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  1. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  2. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  3. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  4. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  5. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  6. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  7. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P loss during the first 15% reduction in body weight. Finally, no significant differences (P = 0.103) between groups for maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  9. Body mass index and weight loss in overweight and obese korean women: the mediating role of body weight perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2013-12-01

    This study were to assess the relationships among BMI, body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of Korean women who are overweight and obese and to examine the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample was 1,739 Korean women 20 years old or older with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m(2). Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates of weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in Korean women. In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health consequences associated with obesity, Korean women should be aware of a healthy body weight and try to achieve that weight. Nursing interventions should consider body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese Korean women to lose weight, as necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Body distortions after massive weight loss: lack of updating of the body schema hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M

    2013-09-01

    Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive body weight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema.

  11. The downside of weight loss: realistic intervention in body-weight trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, N John

    2012-05-01

    To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.

  12. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  13. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  14. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  16. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  17. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  18. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  19. Body weight perception and weight loss practices among Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cupeiro, Rocío; Wang, Guan; Amigo, Teresa; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Benito, Pedro J; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2016-01-01

    ...) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program...

  1. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.

  2. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pcarb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4

  4. Body contouring after obesity surgery is associated with a weight loss benefit among patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Shenaq, Deana; Teven, Chad M; Prachand, Vivek; Roughton, Michelle; Zachary, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Patients who undergo obesity surgery often require body contouring procedures to eliminate excess skin. Recent studies suggest that body contouring surgery may provide psychological benefits to patients after obesity surgery. However, it remains unclear how body contouring may affect weight loss maintenance after obesity surgery. This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent obesity surgery with or without body contouring at a single institution from 2000 to 2005. Charts were reviewed for demographic, medical, and surgical information. The primary outcome of interest was the difference in weight loss maintenance among patients who underwent body contouring versus those who did not. A total of 318 patients were included for analysis in this study, of which 70 underwent obesity surgery with body contouring and 248 underwent obesity surgery without body contouring. The mean change in BMI among patients who did not undergo body contouring was 19.7 kg/m(2). The mean change in BMI among patients who underwent body contouring was 22.1 kg/m(2). Among patients who underwent body contouring surgery, 2.9% (2/70) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 92.2 months). Among patients who did not undergo body contouring surgery, 10% (25/248) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 39.0 months) (χ(2) = 3.67, p = 0.055). Body contouring surgery may have a positive effect on weight loss maintenance after body contouring determined from the mean weight change and on percentage of patients who maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Monami, Matteo; Saad, Farid; Luconi, Michaela; Lucchese, Marcello; Facchiano, Enrico; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Few randomized clinical studies have evaluated the impact of diet and physical activity on testosterone levels in obese men with conflicting results. Conversely, studies on bariatric surgery in men generally have shown an increase in testosterone levels. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available trials on the effect of body weight loss on sex hormones levels. Meta-analysis. An extensive Medline search was performed including the following words: 'testosterone', 'diet', 'weight loss', 'bariatric surgery', and 'males'. The search was restricted to data from January 1, 1969 up to August 31, 2012. Out of 266 retrieved articles, 24 were included in the study. Of the latter, 22 evaluated the effect of diet or bariatric surgery, whereas two compared diet and bariatric surgery. Overall, both a low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery are associated with a significant (Pweight as well as in younger, non-diabetic subjects with a greater degree of obesity. Body weight loss is also associated with a decrease in estradiol and an increase in gonadotropins levels. Multiple regression analysis shows that the degree of body weight loss is the best determinant of TT rise (B=2.50±0.98, P=0.029). These data show that weight loss is associated with an increase in both bound and unbound testosterone levels. The normalization of sex hormones induced by body weight loss is a possible mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of surgery in morbid obesity.

  6. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight lossweight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  7. Effects of rapid or slow body weight reduction on intramuscular protein degradation pathways during equivalent weight loss on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Y; Urashima, S; Inai, M; Nishimura, S; Higashida, K; Terada, S

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (pweight of fast-twitch plantaris muscle, but not slow-twitch soleus muscle, were significantly lower in the Rapid group compared with the control rats fed ad libitum. Substantial increases in the expression ratio of autophagosomal membrane proteins (LC3-II/-I ratio) and polyubiquitinated protein concentration, used as biomarkers of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome activities, respectively, were observed in the plantaris muscle of the Rapid group. Moreover, the LC3-II/-I ratio and polyubiquitinated protein concentration were negatively correlated with the total protein content and wet weight of plantaris muscle. These results suggest that short-term fasting-induced rapid body weight loss activates autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems more strongly than calorie restriction-induced slower weight reduction, resulting in muscular atrophy in fast-twitch muscle.

  8. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women.

  9. Evaluation of body condition and weight loss in dogs presented to a veterinary oncology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Kathryn E; Sorenmo, Karin; Shofer, Frances S

    2004-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a well-recognized syndrome in human patients that is characterized by progressive involuntary weight loss. The prevalence of this syndrome in veterinary cancer patients is unknown. This study's objective was to investigate the occurrence of weight loss and cachexia, as characterized by body condition scoring, in dogs presented to a veterinary oncology service. Information collected on 100 dogs included signalment, diagnosis, weight at time of diagnosis, and, when available, weight from a time approximately 12 months before diagnosis. Body condition was assessed by using a 9-point system based on body silhouette and palpation of adipose tissue (4-5 = optimal, 1 = extreme cachexia, 9 = extreme obesity). Muscle wasting was scored based on palpation of skeletal muscle (3 = no wasting, 2 = mild, 1 = moderate, 0 = severe). Only 4% of the dogs exhibited cachexia as defined by a body condition score or = 7). Fifteen percent had evidence of clinically relevant muscle wasting (dogs. At the time of diagnosis, 31% had maintained or gained weight, 31% had lost up to 5%, 14% had lost between 5 and 10%, and 23% had lost >10% of body weight. Overall, the percentage of dogs with signs indicating a decline in nutritional status was less than what has been reported for human cancer patients. Future studies should investigate the extent to which weight loss occurs in canine patients on an appropriate plane of nutrition as well as to establish whether an association exists between poor nutritional status and outcome in canine cancer patients.

  10. Perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.

  11. Effect of a weight loss program on body composition and metabolic syndrome markers in obese weight cyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetoro, Samuel; Makmun, Lukman H; Lukito, Widjaja; Wijaya, Andi

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the effect of weight loss program on fat mass, visceral fat rating and metabolic syndrome markers in obese subjects with weight cycling. this was an 8-week open trial. The subjects were recruited consecutively from Balai Kota DKI Jaya. Subjects were classified into two groups according to the fluctuation of weight gain (weight cycling/WC and first encounter obesity/FEO group). Both groups were assigned to receive weight loss program consisted with following goals: a 1000 kcal energy intake reduction and 45 minutes mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity three times a week. Body composition (fat mass, visceral fat rating), and metabolic syndrome markers (waist circumference and triglyceride levels) were measured at baseline, week 4 and at the end of study. seventy two subjects completed the study (34 subjects in WC group and 38 subjects in FEO group). Following weight loss program, a decrease in fat mass, visceral fat rating, and waist circumference was lower in WC group compared with FEO group but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were decreased in the FEO group while it was increased in WC group. However the difference was not significant (p=0.055). weight loss program may contribute to changes in body composition and metabolic syndrome markers in obese subjects, which the response appears to be worse in weight cyclers.

  12. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Sailer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. Methods: We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT, subgroup of N = 192. Results: Participants lost body weight (p FTO genotype (p = 0.5. There was a significant correlation between improvement in VO2max and decrease in body weight (p FTO genotype interacted with this relationship (p = 0.0042 for VO2max, p = 0.0049 for IAT. When stratifying the cohort according to their improvement in VO2max, FTO obesity-risk A-allele carriers in the higher quartiles of improvement in fitness lost significantly less body weight. Conclusions: Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness.

  13. Predictive factors for body weight loss and its impact on quality of life following gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Masazumi; Urushihara, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamada, Makoto; Lee, Sang-Woong; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Miki, Akira; Ikeda, Masami; Nakada, Koji

    2017-07-14

    To determine the predictive factors and impact of body weight loss on postgastrectomy quality of life (QOL). We applied the newly developed integrated questionnaire postgastrectomy syndrome assessment scale-45, which consists of 45 items including those from the Short Form-8 and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale instruments, in addition to 22 newly selected items. Between July 2009 and December 2010, completed questionnaires were received from 2520 patients with curative resection at 1 year or more after having undergone one of six types of gastrectomy for Stage I gastric cancer at one of 52 participating institutions. Of those, we analyzed 1777 eligible questionnaires from patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y procedure (TGRY) or distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I (DGBI) or Roux-en-Y (DGRY) procedures. A total of 393, 475 and 909 patients underwent TGRY, DGRY, and DGBI, respectively. The mean age of patients was 62.1 ± 9.2 years. The mean time interval between surgery and retrieval of the questionnaires was 37.0 ± 26.8 mo. On multiple regression analysis, higher preoperative body mass index, total gastrectomy, and female sex, in that order, were independent predictors of greater body weight loss after gastrectomy. There was a significant difference in the degree of weight loss (P 25 kg/m(2)). Multiple linear regression analysis identified lower postoperative body mass index, rather than greater body weight loss postoperatively, as a certain factor for worse QOL (P weight after gastrectomy, the impact of body weight loss on QOL is unexpectedly small.

  14. Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Bryant R; Baker, Joshua F; Sayles, Harlan; Michaud, Kaleb; Caplan, Liron; Davis, Lisa A; Cannon, Grant W; Sauer, Brian C; Solow, E Blair; Reimold, Andreas M; Kerr, Gail S; Mikuls, Ted R

    2017-04-20

    To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of U.S. Veterans with RA were followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the: 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of follow-up, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, 46 respiratory). The highest weight loss rate and weight loss percentage were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular (rate: sHR 2.27 [95% CI 1.61-3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31[1.06-5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [1.11-5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [1.00-3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [0.38-0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [1.28-6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight loss percent and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Corinna; Schmid, Vera; Fritsche, Louise; Gerter, Tsvetelina; Machicao, Fausto; Niess, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Heni, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max) and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), subgroup of N = 192). Participants lost body weight (p fitness lost significantly less body weight. Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  18. Carotid artery remodelling in relation to body fat distribution, inflammation and sustained weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardassis, D; Schönander, M; Sjöström, L; Karason, K

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with carotid artery remodelling, but less is known about how body fat distribution, inflammation and weight loss may affect this relation. Ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography were performed to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), body composition and fat distribution, respectively. Participants were divided into three matched study groups (n = 44 per group): obese patients with sustained weight loss 10 years after bariatric surgery [surgery group, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 kg m(-2)]; obese patients who maintained stable weight during the same time period (obese group, BMI 42.5 kg m(-2)); and normal weight subjects (lean group, BMI 24.4 kg m(-2)). Patients in the surgery group, compared with those in the obese group, had slightly lower common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.75 ± 0.18 vs. 0.78 ± 0.17 mm) and common carotid bulb (CCB) IMT (0.92 ± 0.32 vs. 0.97 ± 0.32 mm); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Lean individuals, compared with those in the surgery group, had significantly lower CCA and CCB IMT values (P loss did not have thinner carotid artery walls compared with their weight-stable obese counterparts. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Post-bariatric surgery satisfaction and body-contouring consideration after massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M Aldaqal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body′s contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients′ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-bariatric patients from May 2011 to April 2012 was conducted at our hospital. We used post-massive weight loss Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: The total numbers of patients were 64 (51 women and 13 men, of which 57 patients (89.2% developed sagging skin. Most patients were dissatisfied with their appearance after weight loss. The most common zones were the upper arms (50% and abdomen (45%. Considerably more women (36.2% than men (24% were dissatisfied with certain body areas. The most noticeable expectation of patients from body contouring surgery was improved cosmetic appearance (65.6% and self-confidence (64.1%. More women (70.58% than men (46.15% expected a better cosmetic appearance after body contouring (P = 0.003. Conclusion: After bariatric surgery, sagging excess skin is an unsatisfactory problem. Therefore, body contouring surgery must be included in morbid obesity management.

  20. Body Weight Dynamics Following Intentional Weight Loss and Physical Performance: The Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Houston, Denise K; Bray, George A; Hill, James O; Jakicic, John M; Johnson, Karen C; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2015-10-01

    To explore the impact of body weight change following intentional weight loss on measures of physical performance in adults with diabetes. 450 individuals with type 2 diabetes (age: 59.0±6.9 years, BMI: 35.5±5.9 kg/m(2)) who participated in the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study and lost weight one year after being randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention were assessed. Body weight was measured annually, and participants were categorized as continued losers/maintainers, regainers, or cyclers based on a ±5% annual change in weight. Objective measures of physical performance were measured at the year 8/9 visit. Forty-four, 38 and 18% of participants were classified as regainers, cyclers, and continued losers/maintainers. In women, weight cycling and regain was associated with worse follow-up expanded physical performance battery score (1.46±0.07 and 1.48±0.07 vs. 1.63±0.07, both p≤0.02) and slower 20-meter walking speed (1.10±0.04 and 1.08±0.04 m/s vs. 1.17±0.04 m/s, both pweight loss. Male cyclers presented with weaker grip strength compared to regainers or continued losers/maintainers (30.12±2.21 kg versus 34.46±2.04 and 37.39±2.26 kg; both pWeight cycling and regain following intentional weight loss in older adults with diabetes was associated with worse physical function in women and grip strength in men.

  1. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  2. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  3. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  4. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.0±5.2 kg; orlistat -3.2±4.7 kg; Porlistat group lost fat mass (-2.5±3.9 kg; Porlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.3±2.9 kg vs ?0.6±1.8 kg, respectively; POrlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population.

  5. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dietze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding. Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  6. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  7. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  8. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  9. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  10. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  11. Greater than predicted decrease in energy expenditure during exercise after body weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Eric; Imbeault, Pascal; St-Pierre, Sylvie; Alméras, Natalie; Mauriège, Pascale; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed retrospectively to investigate whether exercise energy expenditure (EE) measured during a standardized treadmill protocol (4.5 km/h at 0% grade) falls below predicted values after body weight loss in obese men. A reference equation was established to predict net exercise EE in a control sample of 83 obese individuals (27 kg/m(2)hydrodensitometry. Net exercise EE, insulin, leptin, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine were measured after an overnight fast at baseline and 2-4 weeks after the end of the programme, when subjects were weight stable. Body weight was significantly reduced (-11%; P <0.01) at the end of the weight loss programme. At baseline, measured net exercise EE was similar to that predicted from the regression equation [19.6 and 19.8 kJ/min (4.69 and 4.74 kcal/min) respectively; not significant]. However, after the end of the intervention, measured net exercise EE was significantly below the predicted value [15.5 and 17.3 kJ/min (3.71 and 4.14 kcal/min) respectively; P <0.01]. The difference between the predicted and the measured fall in net exercise EE was significantly associated with changes in leptin concentration ( r =0.79, P <0.01), even after correction for changes in fat mass and insulin. These observations suggest that net exercise EE falls below predicted values after body weight loss. In addition, this greater than predicted decrease in net exercise EE was associated with changes in leptin.

  12. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  13. Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huazano-García, Alicia; Shin, Hakdong; López, Mercedes G

    2017-08-23

    Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.

  14. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  15. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  16. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  17. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (PLeptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  18. Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel. The feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme with minimal face to face support was evaluated using a non-randomised design, based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, and Implementation (RE-AIM) dimensions of a framework designed for analysing implementation of interventions in practice. It was estimated that 6% (n = 58) of eligible NS personnel at recruitment sites were reached, based on personnel's expressions of interest to take part in the study. The potential efficacy of the intervention was evaluated by analysing participants' change in weight (kg) in the two groups. Forty-three participants were allocated to the intervention (n = 21) or control group (n = 22). Website usage was low, with 1.5 sessions accessed on average, over a 12-week follow-up. Changes in body weight over 12 weeks appeared to be observed for participants in the intervention group but not in the control group. The average weight loss observed in the intervention group (mean = -1.9 kg, SD = 2.1) appeared to reach significance, 95% CI [-2.8, -1.0], whereas no significant weight loss was apparent among control group participants (mean = -0.8 kg, SD = 3.8), 95% CI [-2.4, 0.8]. However, this feasibility study was not powered to test for within or group differences. Recruitment rates varied across five NS establishments invited to take part in the study, suggesting that the web-based weight loss programme was not adopted to the same extent across all bases. The online programme was not implemented as intended in terms of regular usage by participants and support provision by physical training instructors. The results suggest that the intervention may warrant further investigation

  19. DHA effect on chemotherapy-induced body weight loss: an exploratory study in a rodent model of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (Pweight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect.

  20. The Effect of Acute Weight Loss on Body Composition, Self-Esteem and Appearance Esteem before Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Mehmet; Tanir, Halil; Salim, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss in human body accompanies physical and psychological differences. In this study, it was aimed to see whether acute weight loss (dehydration) affected self-esteem and appearance esteem in the elite wrestlers before competitions. 38 professional wrestlers who had international competition experiences and were required to be in a lower…

  1. Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Huazano-García

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5 or high-fat (HF5 diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10 or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10 or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10, for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p < 0.05, increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t test, p < 0.05. After diet shifting, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increased its diversity, and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST + A10 or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10 led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, as well as higher SCFA levels (p < 0.1. Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0; this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.

  2. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, M M J W; Lejeune, M P G M; Saris, W H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of 13 weeks conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in overweight subjects after weight loss on weight regain, body composition, resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, and blood plasma parameters. This study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized design. Subjects were first submitted to a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD 2.1 MJ/d) for 3 weeks after which they started with the 13-week intervention period. They either received 1.8 g CLA or placebo per day (low dosage, LD) or 3.6 g CLA or placebo per day (high dosage, HD). A total of 26 men and 28 women (age 37.8+/-7.7 y; body mass index (BMI) 27.8+/-1.5 kg/m(2)). Before VLCD (t=-3), after VLCD but before CLA or placebo intervention (t=0) and after 13-week CLA or placebo intervention (t=13), body weight, body composition (hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution), resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, physical activity, and blood plasma parameters (glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glycerol and beta-hydroxy butyrate) were measured. The VLCD significantly lowered body weight (6.9+/-1.7%), %body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient and plasma glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol concentrations, while free fatty acids, glycerol and beta-hydroxy butyrate concentrations were increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that at the end of the 13-week intervention, CLA did not affect %body weight regain (CLA LD 47.9+/-88.2%, CLA HD 27.4+/-29.8%, Placebo LD 32.0+/-42.8%, Placebo HD 22.5+/-37.9%). The regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA (LD 6.2+/-3.9, HD 4.6+/-2.4%) compared to placebo (LD 2.8+/-3.2%, HD 3.4+/-3.6%), independent of %body weight regain and physical activity. As a consequence of an increased regain of fat-free mass by CLA, resting metabolic rate was increased by CLA (LD 12.0+/-11.4%, HD 13.7+/-14.4%) compared to placebo (LD 9.1+/-11.0%, HD 8.6+/-8.5%). Substrate oxidation and blood plasma

  3. The influence of body composition, fat distribution, and sustained weight loss on left ventricular mass and geometry in obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardassis, Dimitris; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Schönander, Marie; Sjöström, Lars; Karason, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    .... In a case-control study, we examined how body composition and fat distribution relate to left ventricular structure and examine how sustained weight loss affects left ventricular mass and geometry...

  4. An anthropometric classification of body contour deformities after massive weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Martin; Butron, Patricia; Abarca, Leonardo; Perez-Monzo, Mario F; de Rienzo-Madero, Beatriz

    2010-08-01

    Deformities caused by massive weight loss were originally subsidized at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán." This caused great economical losses, which led to the development of a classification to select patients with functional problems secondary to massive weight loss. The parameter used is the size of the pannus in relation to fixed anatomic structures within the following anatomic regions: abdomen, arms, thighs, mammary glands, lateral thoracic area, back, lumbar region, gluteal region, sacrum, and mons pubis. Grade 3 deformities are candidates for body contouring surgery because they constitute a functional problem. Grade 2 deformities reevaluated whether the patient has comorbidities. Lesser grades are considered aesthetic procedures and are not candidates for surgical rehabilitation at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán." This classification allowed an improvement in communication between the different surgical-medical specialties; therefore, we suggest its application not only for surgical-administrative reasons but also for academic purposes.

  5. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P weight loss, but this difference was attenuated after 5 weeks of weight stability. Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later. Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  7. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  9. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  10. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  11. Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed. PMID:25620843

  12. Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or excessi

  13. Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.

    Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or

  14. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection.

  15. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  16. Body weight at developmental age in siblings born to mothers before and after surgically induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisione, Michela; Carlini, Flavia; Gradaschi, Raffaella; Camerini, Giovanni; Adami, Gian Franco

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of epigenetic factors in determining body weight in adolescence, we studied the body weight of siblings born to the same mother before and after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity. The study was performed in a university hospital during a 20-year period. The siblings born before and after BPD were retrospectively rated by their mother as normal, overweight, or obese at 1, 6, and 12 years. At 1 and 6 years, the body weight was rated as similar in the subsets. However, at 12 years of age, a greater percentage of those born before BPD were considered overweight (42% versus 33%) and obese (22% versus 3%; P weight and body mass index in subjects born before BPD were greater (P weight later in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  18. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  19. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  2. During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Murer, Stefanie B; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n=206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat loss in a standardized, multidisciplinary, 2-month, in-patient weight loss program. This was a prospective study that determined thyroid function, glucose and lipid parameters, leptin, anthropometric measures, and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, 52% of children had TSH concentrations in the high normal range (>2.5 mU/liter), but TSH was not correlated with body weight, body mass index sd scores, lean body mass, or body fat percentage. At baseline, independent of adiposity, TSH significantly correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013), fasting insulin (P=0.010), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (P=0.004), and leptin (P=0.006). During the intervention, mean body fat, TSH, HOMA, and fasting insulin decreased by 21, 11, 53, and 54%, respectively. Change (Δ) in TSH did not correlate with Δbody weight or Δbody composition, but ΔTSH significantly correlated with, Δfasting insulin and ΔHOMA, independent of Δbody weight or Δbody composition (Pweight or fat. During weight loss, independent of changes in body weight or composition, decreases in elevated serum TSH predict decreases in fasting insulin and HOMA. These findings suggest interventions that target high TSH concentrations during weight loss in obese subjects may improve insulin sensitivity.

  3. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-10-05

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  4. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  5. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    for recent body mass index (BMI) (recent weight (kg) / tallest height (in 2)) and BMI at age 18 (weight at age 18 (kg) / tallest height (in2)) were...Cruickshanks KJ. Weight change and glycemic control in a population-based sample of adults with older-onset diabetes. J Gerontology: Med Sci. 1998; 53A:M27-M32...marketing/diet intervention study to increase fruit /vegetable consumption in a minority community. Campus-wide seminars 1. Continued attendance at

  6. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  7. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  8. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  9. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  10. Weight-loss medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  11. Exploratory Literature Meta-Analysis to Characterize the Relationship Between Early and Longer Term Body Weight Loss for Antiobesity Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plock, Nele; Bax, Leon; Lee, Douglas; DeManno, Deborah; Lahu, Gezim; Pfister, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new antiobesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (1) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss and (2) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship. Data from 89 randomized clinical trials with 209 treatment arms, representing observations from 54 461 patients and 9 treatments, were available for the meta-analysis. Results indicated that (1) there is a correlation between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss (r > 0.9), (2) baseline body weight influences the relationship between early and longer term weight loss, whereas comorbidity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, class of drugs including GLP-1 analogues and the antiobesity compounds lorcaserin or phentermine/topiramate showed no significant effects on this relationship. The model was externally evaluated with data from the investigational compound beloranib, for which longer term weight loss could be successfully predicted based on early response data. Based on these results, the identified strong relationship between treatment-related early and longer term weight loss appears to be independent of mechanism of action. Thus, findings from this analysis can optimize design of clinical studies and facilitate development of new anti-obesity compounds. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets f...

  13. Optimizing body contour in massive weight loss patients: the modified vertical abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luiz Fernando da; Landecker, Alan; Manta, Anísio Marinho

    2004-12-01

    In morbid obesity, contour deformities of the abdomen are common after bariatric surgery and radical weight loss. Traditional abdominoplasty techniques often fail to maximally improve body contour in these cases because adjacent sites such as the hip rolls and flanks are not treated, leaving the patient with large lateral tissue redundancies and dog-ears. In an attempt to solve these challenging problems, the authors present the modified vertical abdominoplasty technique, a single-stage procedure that involves a combined vertical and transverse approach in which an "en bloc" resection of the redundant tissues is performed without undermining, drainage, or reinforcement of the abdominal wall. The latter is only carried out when diastasis and/or hernias are present, and Marlex mesh may be utilized when indicated. In patients with simultaneous large umbilical hernias and/or excessively long stalks, neoumbilicoplasty is recommended. A significant improvement of abdominal contour was obtained in the vast majority of patients because the resection design offers simultaneous treatment of both vertical and transverse tissue redundancies in the abdomen and neighboring regions, with more harmonic results when compared with purely vertical or transverse approaches. The modified vertical abdominoplasty technique is an easy, fast, and reliable alternative for treating these patients, with less intraoperative bleeding, reduced overall cost, and low morbidity rates. In selected cases, the technique is capable of offering excellent results in terms of contouring and maximizes the overall outcome of treatment protocols for these patients, who can then be integrated into normal life with heightened self-esteem, happiness, and productivity.

  14. A COMPARISON OF WEIGHT LOSS, BODY COMPOSITION AND SOME MINERAL LEVELS BEFORE COMPETITION IN ELITE WRE STLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berkan ALPAY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the difference between body compositions and some mineral levels of elite wrestlers (at an international level who have loss of weight and who have not loss of weight. 69 volunteer elite wrestlers inv olving in Turkey Championship participated in this study. The wrestler who had loss of weight and who had not loss of weight in order to compete in their weight class before the championship are randomly chosen and at the time of race weighing, an informat ion form including demographic information, Tanita BC 418, bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BİA with USA brand, body compositions and 5 cc of blood from their forearm venous with vacutainer ( closed blood collection system are received from wrestlers who participated in the study. The blood samples are divided into serums by centrifuged at 4000 rpm in 5 minutes by using NF - 400 model centrifuge device with Nüve brand. Whether the wrestlers have loss of weight or not is calculated with a formula after their Sodium (Na + , Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN and Glucose levels are analyzed and they are separated into two groups according to their Plasma Osmolarity (P Osm levels. The wrestlers whose P Osm level ≤290 are discussed as the group not having loss of weight and the wrestler whose P Osm level >290 are discussed as the group having loss of weight. The information about the amount of loss of weight that they have before a race as a demographic variable is received from the sportsmen participating in this study. The basal metabolic rate, percentage of body fat, fat mass, free fat mass, total body water was determined with BİA. In the blood samples; Na + , BUN, Glucose, Iron (Fe, Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K an d Chlorine (Cl levels are measured by using kits with brand of Beckman Coulter in the AU2700 Plus model biochemical auto analyzer with brand of Beckman Coulter and Vitamin B12 and insulin levels are measured by using kits with brand of Roche in the Cobas E

  15. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  16. Correlates of body image dissatisfaction among overweight women seeking weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Patty E; Foster, Gary D; Faith, Myles S; Wadden, Thomas A

    2002-08-01

    Predictors of body image dissatisfaction (BID) among obese people are poorly understood. In 79 obese women seeking weight reduction, associations with BID of self-esteem, youth teasing, adult teasing, and internalization of sociocultural appearance standards (ISAS) were studied. Analyses revealed that only self-esteem, adult teasing, and ISAS predicted BID. Results highlight the importance of adulthood self-esteem and interpersonal-cultural context--rather than childhood experiences--in predicting adulthood BID.

  17. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmisholt, Jesper; Andersen, Stig; Laurberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, resting energy expenditure (REE) is reduced and weight gain is common. Physical activity contributes to the total daily energy expenditure, and changes in physical activity might contribute to hypothyroid-associated weight changes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mechanisms involved in body weight changes associated with hypothyroidism. We conducted a 1-yr controlled follow-up study on outpatients newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism (n = 12) and a euthyroid measurement control group (n = 10). MAIN OUTCOME AND INTERVENTIONS: Changes in body mass and composition (dual-energy x-ray analysis scan), REE (indirect calorimetry), and spontaneous physical activity (pedometers and two different questionnaires) were studied before and after 12 months of L-T(4) therapy or observation (control group). TSH changed from 102 (85) to 2.2 (2.1) mU/liter mean (SD) and free T(4) from 4.5 (2.1) to 18 (3.3) pmol/liter after 1 yr of treatment. Body weight decreased from 83.7 (16.4) to 79.4 (16.0) kg (P = 0.002) due to change in the lean mass subcompartment only (P = 0.001) because fat and bone mass was virtually unchanged. Significant increase was observed in REE and in physical activity measured with questionnaires but not measured as daily steps. No significant changes were observed in the control group. L-T(4) therapy of hypothyroidism associated with significant decrease in body weight and increase in REE. Physical activity measured with questionnaires increased significantly, but not number of daily steps. Despite changes in REE and body weight, fat mass was unchanged during the study. We propose that total body energy equilibrium is maintained during treatment of hypothyroidism and that weight loss observed during such treatment is caused by excretion of excess body water associated with untreated myxoedema.

  18. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Usefulness of Baltasar's expected body mass index as an indicator of bariatric weight loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina López, Alicia; Sabench Pereferrer, Fàtima; Vives Espelta, Margarida; Bonada Sanjaume, Anna; Blanco Blasco, Santiago; Raga Carceller, Esther; Hernández González, Mercè; Sánchez Marín, Antonio; Salas Salvadó, Jordi; Del Castillo Déjardin, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Determining the best indicator to report weight loss takes on special relevance following bariatric surgery. Our objective is to apply a method proposed by Baltasar et al. to express weight loss results following bariatric surgery. Anthropometric data were collected from 265 patients who had undergone Sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 172) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP, n = 93) with a 2-year follow-up period. Initial BMI was calculated as well as BMI 2 years after, percentage of excess BMI loss (PEBMIL), expected BMI (EBMI), and corrected PEBMIL. In SG group, average BMI 2 years after surgery fell within a 95 % CI of expected BMI, with an average BMI of 31.58 ± 4.05 kg/m(2) in 35-45 BMI group, an average BMI of 33.62 ± 4.96 kg/m(2) in 45-55 BMI group, and an average BMI of 37.40 ± 5.93 kg/m(2) in 55-65 BMI group. In RYGBP group, average BMI 2 years after the surgery was below than average expected BMI (28.76 ± 3.20 kg/m(2) in 35-45 BMI group and 29.71 ± 3.30 kg/m(2) in 45-55 BMI group). Results are considered excellent for the group with an initial BMI of above 45 kg/m(2). EBMI is a good weight loss indicator, mainly when 95 % CI is taken into account. EBMI is consistent with the results obtained 2 years after surgery in our patients who underwent SG and RYGBP. Corrected PEBMIL is a good indicator for expressing the percentage of BMI loss and offers more realistic values than conventional formula with a cut-off point of 25 points.

  20. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P changes in LM (-0.323; P changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  1. Beyond Body Mass Index: Are Weight-loss Programs the Best Way to Improve the Health of African American Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, Leilani; Spence-Almaguer, Emily

    2017-06-15

    African American women have higher prevalence (82%) of overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25-29) and obesity (BMI ≥30) than white women (63.2%) or Hispanic women (77.2%), and weight-loss programs yield minimal results in this population. We examine the concept of BMI as a measure of health for African American women and suggests a more holistic, multifaceted approach to preventing chronic disease.

  2. Effects of weight loss using supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on body fat and medium-chain acylcarnitines in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Kang, Miso; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-25

    Our previous study showed that supplementation with a combination of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 reduced the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area in overweight subjects. We aimed to evaluate whether the changes in adiposity after supplementation with Lactobacillus strains were associated with metabolic intermediates. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 66 non-diabetic and overweight individuals. Over a 12-week period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g of probiotic powder, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without the probiotics. To investigate metabolic alterations, we performed plasma metabolomics using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS). Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the levels of octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10) and dodecenoylcarnitine (C12:1) compared with the levels from placebo supplementation. In the probiotic group, the changes in the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area were negatively associated with changes in the levels of C8:1, C14:1, C10 and C12:1 acylcarnitines. In overweight individuals, probiotic-induced weight loss and adiposity reduction from the probiotic supplementation were associated with an increase in medium-chain acylcarnitines.

  3. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  4. Insulin resistance and inflammation predict kinetic body weight changes in response to dietary weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese subjects by using a Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Chun; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henri; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Gougis, Sophie; Fellahi, Soraya; Darakhshan, Froogh; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Doré, Joël; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa

    2013-12-01

    The ability to identify obese subjects who will lose weight in response to energy restriction is an important strategy in obesity treatment. We aimed to identify obese subjects who would lose weight and maintain weight loss through 6 wk of energy restriction and 6 wk of weight maintenance. Fifty obese or overweight subjects underwent a 6-wk energy-restricted, high-protein diet followed by another 6 wk of weight maintenance. Network modeling by using combined biological, gut microbiota, and environmental factors was performed to identify predictors of weight trajectories. On the basis of body weight trajectories, 3 subject clusters were identified. Clusters A and B lost more weight during energy restriction. During the stabilization phase, cluster A continued to lose weight, whereas cluster B remained stable. Cluster C lost less and rapidly regained weight during the stabilization period. At baseline, cluster C had the highest plasma insulin, interleukin (IL)-6, adipose tissue inflammation (HAM56+ cells), and Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococcus numbers in fecal samples. Weight regain after energy restriction correlated positively with insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: r = 0.5, P = 0.0002) and inflammatory markers (IL-6; r = 0.43, P = 0.002) at baseline. The Bayesian network identified plasma insulin, IL-6, leukocyte number, and adipose tissue (HAM56) at baseline as predictors that were sufficient to characterize the 3 clusters. The prediction accuracy reached 75.5%. The resistance to weight loss and proneness to weight regain could be predicted by the combination of high plasma insulin and inflammatory markers before dietary intervention.

  5. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  6. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  7. The effect of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older men and women undergoing hypocaloric weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P; Houston, Denise K; Miller, Gary D; Isom, Scott; Miller, Michael E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.

  8. Prevalence of body mass index and body weight cut-off points for in vitro fertilization treatment at U.S. clinics and current clinic weight loss strategy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Grant, Breănna L

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how many clinics providing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States require a body mass index (BMI) or body weight cut-off point to determine treatment eligibility. US clinics listed as members on the Society of Assisted Reproduction website in late 2013 were contacted by phone between January and March 2014. Clinic personnel were asked if a BMI or body weight cut-off points was used to determine IVF treatment eligibility and what strategies they recommended for their patients to achieve a healthy body weight. Of the 379 clinics contacted, 347 responded (92% response rate) and 35% (n = 120) reported using a BMI or body weight cut-off points to determine eligibility for IVF treatment. Mean BMI (± SD) cut-off points was 38.4 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and mean body weight (± SD) cut-off points was 130.2 ± 14.8 kg. Of the clinics using a set cut-off points, half (46%) provided no weight loss recommendations for patients. A sizable portion of US IVF clinics report a required or preferred BMI or body weight cut-off points for treatment. Despite this, most clinics did not provide a recommended program or approach for weight loss with very few clinics reporting an in-house program.

  9. Restoration of gastrointestinal motility ameliorates nutritional deficiencies and body weight loss of patients who undergo laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Suzuki, Masaki; Yanoma, Toru; Kimura, Akiharu; Kogure, Norimichi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Esophagogastrostomy after proximal gastrectomy (PG) is a simple and safe reconstruction, but it leads to a high incidence of reflux esophagitis and impairs postoperative quality of life. We have already reported gastric tube (GT) reconstruction after PG and performed it on more than 100 patients. No studies have reported long-term outcomes after PG-GT. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term outcomes, including nutrition indices, such as body weight, serum albumin, total protein, hemoglobin, and ferritin after PG, and observe recovery of upper gastrointestinal tract motility. We analyzed body weight loss and laboratory findings at our outpatient clinic at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months postoperatively. Manometric recording was carried out at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after surgery. The percentage change in body weight in the PG-GT group was significantly larger than that in the PG-JI and TG-RY groups at 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 years after surgery. The levels of hemoglobin and ferritin in the PG-GT and PG-JI groups were significantly higher than those in the TG-RY group at all time points except 6 months after surgery. In the fasted state, the phase III originated at the gastric tube was propagated to the duodenum 3 years after surgery. In the fed state, phasic contractions of the duodenum were in harmony with gastric tube contractions 3 years after surgery. PG-GT is the least invasive procedure, and restoration of gastrointestinal motilities in the gastric tube and duodenum may ameliorate body weight loss and nutritional status, including anemia, in patients after PG.

  10. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight loss. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You or a family member loses more ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The ... be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: How much weight have ...

  11. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity. Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition

  12. Full body photography in the massive weight loss population: an inquiry to optimize patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasicek, Philip; Kaswan, Sumesh; Messing, Susan; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Medical photography of body contouring patients often requires complete nudity, placing patients in a vulnerable situation. We investigated patient perspectives on full body photography in an effort to better protect the patients and enhance comfort with the photography process. Sixty-five massive weight loss patients were identified who underwent body contouring surgery with full body photography. Photographs were taken at the time of initial consult, time of marking, and postoperatively. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess body mass indices and comorbidities, and a telephone survey inquired about several aspects of the photographic process. Fifty-six (86%) patients participated. Patients were more comfortable at the time of markings (P = 0.0004) and at the postoperative session (P = 0.0009). Patients' perception of positive body image increased after body contouring surgery (P photography improves quickly as they move through the surgical process. Maintaining professionalism is the most important factor in achieving patient trust and comfort. Limiting the number of observers in the room, providing explicit details of the photography process, and having at least 1 person of the same sex in the room can optimize patient safety and comfort.

  13. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  14. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case.

  15. Body image and dissatisfaction among rural Deep South African American women in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica R; Affuso, Olivia; Levitan, Emily B; Carson, Tiffany L; Baskin, Monica L

    2017-02-01

    Body image perception may impact health-promoting behaviors as well as knowledge regarding health risks associated with obesity. Our cross-sectional analysis evaluated body image and its association with body mass index among overweight and obese treatment-seeking African American women ( N = 409). Differences between current and desired body image were captured using the Pulvers scale. Results indicated the presence of body image dissatisfaction among participants (median = 2.00, interquartile range: 2.00-3.00), with greater dissatisfaction observed at higher categories of body mass index. Additionally, receiver operating curves demonstrated the ability of the Pulvers scale to correctly identify participants classified by body mass index. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence body image perception.

  16. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  17. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    /day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P......-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men......) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p diet....

  18. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  19. Body image change in obese and overweight persons enrolled in weight loss intervention programs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hai-Lun

    2015-01-01

    To report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis examining whether weight loss interventions improve body image in obese/overweight individuals. Medline, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database were searched to identify studies involving obese/overweight adults who were enrolled in weight loss interventions in which body image was quantitatively assessed. Outcomes assessed were changes in body shape concern, body size dissatisfaction, and body satisfaction (intervention vs comparator/control group). Seven studies were included in the systematic review (4 in the meta-analysis). All but 1 study involved female participants only. The type of weight loss intervention varied between studies as did the type of control/comparator group. In 3 studies, there was no significant difference in body image outcomes, whereas in 4 studies, improvement in body image was significantly more pronounced in the intervention vs the control/comparator group. Meta-analysis revealed that improvements in body shape concern (standardized difference: -0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.04 to 0.00), body size dissatisfaction (standardized difference: -0.66; 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.45), and body satisfaction (standardized difference: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.38) significantly favored the intervention over the comparator/control group (Pmeta-analysis lend support to the notion that weight loss interventions may improve body image. This is a noteworthy finding that has clear clinical applicability because body image affects psychological well-being and the ability of an individual to maintain weight loss. Future research should determine which weigh loss interventions are associated with optimal improvements in body image and maintenance of weight loss.

  20. Body image change in obese and overweight persons enrolled in weight loss intervention programs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lun Chao

    Full Text Available To report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis examining whether weight loss interventions improve body image in obese/overweight individuals. Medline, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database were searched to identify studies involving obese/overweight adults who were enrolled in weight loss interventions in which body image was quantitatively assessed. Outcomes assessed were changes in body shape concern, body size dissatisfaction, and body satisfaction (intervention vs comparator/control group. Seven studies were included in the systematic review (4 in the meta-analysis. All but 1 study involved female participants only. The type of weight loss intervention varied between studies as did the type of control/comparator group. In 3 studies, there was no significant difference in body image outcomes, whereas in 4 studies, improvement in body image was significantly more pronounced in the intervention vs the control/comparator group. Meta-analysis revealed that improvements in body shape concern (standardized difference: -0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.04 to 0.00, body size dissatisfaction (standardized difference: -0.66; 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.45, and body satisfaction (standardized difference: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.38 significantly favored the intervention over the comparator/control group (P<0.05. The results of this systematic review/meta-analysis lend support to the notion that weight loss interventions may improve body image. This is a noteworthy finding that has clear clinical applicability because body image affects psychological well-being and the ability of an individual to maintain weight loss. Future research should determine which weigh loss interventions are associated with optimal improvements in body image and maintenance of weight loss.

  1. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Klassen, Anne; Rose, Michael

    2017-01-01

    to the post-body contouring surgery period. Data were collected using REDCap, and analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: For all appearance and health-related quality-of-life scales, the mean score was significantly lower in the pre-bariatric surgery group compared with the post-body contouring group...

  2. Loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced glycemic dysregulation independent of changes in body weight in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Gastecki, Michelle L; Welly, Rebecca J; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Karasseva, Natalia G; Kanaley, Jill A; Sacks, Harold S; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week-old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 wk. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass. Despite similar susceptibility to weight gain compared with WT, UCP1(-/-) exhibited whitening of brown AT evidenced by a striking ~500% increase in mass and appearance of large unilocular adipocytes, increased expression of genes related to inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress (P diet (P diet. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced whitening of brown AT, glucose intolerance, and induces liver steatosis. Notably, the adverse metabolic manifestations of UCP1(-/-) were independent of changes in body weight, visceral adiposity, and energy expenditure. These novel findings uncover a previously unrecognized metabolic protective role of UCP1 that is independent of its already established role in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C. Schalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182 who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1 Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2 Health benefits; (3 Physical benefits; (4 Eating benefits; (5 Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  4. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in ob......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein....../day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P...... and women had similar reductions (p weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14...

  6. Consistent magnitude of postpartum body weight loss within cows across lactations and the relation to reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Moallem, U

    2017-04-01

    Great variation exists among cows in the magnitude of tissue mobilization during early lactation; however, it is not known whether this is an intrinsic trait. Our aims were (1) to test whether the degree of body weight (BW) loss is consistent within cows across lactations by examining daily BW records of 4 to 5 consecutive lactations and their relation to milk yield, health disorders, and reproductive performance; and (2) to examine, in an intensive study, the possible underlying physiological mechanism. Data from 416 first to fifth consecutive lactations obtained from 92 Israeli high-yielding Holstein dairy cows were analyzed. Cows were divided according to percentage of BW loss from wk 1 to 5 postpartum in their last lactation, into groups of (1) low weight loss (LWL; -3 to 6%; n = 37) and (2) high weight loss (HWL; 7 to 17%; n = 55). The average percentage of BW loss was 7.6% in the HWL group and 5.3% in the LWL group, and the pattern was consistent between groups across lactations. Milk and 4% fat-corrected milk yields during the first 30 d in milk across lactations were higher in HWL than in LWL groups, but 305-d yields were similar. The number of open days and the interval between lactations were consistent across lactations, 17 and 20 d longer, respectively, in HWL versus LWL cows. Across lactations, the conception rates from first, second, and third artificial inseminations were 9.6% higher in LWL than in HWL cows. No differences in the incidence of health disorders were observed between groups. The intensive study was conducted with 12 randomly selected peripartum cows divided into c-HWL and c-LWL groups according to the same criteria. Similar dry matter intake and efficiency calculations were observed between groups postpartum, implying that the differences may not be related to these factors. In response to a glucose-tolerance test, c-HWL cows had higher insulin secretion pre- and postpartum than c-LWL cows, suggesting the former had lower sensitivity to

  7. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES...... well to dietary, physical activity, or drug based weight loss interventions and thus genetic predisposition to obesity associated with the FTO minor allele can be at least partly counteracted through such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015015969.......: Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  8. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK...

  9. [Comparison of body weight loss in gastrectomy patients who underwent only surgery and those who underwent surgery followed up with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yukawa, Norio; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Ozawa, Yukihiro; Kitani, Yuichi; Wada, Hiroo; Masuda, Munetaka; Tsuburaya, Akira

    2012-11-01

    Body weight loss is a common outcome in patients with gastric cancer who have undergone gastrectomy. However, the rate of body weight loss after surgery is unknown. In this retrospective study, we selected patients who underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and were diagnosed with Stage II or III disease. Further, we compared the body weight loss after surgery between patients in the surgery alone group and the S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy group. We evaluated 163 patients, of which 81 underwent only surgery, and 82 underwent surgery followed up with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy. The body weight loss rate at 1, 3, and 6 months in the surgery alone group were 93.1%, 92.9%, and 94.9%, while those in the S-1 adjuvant group were 92.9%, 90.4%,and 91.9%, which was a significant difference. Body weight loss after gastrectomy was higher in the S-1 adjuvant group than in the surgery alone group. Further, nutritional support is required for these patients to maintain body weight after surgery.

  10. Does a laparoscopic approach attenuate the body weight loss and lean body mass loss observed in open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer? a single-institution exploratory analysis of the JCOG 0912 phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Sato, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Oba, Koji; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2017-06-16

    Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for gastric cancer may prevent the loss of body weight and lean body mass resulting from reduced surgical stress in comparison to open distal gastrectomy (ODG). A multicenter phase III trial conducted by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG0912 trial) was performed to confirm the non-inferiority of LADG to ODG for stage I gastric cancer in terms of relapse-free survival. This study was performed as a single-institution exploratory analysis using the data of the patients from our hospital who were enrolled in the JCOG0912 phase III trial. Body weight and lean body mass were evaluated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. One-hundred six patients were randomized to undergo ODG (54 patients) or LADG (51 patients). Body weight loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -3.0%, -4.9%, and -5.4%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -4.3%, and -5.7%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.330, 0.166, and 0.656, respectively). Lean body mass loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -2.8%, -4.1%, and -2.3%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -2.9%, and -3.0%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.610, 0.413, and 0.925, respectively). The laparoscopic approach did not attenuate the loss of body weight and lean body mass in comparison to patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  11. Multicenter evaluation of an interdisciplinary 52-week weight loss program for obesity with regard to body weight, comorbidities and quality of life--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, S C; Damms-Machado, A; Betz, C; Herpertz, S; Legenbauer, T; Löw, T; Wechsler, J G; Bischoff, G; Austel, A; Ellrott, T

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a structured multidisciplinary non-surgical obesity therapy program on the basis of a temporary low-calorie-diet for 12 weeks, and additional intervention modules to enhance nutritional education, to increase physical activity and to modify eating behavior. Prospective multicenter observational study in obese individuals undergoing a medically supervised outpatient-based 52-week treatment in 37 centers in Germany. A total of 8296 participants with a body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg m(-2) included within 8.5 years. Main outcome measures were body weight loss, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, quality of life and adverse events. In females, initial body weight was reduced after the 1-year-intervention by 19.6 kg (95% confidence intervals 19.2-19.9 kg) and in males by 26.0 kg (25.2-26.8) according to per protocol analysis of 4850 individuals. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis revealed a weight reduction of 15.2 kg (14.9-15.6) in females and 19.4 kg (18.7-20.1) in males. Overall, the intervention resulted in mean reduction in WC of 11 cm; it reduced the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by 50% and the frequency of hypertension from 47 to 29% of all participants (ITT, all P<0.001). The beneficial effects could be documented for up to 3 years and comprised significant improvement of health-related quality of life. The incidence of adverse effects was low; the only event repeatedly observed and possibly related to either the intervention or the underlying disease was biliary disorders. The present non-surgical intervention program is a highly effective treatment of obesity grades I-III and obesity-related diseases, and therefore, could be a valuable basis for future weight maintenance strategies required for sustained success.

  12. Geophysical weight loss diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  13. Further characterization of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in males of the congenic mouse strain DDD.Cg-A(y.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2015-02-01

    The A(y) allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-A(y) males. The number of β-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F1-A(y), we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-A(y) males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-A(y) and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-A(y) male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-A(y) male with DDD.Cg-A(y) or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-A(y) males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-A(y) males.

  14. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  15. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn

    2008-01-01

    Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H&N to weight loss as expressed...

  16. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  17. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  18. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  19. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  20. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  1. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-04-06

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  2. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  3. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  4. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  5. Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss In A Behavioral Weight Loss Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    body mass” (CDC, 2002; Stunkard & Wadden, 1993, p. 14). Excess body fat can be assessed by a variety of methods including skinfold thickness ...African American women. SPIRITUALITY AND WEIGHT LOSS 6 Table of Contents Abstract...45 Tables & Figures

  6. Biosynthesis of vitamin C stabilized tin oxide nanoparticles and their effect on body weight loss in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Ke-Qing; Qiu, Li

    2017-09-01

    The green synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using vitamin C (Vc) as a reducing agent via a biosynthetic approach is described. The effect of Vc-stabilized SnO2 NPs on the body weight of neonatal rats is also studied. The prepared SnO2NPs were characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic instrumental techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which confirmed the formation of NPs. TEM images confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with a mean particle size of around 30nm. The body weight studies showed that vitamin-C stabilized SnO2 NPs promote a higher body weight gain compared to raw SnO2 NPs. It was also shown that Vc can counteract the decreased body weight caused by SnO2 NPs in neonatal rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Book review: media and the rhetoric of body perfection:\\ud cosmetic surgery, weight loss and beauty in popular culture\\ud by Deborah Harris-Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Monson, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of the so-called ‘obesity epidemic’, Media and the Rhetoric of Body Perfection critically examines the discourses of physical perfection that pervade Western societies, aiming to shed new light on the rhetorical forces behind body anxieties and extreme methods of weight loss and beautification. Drawing on interview material with cosmetic surgery patients and offering fresh analyses of various texts from popular culture, this book examines the ways in which the media cap...

  8. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    381 All volunteersa Weight (kg) 56 99.114.1 98.314.3 BMI 56 33.12.9 32.03.0 Body fat (%), CIRC 56 31.66.2 30.76.4 Body fat (%), DEXA 56 31.14.5...with and without meal eplacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote eight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. oldiers (n113... body fat (1.0%0.4%), nd fat mass (0.80.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay olunteers (P0.05). Our findings suggest that meal re- lacement use can be

  9. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  10. Impact of Competing Risk of Mortality on Association of Weight Loss With Risk of Central Body Fractures in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensrud, Kristine E; Harrison, Stephanie L; Cauley, Jane A; Langsetmo, Lisa; Schousboe, John T; Kado, Deborah M; Gourlay, Margaret L; Lyons, Jennifer G; Fredman, Lisa; Napoli, Nicolas; Crandall, Carolyn J; Lewis, Cora E; Orwoll, Eric S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cawthon, Peggy M

    2017-03-01

    To determine the association of weight loss with risk of clinical fractures at the hip, spine, and pelvis (central body fractures [CBFs]) in older men with and without accounting for the competing risk of mortality, we used data from 4523 men (mean age 77.5 years). Weight change between baseline and follow-up (mean 4.5 years between examinations) was categorized as moderate loss (loss ≥10%), mild loss (loss 5% to models with death as a competing risk. During an average of 8 years, 337 men (7.5%) experienced CBF and 1569 (34.7%) died before experiencing this outcome. Among men with moderate weight loss, CBF probability was 6.8% at 5 years and 16.9% at 10 years using Kaplan-Meier versus 5.7% at 5 years and 10.2% at 10 years using a competing risk approach. Men with moderate weight loss compared with those with stable weight had a 1.6-fold higher adjusted risk of CBF (HR 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.38) using Cox models that was substantially attenuated in models accounting for competing mortality risk and no longer significant (subdistribution HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.75). Results were similar in analyses substituting hip fracture for CBF. Older men with weight loss who survive are at increased risk of CBF, including hip fracture. However, ignoring the competing mortality risk among men with weight loss substantially overestimates their long-term fracture probability and relative fracture risk. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  12. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  14. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on factors relating to reasons why the weight loss programmes had ... the increase according to a National Health and Nutrition .... classes after weight gain. 7. 14. 26 .... 'slow metabolism' (8%), and a chronic problem of premenstrual.

  15. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  16. Friendship clique and peer influences on body image concerns, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors, and binge eating in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Schutz, H K; Wertheim, E H; Muir, S L

    1999-05-01

    This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.

  17. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  18. Results of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese vs superobese patients: similar body weight loss, correction of comorbidities, and improvement of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Michel; Calmes, Jean-Marie; Paroz, Alexandre; Romy, Sébastien; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-04-01

    Gastric bypass corrects comorbidities and quality of life similarly in superobese (SO) and morbidly obese (MO) patients despite higher residual weight in SO patients. Prospective cohort study comparing results of primary laparoscopic gastric bypass in MO and SO patients. University hospital and community hospital with common bariatric programs. A total of 492 MO and 133 SO patients treated consecutively between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2006. Primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Operative morbidity, weight loss, residual body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), evolution of comorbidities, quality of life, and Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System score. Surgery was longer in SO patients, but operative morbidity was similar. The MO patients lost a maximum of 15 BMI units and maintained an average loss of 13 BMI units after 6 years, compared with 21 and 17 in SO patients, which corresponds to a 30.1% and 30.7% total body weight loss, respectively. After 6 years, the BMI was less than 35 in more than 90% of MO patients but in less than 50% of SO patients. Despite these differences, improvements in quality of life and comorbidities were impressive and similar in both groups. Although many SO patients remain in the severely obese or MO category, equivalent improvements in quality of life and obesity-related comorbidities indicate that weight loss is not all that matters after bariatric surgery.

  19. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A; Nelson, Robert H; Miles, John M

    2013-06-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [(3)H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-(13)C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P fat (r = -0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = -0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  3. Dieta rica em proteína na redução do peso corporal High-protein diet for body weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Graça Pedrosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A proporção ideal dos macronutrientes em dietas de emagrecimento é atualmente bastante discutida. Existem evidências de que dietas com maior proporção de proteína aumentam a perda de peso e de gordura corporal e diminuem a perda de massa corporal magra durante o emagrecimento. Todavia, os mecanismos responsáveis por estes efeitos não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Além disso, existem poucas conclusões a respeito dos possíveis efeitos colaterais dessas dietas na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio. Assim, este artigo objetiva trazer informações atuais sobre os efeitos de dietas ricas em proteína na perda de peso e na composição corporal e dos mecanismos envolvidos, bem como seus efeitos na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio.The ideal proportion of macronutrients in weight loss diets is currently under debate. There are evidences indicating that a higher proportion of protein during weight loss diets enhances the loss of body weight and fat mass, and reduces the loss of lean body mass. Nevertheless, the responsible mechanisms for these effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies that evaluated the possible side effects of these diets on the renal function and on the nutritional state of calcium have shown inconclusive results. Therefore, this article has the objective to convey recent information about the effects of high-protein diets in the regulation of the body weight and body composition, besides its involved mechanisms, and its effects on the renal function and on the calcium nutritional status.

  4. Effects of a weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese postmenopausal women displaying various obesity phenotypes: a MONET group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Eve; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, since the metabolic profile may differ greatly from one individual to another. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a 6-month diet-induced weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese individuals displaying different obesity phenotypes. Secondary analyses were done on 129 obese (% body fat: 46% ± 4%) postmenopausal women (age: 57 ± 4 years). Outcome measures included body composition, body fat distribution, glucose homeostasis, fasting lipids, and blood pressure. Obesity phenotypes were determined based on lean body mass (LBM) index (LBMI = LBM/height(2)) and visceral fat (VF) accumulation, as follows: 1, lower VF and lower LBMI (n = 35); 2, lower VF and higher LBMI (n = 19); 3, higher VF and lower LBMI (n = 14); and 4, higher VF and higher LBMI (n = 61). All groups had significantly improved measures of body composition after the intervention (P metabolic profile in response to weight loss. Individuals displaying higher VF or higher LBMI at baseline experienced significantly greater decreases for these variables after the intervention.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Baxter, Kimberley; Ware, Robert S; Jensen, Diane E; Cardinal, John W; Warren, Janet M; Daniels, Lynne; Davies, Peter S W; Barrett, Paula; Blumfield, Michelle L; Batch, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents. A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital. Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female) completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37) or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36) or a wait listed control group (n = 14). Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models. After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91%) participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07), Pchanges in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy. International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  6. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  7. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  8. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  9. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  10. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1.

  11. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sénéchal; Jana Slaght; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strateg...

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  13. Body image change in obese and overweight women enrolled in a weight-loss intervention: the importance of perceived versus actual physical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; McEwan, Desmond; Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-06-01

    Using the exercise and self-esteem model as a guiding framework, this study examined variables related to body image change among 88 overweight and obese women (M(age)=28.4±7.8; M(BMI)=31.6±3.5) participating in a 16-week diet and exercise weight-loss intervention. Measures of body image and potential mechanisms of body image change (actual and perceived physical changes, self-efficacy) were administered at baseline, Weeks 8 and 16. Body image improved significantly over the study time-points (pschanges accounted for most explained variance (12-37%) in body image change (total R(2)(adj)=.21-.50). Improved perceptions of body fat were a particularly important predictor in each model (ps≤.04). Results support the notion that to improve body image, perceived changes to the body are more important than actual changes. Such information is integral to developing theories to explain body image change and interventions to maximize it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment.

  15. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

  16. Weight loss history as a predictor of weight loss: results from Phase I of the weight loss maintenance trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Valerie H.; McVay, Megan A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hollis, Jack F.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Funk, Kristine L.; Gullion, Christina M.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Stevens, Victor J; Svetkey, Laura P; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that weight loss history is associated with subsequent weight loss. However, questions remain whether method and amount of weight lost in previous attempts impacts current weight loss efforts. This study utilized data from the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial to examine the association between weight loss history and weight loss outcomes in a diverse sample of high-risk individuals. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine which specific aspects of ...

  17. Differential effects of the novel antidepressant tianeptine on L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-elicited corticosterone release and body weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broqua, P; Baudrie, V; Chaouloff, F

    1992-06-01

    Biochemical and behavioural experiments have indicated that the novel antidepressant tianeptine stimulates 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake. The present study has explored the influence of acute tianeptine pretreatment upon corticosterone release and body weight loss following L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) administration in conscious rats. Administration of 5-HTP (20 mg/kg i.v.) increased plasma corticosterone levels to a similar extent in rats pretreated either with saline or tianeptine (10 mg/kg i.p., 60 min beforehand). Besides, prior administration of benserazide (50 mg/kg i.p., 30 min beforehand), an inhibitor of peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, prevented 5-HTP-induced corticosterone release in both saline- and tianeptine-pretreated rats. However, combined administration of benserazide and 5-HTP decreased overnight body weight in saline-, but not in tianeptine-pretreated rats. These results suggest that tianeptine preferentially activates 5-HT reuptake in central serotonergic neurones.

  18. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Li

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI = 27.3 kg/m(2], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: p<0.01 and R (2 = 23.1%, 24.1%, 20.7%, respectively; for females: p<0.001 and R (2 = 40.4%, 48.8%, 25.4%, respectively. The current study suggests that BIA provides a relatively accurate prediction of %BF in individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  19. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  20. The Effect of Bariatric Surgery Type on Lipid Profile: An Age, Sex, Body Mass Index and Excess Weight Loss Matched Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Filipe M; Oliveira, Joana; Preto, John; Saavedra, Ana; Costa, Maria M; Magalhães, Daniela; Lau, Eva; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Freitas, Paula; Varela, Ana; Carvalho, Davide

    2016-05-01

    Bariatric surgery improves lipid profile. A still unanswered question is whether this improvement is merely weight-dependent or also results from factors inherent to specificities of the bariatric procedure. We aimed to study lipid profile 1 year after bariatric surgery and compare its changes between the different procedures in patients matched for initial weight and weight loss. We retrospectively analysed patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between 2010 and 2013. Patients were matched for age (±5 years), sex, pre-surgery body mass index (BMI) (±2 Kg/m(2)) and excess weight loss (EWL) (±5%). Baseline and 1-year lipid profile, its variation and percentage of variation was compared between surgeries. We analysed 229 patients: 72 pairs RYGB-AGB, 47 pairs RYGB-SG and 33 pairs AGB-SG. The median age was 41 (35-52) years and 11.8% were male. Pre-operative BMI was 44.0 ± 4.6 and 32.1 ± 4.4 Kg/m(2) at 1 year. EWL at 1 year was 64.2 ± 18.9%. There were no differences in baseline lipid profile between patients submitted to different types of bariatric surgery. At 1 year, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) improved similarly with all surgeries. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) at 1 year decreased significantly more in patients submitted to RYGB than in weight-matched patients undergoing AGB or SG. RYGB is the only bariatric surgery that reduces TC and LDL in age-, sex-, BMI- and EWL-matched patients. All three procedures improved TG and HDL similarly when the confounding effect of weight loss is eliminated.

  1. Impact of food craving and calorie intake on body mass index (BMI) changes during an 18-month behavioral weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.

  2. Master Amino acid Pattern as substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium with essentially no calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving 10 g (10 tablets) of Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a substitute for dietary proteins, once a day, to 114 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also preventing those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, or decreased libido, the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, allowed for mean weight loss of 1.4 kg (3 lb) per week.

  3. A faster running speed is associated with a greater body weight loss in 100-km ultra-marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Alexander Rüst, Christoph; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In 219 recreational male runners, we investigated changes in body mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), and urine specific gravity as well as fluid intake during a 100-km ultra-marathon. The athletes lost 1.9 kg (s = 1.4) of body mass, equal to 2.5% (s = 1.8) of body mass (P running speed (r = -0.16, P running speed (r = 0.42, P 0.05). In conclusion, faster runners lost more body mass, runners lost more body mass when they drank less fluid, and faster runners drank more fluid than slower runners.

  4. Supporting your child with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care provider can set healthy goals for weight-loss and help with monitoring and support. Getting support ... to get the whole family to join a weight-loss plan, even if weight loss is not the ...

  5. The impact of pre- and post-operative weight loss and body mass index on prognosis in patients with oesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, O; Anandavadivelan, P; Gossage, J; Johar, A M; Lagergren, J; Lagergren, P

    2017-08-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal symptom of oesophageal cancer and is often continued after surgery. High body mass index (BMI) is a strong risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to assess the impact of pre- and post-operative weight loss and BMI on long-term mortality after resection for oesophageal cancer. This prospective and nationwide cohort study included 390 patients, operated on for oesophageal cancer in Sweden in 2001-2005 with follow-up until 2016, who responded to a questionnaire on weight history 6 months after surgery. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of mortality while adjusting for several prognostic factors, including tumour stage. Compared to weight stable patients, pre-surgery weight loss indicated increased HRs of overall all-cause mortality (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.94-1.86) and disease-specific mortality (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.93-1.98). Patients with >20% weight loss post-surgery had worse overall all-cause mortality (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.88) and disease-specific mortality (HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.89). Compared to patients with normal BMI, decreased HRs were indicated for patients who were obese at the time of surgery (overall all-cause mortality HR 0.87 95% CI, 0.58-1.31 and disease-specific mortality HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.57-1.40), while patients with BMI ≤19.9 at 6 months post-surgery had increased all-cause mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.95) and disease-specific mortality (HR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.21). Post-operative weight loss and low BMI at 6 months post-surgery are independent markers of poor prognosis in patients who undergo surgery for oesophageal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  7. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  8. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  9. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  10. Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Melby; Matt Hickey

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    -symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD...

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently...... of depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD.......Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  13. Assessing Improvement in Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction following Body Contouring Surgery in Patients with Massive Weight Loss: A Critical Review of Outcome Measures Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body contouring following massive weight loss is a rapidly expanding field in plastic surgery. However, healthcare payers are reluctant to fund such procedures, viewing them as purely cosmetic. This has resulted in a flurry of studies assessing quality of life (QoL and patient satisfaction following body contouring surgery in this cohort of patients to establish an evidence base to support the idea that body contouring is as much (or even more a functional procedure as it is cosmetic. However, the methods employed in these studies are seldom ideal, and hence the conclusions are unreliable. The gold standard to assess QoL and patient satisfaction is to use patient specific psychometrically validated patient reported outcome (PRO measures. Developing such measures consists of a three-step process which includes a review of the current literature, qualitative patient interviews to determine what patients consider the most important, and expert opinion. This study aims to appraise the currently available literature on assessment of QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring surgery patients. This will hopefully provide an understanding of methodological weaknesses in current studies and inform future investigators of the design of ideal instruments for assessing QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring patients.

  14. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  15. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients.......Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...

  16. [Fatigue and weight loss in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue is a common, under recognized, and poorly understood nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fatigue frequently presents early in PD, and its prevalence increases with disease progression, affecting up to 60% of patients. Fatigue has a negative impact on quality of life. Fatigue is often associated with other nonmotor symptoms, including sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depression. Only a few reports have been published on the treatment of fatigue in PD (methylphenidate, levodopa, and pramipexole). Further well-designed studies, including physiotherapy, are necessary to develop more effective treatments for PD-associated fatigue. A number of patients with PD lose weight because of loss of fat. However, the evolution and determinants of weight loss are not well established. Possible determinants of weight loss in PD include loss of appetite, impaired hand-mouth coordination, difficulty in chewing and dysphagia, nausea, intestinal hypomotility, and increased energy requirements because of muscular rigidity and involuntary movements. Noticeable weight gain has repeatedly been reported after subthalamic or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Because low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poor prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  17. Gender Differences in the Associations among Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, Exercise, and Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Jensen, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore gender differences regarding weight management behaviors of college drinkers. Participants: Nationally representative sample of college students from the fall 2008 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II ("N" = 26,062 students). Methods: Structural equation modeling was used…

  18. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  19. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  20. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  1. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; Pfat distribution in men and women.

  2. Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Bray, George A; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat significantly modified genetic effects on changes in weight, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after adjustment for the confounders (all P for interaction ≤0.006). Further adjustment for weight change did not appreciably change the interactions for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In the high-fat diet group, the C allele was related to less weight loss and smaller decreases in serum insulin and HOMA-IR (all P ≤ 0.02 in an additive pattern), whereas an opposite genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR was observed in the low-fat diet group (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). At 2 years, the gene-diet interactions remained significant for weight loss (P=0.008) but became null for changes in serum insulin and HOMA-IR resulting from weight regain. Individuals carrying the C allele of the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 may benefit less in weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity than those without this allele when undertaking an energy-restricted high-fat diet. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00072995.

  3. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Bartlett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG, could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor

  4. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachael; Sluyter, Vanessa; Watson, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age) until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor coordination in

  5. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-Ay littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-Ay females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-Ay males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay males. Results Growth curves of DDD.Cg-Ay mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-Ay mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-Ay males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the Ay allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC Ay males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-Ay males. Conclusions The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes

  6. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2013-05-04

    Mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-A(y) littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-A(y) females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-A(y) males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Growth curves of DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-A(y) mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-A(y) males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F(1)-A(y) mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the A(y) allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC A(y) males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-A(y) males. The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes. This QTL

  7. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients....

  8. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  9. A global pharmaceutical company initiative: an evidence-based approach to define the upper limit of body weight loss in short term toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Allais, Linda; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Ockert, Deborah; Nogues, Vicente; Palmer, Helen; Popovic, Marija; Roosen, Wendy; Schoenmakers, Ankie; Somers, Kevin; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Robinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    Short term toxicity studies are conducted in animals to provide information on major adverse effects typically at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies are important from a scientific and ethical perspective as they are used to make decisions on progression of potential candidate drugs, and to set dose levels for subsequent regulatory studies. The MTD is usually determined by parameters such as clinical signs, reductions in body weight and food consumption. However, these assessments are often subjective and there are no published criteria to guide the selection of an appropriate MTD. Even where an objective measurement exists, such as body weight loss (BWL), there is no agreement on what level constitutes an MTD. A global initiative including 15 companies, led by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), has shared data on BWL in toxicity studies to assess the impact on the animal and the study outcome. Information on 151 studies has been used to develop an alert/warning system for BWL in short term toxicity studies. The data analysis supports BWL limits for short term dosing (up to 7days) of 10% for rat and dog and 6% for non-human primates (NHPs).

  10. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    Conceptos: %WL: Porcentaje de perdida de peso; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. Objetivo: evaluar que unidad de medida en la perdida podria determinar el exito o fracaso del tratamiento dietetico en el sobrepeso y obesidad. Método: 4.625 consultas se llevaron a cabo con 616 pacientes mayores de 25 anos con sobrepeso y obesidad, en el sur-este de Espana, durante los anos 2006-12. Las consultas se realizaban quincenalmente, se utilizo la dieta mediterranea e hipo-calorica. Se formaron cuatro grupos en funcion del menor o mayor %WL y %FL. Resultados: la mayoria de la muestra esta formada por: mujeres; participantes entre 25-45 anos; asistentes a mas de mes y medio; obesos. El 80% de los pacientes obtienen un %FL ≥ 5% (15,5}12,8). Los grupos con mayor %FL obtiene diferencias significativas en la perdida (22,6 vs 11,2%, p=0,000). El analisis multinomial, destaca diferencias significativas cuando se compara los grupos de mayor %FL con el menor %WL y %FL: en el sexo (p=0.006 vs p=0.005), IMC (p=0.010 vs p=0.003) y asistencia (p=0.000 vs p=0.000). Conclusión: los pacientes que pierden muestra pierde ≥ 5% de grasa, por lo que el tratamiento dietetico individualizado es un metodo que obtiene una elevada perdida de grasa; la grasa es un indicador de la calidad de la perdida obtenida. Se recomienda: la medicion de la grasa como unidad de medida complementaria al peso; establecer el limite del 5% para evaluar dicha perdida; y aumentar la investigacion en esta linea en cualquier metodo de perdida.

  11. During Rapid Weight Loss in Obese Children, Reductions in TSH Predict Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Changes in Body Weight or Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Murer, S.B.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Knopfli, B.H.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects: Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n = 206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat

  12. Induction of body weight loss through RNAi-knockdown of APOBEC1 gene expression in transgenic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Jolivet

    Full Text Available In the search of new strategies to fight against obesity, we targeted a gene pathway involved in energy uptake. We have thus investigated the APOB mRNA editing protein (APOBEC1 gene pathway that is involved in fat absorption in the intestine. The APOB gene encodes two proteins, APOB100 and APOB48, via the editing of a single nucleotide in the APOB mRNA by the APOBEC1 enzyme. The APOB48 protein is mandatory for the synthesis of chylomicrons by intestinal cells to transport dietary lipids and cholesterol. We produced transgenic rabbits expressing permanently and ubiquitously a small hairpin RNA targeting the rabbit APOBEC1 mRNA. These rabbits exhibited a moderately but significantly reduced level of APOBEC1 gene expression in the intestine, a reduced level of editing of the APOB mRNA, a reduced level of synthesis of chylomicrons after a food challenge, a reduced total mass of body lipids and finally presented a sustained lean phenotype without any obvious physiological disorder. Interestingly, no compensatory mechanism opposed to the phenotype. These lean transgenic rabbits were crossed with transgenic rabbits expressing in the intestine the human APOBEC1 gene. Double transgenic animals did not present any lean phenotype, thus proving that the intestinal expression of the human APOBEC1 transgene was able to counterbalance the reduction of the rabbit APOBEC1 gene expression. Thus, a moderate reduction of the APOBEC1 dependent editing induces a lean phenotype at least in the rabbit species. This suggests that the APOBEC1 gene might be a novel target for obesity treatment.

  13. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active.

  14. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  15. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  16. Ways to Track Weight Loss Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165874.html Ways to Track Weight Loss Success There's more to it than the scale ... News) -- Self-monitoring is part of virtually every weight loss plan, and weighing yourself is a key part ...

  17. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  18. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  19. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide in the Central Amygdala Causes Anorexia and Body Weight Loss via the Melanocortin and the TrkB Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemolo, Attilio; Ferragud, Antonio; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1 receptor system represents one of the main regulators of the behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. Although induction of anorexia is a well-documented effect of PACAP, the central sites underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present studies addressed this question by examining the neuroanatomical, behavioral, and pharmacological mechanisms mediating the anorexia produced by PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure implicated in the emotional components of ingestive behavior. Male rats were microinfused with PACAP (0-1 μg per rat) into the CeA and home-cage food intake, body weight change, microstructural analysis of food intake, and locomotor activity were assessed. Intra-CeA (but not intra-basolateral amygdala) PACAP dose-dependently induced anorexia and body weight loss without affecting locomotor activity. PACAP-treated rats ate smaller meals of normal duration, revealing that PACAP slowed feeding within meals by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet; postprandial satiety was unaffected. Intra-CeA PACAP-induced anorexia was blocked by coinfusion of either the melanocortin receptor 3/4 antagonist SHU 9119 or the tyrosine kinase B (TrKB) inhibitor k-252a, but not the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results indicate that the CeA is one of the brain areas through which the PACAP system promotes anorexia and that PACAP preferentially lessens the maintenance of feeding in rats, effects opposite to those of palatable food. We also demonstrate that PACAP in the CeA exerts its anorectic effects via local melanocortin and the TrKB systems, and independently from CRF.

  20. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P M Verhoef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males, age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod, protein levels (Western blot and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. RESULTS: A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4 during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc and lipolysis (ATGL were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION: Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  1. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2), followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  2. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  3. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  4. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-11-03

    To describe participants' adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m(2)). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 +/- 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.

  5. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... restriction (P weight loss (r = 0.32; P obesity and associated with body fat distribution, suggesting...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  6. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups

  7. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non

  8. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerksick, Chad M; Wismann-Bunn, Jennifer; Fogt, Donovan; Thomas, Ashli R; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill I; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Roberts, Mike D; La Bounty, Paul; Galbreath, Melyn; Marcello, Brandon; Rasmussen, Christopher J; Kreider, Richard B

    2010-11-22

    This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m(-2), 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week(-1) supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups. Overall and over the entire

  9. Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dixon, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teevale, Tasileta

    2013-03-01

    The current research aims to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. New Zealand secondary schools, 2007. Secondary-school students (n 9107). Among young people who attempted weight loss in the previous year, 51% reported long-term weight loss (lost weight and maintained weight loss for 6 months). Students reporting long-term weight loss were more likely to be male, but did not differ by age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation or measured weight status from students who reported temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Students with long-term weight loss also reported healthier weight-control strategies (e.g., exercising, eating fewer fatty foods, eating fewer sweets), high parental support for healthy eating/activity and were less likely to report being teased about their weight by their family and having junk food available at home than students with temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Approximately 50% of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family.

  10. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  11. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bąk-Sosnowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

  12. Longitudinal changes in blood pressure during weight loss and regain of weight in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Neland, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain.......To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain....

  13. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason A Spector; Steven M Levine; Nolan S Karp

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful.As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment.

  14. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...

  15. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van Willemijn A.M.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Palen, van der Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein I.; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk

  16. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A M; Schuit, Albertine J.; van der Palen, Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein A; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer ris

  17. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body size perception and weight control in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V; Nansel, T R; Liu, D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine 9-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, body size perception and dieti......, suggesting a potentially stronger impact of social comparison on weight-related perceptions than on behavior.......OBJECTIVES: To examine 9-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, body size perception and dieting......, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence...

  19. Implementation of national body contouring surgery guidelines following massive weight loss: A national cross-sectional survey of commissioning in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jonathan A; Wormald, Justin C R; Ghedia, Reshma; Soldin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    National guidelines for commissioning of body contouring surgery (BCS) following massive weight loss (MWL) in England were published in 2014. Nearly three-quarters of patients who have MWL seek BCS; however, access is known to vary according to the region. The aim of national guidelines was to standardise access. The purpose of this study was to determine implementation of the national guidelines by clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was sent to all CCG chairs in England. Of 211 potential respondents, 108 completed the survey or provided funding guidelines (response rate = 52%). Eight CCGs (7%) had implemented the guidelines. A total of 69 CCGs were aware of the new guidelines (64%), and 66 CCGs stated that they fund BCS after MWL (61%). A total of 81 CCGs (75%) identified local funding guidelines, while 15 CCGs (14%) cited individual funding requests (IFRs) as the means of accessing funding. To improve patient access to BCS; 58 of 65 respondents (89%) stated cost-effectiveness, whereas 56 of 75 respondents (75%) thought patient-reported outcome measures were key. Qualitative data to improve access included an integrated pathway from bariatric surgery to BCS, an improved evidence base and greater CCG finances. One CCG stated that it cannot afford to fund cosmetic procedures. The purpose of national guidelines was to simplify the pathway to BCS after MWL and create fair distribution of funds across the country to needy patients; however, their uptake has been poor. Access to funding for BCS across England varies according to the location. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  1. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  2. A twin study of weight loss and metabolic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Stunkard, A; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Allison, D B

    2001-04-01

    To assess the genetic contribution to determinants of therapeutic weight loss in obese female identical twins. Subjects were studied for 40 days on an inpatient unit in three phases: 7 baseline days; 28 days of weight reduction by a very low calorie diet (1.6 MJ per day); and 5 days after weight reduction. Fourteen pairs of premenopausal obese female identical twins (age: 39.0+/-1.7 y; body weight (BW): 93.9+/-21.2 kg; body mass index (BMI): 34.2+/-7.8 kg/m2). : Body composition by hydrodensitometry and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were assessed before and after weight loss. : There was great variability among pairs in loss of weight (5.9-12.4 kg) and body fat (3.1-12.4 kg). By contrast, the intraclass correlation (ICC) within twin pairs was 0.85, P<0.001 for weight and 0.88, P<0.001 for body fat. A measure of metabolic efficiency, calculated as the difference between 'estimated' and 'measured' energy deficit showed high intrapair correlation (ICC=0.77; P<0.001). The high correlation in metabolic efficiency within twin pairs in response to therapeutic weight loss suggests a strong genetic contribution.

  3. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self, interpersonal/social and situational constraints, ... patterns sanctioned by cultural and social norms and styles.II ... tage, namely 61%, was reponed by the National Adolescent .... Having to disclose one's actual weight to other members.

  4. Internalized weight bias in weight-loss surgery patients: psychosocial correlates and weight loss outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Napolitano, Melissa A; Wood, G Craig; Argyropoulos, George; Gerhard, Glenn S; Hayes, Sharon; Foster, Gary D; Collins, Charlotte A; Still, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between pre-operative internalized weight bias and 12-month post-operative weight loss in adult bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery patients (n=170) from one urban and one rural medical center completed an internalized weight bias measure (the weight bias internalization scale, WBIS) and a depression survey (Beck depression inventory-II, BDI-II) before surgery, and provided consent to access their medical records. Participants (BMI=47.8 kg/m2, age=45.7 years) were mostly female (82.0 %), White (89.5 %), and underwent gastric bypass (83.6 %). The average WBIS score by item was 4.54 ± 1.3. Higher pre-operative WBIS scores were associated with diminished weight loss at 12 months after surgery (p=0.035). Pre-operative WBIS scores were positively associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). Greater internalized weight bias was associated with more depressive symptoms before surgery and less weight loss 1 year after surgery.

  5. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  6. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  7. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  8. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation betw

  9. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation

  10. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  11. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  12. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  13. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2010-03-25

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

  14. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jens-Christian, Holm; Michael, Gamborg; Leigh, Ward

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program......, and 68 children entered a follow-up program spanning 28 months. Measurements were performed at baseline and day 82 as well as at months 10, 16, and 28. Height, weight, body composition, Tanner stages, testicular size, and serum concentrations of leptin, and insulin were measured at all time points....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin...

  16. The utility of weight loss medications after bariatric surgery for weight regain or inadequate weight loss: A multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Alfaris, Nasreen; Gomez, Gricelda; Ricks, Elizabeth T; Shukla, Alpana P; Corey, Kathleen E; Pratt, Janey S; Pomp, Alfons; Rubino, Francesco; Aronne, Louis J

    2017-03-01

    Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Two academic medical centers. We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 超重和肥胖妇女体质量指数、感觉体质量及减肥意愿的关系研究%Relationship study on body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss efforts in overweight and obese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁柳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship among body mass index ( BMI ) , body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of women who were overweight and obese, to examine whether body weight perception plays the mediating role between BMI and weight loss efforts. Methods The sample was 1 739 women who were above 20 years old with the BMI≥23 kg/m2 . Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. Results BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates with weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in women. Conclusions In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health problem sassociated with obesity, women should be awared of the healthy body weight and try to achieve that. Nursing interventions should be considered the body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese women to lose weight as necessary.%目的:评估超重或肥胖妇女的感觉体质量、体质量指数( BMI)和减肥意愿三者之间的关系,确认感觉体质量是否在BMI和减肥意愿之间起中介作用。方法选取2012年5月—2014年5月就诊的符合条件的妇女问卷,对其进行横断面研究。样本中1739名妇女年龄在20岁以上且BMI≥23 kg/m2。分析研究变量之间的双边关系,建立3个独立的回归模型来判别感觉体质量在BMI和减肥意愿之间的中介作用。结果 BMI与感觉体质量均与减肥意愿密切相关。 BMI与感觉体质量也具有相关性,但大多数妇女都低估了她们的体质量。一定程度上感觉体质量能在BMI和减肥意愿之间起中介作用。结论由于超重

  18. Preoperative predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2012-01-01

    Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20-30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery. We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review. Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7-16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9-9.8%]). Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.

  19. Effect of body weight loss on cardiopulmonary function assessed by 6-minute walk test and arterial blood gas analysis in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manens, J; Ricci, R; Damoiseaux, C; Gault, S; Contiero, B; Diez, M; Clercx, C

    2014-01-01

    Few studies show the detrimental effect of canine obesity on cardiopulmonary function (CPF). The 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is a noninvasive exercise test easy to perform in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity and body weight loss (BWL) on CPF assessed by the 6MWT and arterial blood gas analysis. Six experimental Beagles and 9 privately owned obese dogs were enrolled in a diet-induced BWL program. Arterial blood gas analysis and 6MWT were repeated in obese subjects (BCS 8-9/9), in the middle of BWL (overweight, BCS 6-7/9), and in lean dogs (BCS 5/9). Heart rate (HRp) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) were measured by pulse oximetry before the 6MWT, at midtest, and during a 5-minute recovery period. Twelve dogs completed the BWL program (initial BW, 27.3 ± 2.9 kg; final BW, 20.85 ± 2.9, lsmeans ± SE, P ≤ .001). BWL caused a significant increase in 6MWT walked distance (WD; obese: 509 ± 35 m; overweight: 575 ± 36 m; lean: 589 ± 36 m; P ≤ .05). Resting arterial blood gas results were not influenced by BWL. Including all time points, obese dogs showed higher HRp and lower SpO2 compared to overweight and lean dogs. SpO2 at the end of the walk was significantly lower in obese dogs. Obesity negatively affects 6MWT performances in dogs. The 6MWT may be used to demonstrate the efficacy of BWL to improve CPF and quality of life in obese dogs. Although BWL induced significant improvement of cardiopulmonary parameters before ideal BW, WD improved until the end of the BWL program. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  1. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  2. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available M Sénéchal1,2, H Arguin6, DR Bouchard4,5, AC Carpentier3, JL Ardilouze3, IJ Dionne1,2, M Brochu1,21Research Centre on Aging, Health and Social Services Centre, University Institute of Geriatrics of Sherbrooke, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sherbrooke, 3Clinical Research Centre, Sherbrooke University Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, QC; 4Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; 5Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute, Winnipeg, MB; 6Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, QC, CanadaObjective: To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program.Methods: Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up.Results: All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01 while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01. Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003 after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders.Conclusion: Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women.Keywords: obesity, body weight, weight regain, postmenopausal women, aging

  3. [Weight loss in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrition should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition.

  4. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  5. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Involuntary weight loss in elderly individuals: assessment and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Moriguti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The loss of body weight and fat late in life is associated with premature death and increased risk of disability, even after excluding elderly subjects who have a preexisting disease. Although it is important to recognize that periods of substantially positive or negative energy balance and body weight fluctuation occur as a normal part of life, weight losses greater than 5% over 6 months should be investigated. We can divide the major causes of weight loss in the elderly into 4 categories: social, psychiatric, due to medical conditions, and age-related. The clinical evaluation should include a careful history and physical examination. If these fail to provide clues to the weight loss, simple diagnostic tests are indicated. A period of watchful waiting is preferable to blind pursuit of additional diagnostic testing that may yield few useful data, if the results of these initial tests are normal. The first step in managing patients with weight loss is to identify and treat any specific causative or contributing conditions and to provide nutritional support when indicated. Non-orexigenic drugs have found an established place in the management of protein-energy malnutrition. Early attention to nutrition and prevention of weight loss during periods of acute stress, particularly during hospitalization, may be extremely important, as efforts directed at re-feeding are often unsuccessful. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  7. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...

  8. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  9. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to have problems such as: Low self-esteem Poor grades in school Depression ... weight-loss surgery should receive care at an adolescent bariatric surgery center. There, a team of experts ...

  10. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  11. Protein feeding pattern, casein feeding, or milk-soluble protein feeding did not change the evolution of body composition during a short-term weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adechian, Solange; Balage, Michèle; Remond, Didier; Migné, Carole; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie; Marset-Baglieri, Agnès; Rousset, Sylvie; Boirie, Yves; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-10-15

    Studies have shown that timing of protein intake, leucine content, and speed of digestion significantly affect postprandial protein utilization. Our aim was to determine if one can spare lean body mass during energy restriction by varying the quality and the timing of protein intake. Obese volunteers followed a 6-wk restricted energy diet. Four groups were compared: casein pulse, casein spread, milk-soluble protein (MSP, = whey) pulse, and MSP spread (n = 10-11 per group). In casein groups, caseins were the only protein source; it was MSP in MSP groups. Proteins were distributed in four meals per day in the proportion 8:80:4:8% in the pulse groups; it was 25:25:25:25% in the spread groups. We measured weight, body composition, nitrogen balance, 3-methylhistidine excretion, perception of hunger, plasma parameters, adipose tissue metabolism, and whole body protein metabolism. Volunteers lost 7.5 ± 0.4 kg of weight, 5.1 ± 0.2 kg of fat, and 2.2 ± 0.2 kg of lean mass, with no difference between groups. In adipose tissue, cell size and mRNA expression of various genes were reduced with no difference between groups. Hunger perception was also never different between groups. In the last week, due to a higher inhibition of protein degradation and despite a lower stimulation of protein synthesis, postprandial balance between whole body protein synthesis and degradation was better with caseins than with MSP. It seems likely that the positive effect of caseins on protein balance occurred only at the end of the experiment.

  12. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  13. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  14. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  15. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  16. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  17. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...

  18. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  19. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions.

  20. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging.

  1. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  2. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.

  3. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea eKistner; Eugénie eLhommée; Paul eKrack

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Compr...

  4. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopami...

  5. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or SSMP diet.

  6. Effect on Nitrogen Balance, Thermogenesis, Body Composition, Satiety, and Circulating Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels up to One Year after Surgery: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial on Dietary Protein During Surgical Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Vidal, Josep; Miner, Patricia; Boirie, Yves; Laferrère, Blandine

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery (BS), the most effective treatment for severe obesity, typically results in 40-50 kg weight loss in the year following the surgery. Beyond its action on protein metabolism, dietary protein intake (PI) affects satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition (BC). However, the required amount of PI after surgical weight loss is not known. The current daily PI recommendation for diet-induced weight loss is 0.8 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW) per day, but whether this amount is sufficient to preserve fat-free mass during active surgical weight loss is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of a 3-month dietary protein supplementation (PS) on nitrogen balance (NB), BC, energy expenditure, and satiety in women undergoing either gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy. Methods In this randomized prospective study, participants will be randomized to a high protein supplementation group (1.2 g/kg IBW per day) or standard protein supplementation group (0.8 g/kg IBW per day) based on current guidelines. Outcome measures including NB, BC, circulating branched chain amino acids, and satiety, which will be assessed presurgery, and at 3-months and 12-months postsurgery. Results To date, no studies have examined the effect of dietary PS after BS. Current guidelines for PI after surgery are based on weak evidence. Conclusions The results of this study will contribute to the development of evidence-based data regarding the safe and optimal dietary PI and supplementation after BS. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02269410; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02269410 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6m2f2QLeg). PMID:27895003

  7. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey, Tricia M.; KUMAR, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on wei...

  8. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  9. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  10. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  11. Can't wait to lose weight? Characterizing temporal discounting parameters for weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is often related to steeper temporal discounting, that is, higher decision impulsivity for immediate rewards over delayed rewards. However, previous studies have measured temporal discounting parameters through monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to develop a temporal discounting measure based on weight-loss rewards, which may help to understand decision-making mechanisms more closely related to body weight regulation. After having their heights and weights measured, healthy young adults completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and an adapted version of the MCQ, with weight-loss as a reward. Participants also completed self-reports that measure obesity-related cognitive variables. For 42 participants who expressed a desire to lose weight, weight-loss rewards were discounted over time and had a positive correlation with temporal discounting for monetary rewards. Higher temporal discounting for weight loss rewards (i.e., preference for immediate weight loss) showed correlations with beliefs that obesity is under obese persons' control and largely due to lack of willpower, while temporal discounting parameters for monetary rewards did not. Taken together, our weight loss temporal discounting measure demonstrated both convergent and divergent validity, which can be utilized for future obesity research and interventions.

  12. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D C

    This article reviews popular diets for their ability to produce effective weight loss. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on anecdotal findings, theories and testimonials of short term results. The most prominent elements of fad diets are those of ritual and sacrifice. These diets offer quick and painless weight loss while allowing consumption of favourite or tasty foods, but place severe restrictions on certain other foods or food categories. Fad diets often work in the short term because they are low-kilojoule diets in disguise; that is, energy intake as a result of the diet is lower than the person's requirements. Successful long term weight loss depends on the consumption over a long period of time of less energy than is expended. The ideal approach is to increase physical activity while modifying eating behaviour to achieve a nutritionally balanced intake.

  13. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  14. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  15. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  16. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  17. Randomized trial of tapas acupressure technique for weight loss maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Charles R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an urgent public health problem, yet only a few clinical trials have systematically tested the efficacy of long-term weight-loss maintenance interventions. This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a novel mind and body technique for weight-loss maintenance. Methods Participants were obese adults who had completed a six-month behavioral weight-loss program prior to randomization. Those who successfully lost weight were randomized into either an experimental weight-loss maintenance intervention, Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT®, or a control intervention comprised of social-support group meetings (SS led by professional facilitators. TAT combines self-applied light pressure to specific acupressure points accompanied by a prescribed sequence of mental steps. Participants in both maintenance conditions attended eight group sessions over six months of active weight loss maintenance intervention, followed by an additional 6 months of no intervention. The main outcome measure was change in weight from the beginning of the weight loss maintenance intervention to 12 months later. Secondary outcomes were change in depression, stress, insomnia, and quality of life. We used analysis of covariance as the primary analysis method. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. Results Among 285 randomized participants, 79% were female, mean age was 56 (standard deviation (sd = 11, mean BMI at randomization was 34 (sd = 5, and mean initial weight loss was 9.8 kg (sd = 5. In the primary outcome model, there was no significant difference in weight regain between the two arms (1.72 kg (se 0.85 weight regain for TAT and 2.96 kg (se 0.96 weight regain for SS, p post hoc tests showing that greater initial weight loss was associated with more weight regain for SS but less weight regain for TAT. Conclusions The primary analysis showed no significant difference in weight regain between TAT and SS, while secondary

  18. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  19. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. PMID:25614203

  20. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-02-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity reviews © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  2. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  3. Repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Ritz, Christian; Verdich, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to investigate whether repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss or to weight cycling. METHODS: A retrospective review chart study with follow-up on 2120 participants (mean±SD age 36±15 years; body weight 116±28 kg; fat 43±6%). All had participated...... lost to follow-up after one to four interventions, respectively. The cumulated weight loss at follow-up increased with the number of interventions from one to four: 12.2±0.1, 15.9±0.7, 16.1±1.2 and 18.5±2.0 kg ( ploss of fat and fat free mass after one to four...... interventions in a selected and motivated group can be an efficient method for weight loss maintenance with only limited body weight cycling in the interim periods. However, the relationship between loss of fat and fat free mass might change in an unfavourable direction....

  4. Effect of weight loss on cellulite: gynoid lypodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Hicks, Matthew; Passeretti, David; Gersin, Keith; Kitzmiller, W John; Bakhsh, Adel; Wickett, R Randall; Whitestone, Jennifer; Visscher, Marty O

    2006-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) affects most women, and many seek plastic surgery consultation to improve appearance. Various products are offered, but the literature on the cause and treatment is limited. Understanding the biological and biophysical factors that affect severity may facilitate the development of effective therapies. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people who have lost significant weight as a result of bariatric surgery or medically supervised weight programs. The effect of weight loss on cellulite severity has not been systematically studied and remains a common patient concern. The authors hypothesized that cellulite severity would decrease with weight loss and subsequent decrease in subcutaneous fat in most subjects. The authors examined the cellulite changes in female subjects who were enrolled in medically supervised weight loss programs using quantitative surface roughness by three-dimensional laser surface scanning, tissue composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, dermal-subcutaneous structure with three-dimensional ultrasound, and tissue elasticity with biomechanical measurements. The majority of subjects had an improvement in cellulite with weight loss, but the condition worsened for others. Improvement was associated with significant reductions in weight and percentage of thigh fat, significantly higher starting body mass index, and significantly greater initial severity. Cellulite worsened with a significantly smaller starting body mass index, smaller reductions in weight accompanied by no change in percentage of thigh fat, and significant increases in tissue compliance. Cellulite is a complex condition, and treatments such as weight loss have variable effects on the improvement or worsening of this condition. Additional studies are required to understand how the factors that influence and modulate cellulite severity, particularly those at the level of the subcutaneous tissue septa, can be manipulated to

  5. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  6. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  7. Community-based behavioral weight-loss treatment: long-term maintenance of weight loss, physiological, and psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C; Wendicke, Annemarie U; Murakami, Jessica M; Durso, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem, and sustainable long-term treatments are needed. This study examined a community-based model of weight-loss treatment. Ninety participants were recruited from eight community organizations (mean age: 49.65 years, mean body mass index: 35.80 kg/m(2); 64% female). Treatment groups were randomly assigned to two maintenance conditions: 1) self-help continuing care, or 2) assessment-only. Both received the same initial 20-session group behavioral treatment. Those randomized to continuing care were additionally instructed to meet as self-sustaining groups for 18 months post-treatment. Weight, physiological, behavioral, and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at six-month and 18-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent of participants completed treatment. Participant treatment satisfaction and therapist adherence to treatment protocol were high. No group differences or time by group interaction effects emerged. Participants achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment, with no significant weight regain at six-month or 18-month follow-up. Treatment produced sustained changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, eating patterns, physical activity, quality of life, and body image. A community-based treatment program may be an effective form of behavioral-weight-loss treatment for overweight/obese adults. Weight losses, along with physiological and psychological benefits, were sustained over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of weight loss and ketosis on postprandial cholecystokinin and free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chearskul, Supornpim; Delbridge, Elizabeth; Shulkes, Arthur; Proietto, Joseph; Kriketos, Adamandia

    2008-05-01

    Weight regain after weight loss may not be due primarily to voluntary return to social habits but may be explained by changes in peripheral hormonal signals activating hunger and encouraging feeding behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate physiologic adaptations to weight loss that may encourage weight regain. The study had a within-subject repeated-measure design [12 healthy, obese men, 33-64 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 30-46] and was a clinical intervention investigation of circulating metabolites and hunger-satiety responses before and after weight loss. Measures included anthropometry (bioelectrical impedance, body weight, and waist circumference), concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites [ketone bodies, free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, leptin, glucose, and cholecystokinin (CCK)], and measures of hunger and satiety at baseline, 8 wk after weight loss with a very-low-energy diet, and 1 wk after weight maintenance. Weight loss led to a reduction in postprandial CCK secretion (P = 0.016). However, when subjects were ketotic (elevated circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations), CCK secretion was sustained at concentrations before weight loss. After weight loss, there were reduced postprandial FFA concentrations (P = 0.0005). The presence of ketosis sustained FFA to concentrations before weight loss (P = 0.60). Rapid weight loss of approximately 10% of initial body weight results in a reduction in postprandial CCK and FFA concentrations.

  9. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body

  10. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  11. Effect of Various Protein Sources on Body Weight Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal

    Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... with the consumption of lean meat in Western background diets was only evident with free access to the diets, most likely due to differences in body composition. We purpose that the beneficial effects of lean seafood consumption in relation to body weight regulation may be due to an enrichment of the amino acids...... weight regulation. We aimed to investigate how various protein sources influenced body weight development and glucose metabolism by feeding obesity prone male C57/BL6 mice various protein sources in different background diets. Results: In high fat/high sucrose diets (HF/HS), high fat/high protein diets...

  12. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. The impact of weight loss among seniors on Medicare spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Kenneth E; Yang, Zhou; Long, Kathleen M; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-03-20

    To examine the impact of temporary and permanent weight loss of 10% and 15% on 10-year and lifetime Medicare spending among adults with overweight and obesity aged 65 years and older. Weight loss of this magnitude is consistent with next generation anti-obesity medications recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We follow the approach of a longitudinal dynamic aging process model developed by our research team. This model considers the dynamic relationships between weight, chronic disease, acute medical events, functional status, mortality, health care utilization and spending among Medicare beneficiaries from age 65 until death. Using this model, we estimate baseline Medicare spending over the next decade and then over the lifetime of seniors with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 with at least one weight-related comorbidity (overweight), and seniors with obesity having a BMI ≥ 30 and ≥ 35. We then estimate Medicare spending for this population between ages 65 and 70 over the course of a year, assuming 10% and 15% weight loss under alternative scenarios: with and without weight regain. (Weight regain is assumed to be 90% over a 10-year period.) The difference in spending between baseline (no weight-loss intervention) and the alternative scenarios represent potential gross savings to the Medicare program. Permanent weight loss of 10 to 15% will yield $9,445 to $15,987 in gross per capita savings throughout their lifetime, and $8,070 to $13,474 over ten years. Similarly, initial weight loss of 10 to 15% followed by 90% weight regain will result in gross per capita savings of $7,556 to $11,109 over their lifetime, and $6,456 to $8,911 over ten years. Targeting weight loss medications to adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) produces greater savings to the Medicare program. Medicare can realize significant cost savings through anti-obesity medications that produce substantial weight loss, and as a result, reduce the progression to type 2 diabetes, and

  14. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  15. Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Christopher M; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-09-03

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Weight loss intervention before total knee arthroplasty-feasibility and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljensøe, A.; Laursen, J. O.; Bliddal, H.

    2015-01-01

    to implement an intensive weight loss program in order to reduce preoperative body weight of obese patients before TKA surgery. The primary aim of the Weight Loss Intervention before Total Knee Arthroplasty (WITKA) study is to investigate whether weight loss interventions before total knee arthroplasty (TKA...... or a weight loss group that followed a low-energy diet (810 kcal/day) 8 weeks before surgery. Outcomes were assessed before intervention for the weight loss group, and within 1 week preoperatively for both the weight loss group and the control group. The primary outcome in the WITKA study was the Short......-Form 36 (SF-36). Secondary outcomes were Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 6 Minutes' Walk Test, and body composition. Results: Included were 77 patients (weight loss group n=38; control group n=39), 71% were females, the mean age was 65 years (range 46-85), and the average BMI was 31...

  17. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  18. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...... regained 2.73 kg (95% CI 1.33 to 4.13; P weight regain on NNR compared to ADD (-4.21 kg [95% CI -6.83 to -1.59]; P = 0.002) and MUFA (95% CI -2.77 kg [-5.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  19. [Sexuality, morphology and body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, G E; Borella, P

    2013-03-20

    The body is the place where the dimensions of space, time, subjectivity and objectivity meet and interact. These dimensions are considered with regard to eating, sleeping and sex within the couple. When a disfunctioning appears in one of these three fundamental aspects, it is, in general, treated alone. Eating, sleeping and sex are, on the contrary, interdependant, and in this perspective, a therapeutical intervention on one of these vital functions can lead to an amelioration of another one of them.

  20. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...... profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity...

  1. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Goodwin, James S

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03-1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02-1.89), after

  2. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  3. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitger, Anne D.; Stallknecht, Bente M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogs during a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness and better preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone...... (as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone. We hypothesized that dogs having exercise added to the weight loss program would have a lower heart rate during exercise, compared...... with the preintervention value, and lesser loss of lean body mass, compared with that for dogs undergoing caloric restriction alone....

  4. Major depression and severe weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntrogkounta Α.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Α 25-year old patient was referred to the casualty department of the Community Mental Health Center of Central Sector of Thessaloniki from the emergency department of the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki, in order to manage symptoms of depression as long as her life- threating loss of weight. A. appeared to have depressive feelings, lack of appetite, lack of interest, withdrawal, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, low self-esteem and ideas of guilt. There were held 27 conferences. In the beginning there were supportive intervations in order to improve the depressive symptoms and to gain weight. Moreover we applied medication (SSRI's that after 6 months was stopped gradually, without any setback. There was an increase of weight, about 10 kg, which remained until the follow up one year later.

  5. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-04-04

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.55.

  6. Positive response to binge eating intervention enhances postoperative weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie; Windover, Amy; Merrell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder has been suggested as a predictor of negative outcomes, including weight regain and poorer weight loss, particularly if the symptoms (e.g., loss of control eating) remain after surgery. Binge eating disorder has been viewed by some as a contraindication for weight loss surgery, and preoperative treatment has been recommended to help reduce binge eating behaviors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the response to a preoperative binge eating intervention related to differential postoperative weight loss at an academic medical center. A total of 128 bariatric surgery candidates completed a brief cognitive behavioral group treatment for binge eating behaviors. The patients were categorized as positive responders or nonresponders according to the postintervention outcomes, including binge eating symptoms and episodes. The percentage of excess body weight loss (%EBWL) was measured at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Across all bariatric procedures, the positive responders to the brief binge eating intervention had lost significantly more weight at 6 months (46% EBWL versus 38% EBWL) and 12 months (59% EBWL versus 50% EBWL) postoperatively. The results for a subsample of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients (n = 89) were also significant, with 53% EBWL for the responders and 42% EBWL for the nonresponders at 6 months and 68% EBWL versus 54% EBWL at 12 months postoperatively, respectively. The response to binge eating treatment could be an important predictor of postoperative weight loss. The results from the present study provide support for patients who respond to preoperative binge eating treatment having enhanced surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiometabolic risk after weight loss and subsequent weight regain in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Daniel P; Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the cardiometabolic profile.

  8. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  9. Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan, S H; Lobley, G E; Holtrop, G; Ince, J; Johnstone, A M; Louis, P; Flint, H J

    2008-01-01

    ...) in obese and non-obese subjects under conditions of weight maintenance, and in obese male volunteers undergoing weight loss on two different reduced carbohydrate weight-loss diets given successively for 4 weeks each...

  10. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them.

  11. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  12. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  13. Weight loss and its relation to fat aspiration yields in liposuction: a survey in 48 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeni, R

    2012-01-01

    Liposuction surgeons often observe individually fluctuating amounts of aspirated fat. In patients with sagging skin due to previous weight loss there is a tendency of decreased fat aspiration volumes. To study the influence of weight loss on fat aspiration volumes in a series of 48 patients. We matched individuals of the same gender, but with a different weight history from a vast number of patients who had undergone liposuction surgery. The aspirated fat to wetting solution ratio (FWR) of the circumferential abdominal region was evaluated in three groups: A - patients with no weight loss (n = 16; 8 males/ 8 females), B - patients with a history of moderate weight loss (weight loss 5-10% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females), and C - patients who had a massive weight loss prior to surgery (weight loss exceeding 15% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females). The aspirated FWR was 3.4 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p loss in regard to fat aspiration volumes compared to patients without prior weight loss. These findings point to the importance of a weight loss history prior to surgery. Regardless of lower fat aspiration yields in patients with massive weight loss, good results are still achievable. This is not only due to volume reduction but to skin tightening. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  15. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  16. The relationship between prevalence and duration of weight loss strategies and weight loss among overweight managed care organization members enrolled in a weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.

  17. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  18. Obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W J; Marsh, A P; Chmelo, E; Rejeski, J J

    2010-09-01

    We examine obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, body mass index exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 years constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 years or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programmes for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programmes as this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year randomized clinical trials are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. © 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  20. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.

  1. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  2. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  3. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition.

  4. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  5. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases......The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...

  6. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...

  7. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... These periods coincided with the phase of rapid gain in body weight in the various groups. Significant (P < 0.05) between ... in terms of loss of animals of good genetic standing may be of no practical value to the farmer.

  8. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yost Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216 were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight

  9. Exercise for Weight Loss: Calories Burned in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Weight loss By Mayo Clinic Staff Being active is an important part of any weight-loss or weight-maintenance program. When you're active, ... may need to be decreased further to continue weight loss. Both are important. However, while diet has a ...

  10. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  11. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Kristin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2 with clinically diagnosed knee OA participated in a 14-week exercise and weight loss program. Participants followed an isoenergenic low fat higher carbohydrate (HC or higher protein (HP diet while participating in a supervised 30-minute circuit resistance-training program three times per week for 14-weeks. In a randomized and double blind manner, participants ingested supplements containing 1,500 mg/d of glucosamine (as d-glucosamine HCL, 1,200 mg/d of chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium, and 900 mg/d of methylsulfonylmethane or a placebo. At 0, 10, and 14-weeks, participants completed a battery of assessments. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results Participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in body mass (-2.4 ± 3%, fat mass (-6.0 ± 6%, and body fat (-3.5 ± 4% with no significant changes in fat free mass or resting energy expenditure. Perception of knee pain (-49 ± 39% and knee stiffness (-42 ± 37% was decreased while maximal strength (12%, muscular endurance (20%, balance indices (7% to 20%, lipid levels (-8% to -12%, homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (-17%, leptin (-30%, and measures of physical functioning (59%, vitality (120%, and social function (66% were improved in both groups with no differences among groups. Functional aerobic capacity was increased to a greater degree for those in the HP and GCM groups while there were some trends suggesting that supplementation affected

  12. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... at weeks 0 and 68 applying the BLOKS score. RESULTS: During the 52 weeks maintenance period the continuous dietary maintenance group support on average gained 1.1 kg (95% CI: -0.3:2.5) body mass, the exercise group gained 6.6 kg (95% CI 5.4:7.8) and the no-attention group gained 4.8 kg (95% CI: 2...

  13. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  14. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  15. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  16. Epigenetic patterns in successful weight loss maintainers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Maccani, Jennifer Z J; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R; Kelsey, Karl T; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese (OB) individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from OB to normal weight (NW; successful weight loss maintainers; SWLMs) vs currently OB or NW individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current body mass index (BMI)⩾30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ⩾30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across the groups were observed in ryanodine receptor-1 (RYR1; P=1.54E-6), myelin protein zero-like 3 (MPZL3; P=4.70E-6) and alpha 3c tubulin (TUBA3C; P=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; gene-wide P=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status.

  17. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  18. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Norton, Layne E

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain...

  19. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. Noteworthy, maximal fat oxidation was equally high after clinical weight loss maintenance and weight regain compared with moderate weight loss. A high maximal fat oxidation after clinical weight loss maintenance was related to higher maximal oxygen updake, content of key proteins involved in transport of lipids across the plasma membrane and β-oxidation. In contrast, a high maximal fat oxidation after weight regain was related to higher availability of lipids, i.e., general adiposity and plasma concentration of triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To ... have more questions or need help. Responsible, Safe Weight Loss If your health-care provider says you should ...

  1. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  2. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roel G; Roumans, Nadia J T; Arkenbosch, Laura A J; Mariman, Edwin C M; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of rate of weight loss, with similar total weight loss, on weight regain in individuals with overweight and obesity. Fifty-seven participants (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2) ) underwent a dietary intervention (DI). They were randomized to a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks (slow weight loss) or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks (rapid weight loss) (weight loss (WL) period) followed by a 4-week weight-stable (WS) period and 9 months follow-up. Body weight and body composition (BodPod) were determined at study start and after each period. Weight change was similar in both groups after WL (LCD: -8.2 kg and VLCD: -9.0 kg, P = 0.24). Weight regain after follow-up was not significantly different between groups (LCD: 4.2 kg and VLCD: 4.5 kg, P = 0.73). Percentage fat-free mass loss (%FFML) was higher in the VLCD-group compared to the LCD-group after DI (8.8% and 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.034) and was associated with weight regain during follow-up in the whole group (r = 0.325, P = 0.018). The present study showed that, with similar total weight loss, rate of weight loss did not affect weight regain. However, %FFML after DI was associated with weight regain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  4. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  5. Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162876.html Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds Quality-of-life boost seen ... 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Could weight loss combat psoriasis? Danish researchers are reporting that obese people with ...

  6. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in in...

  7. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n=11 and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n=9. Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  9. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  10. Weight Loss in Microemulsion with Eugenol Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R Laili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil has been widely used in many products. In this work, the location of the microemulsion region with eugenol was studied in two different surfactants namely sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS (ionic and Tween 80 (non-ionic. The phase diagrams were constructed for water/SDS:hexanol (30:70/eugenol oil and water/ Tween 80/ eugenol oil systems by titrating to turbidity. The result showed that microemulsion regions were present in both systems with the SDS:hexanol system formed a larger water-in-oil microemulsion region compared to Tween 80 system. In order to study the behaviour of the microemulsion with eugenol oil subjected to several conditions such as evaporation and rheology test, several weight ratios of eugenol oil to surfactants were studied. The weight loss during evaporation was carried under ambient condition. The rheological behaviour was also observed in both systems. The evaporation rate for the microemulsion with SDS was found to be higher than the equivalent counterpart but with Tween 80. The rheology study showed that the flow is of Newtonian behaviour with little or no shear thinning

  11. Patterns of weight loss and supplement consumption of male wrestlers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the weight loss behavior of male wrestlers in Tehran Methods This study was a population-based cross sectional survey. Subjects were 436 wrestlers randomly selected from the wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. Subjects were interviewed based on a designed questionnaire. Body fat levels were measured based on skin fold measurements. Results Weight loss methods practiced by 62% of all subjects during the previous year employing rapid (≤7 days before the matches and gradual (>7 days before the matches weight reduction methods (73% and 34% of wrestlers who reduced their weight respectively. In addition, opinions on weight reduction, the methods of weight loss used, and the side effects of the weight loss practices as well as consumption of supplements among the subjects were reported in this study. The mean percentage of body fat of subjects was 15.9%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches and the use of unsafe methods of weight reduction such as fasting, and fluid reduction methods as well as acute side effects of weight loss were prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Some preventive measures including education and new rules such as scheduling weigh-ins immediately prior to the competitions and mat-side weigh-in are needed to prevent these unhealthy practices. The weight loss behaviors of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss.

  12. Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A; Wyatt, Holly R; Melanson, Edward L; Johnson, Ginger C; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Brown, Ian E; Hill, James O

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations. Obesity was induced in obesity-prone rats with 16 wk of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. Obese rats were then weight reduced (approximately 14% of body wt) with a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet and maintained at that reduced weight for 8 wk by providing limited provisions of the diet with (EX) or without (SED) a daily bout of treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 6 days/wk). Weight regain, energy balance, fuel utilization, adipocyte cellularity, and humoral signals of adiposity were monitored during eight subsequent weeks of ad libitum feeding while the rats maintained their respective regimens of physical activity. Regular exercise decreased the rate of regain early in relapse and lowered the defended body weight. During weight maintenance, regular exercise reduced the biological drive to eat so that it came closer to matching the suppressed level of energy expenditure. The diurnal extremes in fuel preference observed in weight-reduced rats were blunted, since exercise promoted the oxidation of fat during periods of feeding (dark cycle) and promoted the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO) later in the day during periods of deprivation (light cycle) . At the end of relapse, exercise reestablished the homeostatic steady state between intake and expenditure to defend a lower body weight. Compared with SED rats, relapsed EX rats exhibited a reduced turnover of energy, a lower 24-h oxidation of CHO, fewer adipocytes in abdominal fat pads, and peripheral signals that overestimated their adiposity. These observations indicate that regimented exercise altered several metabolic adaptations to weight reduction in a manner that would coordinately attenuate the propensity to regain lost weight.

  13. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  14. Fasting glycemia: a good predictor of weight loss after RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Gil; Preto, John; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Guimarães, João Tiago; Calhau, Conceição; Taveira-Gomes, António

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative prediction of weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) could help surgeons in managing surgical lists and patients' expectations. The objective of this study was to understand if preoperative metabolic control might improve surgical results. Prospective cohort of 163 consecutive patients who underwent RYGB with at least 1 year of follow-up. Most patients were female (90.2%), with a mean age of 38 (19-60) and a BMI of 46.0 (34.3-59.9) kg/m(2). After 12 months, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.7 kg/m(2) (21.5-39.9) with a corresponding percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL) of 78.8% and a percentage of weight loss (%WL) of 35.1%. Patients with the highest preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) were older (42 versus 36; Pmetabolic syndrome (89% versus 25%; Presponse effect with increasing FBG (100, were the only variables related (inversely) with the probability of achieving a %EWL>80 or %WL>35. This effect was not detected in patients receiving oral antidiabetic medications. Higher preoperative FBG is independently related to a poorer weight loss 12 months after RYGB; this suggests the need to offer earlier surgical intervention for severely obese patients with impairment of glucose metabolism. The potential for less weight loss in patients with a higher FBG should not discourage RYGB, given the significant metabolic improvement after surgery. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  15. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  16. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  17. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Hector L; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Hofheins, Jennifer E; Habowski, Scott M; Arent, Shawn M; Weir, Joseph P; Ferrando, Arny A

    2013-01-01

    ...]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8...

  18. Correlation between body image and self-esteem in women of positive weight loss%主动减肥女性的体像与自尊的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱武; 杜乾君; 易运连; 张其亮

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the trouble of body image and self-esteem, more and more women hope to reduce their body mass.OBJECTIVE: To assay the characters and correlation between body image and self-esteem in women who reduce weight positively.DESIGN: Transect investigation.SETTING: Department of Dermatology of Xiangya Hospital and Xiangya Second Hospital of Central South University. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 100 patients for weight loss was collected in Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion of Xiangya Hospital Affiliated to Central South University from November 2002 to September 2003 and they were included in experimental group. Severe physical disorders or other chronic physical disorders were excluded, such as cardiac vascular disease and diabetes and various metal disturbances were excluded too. In addition,the patients did not taken psychoactive drugs recently. Those were in over-body-mass group if body mass index(BMI) ≥ 24 and those were in normal body mass group if BMI<24. In the control, there were 100 healthy women participating in the study in volunteer at the same time. The exclusive standards for them were same as the experimental group and they did not taken psychoactive drugs recently and had done nothing for weight loss in 5 years.METHODS: After instructed, the receptors filled up the following questionnaire: a self-rating scale of body image(SRSBI) and the self-esteem scale (SES). SRSBI is the subjective assessment on the beauty and strength of the body individually. SES is the assessment on holistic perception of self-value and self-acceptance.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of SRSBI and SES in weight loss women.RESULTS: According to intention, general results of SRSBI: The score in experimental group(15.14±9.99) was higher than that in the control (7.89±6.18) (t= 6.15, P<0.001) . The score was(15.65±10.36) in normal body mass group and was(13.81 ±10.03) in over-body-mass group. By the comparison between both, no difference presented(t=0.91, P

  19. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  20. Weight loss and biomedical health improvement on a very low calorie diet: the moderating role of history of weight cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kenneth E; Warriner, Erin M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined biomedical consequences of participation in a professionally delivered, multifaceted very low calorie diet (VLCD) program and whether the degree of benefit associated with treatment was moderated by history of weight cycling. The authors monitored body weight and biomedical health indicators in 66 severely obese outpatients on a VLCD liquid fast. Participants remained on the VLCD for a median of 55 (range 9 to 247) days. Treatment was associated with significant pre-to-post improvements on body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol. History of weight cycling (independent of age) was inversely related to the magnitude of absolute pre-to-post treatment changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as to the rate of weight change. More intensive, longer term, and explicit maintenance components, especially aimed at individuals with multiple weight loss-regain episodes, may be necessary to facilitate weight loss and attain optimal health benefits from VLCDs.

  1. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por

  2. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can trust | 1-800-514-5058 Member Log In For Medical Professionals My Account Home Cosmetic ... Gartside MD 1300 Chain Bridge Road The Magassey Building McLean, VA 22101 (703) 204-2706 Website Marwan ...

  3. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  4. Weight loss and weight maintenance obtained with or without GLP-1 analogue treatment decrease branched chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson

    2016-01-01

    -eight obese individuals underwent a diet-induced 12 % body weight loss during 8 weeks. Participants were randomized to weight maintenance with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/day) for 52 weeks. Metabolomic profiling by high-throughput proton nuclear magnetic resonance...

  5. The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Chris N; Roberts, Michael D; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Sunderland, Kyle L; DeBolt, Nick D; Billbe, Brett W; Kerksick, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the combined effect of a meal replacement and an alleged weight loss supplement (WLS) on body composition, fitness parameters, and clinical health in moderately overweight college-aged men and women. Body mass, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM, body composition, V(O2)max, fasting glucose (GLU), and lipid panels were evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) 8 weeks of combined resistance training (RT) and cardiovascular training (CVT). After T1, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the WLS (6 men, 7 women; 21 ± 5 years, 168 ± 8 cm, 75.4 ± 12.7 kg, 31.6 ± 7.7%BFAT) or placebo (PLA: 6 men, 6 women; 22 ± 4 years, 174 ± 9 cm, 84.1 ± 8.8 kg, 30.2 ± 5.6%BFAT) group. Both groups performed 3 d · wk(-1) of combined progressive RT (2 × 12 reps of 8 exercises at 75-80% 1RM) and CVT (30 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 70-85% heart rate reserve). Subjects consumed 4 capsules per day and a once-daily meal replacement throughout the protocol. Percent body fat, bench press 1RM, and leg press 1RM significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both groups. Blood GLU (G × T; p = 0.048) improved in WLS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) approached significance (G × T; p = 0.06) in the WLS group. Follow-up analysis of SBP revealed a significant within-group decrease in the WLS group, whereas no within-group changes were found for either group for GLU. Practically speaking, daily supplementation with a meal replacement and a thrice weekly exercise program can increase fitness levels and improve body composition, whereas adding a thermogenic substance provides no additional benefit over fitness or body composition changes but may favorably alter serum markers of clinical health.

  6. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  7. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  8. Lifestyle medicine consulting walking meetings for sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Crane, Margaret E

    2016-02-01

    With rates of obesity and diabetes rising worldwide, effective ways of managing weight are becoming more important. We present the case study of a middle-aged Caucasian-American woman (body mass index (BMI) 27.8, overweight category) who wanted to lose weight. The patient participated in a behaviour modification programme with a physician trained in lifestyle medicine as well as health and wellness coaching. After the 14-week programme, which included 9, 1 h long walking sessions with the clinician, the patient lost 11 Ibs (BMI 24.7, normal category). The programme included a combination of increasing physical activity, eating appropriate quantities of healthy foods, goal setting and a positive attitude. The patient has kept her BMI at or below 24.1 for over 2 years. This case demonstrates a novel approach to weight loss management--walking therapeutic sessions--and also outlines critical components of lifestyle medicine counselling that facilitate the process of sustainable weight loss and lasting change.

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  10. Natural products and body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.

  11. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  12. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  13. Changes in breathing and the pharynx after weight loss in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C

    1987-10-01

    The effect of weight loss following dietary restriction on disordered breathing on the pharyngeal airway is controversial in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We therefore prospectively studied eight patients before and after dietary-induced weight loss. Mean weight loss was 20.6 kg +/- 12.8 SD. After weight loss there were significant improvements in PO2 and PCO2 measured during wakefulness, and in the number of desaturation episodes per hour of sleep, average desaturation per episode, and number of movement arousals. The number of apneas and hypopneas significantly decreased in six of eight patients. There was a significant correlation between body mass index and number of disordered breathing events. Nasopharyngeal collapsibility and pulse flow resistance decreased in awake patients after weight loss. We conclude that moderate weight loss in obese patients with OSA improves oxygenation during both sleep and wakefulness, decreases the number of disordered breathing events in many patients, decreases the collapsibility of the nasopharyngeal airway.

  14. Effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Morgan, P J; Plotnikoff, R C; Callister, R; Collins, C E

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions and to identify intervention characteristics associated with effectiveness. In May 2011, a systematic literature search with no date restrictions was conducted across eight databases. Twenty-four articles describing 23 studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies included a weight loss intervention and four studies included an additional weight loss maintenance intervention. Study quality was mostly poor for weight loss studies (median = 3/10, range = 1-9) and weight loss maintenance studies (median = 3.5/10, range = 1-6). Twenty-three of 31 individual weight loss interventions (74%) from the eligible studies were considered effective. Meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in weight change favouring weight loss interventions over no-intervention controls at the last reported assessment (weighted mean difference -5.66 kg [-6.35, -4.97], Z = 16.04 [P 2.7 contacts/month), group face-to-face contact and inclusion of a prescribed energy restriction. Preliminary evidence suggests men-only weight loss programmes may effectively engage and assist men with weight loss. However, more high-quality studies are urgently needed to improve the evidence base, particularly for maintenance studies.

  15. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Use of SERI Surgical Scaffold for Soft-tissue Support in a Massive Weight Loss Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gross, MD, FACS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Patients with a history of massive weight loss have compromised and poor-quality skin and fascia. Various body contouring surgeries aim to improve appearance and shape of the trunk and restore fascial integrity. These patients may be at increased risk of recurrent fascial laxity or bulges after conventional techniques. Here, the author presents a case where a silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was used prophylactically in a massive weight loss patient undergoing a circumferential body lift.

  17. Long-term weight-loss maintenance in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Henriksen, Marius; Bartels, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    % weight-loss and 1-y maintenance, additional use of daily meal replacements or intermittent LED resulted in weight-loss maintenance for 3 y. These results challenge the commonly held assumption that weight regain in the long term is inevitable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT......Background: A formula low-energy diet (LED) reduces weight effectively in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the role of LED in long-term weight-loss maintenance is unclear.Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent LED compared with daily meal replacements on weight...... in Frederiksberg, Denmark; they had previously completed a 68-wk lifestyle intervention trial and achieved an average weight loss of 10.5 kg (10% of initial body weight). Participants were randomly assigned to either the intermittent treatment (IN) group with LED for 5 wk every 4 mo for 3 y or to daily meal...

  18. Acute-Weight-Loss Strategies for Combat Sports and Applications to Olympic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-02-01

    It is common for athletes in weight-category sports to try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM). Weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body-fat losses) but also through acute manipulations before weigh-in ("making weight"). Both have performance implications. This review focuses on Olympic combat sports, noting that the varied nature of regulations surrounding the weigh-in procedures, weight requirements, and recovery opportunities in these sports provide opportunity for a wider discussion of factors that can be applied to other weight-category sports. The authors summarize previous literature that has examined the performance effects of weightmaking practices before investigating the physiological nature of these BM losses. Practical recommendations in the form of a decision tree are provided to guide the achievement of acute BM loss while minimizing performance decrements.

  19. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman; Leila Azadbakht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight re...

  20. Predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in women in an obesity programme using meal replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, I; Sheikh, M; Boniface, D; Finer, N

    2005-07-01

    To explore predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in patients participating in a weight management programme using meal replacements (MR). One hundred and fifty healthy obese women, age 48.5 years (s.d. = 8.3); weight, 97.6 kg (13.4); body mass index (BMI) 36.5 (3.7), participated in a longitudinal study with a 16-week acute weight loss phase (Phase 1) followed by 1 year of a trial of weight-loss maintenance (Phase 2). Energy intake during Phase 1 totaled 900 kcal (3.7 MJ) a day from a diet including two MR. Energy intake during Phase 2 consisted of either MR or a low-fat diet with a calculated energy deficit of 600 kcal/day (2.5 MJ). Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body composition assessed by air plethysmography (Bodpod). Glucose and insulin were measured by standard immunoassays and insulin sensitivity assessed by homeostatic model assessment. At the end of 16 weeks, 114 subjects (76%) completed Phase 1 and achieved a mean weight loss of 8.95 kg (3.38). Adherence to Phase 1 was predicted by weight loss over the first 2 weeks (p Adherence to Phase 2 was not predicted by physiological measures. Weight loss maintenance in Phase 2 (not gaining more than 3% of the weight at start of phase 2) was predicted by cholesterol and triglyceride measured at the start of Phase 2 but otherwise was not predicted by the physiological measures. Initial insulin sensitivity did not predict weight loss in either phase. Participants whose weight loss over the first 2 weeks falls in the bottom third may need additional intervention if they are to continue in this type of programme. A battery of physiological measures at entry to a MR weight loss and maintenance programme explains only a very small proportion of the variation in weight loss.

  1. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials.

  2. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  3. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  4. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  5. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Popkin, Barry M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however. This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the Stanford A TO Z weight loss intervention on 173 premenopausal overweight women (aged 25-50 years) who reported water at baseline. Diet, physical activity, body weight, percent body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference were assessed at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. At each time point, mean daily intakes of drinking water, noncaloric, unsweetened caloric (e.g., 100% fruit juice, milk) and sweetened caloric beverages, and food energy and nutrients were estimated using three unannounced 24-h diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in absolute (g) and relative terms (% of beverages). Mixed models were used to test for effects of absolute and relative increases in drinking water on changes in weight and body composition, controlling for baseline status, diet group, and changes in other beverage intake, the amount and composition of foods consumed and physical activity. Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women.

  6. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  7. Do more specific plans help you lose weight? Examining the relationship between plan specificity, weight loss goals, and plan content in the context of a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Endevelt, Ronit; Steinberg, David M; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-11-01

    The conditions under which planning for behaviour change is most effective are not fully understood. In the context of a weight management programme, we examined the interrelationship between plan specificity, type of behaviour planned (diet vs. exercise), and weight loss goals. Prospective design and content analysis of plans formed by participants of a 10-week weight management programme. Participants (n = 239) formulated two plans, for dietary and exercise behaviours, respectively. Plans were rated for specificity by examining the number of plan components. Weight loss goals were assessed by asking how much weight participants intend to lose. Weight was measured objectively each of the 10 weeks. Changes in body mass index (BMI) over time and the interactions between plan specificity and weight loss goals, for all plans and separately for diet and exercise, were estimated using linear mixed models. Plan specificity was unrelated to weight loss, but interacted with weight loss goals in predicting linear change in BMI (t = -2.48): More specific plans were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals. Separate interaction tests for plans formulated for diet and exercise change showed that more specific dietary plans, but not exercise plans, were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals (t = -2.21). Within a population that is highly motivated to lose weight, the combination of high weight loss goals and formulating detailed plans for changing dietary behaviours may be most effective in supporting weight loss. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? More specific plans are associated with increased performance of health-related behaviours. More motivated individuals form more specific plans. The interrelationship between plan specificity, plan content and behaviour-related goals in relation intervention effectiveness has not been explored to date

  8. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings.

  9. Accuracy of aggregate 2- and 3-component models of body composition relative to 4-component for the measurement of changes in fat mass during weight loss in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Wells, Jonathan; Jebb, Susan; Siervo, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The 4-component (4-C) model is the reference method to measure fat mass (FM). Simpler 2-component (2-C) models are widely used to assess FM. We hypothesised that an aggregate 2-C model may improve accuracy of FM assessment during weight loss (WL). One hundred and six overweight and obese men and women were enrolled in different WL programs (fasting, very low energy diet, low energy diet). Body density, bone mineral content, and total body water were measured. FM was calculated using 2-C, 3-C, and 4-C models. Aggregate equations for 2-C, 3-C, and 4-C models were calculated, with the aggregate 4-C model assumed as the reference method. The aggregate approach postulates that the average of the individual estimates obtained from each model is more accurate than the best single measurement. The average WL was -7.5 kg. The agreement between 3-C and 4-C models for FM change was excellent (R(2) = 0.99). The aggregate 2-C equation was more accurate than individual 2-C estimates in measuring changes in FM. The aggregate model was characterised by a lower measurement error at baseline and post-WL. The relationship between the aggregate 3-C and 4-C component models was highly linear (R(2) = 0.99), whereas a lower linearity was found for the aggregate 2-C and 4-C model (R(2) = 0.72). The aggregate 2-C model is characterised by a greater accuracy than commonly applied 2-C equations for the measurement of FM during WL in overweight and obese men and women.

  10. Effect of Enteromorpha on Body Weight Loss in Nutritionally Obese Mice%浒苔对营养性肥胖小鼠减肥功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹海文; 李妍妍; 苏秀榕

    2012-01-01

    ALT and AST, body weight, Lee's index and fat coefficient were evaluated. Results: Enteromorpha at high, medium and low dosages and L-carnitine could significantly decrease body weight, Lee's index and fat coefficient, the contents of serum TC, TG and LDL-C and the activities of serum ALT and AST, and increase HDL-C content and I-IDL-C/TC ratio in male and female nutritionally obese mice. Conclusion: Enteromorpha has obvious weight loss function. Its possible mechanisms may be involved in the suppression of fat accumulation, regulation of blood lipid and protection of liver function.

  11. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  12. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more p

  13. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  16. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanquetta Melissa M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral (located in other tissues circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.

  17. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  18. Weight loss and regain in obese individuals: a link with adipose tissue metabolism indices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriège, P; Imbeault, P; Doucet, E; Lacaille, M; Langin, D; Alméras, N; Després, J P; Tremblay, A

    2013-09-01

    This study was performed to examine whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) metabolism indices after weight loss were related to the magnitude of weight regain. Nine men and ten premenopausal women whose body mass index ranged from 30 to 42 kg/m(2), 35-48 years old, were studied before and after a 15-week weight loss program, as well as at a 17-22-month follow-up period. Although body composition was evaluated at all study periods, abdominal and femoral SCAT-lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activities, and α2- and β-adrenoceptors (ARs) were measured before and after weight loss, exclusively. Although the SCAT-LPL activity did not change after weight loss in men, it tended to decrease in the femoral depot of women (p = 0.06). SCAT-HSL activity remained unchanged after weight reduction in men, while the post-weight loss lipase activity tended to be higher in both regions of women (p = 0.06). Although the post-weight loss number of β-ARs was higher irrespective of the fat depot (0.001 weight reduction, in men. Neither the α2- nor the β-AR density changed after weight reduction, in women. Abdominal SCAT-LPL activity after weight reduction was negatively related to weight regain indices, in women (-0.65 weight loss abdominal SCAT α2-AR density and the α2-/β-AR balance were positively associated with weight regain indices, in men (0.69 weight loss maintenance, in both genders.

  19. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  20. Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C; Hunter, Gary R; Oster, Robert A; Desmond, Renee A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-04-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African-American (AA) and white (W) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and W women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27-30 kg/m(2). They were placed on a weight-loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor-I (sTNFR-I), sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among W, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in W compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in W.

  1. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  2. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  3. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss.

  4. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  5. Models of energy homeostasis in response to maintenance of reduced body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2016-08-01

    To test three proposed models for adaptive thermogenesis in compartments of energy expenditure following different degrees of weight loss. Specifically, (1) there is no adaptive thermogenesis [constant relationship of energy expenditure (EE) to metabolic mass]. (2) There is a fixed degree of adaptive thermogenesis once fat stores are below a "threshold." (3) The degree of adaptive thermogenesis is proportional to weight loss. The relationship between weight loss and EE was examined in 17 inpatient subjects with stable weight and obesity studied at usual weight and again following a 10% and a 20% weight loss. Following initial weight loss (10%), resting (REE) and non-resting (NREE) EE were significantly below those predicted on the basis of the amount and composition of weight lost. Further reductions below predicted values of NREE but not REE occurred following an additional 10% weight loss. Changes in body weight, composition, and/or energy stores were significantly correlated with changes in EE. All models are applicable to the decline in EE following weight loss. The disproportionate decline in REE is consistent with a threshold model (no change with further weight loss) while the disproportionate decline in NREE is largely reflective of the degree of weight loss. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  7. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  8. Getting Past a Weight-Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose weight, you lose some muscle along with fat. Muscle helps keep the rate at which you burn ... more calories. Adding exercises such as weightlifting to increase your muscle mass will help you burn more calories. Pack ...

  9. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter....... In the present article we review current evidence pointing at an important role of histamine in the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Studies using both knockout mouse models as well as pharmacological studies have revealed that histamine acts as an anorexigenic agent via stimulation of histamine H(1......) receptors. One effect of histamine in the regulation of appetite is to act as a mediator of the inhibitory effect of leptin on appetite. It seems that histamine may attenuate and delay the development of leptin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, histamine may also act to accelerate...

  10. A biobehavioral model of weight loss associated with meditative movement practice among breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K Larkey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative movement practices may be effective for weight management. First, we describe the effects of stress on factors associated with weight gain for breast cancer survivors. Then, a model is proposed that utilizes existing evidence to suggest how meditative movement supports behavioral, psychological, and neurohormonal changes that may explain weight loss. Application of the model suggests how a novel “mindful-body-wisdom” approach may work to help reduce weight for this at-risk group.

  11. Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, M; Morgan, P J; Jones, P R; Collins, C E

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the effectiveness of web-based interventions on weight loss and maintenance and identify which components of web-based interventions are associated with greater weight change and low attrition rates. A literature search from 1995 to April 2008 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were aged >or=18 years with a body mass index >or=25, at least one study arm involved a web-based intervention with the primary aim of weight loss or maintenance, and reported weight-related outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies aimed to achieve weight loss, and five focused on weight maintenance. Heterogeneity was evident among the studies with seven research questions examined across interventions of varying intensity. Seven studies were assessed for effectiveness based on percentage weight change, with four studies deemed effective. Although the four meta-analyses suggest meaningful weight change, it is not possible to determine the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance due to heterogeneity of designs and thus the small number of comparable studies. Higher usage of website features may be associated with positive weight change, but we do not know what features improve this effect or reduce attrition.

  12. Internet-Based Weight Control: The Relationship Between Web Features and Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Thomas, Colleen S.; Micco, Nicci

    2008-01-01

    Internet-based weight control programs have been showing promising results; however, as of yet, it is unclear which website components are critical for producing and maintaining weight loss. The aim of this study is to examine the utilization patterns of a weight control website and the relationship of the Web features to weight loss and maintenance. One hundred and twenty three (N = 123) participants took part in a 12-month behavioral weight control program over the Internet and their websit...

  13. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

  14. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M

    2014-01-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owin...

  15. Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A.; Powers, Theodore A.; Koestner, Richard; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. PMID:23730718

  16. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  17. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  18. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  19. Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161700.html Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens Boosts ... 26, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgeries can help severely obese teens shed pounds. ...

  20. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161748.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications Women ... Oct. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who undergo weight-loss surgery gain major benefits when it comes to ...

  1. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  2. Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165663.html Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse? Patients who undergo ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After a popular type of weight-loss surgery, nearly 21 percent of patients develop a ...

  3. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  5. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Keijer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  6. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; van Baak, Marleen A; Saris, Wim H M; McNicholas, Paul D; Mutch, David M

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.

  7. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  8. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults.

  9. Weight Loss Can Lead to Resolution of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms: A Prospective Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Lee, Jaehoon; Gupta, Neil; Gaddam, Srinivas; Smith, Bryan K.; Wani, Sachin B.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Rastogi, Amit; Bansal, Ajay; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sharma, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight gain is an important risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, whether weight loss can lead to resolution of GERD symptoms is not clear. Our aim was to measure the impact of weight loss on GERD symptoms. Design and Methods In a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center, overweight/obese subjects (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m2) were enrolled in a structured weight loss program. Weight loss strategies included dietary modifications, increased physical activity and behavioral changes. At baseline and at 6 months, BMI and waist circumference were measured and all participants completed a validated reflux disease questionnaire. Results A total of 332 adult subjects, mean age 46 years and 66% women were prospectively enrolled. At baseline, the mean body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were 101 (±18) kg, 35 (±5) kg/m2 and 103 (±13) cm. At 6 months, majority of the subjects (97%) lost weight (average weight loss: 13 ± 7.7 kg) and as compared with baseline, there was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of GERD (15 vs. 37%; P weight loss and reduction in GERD symptom scores (r = 0.17, P weight loss program can lead to complete resolution of GERD symptoms in the majority of these subjects. PMID:23532991

  10. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance.

  12. Case Study: The Hunger Pains--Ghrelin, Weight Loss, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study regarding healthy weight loss and the role of the hormone ghrelin in maintaining a lower body weight. This study was designed specifically for use in an introductory college-level physiology course. It addresses the use of the case study in teaching digestion and metabolism, exploring the role of hormones in…

  13. Weight loss induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I.M.E.; Thijs, A.M.J.; Mulder, S.F.; Tack, C.J.J.; Herpen, C.M.L. van; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss, cachexia and sarcopenia are profound problems in the frail oncologic patients. With the development and increasing use of angiogenesis inhibitors in metastatic cancer patients, the question arises as to their influence on body weight and composition. Angiogenesis is not only important f

  14. Costs of lifestyle interventions within health care and the amount of weight loss achieved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers RP; Vijgen SMC; Bemelmans WJE; PZO

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle counselling in health care with respect to diet and physical activity can reduce body weight at reasonable costs. A weight loss of 5% after one year can be achieved at a cost of around 150 euro per patient (with an uncertainty range up to 300-400 euro). Each extra investment of 100 euro re

  15. Weight-loss programs still fatten profits despite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, H

    1990-04-01

    Why are hospitals interested in weight-loss programs? Low start-up costs, combined with a high demand for services, mean almost instant profits in some cases. And in an increasingly competitive market, hospital affiliation seems to be an advantage. But experts say that word of mouth is the best promotion for weight-loss programs, which means that patients must lose weight and keep the pounds off. That's why hospitals have found that patient education is integral to a successful program.

  16. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h(2), fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  17. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  18. Consequences of obesity and weight loss: a devil's advocate position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R E; Kuk, J L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit. PMID:25410935