The normalization of sex hormones induced by body weight loss is a possible mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of surgery in morbid obesity.

  8. Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss In A Behavioral Weight Loss Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    body mass” (CDC, 2002; Stunkard & Wadden, 1993, p. 14). Excess body fat can be assessed by a variety of methods including skinfold thickness ...African American women. SPIRITUALITY AND WEIGHT LOSS 6 Table of Contents Abstract...45 Tables & Figures

  9. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  10. Major depression and severe weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntrogkounta Α.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Α 25-year old patient was referred to the casualty department of the Community Mental Health Center of Central Sector of Thessaloniki from the emergency department of the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki, in order to manage symptoms of depression as long as her life- threating loss of weight. A. appeared to have depressive feelings, lack of appetite, lack of interest, withdrawal, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, low self-esteem and ideas of guilt. There were held 27 conferences. In the beginning there were supportive intervations in order to improve the depressive symptoms and to gain weight. Moreover we applied medication (SSRI's that after 6 months was stopped gradually, without any setback. There was an increase of weight, about 10 kg, which remained until the follow up one year later.

  11. Effect of weight loss and ketosis on postprandial cholecystokinin and free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chearskul, Supornpim; Delbridge, Elizabeth; Shulkes, Arthur; Proietto, Joseph; Kriketos, Adamandia

    2008-05-01

    Weight regain after weight loss may not be due primarily to voluntary return to social habits but may be explained by changes in peripheral hormonal signals activating hunger and encouraging feeding behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate physiologic adaptations to weight loss that may encourage weight regain. The study had a within-subject repeated-measure design [12 healthy, obese men, 33-64 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 30-46] and was a clinical intervention investigation of circulating metabolites and hunger-satiety responses before and after weight loss. Measures included anthropometry (bioelectrical impedance, body weight, and waist circumference), concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites [ketone bodies, free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, leptin, glucose, and cholecystokinin (CCK)], and measures of hunger and satiety at baseline, 8 wk after weight loss with a very-low-energy diet, and 1 wk after weight maintenance. Weight loss led to a reduction in postprandial CCK secretion (P = 0.016). However, when subjects were ketotic (elevated circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations), CCK secretion was sustained at concentrations before weight loss. After weight loss, there were reduced postprandial FFA concentrations (P = 0.0005). The presence of ketosis sustained FFA to concentrations before weight loss (P = 0.60). Rapid weight loss of approximately 10% of initial body weight results in a reduction in postprandial CCK and FFA concentrations.

  12. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  13. Poor Oral Health and Diet in Relation to Weight Loss, Stable Underweight, and Obesity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study From the JAGES 2010 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mieko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakade, Miyo; Ohtsuka, Rika; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Kayo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-06-05

    Involuntary weight loss and underweight increase the risks of mortality and disability in older people. However, the association and interaction of poor oral health and dietary intake with body mass index (BMI) have not been elucidated. Data were analyzed for 96 794 respondents aged >65 years who were randomly selected from 31 Japanese municipalities in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Weight loss was defined as ≥2-3 kg of loss over the preceding 6 months. BMI was evaluated in respondents without weight loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with weight loss, underweight, and obesity as dependent variables and having fewer teeth (food intake as independent variables, with adjustment for potential confounders. Weight loss was associated with having fewer teeth (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.3; women: OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) and infrequent fruit/vegetable intake (men: OR 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; women: OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.5) and fish/meat intake (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3 for both sexes). No interaction was observed between having fewer teeth and food intake. Obesity was associated with the same factors: having fewer teeth (ORs 1.2 and 1.3 for men and women, respectively) and infrequent intake of fruit/vegetables (ORs 1.1 and 1.2 for men and women, respectively) and fish/meat (OR 1.1 for both sexes). Infrequent fruit/vegetable intake showed a higher OR for underweight in women with fewer teeth than for others. Having fewer teeth and infrequent food intake were associated with both weight loss and obesity. A significant interaction was observed in the associations of having fewer teeth and infrequent food intake with underweight in women.

  14. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...... achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence......% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books...

  15. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y; Dulloo, A G

    2015-02-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of the various population groups with normal body weight also attempt to lose weight. These include young and older adults as well as children and adolescents who perceive themselves as too fat (due to media, parental and social pressures), athletes in weight-sensitive competitive sports (i.e. mandatory weight categories, gravitational and aesthetic sports) or among performers for whom a slim image is professionally an advantage. Of particular concern is the emergence of evidence that some of the potentially negative health consequences of repeated dieting and weight cycling are more readily seen in people of normal body weight rather than in those who are overweight or obese. In particular, several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors associated with weight cycling in normal-weight individuals have been identified from cross-sectional and prospective studies as well as from studies of experimentally induced weight cycling. In addition, findings from studies of experimental weight cycling have reinforced the notion that fluctuations of cardiovascular risk variables (such as blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic activity, blood glucose, lipids and insulin) with probable repeated overshoots above normal values during periods of weight regain put an additional stress on the cardiovascular system. As the prevalence of diet-induced weight cycling is increasing due to the opposing forces of an 'obesigenic' environment and the media pressure for a slim figure (that even targets children), dieting and weight cycling is likely to become an increasingly serious public health issue.

  16. Long-term effects of weight loss with a very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet on flow mediated dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Thompson, Campbell H; Buckley, Jonathan D; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-09-01

    Very-low carbohydrate diets can improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, compared to traditional higher carbohydrate, low fat (HighCHO) diets, they have been associated with impaired endothelial function (measured by flow mediated dilatation [FMD]) that is possibly related to saturated fat. This study aimed to examine the effects of a 12-month hypocaloric very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat (LowCHO) diet compared to an isocaloric HighCHO diet. One hundred and fifteen obese patients with T2DM (age:58.4 ± 0.7 [SEM] yr, BMI:34.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), HbA1c:7.33 [56.3 mmol/mol] ± 0.10%) were randomised to consume an energy restricted LowCHO diet (Carb:Pro:Fat:Sat-Fat 14:28:58: < 10% energy; n = 58) or isocaloric HighCHO diet (53:17:30: < 10%; n = 57) whilst undertaking exercise (60 min, 3/wk). Bodyweight, HbA1c and FMD were assessed. Seventy eight participants completed the intervention (LowCHO = 41, HighCHO = 37). Both groups experienced similar reductions in weight and HbA1c (-10.6 ± 0.7 kg, -1.05 ± 0.10%; p < 0.001 time, p ≥ 0.48 time × diet). FMD did not change (p = 0.11 time, p = 0.20 time × diet). In patients with obesity and T2DM, HighCHO diet and LowCHO diet have similar effects on endothelial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with weight loss dieting among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Fatores associados à realização de regime de emagrecimento entre adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta W. Madruga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown the negative effects of unsupervised diets and those with excessive calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents engaging in weight loss dieting and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. The outcome was defined as adolescents that reported having practiced some type of weight loss dieting in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of such dieting was 8.6% (95%CI: 7.7;9.4, and was higher in girls. Elevated maternal body mass index (BMI was associated with dieting among girls. The adolescent's and parents' view of the adolescent's weight, excess weight, and consumption of diet or light soft drinks were associated with adolescent dieting. There was a positive association between dieting and socioeconomic status. The findings provide important backing for policies aimed at improving adolescents' diet, since they express a major concern over weight and thus a significant percentage of individuals with erroneous and unhealthy behaviors.Evidências mostram efeitos negativos de dietas sem orientação e de alta restrição calórica. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o percentual de adolescentes que realizaram regime de emagrecimento e os fatores associados a este comportamento. Estudo transversal incluindo 4.452 nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, no ano de 1993. Os adolescentes que relataram ter feito algum tipo de regime com a finalidade de emagrecimento nos últimos 12 meses foram positivos ao desfecho. A freqüência de realização de regime foi de 8,6% (IC95%: 7,7;9,4, sendo maior entre as meninas. O índice de massa corporal (IMC materno elevado associou-se à realização de regime entre meninas. O sentimento do adolescente e dos pais em relação ao peso do jovem, o excesso de peso e o consumo de refrigerantes diet/light mostraram-se associados ao desfecho. Encontrou-se associa

  18. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  19. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  20. The relationship between prevalence and duration of weight loss strategies and weight loss among overweight managed care organization members enrolled in a weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.

  1. Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A; Wyatt, Holly R; Melanson, Edward L; Johnson, Ginger C; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Brown, Ian E; Hill, James O

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations. Obesity was induced in obesity-prone rats with 16 wk of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. Obese rats were then weight reduced (approximately 14% of body wt) with a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet and maintained at that reduced weight for 8 wk by providing limited provisions of the diet with (EX) or without (SED) a daily bout of treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 6 days/wk). Weight regain, energy balance, fuel utilization, adipocyte cellularity, and humoral signals of adiposity were monitored during eight subsequent weeks of ad libitum feeding while the rats maintained their respective regimens of physical activity. Regular exercise decreased the rate of regain early in relapse and lowered the defended body weight. During weight maintenance, regular exercise reduced the biological drive to eat so that it came closer to matching the suppressed level of energy expenditure. The diurnal extremes in fuel preference observed in weight-reduced rats were blunted, since exercise promoted the oxidation of fat during periods of feeding (dark cycle) and promoted the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO) later in the day during periods of deprivation (light cycle) . At the end of relapse, exercise reestablished the homeostatic steady state between intake and expenditure to defend a lower body weight. Compared with SED rats, relapsed EX rats exhibited a reduced turnover of energy, a lower 24-h oxidation of CHO, fewer adipocytes in abdominal fat pads, and peripheral signals that overestimated their adiposity. These observations indicate that regimented exercise altered several metabolic adaptations to weight reduction in a manner that would coordinately attenuate the propensity to regain lost weight.

  2. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  3. Preoperative weight loss in patients with indication of bariatric surgery: which is the best method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adrianzén Vargas

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is the only effective treatment for people with a body mass index (BMI greater than 40 Kg/m² or even greater than 35 Kg/m² when some diseases like diabetes or hypertension appear. In order to minimize surgical risk and improve postoperative results, preoperative preparation it's very important. "Acute" preoperative weight loss just before surgery plays a crucial role in that preparation and can be achieved through different ways like a low calorie diet, a very low calorie diet or with the use of an intragastric balloon. The advantages or particularities of every one of them will be summarized in this article. Material and methods: Literature review of the benefits, risks and complications of preoperative weight loss through a low calorie diet, a very low calorie diet or intragastric balloon placement. Results: Seven of thirteen initially selected reports from Medline search were considered relevant, including a total 371 patients (240 patients treated with low calorie diet, 90 with very low calorie diet and 41 cases of intragastric balloon placement. We found that weight loss was greater in patients with very low calorie diets and intragastric balloon groups but with a slightly increase in morbidity and cost. Conclusion: Although there are no comparative studies, data from the literature results show that diets very low in calories are more effective and require less time than low-calorie diets and cheaper with fewer side effects than the intragastric balloon.

  4. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por

  5. Reduced-calorie dietary weight loss, exercise, and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; Blackburn, George L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m(2), exercising exercise ("exercise"; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("diet + exercise"; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P exercise, and 20.3% (P exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.

  6. Long-term weight-loss maintenance in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Henriksen, Marius; Bartels, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    % weight-loss and 1-y maintenance, additional use of daily meal replacements or intermittent LED resulted in weight-loss maintenance for 3 y. These results challenge the commonly held assumption that weight regain in the long term is inevitable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT......Background: A formula low-energy diet (LED) reduces weight effectively in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the role of LED in long-term weight-loss maintenance is unclear.Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent LED compared with daily meal replacements on weight...... in Frederiksberg, Denmark; they had previously completed a 68-wk lifestyle intervention trial and achieved an average weight loss of 10.5 kg (10% of initial body weight). Participants were randomly assigned to either the intermittent treatment (IN) group with LED for 5 wk every 4 mo for 3 y or to daily meal...

  7. Predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in women in an obesity programme using meal replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, I; Sheikh, M; Boniface, D; Finer, N

    2005-07-01

    To explore predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in patients participating in a weight management programme using meal replacements (MR). One hundred and fifty healthy obese women, age 48.5 years (s.d. = 8.3); weight, 97.6 kg (13.4); body mass index (BMI) 36.5 (3.7), participated in a longitudinal study with a 16-week acute weight loss phase (Phase 1) followed by 1 year of a trial of weight-loss maintenance (Phase 2). Energy intake during Phase 1 totaled 900 kcal (3.7 MJ) a day from a diet including two MR. Energy intake during Phase 2 consisted of either MR or a low-fat diet with a calculated energy deficit of 600 kcal/day (2.5 MJ). Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body composition assessed by air plethysmography (Bodpod). Glucose and insulin were measured by standard immunoassays and insulin sensitivity assessed by homeostatic model assessment. At the end of 16 weeks, 114 subjects (76%) completed Phase 1 and achieved a mean weight loss of 8.95 kg (3.38). Adherence to Phase 1 was predicted by weight loss over the first 2 weeks (p Adherence to Phase 2 was not predicted by physiological measures. Weight loss maintenance in Phase 2 (not gaining more than 3% of the weight at start of phase 2) was predicted by cholesterol and triglyceride measured at the start of Phase 2 but otherwise was not predicted by the physiological measures. Initial insulin sensitivity did not predict weight loss in either phase. Participants whose weight loss over the first 2 weeks falls in the bottom third may need additional intervention if they are to continue in this type of programme. A battery of physiological measures at entry to a MR weight loss and maintenance programme explains only a very small proportion of the variation in weight loss.

  8. Costs of lifestyle interventions within health care and the amount of weight loss achieved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers RP; Vijgen SMC; Bemelmans WJE; PZO

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle counselling in health care with respect to diet and physical activity can reduce body weight at reasonable costs. A weight loss of 5% after one year can be achieved at a cost of around 150 euro per patient (with an uncertainty range up to 300-400 euro). Each extra investment of 100 euro re

  9. Adolescent food choice criteria: role of weight and dieting status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contento, I R; Michela, J L; Williams, S S

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of weight status, dieting status and several associated variables to the criteria for everyday food choice used by adolescents. Study participants were 411 students between the ages of 11 and 18, drawn from 15 schools. The adolescents rated 20 food in terms of nine food attributes (how tasty or healthful specific foods were, whether the foods were eaten by friends, and so forth). Within-person correlation coefficients were then calculated between these ratings and actual food choices as measured by a food frequency scale. The relation of weight and dieting status, as predictors of each of these correlational indices of the importance of potential food choice criteria, was then analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. In similar fashion, the relation was examined between weight and dieting status and: evaluations of food attributes (choice criteria); dietary quality; calorie, sugar and fat intake; body image; and physical activity. For a majority of food choice criteria and other variables, there was an apparent influence of weight as an independent variable. However, when dieting status was analysed simultaneously with weight, similar and stronger effects were now seen for dieting status and the effects of weight disappeared. Although some of the differences as a function of dieting status resembled differences shown previously in relation to dietary restraint, it is noteworthy that the simpler dieting variable yielded these associations. Overall, a "psychology of dieting" seems more relevant than "psychology of being fat versus being thin". This psychology appears to involve cognitive self-regulation processes. It is thus crucial that intervention programs and research studies take into account both the dieting status and the weight status of participants.

  10. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Guo, Juen

    2017-05-01

    Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. Rather various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low-carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; P diets. We review the components of energy balance and the mechanisms acting to resist weight loss in the context of static, settling point, and set-point models of body weight regulation, with the set-point model being most commensurate with current data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  13. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  14. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Norton, Layne E

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain...

  15. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Amino Acid Signatures to Evaluate the Beneficial Effects of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Geidenstam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We investigated the relationship between circulating amino acid levels and obesity; to what extent weight loss followed by weight maintenance can correct amino acid abnormalities; and whether amino acids are related to weight loss. Methods. Amino acids associated with waist circumference (WC and BMI were studied in 804 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC. Changes in amino acid levels were analyzed after weight loss and weight maintenance in 12 obese subjects and evaluated in a replication cohort (n=83. Results. Out of the eight identified BMI-associated amino acids from the MDC-CC, alanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and glutamate decreased after weight loss, while asparagine increased after weight maintenance. These changes were validated in the replication cohort. Scores that were constructed based on obesity-associated amino acids and known risk factors decreased in the ≥10% weight loss group with an associated change in BMI (R2=0.16–0.22, p<0.002, whereas the scores increased in the <10% weight loss group (p<0.0004. Conclusions. Weight loss followed by weight maintenance leads to differential changes in amino acid levels associated with obesity. Treatment modifiable scores based on epidemiological and interventional data may be used to evaluate the potential metabolic benefit of weight loss.

  17. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  18. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials.

  19. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To ... have more questions or need help. Responsible, Safe Weight Loss If your health-care provider says you should ...

  20. Comparison of the effect of daily consumption of probiotic compared with low-fat conventional yogurt on weight loss in healthy obese women following an energy-restricted diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Mousavi, Neda; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-02-01

    Despite evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics and low-fat dairy products, to our knowledge, no study has compared the beneficial effect on weight loss of consuming a probiotic yogurt (PY) compared with a standard low-fat yogurt (LF) during a hypoenergetic program. We compared the effect of the PY with LF yogurt consumption on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y) who usually consumed standard LFs were asked to consume either PY or LF every day with their main meals for 12 wk while following a weight-loss program. A total of 89 participants were randomly assigned to one of the 2 intervention groups. Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over the 12 wk in both groups. However, no significant differences in weight loss and anthropometric measurements were seen between groups after the intervention. Compared with the LF group, the PY group had a greater (mean ± SD) decrease in total cholesterol (PY = -0.36 ± 0.10 mmol/L, LF = -0.31 ± 0.10 mmol/L; P = 0.024), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (PY = -0.35 ± 0.10 mmol/L, LF = -0.31 ± 0.11 mmol/L; P = 0.018), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (PY = -0.55 ± 0.32, LF = -0.42 ± 0.20; P = 0.002), 2-h postprandial glucose (PY = -0.61 ± 0.24 mmol/L, LF = -0.44 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P loss. However, it may have positive effects on lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity during a weight-loss program. This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N8. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162876.html Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds Quality-of-life boost seen ... 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Could weight loss combat psoriasis? Danish researchers are reporting that obese people with ...

  2. Long-term adherence to the New Nordic Diet and the effects on body weight, anthropometry and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Crone, Charlotte; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The New Nordic Diet (NND) has induced weight loss in a 26-week controlled intervention. We aim to investigate whether high compliance and satisfaction can be maintained after the active intervention is discontinued thereby maintaining the health effects.......The New Nordic Diet (NND) has induced weight loss in a 26-week controlled intervention. We aim to investigate whether high compliance and satisfaction can be maintained after the active intervention is discontinued thereby maintaining the health effects....

  3. How effective are traditional dietary and exercise interventions for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W C

    1999-08-01

    Health care professionals have used restrictive dieting and exercise intervention strategies in an effort to combat the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent countries. In spite of these efforts, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. This apparent ineffectiveness of diet and exercise programming to reduce obesity has caused many health care providers, obesity researchers, and lay persons to challenge the further use of diet and exercise for the sole purpose of reducing body weight in the obese. The purposes of this paper were to examine the history and effectiveness of diet and exercise in obesity therapy and to determine the best future approach for health promotion in the obese population. A brief survey of the most popular dieting techniques used over the past 40 yr shows that most techniques cycle in and out of popularity and that many of these techniques may be hazardous to health. Data from the scientific community indicate that a 15-wk diet or diet plus exercise program produces a weight loss of about 11 kg with a 60-80% maintenance after 1 yr. Although long-term follow-up data are meager, the data that do exist suggest almost complete relapse after 3-5 yr. The paucity of data provided by the weight-loss industry has been inadequate or inconclusive. Those who challenge the use of diet and exercise solely for weight control purposes base their position on the absence of weight-loss effectiveness data and on the presence of harmful effects of restrictive dieting. Any intervention strategy for the obese should be one that would promote the development of a healthy lifestyle. The outcome parameters used to evaluate the success of such an intervention should be specific to chronic disease risk and symptomatologies and not limited to medically ambiguous variables like body weight or body composition.

  4. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients.......Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...

  5. Psychosocial predictors of weight loss and psychological adjustment following bariatric surgery and a weight-loss program: the mediating role of emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Berry, Elliot M; Elizur, Yoel

    2009-03-01

    To examine a structural equation model of the effects of personal and interpersonal factors on treatment outcome of bariatric surgery and weight-loss program. Forty-four participants of the surgery group and 47 participants of the diet group completed questionnaires before treatment and 1 year afterward. Predictor measures are as follows: social support, motivation for control, sense of control, self-esteem, neuroticism, fear of intimacy, and emotional eating (EE). Weight loss, quality of life, and mental health. Neurotic predisposition (NP), a latent variable indicated by neuroticism, low self-esteem, and fear of intimacy, had an effect on weight loss that was fully mediated by EE. NP also had an effect on quality of life improvement that was fully mediated by EE and weight loss in both treatment groups. Both NP and EE predict outcome of obesity treatments, but EE is the more proximal variable that mediates the effect of NP.

  6. Understanding eating behaviours in Spanish women enrolled in a weight-loss treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barberia, Ana Maria; Attree, Moira; Todd, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To identify the beliefs and attitudes of a sample of obese and overweight Spanish women undertaking a weight-loss treatment. Background. Obesity is a global epidemic. Weight-loss treatments focus on changing eating behaviours; however, many patients fail to adhere to the diet. This suggests that more effective behaviour-change interventions are required to help people change their eating behaviours. According to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) human behaviour is influenced by belie...

  7. A role for leukocyte integrins and extracellular matrix remodeling of adipose tissue in the risk of weight regain after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, Nadia J.T.; Vink, Roel G.; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Baak, van Marleen A.; Mariman, Edwin C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight loss (WL) is often followed by weight regain after an energy-restricted dietary intervention (DI). When people are following a diet, the volume of an adipocyte decreases by loss of triglycerides, which creates stress between the cell contents and the surrounding extracellular

  8. A role for leukocyte integrins and extracellular matrix remodeling of adipose tissue in the risk of weight regain after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, Nadia J.T.; Vink, Roel G.; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Baak, van Marleen A.; Mariman, Edwin C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight loss (WL) is often followed by weight regain after an energy-restricted dietary intervention (DI). When people are following a diet, the volume of an adipocyte decreases by loss of triglycerides, which creates stress between the cell contents and the surrounding extracellular m

  9. Weight Loss in Microemulsion with Eugenol Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R Laili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil has been widely used in many products. In this work, the location of the microemulsion region with eugenol was studied in two different surfactants namely sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS (ionic and Tween 80 (non-ionic. The phase diagrams were constructed for water/SDS:hexanol (30:70/eugenol oil and water/ Tween 80/ eugenol oil systems by titrating to turbidity. The result showed that microemulsion regions were present in both systems with the SDS:hexanol system formed a larger water-in-oil microemulsion region compared to Tween 80 system. In order to study the behaviour of the microemulsion with eugenol oil subjected to several conditions such as evaporation and rheology test, several weight ratios of eugenol oil to surfactants were studied. The weight loss during evaporation was carried under ambient condition. The rheological behaviour was also observed in both systems. The evaporation rate for the microemulsion with SDS was found to be higher than the equivalent counterpart but with Tween 80. The rheology study showed that the flow is of Newtonian behaviour with little or no shear thinning

  10. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  11. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  13. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P weight loss, but this difference was attenuated after 5 weeks of weight stability. Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later. Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Health-related quality of life changes and weight reduction after bariatric surgery vs. a weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Elizur, Yoel; Karni, Yair; Berry, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the outcome of bariatric surgery against a uniform high-level weightloss program which included vigorous physical exercises, behavior modification and nutritional advice. 44 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 47 subjects participating in a weight-loss program completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form- 36 (SF-36), the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, prior to surgery/diet and one year afterwards. Post-surgery subjects had a greater mean weight loss (34.70% ± 11.94) than subjects in the weight-loss program, even though their weight reduction was also clinically significant (9.23% ± 8.31). Post-surgery subjects showed significant improvements in SF-36, MHI, and selfesteem. The diet group improved in SF-36 total score, physical functioning, health perceptions, and vitality scales. Differences in background variables and sh