WorldWideScience

Sample records for weight infants relationships

  1. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  2. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  3. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  4. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Jun; Bao, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Lian; Ma, Li-Xin; Wu, Ming-Yuan

    2014-08-01

    To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), Pbirth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  5. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  6. Relationship between gestational weight gain and birthweight among clients enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Hawaii, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Izumi; Hayes, Donald K; Chock, Linda R; Fuddy, Loretta J; Rosenberg, Deborah L; Handler, Arden S

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and birthweight outcomes among a low-income population in Hawaii using GWG recommendations from the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Data were analyzed for 19,130 mother-infant pairs who participated in Hawaii's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children from 2003 through 2005. GWG was categorized as inadequate, adequate, or excessive on the basis of GWG charts in the guidelines. Generalized logit models assessed the relationship between mothers' GWG and their child's birthweight category (low birthweight [LBW: < 2,500 g], normal birthweight [2,500 g ≤ BW < 4,000 g], or high birthweight [HBW: ≥ 4,000 g]). Final models were stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, smoking status, parity, and marital status. Overall, 62% of the sample had excessive weight gain and 15% had inadequate weight gain. Women with excessive weight gain were more likely to deliver a HBW infant; this relationship was observed for women in all prepregnancy weight categories. Among women with underweight or normal weight prior to pregnancy, those with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy were more likely to deliver a LBW infant. Among the low-income population of Hawaii, women with GWG within the range recommended in the 2009 IOM guidelines had better birthweight outcomes than those with GWG outside the recommended range. Further study is needed to identify optimal GWG goals for women with an obese BMI prior to pregnancy.

  7. Inverse Relationship between Birth Weight and Blood Pressure in Growth-Retarded but Not in Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants during the First Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, Jaime C.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Steendijk, Paul; van Bel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown an association between low birth weight and the prevalence of elevated blood pressure later in life. However, a relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in the neonatal period has not been investigated yet. Objective: To study the relationship betwe

  8. Inverse Relationship between Birth Weight and Blood Pressure in Growth-Retarded but Not in Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants during the First Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, Jaime C.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Steendijk, Paul; van Bel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown an association between low birth weight and the prevalence of elevated blood pressure later in life. However, a relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in the neonatal period has not been investigated yet. Objective: To study the relationship betwe

  9. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Relationship between maternal obesity and infant feeding-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC. Methods The amount of time four obese (BMI = 33.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and three normal weight (BMI = 23.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2 biological mothers, spent feeding and interacting with their infants, along with what they ingested, was recorded during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the EMTAC. The seven infants were 4.9 ± 0.7 months, 69 ± 3 cm, 7.5 ± 0.8 kg, 26 ± 3 % fat and 29 ± 25 percentile for weight for length. Energy and macronutrient intake (kcal/kg were assessed. Maternal body composition was determined by air displacement plethysmorgraphy and that of the infants by skin-fold thicknesses. Pearson correlations and independent t-tests were utilized for statistical analysis (p Results Infants born to obese biological mothers consumed more energy (87.6 ± 18.9 vs. 68.1 ± 17.3 and energy as carbohydrate (25 ± 6 vs.16 ± 3; p Conclusion Greater maternal body weight and percent body fat were associated with greater infant energy intakes. These infants were fed less frequently and consumed more carbohydrates in a shorter period of time as compared to infants from normal weight biological mothers. These variations in feeding patterns may predispose certain infants to obesity.

  11. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  12. Infant Temperament and Maternal Parenting Self-efficacy Predict Child Weight Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Paul, Ian M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between infant negative reactivity and self-regulation, parenting self-efficacy, and child weight outcomes were examined. Greater observed negative reactivity predicted more child weight gain when mothers had lower parenting self-efficacy. Lower mother-reported self-regulation predicted a greater child weight status. Results highlight potential early risk/protective factors.

  13. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  14. Severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C; Aryee, Irene N A; Adei, Eunice A P

    2012-05-01

    Malnutrition in preterm low birth weight infants has adverse long-term metabolic, growth, and neurodevelopmental effects. In the past 3 decades, parenteral nutrition, enriched preterm formula, and fortification of human milk have been used to alleviate these adverse effects. Unfortified human breast milk does not provide sufficient nutrients for the growth and development of preterm infants at the volumes recommended; however, it is usually the only source of nutrition available for such infants in low-resource countries. Many newborns, including very low birth weight infants, are surviving in these countries because of concerted efforts to achieve the fourth millennium development goal. These efforts have not addressed the nutrition needs of sick preterm very low birth weight infants. The authors report 3 cases of severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight newborns and suggest possible interventions.

  15. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  17. Maternal weight status and responsiveness to preterm infant behavioral cues during feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianas, Evanthia A; Rankin, Kristin M; Norr, Kathleen F; White-Traut, Rosemary C

    2017-04-11

    Parental obesity is highly predictive of child obesity, and preterm infants are at greater risk of obesity, but little is known about obese and non-obese mothers' responsiveness to preterm infant cues during feeding. The relationship between maternal weight status and response to preterm infant behavioral cues during feeding at 6-weeks corrected age was examined. This secondary analysis used data from a randomized clinical trial. Maternal weight was coded during a play session. Mother-infant interaction during feeding was coded using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale (NCAST). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine NCAST scores and multivariate logistic regressions for the two individual items, satiation cues and termination of feeding. Of the 139 mothers, 56 (40.3%) were obese, two underweight women were excluded. Obese mothers did not differ from overweight/normal weight mothers for overall NCAST scores, but they had higher scores on response to infant's distress subscale (mean = 10.2 vs. 9.6, p = 0.01). The proportion of infants who exhibited satiation cues did not differ by maternal weight. Obese mothers were more likely than overweight/normal weight mothers to terminate the feeding when the infant showed satiation cues (82.1% vs. 66.3%, p = 0.04, adjusted OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.48). Limitations include lack of BMI measures and small sample size. Additional research is needed about maternal weight status and whether it influences responsiveness to preterm infant satiation cues. Results highlight the need for educating all mothers of preterm infants regarding preterm infant cues. NCT02041923 . Feeding and Transition to Home for Preterms at Social Risk (H-HOPE). Registered 15 January 2014.

  18. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Desti N.; Paula C. Chandler-Laney

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine...

  19. Relationship Between Perinatal and Neonatal Indices and Intelligence Quotient in Very Low Birth Weight Infants at the Age of 6 or 8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Mu

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: Conclusion: In our study, the children with lower gestational age had lower FSIQ. There was no significant association between small for gestational age and IQ performance. The neonatal outcomes of VLBW infants did have less impact on IQ performance later in life.

  20. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  1. Relationship between children's obesity and mothers'weight gain during pregnancy, infants's feeding mode.%儿童肥胖与母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张暹; 朱美红; 花静; 张巧妹; 潘建盈; 吴擢春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the association of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy and infants' early feeding mode on children' obesity so as to provide the clues for preventing the children's obesity. [Methods] A total of 949 children from four second-level kindergartens were selected randomly from two communities in Hongkou district in Shanghai. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the children's weight, height, family conditions, the mothers'weight gain during pregnancy and infants' feeding mode,and so on. The relationship between the mothers' weihgt during the pregnancy, infants's feeding mode and children's obesity were analyzed with x2 test and binary logistic regression. (Results] Resulst of the study showed that the rates of obesity and over-weight was 10. 1% and 13. 2% respectively. Pregnancy weight gain ≥15 kg, children exclusively breastfed within 6 months were associated with obesity when age, gender, the characteristic of registered residence,family structure and family income were considered. [Conclusions] Mother's weight gain more than 15 kg during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood obesity; And exclusive breastfeeding within 6 months may be a protective factor on children's obesity which may reduce the incidence of obesity in children.%[目的]研究母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式对儿童肥胖的影响,为制定预防儿童肥胖措施提供依据.[方法]利用整群抽样的方法,随机抽取上海市虹口区2个社区的4所二级幼儿园共计儿童949名.自行设计问卷调查儿童的身高、体重、家庭基本状况、母亲孕期、喂养早期状况等.使用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归模型分析母亲孕期及喂养早期状况与儿童肥胖的关系. [结果]研究结果显示,调查到的949名儿童中,超重及肥胖检出率分别为13.2%和10.1%;在控制儿童年龄、性别、户口属性、家庭结构、家庭收入后,孕期增重≥15 kg、6月龄内纯母乳喂养2

  2. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  3. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  4. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  5. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the fi

  6. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  7. Relationship between maternal contingent responsiveness and infant social expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Mcquaid, Nancy Ella

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal contingent responsiveness and 4- and 5-month-old infants' (N = 61) social expectation behaviour in a Still Face procedure. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants for 2 minutes (Interactive phase), remain still-faced for 1 minute (Still Face phase), and resume interaction for 2 minutes. Mother and infant behaviour was assessed for the frequency of infant and mother smiles, mother smiles that were contingent to infant smiles d...

  8. Macro-economic conditions and infant health: a changing relationship for black and white infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We study whether the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant health, infant mortality and maternal characteristics in the United States has changed over the years 1980-2004. We use microdata on births and deaths for years 1980-2004 and find that the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant mortality and birthweight changes over time and is stronger for blacks than whites. For years 1980-1989 increases in the state unemployment rate are associated with a decline in infant mortality among blacks, an effect driven by mortality from gestational development and birth weight, and complications of placenta while in utero. In contrast, state economic conditions are unrelated to black infant mortality in years 1990-2004 and white infant mortality in any period, although effects vary by cause of death. We explore potential mechanisms for our findings and, including mothers younger than 18 in the analysis, uncover evidence of age-related maternal selection in response to the business cycle. In particular, in years 1980-1989 an increase in the unemployment rate at the time of conception is associated with fewer babies born to young mothers. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between business cycles and infant mortality differs by race and period. Age-related selection into motherhood in response to the business cycle is a possible explanation for this changing relationship.

  9. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  10. The association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant mortality among U.S. infants born in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Regina R; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

  11. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  12. Low birth weight of Vietnamese infants is related to their mother's dioxin and glucocorticoid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tung, Dao; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Manh, Ho Dung; Nhu, Dang Duc; Okamoto, Rie; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Ngoc, Pham Thien; Van Toan, Ngo; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Son, Le Ke

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45 years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500 g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12 %) than in the control region (4 %). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight.

  13. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. Methods We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Results Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Conclusions Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length. PMID:28182752

  14. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  15. Weight charts of infants dying of sudden infant death in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheimberg, Irene; Ashal, Husna; Kotiloglu-Karaa, Esin; French, Paul; Kay, Philippa; Cohen, Marta C

    2014-01-01

    The organ weights in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and undetermined deaths in previously healthy infants do not correspond to "the normal range" of organ weights in international standard charts for infants currently in use in some institutions. The aim of our study was to ascertain the organ weights of infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly in England and for whom a cause of death was not found, therefore falling under the category of SIDS or undetermined. We collated the organs weights from 2 institutions covering between them the South East and North of England including London, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire. The cases from The Royal London Hospital were autopsied between 1997 and 2013, and the cases from Sheffield Children's Hospital were autopsied between 2006 and 2013. There were 188 babies who had been born at term (62 female and 126 male) and 26 ex-premature babies (15 female and 11 male). Organs of male babies were slightly heavier than those of female babies but as there was no significant differences male and female babies were considered together. Comparison with standard charts (from 1932 and 1962) and with more recent charts confirmed the discrepancy between the older charts commonly in use with more recent measurements, including ours. The main reason for these differences is that babies in the recent charts were previously healthy babies with no long term disease and improved in the health of the population.

  16. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and ... both fish species showed strong correlation between the weight and length with correlation coefficient (r) and ..... Basic data on the assessment of Sphyraena ... review of methods and their application.

  17. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  18. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  19. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  20. Breastfeeding and the mother-infant relationship-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weerth, C. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother–infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother–infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond tow

  1. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb, and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05, with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001 for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks.

  2. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gabriela L; Bueno, Thaís B; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks.

  3. Neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants in the first two years of life in a Havana tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Gianny; Gómez, Yahima; Roca, María del Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Improved survival rates of neonates with very low birth weight (Havana tertiary care hospital. A case-series study was conducted to assess neurodevelopment outcomes of very low birth weight infants over their first two years of life. The study population comprised 116 surviving neonates with very low birth weight (Havana, Cuba, 2006-2010. A longitudinal, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary follow up of all infants' neurodevelopment was performed, from hospital discharge to age two years, corrected for gestational age at birth. Data on each infant's perinatal variables were collected: birth weight in grams, gestational age at birth, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Patients were classified as having normal neurodevelopment, mild abnormalities and moderate-to-severe abnormalities. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine possible relationships between perinatal variables studied and neurodevelopment, with exact sampling distribution and 95% confidence level. Normal neurodevelopment was observed in 69% of very low birth weight infants, 25.9% had mild abnormalities, and 5.2% displayed moderate-to-severe abnormalities. The results demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between gestational age and neurodevelopmental outcomes; more neurodevelopmental abnormalities were found in infants born at earlier gestational age (<30 weeks). Surviving very low birth weight neonates with lower gestational age at birth face a higher risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  4. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  5. Maternal serum leptin during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of maternal overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Straughen, Jennifer K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and nonobese pregnant women have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal-weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation were measured. Effects of leptin levels on infant birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using a linear regression model that accounted for the relationship of time-varying predictors to the log-transformed leptin concentrations. Different relationships of aBW to maternal serum leptin and its rate of change across pregnancy were exhibited by overweight/obese and normal-weight gravidas. For normal-weight women, aBW is not associated with either the magnitude of the logarithm of the leptin concentration or with its rate of change in either the first or second half of pregnancy. Conversely, for overweight/obese women, an increase in the rate of change in maternal serum leptin in the second half of pregnancy is significantly associated with a decrease in aBW. This effect is distinct from that of maternal weight. Differences in the effect of maternal serum leptin on fetal growth between overweight/ obese and normal-weight women suggest metabolic and physiologic heterogeneity between these groups. Such differences may be involved in the long-term physiologic effects of the obese intrauterine environment on the health of the offspring. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase.

  7. Relationship-Based Developmentally Supportive Approach to Infant Childcare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers' warm, sensitive, and attentive interactions with their children have been widely considered key indicators of infant-caregiver interaction quality in childcare contexts. The primary purpose of this study was to explore infant's daily experiences and the characteristics of relationship-based supportive care practices in a childcare…

  8. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  9. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  10. Maternal Characteristics of a Cohort of Preterm Infants with a Birth Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, Marieke J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women

  11. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  12. Gut microbiota of the very-low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Sharon; Stintzi, Alain; Shah, Prakeshkumar; Mack, David; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface integrity, and contributes to the nutritional status of the host and thus plays a pivotal role in health and disease. New technologies have enabled the detailed characterization of normal microbial symbionts and dysbiosis-disease associations. This review summarizes the stepwise establishment of the intestinal microbiota, influential environmental factors, and how this may be perturbed in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. The contribution of the microbiota to provision of energy and nutrients for intestinal development and the nutritional status of the host are reviewed. In addition, the crucial role of the gut microbiota in maintaining mucosal integrity is explored along with how its breakdown can lead to sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Finally, the role of enteral feeding type (human milk, formula, and nutrient fortification) in mediating these processes is discussed, and guidance is provided for nutritional strategies to promote health in these fragile infants.

  13. Relationship between breast milk composition and weight growth velocity of infants fed with exclusive breast milk%母乳成分与纯母乳喂养婴儿体重增长速率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽; 熊菲; 杨凡

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effect of breast milk composition on weight growth velocity of infants fed with exclusive breast milk.MethodsOne hundred and thirty-eight full-term singleton infants who received regular follow-up visits and fed with exclusive breast milk and their mothers were recruited. Body height,weight and head circumference of these infants were measured at regular visits. Z scores were used to evaluate growth velocity. The subjects were classiifed into a failure to thrive group (ΔZ scores≤-0.67), a poor growth group (-0.67<ΔZ scores<0) and a normal control group (ΔZ scores≥0). The samples of maturebreast milk were collected for composition analysis. The differences in the levels of the protein, fats, energy, carbohydrates and minerals in breast milk were compared among the three groups. ResultsΔZ scores for weightin thefailure to thrive and poor growth groups were lower than in the normal control group (P<0.05). There was no signiifcant difference in the levels of protein, fats and energy in breast milk among the failure to thrive, poor growth and normal control groups. However, the levels of carbohydrates and minerals in both the failure to thrive and poor growth groups were lower than in the normal control group (P<0.05).ConclusionsWeight growth velocity of infants can be affected by the composition of breast milk to a certain degree in a short period. In order to maintain a good weight growth velocity of infants, mothers should have a balanced diet to improve the quality of breast milk.%目的:探讨母乳成分对纯母乳喂养婴儿体重生长速率的影响。方法选取定期进行儿童保健的138例纯母乳喂养足月单胎婴儿及其乳母作为研究对象。在定期儿童保健时间点进行婴儿体重、身长及头围的测量,采用Z积分计算生长速度,并根据ΔZ积分将研究对象分为生长不良组(ΔZ积分≤-0.67)、生长速度低下组(-0.67<ΔZ积分<0)和正常对照组(ΔZ 积分≥0

  14. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  15. Somatosensory processing abilities of very low-birth weight infants at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio-Feldman, D

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatosensory processing abilities of children at school age and their earlier experiences in the intensive care nursery as very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants. The subjects were 35 VLBW children at school age (20 girls, 15 boys) who were free of congenital deformity and developmentally appropriate for gestational age. The subjects were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Birth weight, number of days supported by mechanical ventilation, and number of days in the neonatal intensive care unit were examined in relation to somatosensory functions. Somatosensory functions measured were manual form perception, kinesthesia, finger identification, graphesthesia, and localization of tactile stimuli. VLBW children were significantly different on all measures of somatosensory processing when compared with the standardization group. Further research on the VLBW infant's somatosensory functioning will add to the existing body of knowledge concerning development and guide practice. The finding that the infants in this study, who did not have therapy intervention, later presented diminished somatosensory functioning supports the need to develop measures of somatosensory development for use in assessments and treatment during all developmental phases.

  16. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  17. Is the association of breastfeeding with child obesity explained by infant weight change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Rossem (Lenie); E.M. Taveras (Elsie M.); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.); K.P. Kleinman (Ken P.); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl L.); H. Raat (Hein); E. Oken (Emily)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective. Breastfeeding and infant weight change are both associated with adiposity. We examined the extent to which infant weight change mediates the association between breastfeeding and adiposity at age 3 years. Methods. We studied 884 children in a prospective cohort study. We deter

  18. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009 on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s or prebiotic(s to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212, 4 prebiotics studies (N=126 were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34 or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34, number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20. Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50, GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50. There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76 or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86. Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86. GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27 and (MD 0.48, 95

  19. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-08-28

    Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56). There is not

  20. Evaluation of postnatal weight growth in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Boni, Luisa; Coscia, Alessandra; Rossetti, Gessica; Testa, Tiziana; Giuliani, Francesca; Appino, Irene; Spada, Elena; Fabris, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    There is general agreement about the need for longitudinal studies of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) to evaluate their postnatal growth and to generate distance and velocity charts that allow neonatologists and pediatricians to detect earlier whether a child is not growing adequately. There are no satisfactory growth charts for VLBWI. We analyzed the weight growth of 262 VLBWIs from birth to 2 years of corrected age. Individual growth profiles were fitted with a 7-constant exponential-logistic function suitable for modelling weight growth pattern. After a postnatal weight loss, all VLBWIs showed a late neonatal peak of velocity between the seventh and 21st weeks; the large majority of them also experienced an early neonatal peak between the second and the sixth weeks. Small-for-gestational-age VLBWIs with major morbidities grew less than reference appropriate-for-gestational-age VLBWIs without major morbidities: at 2 years, the difference in weight was about 860 g. The more severe growth impairment in VLBWIs with major morbidities was almost entirely due to the reduced height of the late neonatal peak of velocity. The mathematical function used in this study is expected to be a useful tool to trace model-based longitudinal distance and velocity charts specific for VLBWIs. Moreover, this function also could be used to evaluate to what extent different pathological conditions or nutritional and medical care protocols affect growth kinetics.

  1. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  2. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  3. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  4. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  5. Duration of breastfeeding has a positive effect on infant weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Kurniawan Saputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing maternal age hopefully the mother knows more about raising a baby and supervising their growth and development. With normal birth weight and adequate duration of exclusive breastfeeding the baby can be expected to have optimal growth and development. The goal of this historical-cohort prospective study was to analyze the relation between maternal age, infant birth weight and duration of breastfeeding on the one hand with infant weight gain on the other. The population under study were six-month-old infants in the catchment area of Pagar Gading Community Health Center, Pino Raya Region, South Bengkulu Regency. The total sample consisted of 31 six-month-old infants, selected by consecutive nonrandom sampling of subjects meeting the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the correlation-regression test. There was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and infant weight gain using the correlation test (p0.05. Furthermore, with the multiple linear regression test, duration of breastfeeding affected infant weight gain (p0.05. The conclusion of this study is that duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects infant weight gain. Breastfeeding of infants should be prolonged beyond the age of 6 months.

  6. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  7. Fosfluconazole for Antifungal Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of 23 infants met the criteria for enrollment in our study. No cases of fungal infection were detected during the central venous catheter placement in the group. None of the infants had an elevated β-D-glucan, and all of them were still alive at discharge. Regarding the liver and renal function, no statistically significant differences were observed before and at the end of fosfluconazole prophylaxis. The results of this study demonstrate that fosfluconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive fungal infection was well tolerated by VLBW infants. This is a first report to describe antifungal prophylaxis using fosfluconazole for VLBW infants.

  8. The factors affecting morbidity and mortality in low birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Bekdaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available jective: To investigate the frequency of short term morbidity and mortality and the factors affecting them for the infants born with low birth-weight at our hospitalMethods: At our hospital, 195 infants born with low birthweight within a period of 18 months were identified and 150 infants born with normal birth-weights were selected as the control group. Results: Within the mentioned period of time, 4.4% (n=168 of the infants born in our hospital had low birthweight, 0.7% (n=27 had very low birth-weight (VLBW. Multiple pregnancies and asphyxiating birth rates were significantly high in these infants as compared to the control group. (p=0.029, p=0.011, respectively. For VLBW infants, the rates of asphyxiating birth (OR=14.2, 95% CI (6.6-30.7, p<0.001, hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (OR=34.8, 95% CI (4.7-256.3, p<0,001 and diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (OR=11.5, 95% CI (4-33.5, p<0.001 were significantly high. In all infants, the transient metabolic disorders were identified at a significantly high rate (p=0.045. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their fetal and neonatal mortalities (for all p<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the most important factor affecting infants was multiple pregnancies. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their morbidity and mortality rates.Key words: Low birth weight, perinatal risk factors, morbidity, mortality

  9. Differential associations between infant affective and cortisol responses during the still face paradigm among infants born very low birth weight versus full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Qualls, Clifford; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-06-01

    Psychological stress responses may have both emotional and cortisol reactivity correlates, but there are limited data addressing the association between generalized negative and positive emotional states and cortisol reactivity to a psychological stressor among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW; cortisol) responses may provide insight into the nature of regulation difficulties identified in infants born VLBW. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between infant affective and cortisol responses to the Still Face paradigm (SF) in a cohort of six- to eight-month old infants born VLBW compared with infants born full-term (N=53 total; N=29 and N=24, respectively). Infant affect was coded in 1-s intervals while mother-infant dyads participated in the SF paradigm, and percent positive affect and percent negative affect were calculated separately for each SF episode. We had hypothesized that because infants born VLBW are at increased risk for dysregulation, they would show, compared to full-term controls, greater dysregulation in the form of less synchrony (i.e., less correlated affective and cortisol responses) across the two SF stressors (episodes 2 and 4). This hypothesis was largely supported: the associations between affective and cortisol responses were different for the two groups across the two stressors for percent positive affect (both stressor episodes 2 and 4) and percent negative affect (episode 4 only). For the full-term group, follow up correlations revealed significant negative associations between percent positive affective and cortisol responses for both stressors. Mothers' responsiveness did not explain the term group association differences between infant affective and cortisol responses across stressors. The (lack of) association of stress reactivity systems may index dysregulation or dysregulation correlates in preterm children. Understanding how this lack of coordination among stress systems relates to greater dysregulation

  10. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  11. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  12. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  13. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  14. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  15. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  16. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  17. Cytokine responses in very low birth weight infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Berg; R.M. van Elburg; L. Vermeij; A. van Zwol; G.R. van den Brink; J.W.R. Twisk; E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis; W.P.F. Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants increase

  18. Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby′s weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units.

  19. Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Relationship between shell length and total weight, shell weight and meat weight of giant oyster, Crassostrea gryphoides revealed that the growth of these parameters is very fast and significant. It indicates the suitability of the species concerned...

  20. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  1. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  2. Evaluation of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants: a neonatologist's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, E; Boni, L; Rossi, C; Coscia, A; Giuliani, F; Spada, E; Milani, S; Fabris, C

    2008-09-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definitions of their optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial. It is known that VLBW infants have a specific postnatal growth pattern markedly different from that of higher birthweight full-term infants. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to trace VLBW infants growth charts for weight, length and head circumference. These charts will be a useful tool to monitor postnatal growth of VLBW infants both during hospitalisation and after discharge, up to 2 or 3 years of age. A useful tool in VLBW infants growth evaluation could also be absolute velocity charts that, allowing a better and earlier identification of growth anomalies, could permit the observation of phenomena not yet visible on distance charts. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates represent about 1-1.5% of all live born infants in developed countries (1) and they constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). For this reason, the correct evaluation of their postnatal growth is of primary concern nowadays although the definitions of optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial.

  3. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  4. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  5. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  6. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  7. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  8. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  9. Association of Red Blood Cell Transfusion, Anemia, and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi M; Knezevic, Andrea; Shenvi, Neeta; Hinkes, Michael; Keene, Sarah; Roback, John D; Easley, Kirk A; Josephson, Cassandra D

    2016-03-01

    Data regarding the contribution of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and anemia to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are conflicting. These associations have not been prospectively evaluated, accounting for repeated, time-varying exposures. To determine the relationship between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. In a secondary, prospective, multicenter observational cohort study from January 2010 to February 2014, very low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) infants, within 5 days of birth, were enrolled at 3 level III neonatal intensive care units in Atlanta, Georgia. Two hospitals were academically affiliated and 1 was a community hospital. Infants received follow-up until 90 days, hospital discharge, transfer to a non-study-affiliated hospital, or death (whichever came first). Multivariable competing-risks Cox regression was used, including adjustment for birth weight, center, breastfeeding, illness severity, and duration of initial antibiotic treatment, to evaluate the association between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. The primary exposure was RBC transfusion. The secondary exposure was severe anemia, defined a priori as a hemoglobin level of 8 g/dL or less. Both exposures were evaluated as time-varying covariates at weekly intervals. Necrotizing enterocolitis, defined as Bell stage 2 or greater by preplanned adjudication. Mortality was evaluated as a competing risk. Of 600 VLBW infants enrolled, 598 were evaluated. Forty-four (7.4%) infants developed NEC. Thirty-two (5.4%) infants died (all cause). Fifty-three percent of infants (319) received a total of 1430 RBC transfusion exposures. The unadjusted cumulative incidence of NEC at week 8 among RBC transfusion-exposed infants was 9.9% (95% CI, 6.9%-14.2%) vs 4.6% (95% CI, 2.6%-8.0%) among those who were unexposed. In multivariable analysis, RBC transfusion in a given week was not significantly related to the rate of NEC (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.17-1.12]; P = .09). Based

  10. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ken; Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure.

  11. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE OUTCOME OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT BORN IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Putra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW infants is one of the most important medical problem especially in developing countries. This issue is due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. On the other hand, the long term impact of VLBW infants are poor growth and development including physical, emotional, intelectual (IQ, and disabilities, therefore it could decrease the quality of human resources and become a burden to their family. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome among VLBW infants born in the Sanglah Hospital. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from medical record of all infants with VLBW delivered in Sanglah Hospital from January to Desember 2009. Uncompleted infants and mother medical records were excluded from this study. Of 64 VLBW infants enrolled into the study of which 54.7%  of this subjects was male, median of weight was 1300 g, mean gestational of age was 30.9 (SD 2.28 weeks, and mean lenght of stay was 30.9 (SD 19.7 days. The survival of VLBW infants in this study was 62.5%,  mortality in the early neonatal period was 70,8%. The percentage of VLBW infants who survive was still low and the major causes mortality were HMD (50% and sepsis (41.6%. The mortality of VLBW happened mostly in early neonatal periode.

  13. Preparing Early Childhood Professionals for Relationship-Based Work with Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Lee, Seung Yeon; Shin, Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative multicase study explored the process through which three student caregivers engaged in relationships with key infants in the context of an infant practicum course as a foundation for learning about infant development and practice. Focusing on caregiver-infant dyads, data sources included videotaped observations of caregiver-child…

  14. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  15. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  16. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  17. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  18. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  19. Polymorphisms in FTO and MAF Genes and Birth Weight, BMI, Ponderal Index, Weight Gain in a Large Cohort of Infants with a Birth Weight below 1500 Grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haller

    Full Text Available The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI, Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams.The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene and rs1424233 (MAF gene were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols.1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model.Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.

  20. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle leads to rapid infant weight gain: prevention of future chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mari; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    Infants' rapid (catch-up) weight gain is associated with later obesity and chronic adult diseases. The aim of this study was to determine maternal and environmental factors related to rapid weight gain at one month and 18 months after full-term birth in Japan. Subjects were 1,524 infants and their mothers who visited the 18-month check-up in Niigata City between October 1, 2007 and September 30, 2008. An anonymous questionnaire elicited information on the infant's weight (at birth, 1 month, and 18 months), sex, feeding method, presence of food allergy, gestational age, and caregiver. Mother's information was height, pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, age at delivery, pregnancy toxicosis, number of daily meals during pregnancy, smoking and drinking habits. Some questionnaire items were obtained from a maternal and child health handbook. Independence of predictors for rapid weight gain (vs. slow or average weight gain), i.e. a score gain of 0.67 SD, during the first month and first 18 months was tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. In the first month, having a meal once or twice daily during pregnancy (P = 0.0016) and daily smoking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0175) were associated with rapid weight gain. In the first 18 months, use of daycare (P = 0.0083) and daily drinking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0130) were associated with rapid weight gain. We conclude that mother's pre-pregnancy smoking and drinking, dieting during pregnancy, and infant daycare attendance lead to rapid infant weight gain. Controlling these factors may prevent future chronic adult lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. 早产低体重儿与母亲唾液中牙周致病菌的关系%Relationship between the preterm low birth weight infant and the periodontal pathogen bacteria in maternal saliva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智滨; 和璐; 康军; 黄振; 沙月琴; 朱万孚; 闫玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible relationship between the preterm and/or low birth weight (PLBW) and three anaerobic microorganisms in saliva of their mothers, including Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) , Tannerella forsythia (Tf) , Treponema Denticola (Td). Methods; 110 retrospective cases were collected from 4 hospitals in Beijing urban and suburban areas. PLBW group included 72 subjects and NBW group included 38 subjects. They were made up of 2- 1 matched data. Nonstimulated saliva samples were collected from all the individuals. The periodontal examinations included plaque index (PLI) , probing depth (PD) , bleeding index (BI) , and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were performed in 1 -1.5 years after preterm. According to the PCR results in their saliva, they were divided into positive group and negative group of Pg, Tf, Td. Results; CAL in PLBW and NBW groups were 0. 18 (0.00, 4.97) mm and 0. 08 (0. 00, 1.81) mm respectively which was significantly different (P 0.05). The detection rates of Td were 86. 1% and 89.5% respectively (P>0.05). The clinical parameters of CAL [2.25(0.54, 4.00) mm, 1.44(0.63, 3.80) mm], PD[ (2.47 ±0. 43) mm, (1.94 ±0.39) mm], PLI (1.80 ± 0.44, 1. 36 ±0. 34) in Pg positive group was significantly higher than those in Pg negative group. The birth weight of Pg positive group [ (2 482. 95 ±813. 17) g] was significantly lower than Pg negativegroup [(3 425.00 ±1 024.36) g]. CAL [0. 14(0.00,4.9) mm, 0.03(0.00,0.44) mm], PD [ (2.44 ±0. 46) mm, (2. 17 ±0.38) mm] were significantly different between Tf positive and negative group. PD [(2.44 ±0.46) mm, (2.14 ±0.43) mm] and BI (2.31 ±0.86, 1.83 ±0.68) were significantly different between Td positive and negative group. Conclusion: There is higher level of Pg, Tf and Td in the saliva of both PLBW and NBW groups. The detection of Pg may be related to PLBW.%目的:分析早产低体重儿(preterm low birth weight,PLBW)母亲唾液中主要牙周致病

  2. Aquired Cytomegalovirus Infection of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Alan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a major source for acquired cytomegalovirus infection especially in premature infants and acquired CMV infection occurs in infants whose mothers were seropositive for CMV. Although most of mothers of premature infants are seropositive in Turkey, acquired life-threatening breast milk acquired CMV infection was reported occasionally. Treatment of preterm with symptomatic breast milk acquired CMV infection should be done according to the severity of clinical signs. In this report, a preterm case with a diagnosis of breast milk-acquired CMV meningitis and sepsis without multiorgan failure on the 111th day of life, who did not require antiviral therapy was presented and discussed in the context of the acquired CMV literature. In preterm babies, when there is sepsis with no apparent causes, unexplained thrombocytopenia, elevated liver transaminases and direct hyperbilirubinemia acquired CMV infection should be suspected. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 138-41

  3. The effect of glossopexy on weight velocity in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Francesco; Totonelli, Giorgia; Frediani, Simone; Zani, Augusto; Spagnol, Lorna; Cozzi, Denis A

    2008-02-01

    In infants with Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS), mandibular distraction may be more advantageous than glossopexy as it not only relieves oropharyngeal airway obstruction but also reverses body growth retardation. Because no data are available on body weight velocity after glossopexy, we assessed longitudinally the body weight velocity in a cohort of children undergoing glossopexy. The records of 48 infants with PRS undergoing glossopexy after unsuccessful nonoperative treatment between 1981 and 2005 were reviewed. Weight measurements were analyzed at 4 time-points: at birth, on admission for glossopexy, on admission for lysis of lip-tongue adhesion (TLA), and at follow-up. Weight velocity was assessed using Tanner's tables. Adhesion dehiscence occurred in 9 patients (18.7%). Lip-tongue adhesion resolved airway compromise in 36 infants (75%). Release of TLA was accomplished in 34 patients. Data on weight velocity from birth to follow-up (mean, 5.57 +/- 0.59 years) were available for 31 patients. After glossopexy, mean body weight increased from the 9.7 +/- 2.6th to the 17.5 +/- 4.6th percentile (P > .05), whereas mean weight velocity increased from the 19.1 +/- 4.9th to the 74.2 +/- 4.7th percentile (P < .001). No temporal correlation was found between glossopexy and oropharyngeal dysphagia. In infants with PRS, glossopexy is a valid alternative to mandibular distraction because it does not cause decline in body growth.

  4. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  5. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  6. The Relationship Between Skinfold Thickness and Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin Levels in Infants of Diabetic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mustafa; Orbak, Zerrin; Döneray, Hakan; Ozkan, Behzat; Akcay, Fatih

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and serum leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in infants of diabetic mothers. Biochemical parameters were also similar for the two groups (infants of diabetic mothers and controls) (p > 0.05). We confirmed that there was a negative correlation between birth weight and serum ghrelin level (p < 0.05) in the two groups. When it was evaluated for control newborns, a positive correlation between abdominal circumference and serum resistin level was found in the controls (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that gestational diabetes by appropriate diet or insulin treatment may be effective in the protection of fetuses of diabetic mothers from the negative effects of gestational diabetes. Ghrelin alone was negatively correlated with birth weight. This negative correlation could be potentially advantageous to infants, because a reduction in appetite might prevent excessive food intake and postnatal weight gain.

  7. Growth of a cohort of very low birth weight infants in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the growth of VLBW infants in South Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the growth of a cohort of VLBW infants in Johannesburg. Methods A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort was conducted on 139 VLBW infants (birth weight ≤1500 g admitted to Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. Growth measurements were obtained from patient files and compared with the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS and with a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants. The sample size per analysis ranged from 11 to 81 infants. Results Comparison with the WHO-CGS showed initial poor growth followed by gradual catch up growth with mean Z scores of 0.0 at 20 months postmenstrual age for weight, -0.8 at 20 months postmenstrual age for length and 0.0 at 3 months postmenstrual age for head circumference. Growth was comparable with that of a previous cohort of South African VLBW infants in all parameters. Conclusions Initial poor growth in the study sample was followed by gradual catch up growth but with persistent deficits in length for age at 20 months postmenstrual age relative to healthy term infants.

  8. The Development of Nursing Care Services Model for Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW infants deal with various problems during transitional period from intra-uterine and extra-uterine because of immature organs’ functions. This leads to LBW as the second death cause in Indonesia, particularly in the fi rst seventh days of infants’ lifes. The problem continues to occur at home when the infants have discharged. This research was aimed to develop the nursing care services model for LBW infants and to test the model. Method: The research design was an action research using quantitative and qualitative approach. This design was chosen as it facilitated improvement in health care system, which was involving nurses and other health providers. Results: Nursing care services provided by the nursing team are hindered by several factors, such as various level of nurses’ knowledge, not optimal health education activities, incomplete standard operational procedure, ethical dilemma, paramedic functions, and documentation system. This model was developed based on conservation and becoming a mother/maternal role attainment theory, family-centered care principles, and input from the experts through focus group discussion. Discussion: The result of this research is going to increase the quality of nursing care for LBW infants by achieving nurses’ and parents’ satisfaction in giving care for their infants which can lead to lower infant death rate.Key words: Model, Low birth weight infant, Nursing services, Action research

  9. EEG maturation and stability of cerebral oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, M; Govindan, R; Aly, S; Mohamed, M; du Plessis, A; Aly, H

    2016-04-01

    Fractional cerebral tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) can be continuously monitored by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the more mature EEG activity is, the less variable FTOE is. A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants (transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension. Increased maturation of EEG activity is associated with decreased variability in cerebral oxygen extraction. The implications of increased variability in FTOE on brain injury in premature infants need further exploration.

  10. A Major Cause of Mortality and Morbidity of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Aygün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, a cardiac pathology commonly seen in preterm infants, has negative effects on mortality and morbidity. Persistent patency of PDA is positively correlated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, prolonged respiratory support, pulmonary hemorrhage, broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal failure, neurodevelopmental impairment (cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity and death. The standard treatment regimen is to close symptomatic PDA and cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin, ibuprofen are the first choises. Our aim in this study is to report PDA rate, treatment and complications in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 103 infants born <33 gestational weeks, without any major congenital anomaly or congenital heart defects between January 2010-November 2011. Echocardiograms was performed in the first week. PDA related pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death were demonstrated.Results: Among of 103 infants, 45 were male and 58 were female. Seventy infants were born with cesarian section and 33 were born with normal labor. The mean gestational week was 29.7±2.2, the mean gestational week of infants with PDA was 28.8±2.3. The mean birth weight of infants was 1323±375 grams. The mean Apgar score was 7.25±1.83, the scores of infants with patent ductus arteriosus were significantly low (6.7±1.9. Echocardiography was performed on the mean of 4.8±4.4 days, PDA was determined in 48 of 103 infants (%46. The mean of birth weight of infants with persistant PDA was 1162±351 grams, it was 1465±340 g in the closed group. The rate of pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death was significantly higher in infants with PDA compared with infants having ductal closure (p<0.05.Conclusion: The early closure of PDA in very low birth weight infants will reduce both mortality and early or late

  11. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  12. Relationship between physique and food avoidance in infants: a study conducted in a community setting in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruwatari, Ayako; Kusunoki, Takashi; Tanaka, Yurika; Harada, Kiyomi; Odani, Kiyoko; Fukuda, Sayuri; Nishi, Yukari; Asano, Hiroaki; Higashi, Akane

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between food avoidance during infancy and the growth of Japanese infants in a community health setting has not been well evaluated. In order to assess the growth of infants who avoided either of the three major allergen foods in Japan, eggs, milk or wheat, we employed the results of 4 physical checkups recorded in maternity passbooks and administrated a questionnaire on allergic diseases, height and weight at birth to the guardians of 1,132 infants at the age of 3.5 years. Data was obtained from 890 subjects (78.6%) and 662 subjects (58.5%) who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The height, weight and body mass index percentile scores of each subject were calculated. Subjects who avoided either of the three foods at 3.5 years had lower weight percentile scores at 1.5 years, lower height and weight percentile scores at 3.5 years, and lower weight growth rates, compared with the subjects who did not avoid any of the three foods at 3.5 years (P=0.02, 0.03, 0.03, 0.01). The results suggested that there was a negative relationship between physique and food avoidance in infants, and that physical and nutritional assessments are important for food avoiders.

  13. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-07-01

    Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers' lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight.

  14. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Alice D; Latner, Janet D

    2009-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 dating or married couples. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy. Heavier women were judged by their male partners as lower in attractiveness/vitality and as poorer matches to their partners' attractiveness ideals. In contrast, men's BMI was generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women's relationship difficulties.

  15. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  16. Internet-Based Weight Control: The Relationship Between Web Features and Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Thomas, Colleen S.; Micco, Nicci

    2008-01-01

    Internet-based weight control programs have been showing promising results; however, as of yet, it is unclear which website components are critical for producing and maintaining weight loss. The aim of this study is to examine the utilization patterns of a weight control website and the relationship of the Web features to weight loss and maintenance. One hundred and twenty three (N = 123) participants took part in a 12-month behavioral weight control program over the Internet and their websit...

  17. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  18. Experience of early breast milk feeding in preterm very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Islam, Q R; Roy, S; Akhter, N; Hoque, M M

    2012-04-01

    Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction of breast feeding on preterm VLBW infants. The primary object of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early breast milk feeding in preterm VLBW newborns during their initial hospitalization periods. Therefore a prospective observational study was conducted among 37 preterm VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal ward of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital during the period of February 15th to July 25th, 2003. Oral feeding with breast milk was started within one hour of birth, and weight gain, feeding tolerance, nosocomial infection rate as well as other associated problems of pre-maturity, and postnatal growth curve were recorded upto 16th postnatal day. Seventy three percent of the newborns tolerate breast milk well from the very beginning, and the rest did not tolerate initially but all of them tolerate within 24 hours of birth. Infants had less initial weight loss (20 ± 10 gm) and faster recovery of birth weight. They regained their birth weight at 12th postnatal day. Hyper-bilirubinaemia was found in only 22% cases, and was observed in the group who initially didn't tolerate breast milk and was on intravenous fluid. Nobody developed symptomatic hypoglycemia or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Two cases of sepsis and another two cases of minor infection like conjunctivitis and oral thrush have occurred. In conclusion it can be said that early breast milk feeding is safe in preterm VLBW infants and it helps to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous line.

  19. The Influence of Family Empowerment on the Health Status of Low Birth Weight Infant in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Rustina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW infant is susceptible to health problems since the infant born, during in the hospital and continue after discharge. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of family empowerment on the health status of LBW infant. Action research using qualitative and quantitative method was used in this study. Qualitative approach was used to identify the experience of mothers of LBW infants as a data based for intervention development, and quantitative approach was used to evaluate the influence of family empowerment program on the health status of LBW infants. There were 7 participants, 20 mothers and their infants in the intervention group and 27 in the control group involved in this study. The study showed that family empowerment was effective in improving the immunization status and follow- up care attendance, reducing the frequency of acute care visits, increasing mothers' knowledge and skill in providing care. In conclusion, mothers need information on providing a proper care for LBW, and family empowerment can significantly improve maternal knowledge and health status of LBW infants.

  20. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  1. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  2. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  3. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  4. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  5. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  6. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  7. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria ... been related to malaria in pregnancy7-9, it is important to establish their ... Laboratory investigations. Maternal ... of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per minute ..... from maternal iron deficiency anaemia and dense placental .... Changes in the.

  8. Effect of Body Weight on Temperature Control and Energy Expenditure in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hui Lei

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: REE increased significantly in infants during weaning from an incubator. The increase in REE increment was similar in smaller (1800–2000 g and larger (2000–2200 g babies in this study. Weaning of preterm babies from an incubator may be safely started when their body weight reaches 1800 g.

  9. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  10. morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... weight infants only has 10% of the world's resources for their care. ... Data management: The data was entered in a computer and .... As an example, of the 163 .... resolve the issue so as to determine the significant ..... racial and ethnic specific rates for the health status indicators. ... Malaysia very low birth.

  11. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  12. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  13. Infant orthopedics in UCLP: effect on feeding, weight, and length: a randomized clinical trial (Dutchcleft).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl, C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of infant orthopedics (IO) on feeding, weight, and length. DESIGN: Prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial in three academic Cleft Palate Centers. Treatment allocation was concealed and performed by means of a computerized balanced allocation method. SETTING:

  14. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  15. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  16. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  17. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  18. Influence of Additional Ankle Weights on Kinematic Variables of Late Preterm Infants Aged 3-4 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Jadiane; Santos, Gabriela Lopes Dos; Tudella, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    The authors analyzed and compared the effect of additional weight on the spatiotemporal parameters of the kicking movement of late preterm and full-term infants. The experiment was divided into 4 conditions: training, baseline, weight, and postweight. In the W condition, a weight of one third the lower limb mass was added to the infant's ankle. During the baseline and postweight conditions, the ankle weight was removed. Late preterm infants do not differ from full-term infants in relation to spatiotemporal variables at 3 and 4 months. However, during the weight condition, the straightness index and the hip-ankle and knee-ankle correlations decreased in the preterm infants at both ages. In contrast, the straightness index increased in the postweight condition compared to the baseline values at both ages.

  19. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  20. Biological risk versus socio-economic advantage: low birth-weight, multiple births and income variations among Irish infants born following fertility treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aisling

    2014-12-01

    The Growing Up in Ireland Infant Cohort dataset (n = 11,134) includes information on fertility treatments for over 400 infants. IVF (28.1 %) and IVF-related treatments (17.8 %) were the most frequent, but there was also a high percentage following clomiphene citrate alone (31.5 %). Infants born following fertility treatment were much more likely to be in higher income families, and this relationship was not accounted for by older mothers in wealthier families. Analysis of fertility-treatment pregnancies among Irish infants, controlling for income and maternal age, shows a greater risk of multiple birth and low birth-weight, although the latter appears to be largely related to the former especially for IVF-type treatments.

  1. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  2. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Twelve-month-old infants anticipatorily plan their actions according to expected object weight in a novel motor context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela Boone; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 versus 470 g; red versus yellow). Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60), or blocks of the reversed color-weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60), were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants' force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block's weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context.

  4. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  5. Increased risk for bronchitis after discharge in non-vaccinated very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichtenoth, G; Härtel, C; Spiegler, J; Dördelmann, M; Möller, J; Wieg, C; Orlikowsky, T; Stein, A; Herting, E; Goepel, W

    2015-03-01

    In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, obstructive bronchitis is a frequent cause of hospital re-admission. For VLBW infants, early vaccinations starting at 2 months after birth have been recommended. To analyze risk factors for bronchitis during the first year after discharge and the effects of in-hospital standard vaccination (hexavalent/pneumococci) and/or RSV immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab. A standardized questionnaire was sent to the parents of VLBW infants 7 month after discharge. The reported episodes of bronchitis were correlated with clinically recorded parameters including risk factors for pulmonary morbidity. The effects of in-hospital vaccination were assessed in a subgroup discharged after day 60. A sample of 1 967 responses of infants born 2009-2011 was analyzed. Risk factors for bronchitis were male gender and older siblings. 24% of the population had episodes of bronchitis. In the subgroup discharged after day 60, episodes of bronchitis were reported for 31% of infants who were not vaccinated in-hospital. A significant reduction of the bronchitis rate was found in infants who received palivizumab±standard vaccination (17% bronchitis, p=0.003). Interestingly, in-hospital standard vaccination without RSV immunoprophylaxis was protective (20% bronchitis; p=0.037) as well. Non-vaccinated male VLBW infants with older siblings are at increased risk for bronchitis during the first year after discharge. Vaccination according to schedule seems to have protective effects, while underlying mechanisms are unknown. The rate of timely vaccination in preterm infants should be increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Beyond bacteria: a study of the enteric microbial consortium in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Susan LaTuga

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants have high morbidity and mortality, frequently due to invasive infections from bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The microbial communities present in the gastrointestinal tracts of preterm infants may serve as a reservoir for invasive organisms and remain poorly characterized. We used deep pyrosequencing to examine the gut-associated microbiome of 11 ELBW infants in the first postnatal month, with a first time determination of the eukaryote microbiota such as fungi and nematodes, including bacteria and viruses that have not been previously described. Among the fungi observed, Candida sp. and Clavispora sp. dominated the sequences, but a range of environmental molds were also observed. Surprisingly, seventy-one percent of the infant fecal samples tested contained ribosomal sequences corresponding to the parasitic organism Trichinella. Ribosomal DNA sequences for the roundworm symbiont Xenorhabdus accompanied these sequences in the infant with the greatest proportion of Trichinella sequences. When examining ribosomal DNA sequences in aggregate, Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus were the most abundant bacterial taxa in a low diversity bacterial community (mean Shannon-Weaver Index of 1.02 ± 0.69, with relatively little change within individual infants through time. To supplement the ribosomal sequence data, shotgun sequencing was performed on DNA from multiple displacement amplification (MDA of total fecal genomic DNA from two infants. In addition to the organisms mentioned previously, the metagenome also revealed sequences for gram positive and gram negative bacteriophages, as well as human adenovirus C. Together, these data reveal surprising eukaryotic and viral microbial diversity in ELBW enteric microbiota dominated bytypes of bacteria known to cause invasive disease in these infants.

  7. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  8. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  9. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiy, Alice M; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Luca, Ana K C De; Corrente, José E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern of low birth weight preterm infants born to hypertensive mothers, the occurrence of growth disorders, and risk factors for inadequate growth at 24 months of corrected age (CA). Cohort study of preterm low birth weight infants followed until 24 months CA, in a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight of 1,500-2,499 g. multiple pregnancies, major congenital anomalies, and loss to follow up in the 2nd year of life. The following were evaluated: weight, length, and BMI. growth failure and risk of overweight at 0, 12, and 24 months CA. Student's t-test, Repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression were used. A total of 80 preterm low birth weight infants born to hypertensive mothers and 101 born to normotensive mothers were studied. There was a higher risk of overweight in children of hypertensive mothers at 24 months; however, maternal hypertension was not a risk factor for inadequate growth. Logistic regression showed that being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the first 12 months of life were associated with poorer growth at 24 months. Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology ... This study was conducted to determine the genetic relationship between body weight and growth trait of ... system (Asafa and Ayodele, 1997).

  11. Are parenting interventions effective in improving the relationship between mothers and their preterm infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracey; Whittingham, Koa; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-05-01

    To systematically review the efficacy of parenting interventions in improving the quality of the relationship between mothers and preterm infants. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCT) of parenting interventions for mothers of preterm infants where mother-infant relationship quality outcomes were reported. Databases searched: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria, 14 with strong methodological quality. Eight parenting interventions were found to improve the quality of the mother-preterm infant relationship. Heterogeneity of the interventions calls for an integrated new parenting program focusing on cue-based, responsive care from the mother to her preterm infant to improve the quality of the relationship for these mother-preterm infant dyads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2004-01-01

    later in life. OBJECTIVE: We examined how maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and infant feeding pattern are associated with infant weight gain. DESIGN: In this prospective, observational study, we used multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding factors to examine...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction......). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...

  13. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi ePich; Maria del Mar eBibiloni; Antoni ePons; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show a...

  14. An extremely low body weight infant born to a mother with measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, H; Hashimoto, K; Imamura, T; Sato, M; Kawasaki, Y; Momoi, N; Hosoya, M

    2010-02-01

    The incidence of measles epidemics has decreased recently owing to the development and widespread use of measles vaccine in the United States of America and Europe. However, repeated measles epidemics have been reported in Japan. Here, the authors report a case of an extremely low body weight infant (ELBWI) whose mother had a measles virus infection. Real-time PCR was performed on the infant's blood and urine samples and skin, nasal secretion, and anal swabs, as well as on the mother's breast milk, blood samples and throat swabs. The infant was found to be positive for measles virus by PCR, but not immunoglobulin M positive. An earlier report showed that there were no such cases in which the patient was found to be positive for measles virus by real-time PCR but was not infected by the measles virus.

  15. Late-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm infants with birth weight under 1.500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Marys Rigatti Silva

    Full Text Available Objective: the research objective was to characterize preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g, and to identify the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis among this population. Methods: a prospective cohort study with a sample of 30 preterm newborns that weighed under 1500 g and were hospitalized in the NICU of the university hospital. Data were collected from January to December 2013 using a structured instrument. Results: of the 30 neonates included in the study, 14 developed late-onset neonatal sepsis with a prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis indicates a vulnerability in preterm infants due to immunological immaturity. These results reveal that knowledge of the profile of newborn infants admitted to the NICU and the risk factors to which they are exposed are central to the planning of nursing care for these patients. Future studies should address strategies for preventing nosocomial infection.

  16. [Nutritional dilemmas in extremely low birth weight infants and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, José Simon; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio

    2005-03-01

    To review the recent medical literature on nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, focusing on nutritional disorders and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood. An extensive review of the related literature was performed using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Best Evidence database. There is a growing body of evidence that early nutritional practices may affect short-term growth and development outcome. In addition, these practices may play a role in determining adult health and disease. There is still much to be learned about safe and efficacious nutrient administration in preterm infants; about techniques to assess the effect of different nutritional strategies; and about the long-term effects of these regimens on development outcome, growth and disease. Despite recent progress in neonatal nutrition, there is a lack of basic and clinical research to better define the nutritional requirements of preterm infants and the best way to meet these requirements, avoiding long-term undesirable consequences.

  17. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiramalatha, Thangaraj; Thomas, Niranjan; Gupta, Vijay; Viswanathan, Anand; McGuire, William

    2017-09-12

    Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To assess the effect on growth and safety of feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with high (> 200 mL/kg/d) versus standard (≤ 200 mL/kg/d) volume of enteral feeds. Infants in intervention and control groups should have received the same type of milk (breast milk, formula, or both), the same fortification or micronutrient supplements, and the same enteral feeding regimen (bolus, continuous) and rate of feed volume advancement.To conduct subgroup analyses based on type of milk (breast milk vs formula), gestational age or birth weight category of included infants (very preterm or VLBW vs preterm or LBW), presence of intrauterine growth restriction (using birth weight relative to the reference population as a surrogate), and income level of the country in which the trial was conducted (low or middle income vs high income) (see 'Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity'). We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy, which included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1946 to November 2016); Embase (1974 to November 2016); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to November 2016), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial

  18. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants-Consensus Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Kishore; Singhal, Atul; Vaidya, Umesh; Banerjee, Saswata; Anwar, Fahmina; Rao, Shashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1) enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2) early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3) routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4) preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5) routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6) expressed breast milk (EBM) is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7) EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8) standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9) use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10) optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications; (11

  19. Low birth weight in perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected infants: observations in urban settings in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir Ledoux Sofeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. METHODS: The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007-2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (-2SD. Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. RESULTS: Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6-6.0, and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0-8.1 and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4-0.8 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3-2.7 and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0-2.0 were identified as other contributors to SGAG. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  20. Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofeu, Casimir Ledoux; Warszawski, Josiane; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Penda, Ida Calixte; Tetang Ndiang, Suzie; Guemkam, Georgette; Makwet, Nicaise; Owona, Félicité; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Tchendjou, Patrice; Texier, Gaëtan; Tchuente, Maurice; Faye, Albert; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (−2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  1. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  2. Twelve-month-old infants anticipatorily plan their actions according to expected object weight in a novel motor context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Boone Upshaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 g versus 470 g; red versus yellow. Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60, or blocks of the reversed color-weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60, were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants’ force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block’s weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context.

  3. Twelve-Month-Old Infants Anticipatorily Plan Their Actions According to Expected Object Weight in a Novel Motor Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela Boone; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 versus 470 g; red versus yellow). Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60), or blocks of the reversed color–weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60), were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants’ force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block’s weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context. PMID:25756040

  4. Relationship of Gastric pH Value and Feeding Intolerance in Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLB-WI)%极低出生体重儿胃液 pH 值与喂养不耐受的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝群英

    2016-01-01

    Objective]To explore the relationship of gastric pH value and feeding intolerance in very low birth weight infant (VLBWI).[Method]80 cases of very low birth weight children in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2014 also in the neonatal intensive care unit were chosen for our study.Using the feeding intolerance di-agnostic criteria,the children were selected and divided into two groups.Group 1 had no feeding intolerance (36 cases)and Group 2 had feeding in tolerance (44 cases).The two groups of children were observed in respect to gastric pH value,feeding conditions (feeding time,the amount of intake and gastric residue),and feeding toler-ance (bloating times,frequency of vomiting,abnormal stool frequency).[Results]Group 1 had a feeding intoler-ance rate of 100%,significantly higher than the 8.33% rate in Group 2 (P <0.05),while the average gastric pH value was also higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (P <0.05).The occurrence of VLBWI feeding intolerance and gas-tric pH value were positively correlated r =0.77,P =0.00.[Conclusion]Gastric pH value in very low weight new-borns with feeding intolerance showed significant correlation with the gastric pH levels in the infants.It is worthy of effective monitoring to help clinicians and nurses to understand neonatal gastrointestinal function and promote neonatal rehabilitation reference.%【目的】探讨极低出生体重儿(VLBWI)胃液 pH 值与喂养不耐受的关系。【方法】选取2010年1月至2014年12月本院新生儿重症监护室(NICU)收治的 VLBWI 80例。参照喂养不耐受诊断标准,将入选患儿分为喂养耐受组36例,喂养不耐受组44例。比较两组患儿的胃液 pH 值、喂养耐受情况(胃残留量、腹胀、呕吐、大便异常)。【结果】喂养不耐受组喂养不耐受发生率为100%,高于喂养耐受组的8.33%(P <0.05),同时其平均胃液 pH 值高于喂养不耐受组(P <0.05);VLBWI 胃液 pH 值与胃残留量呈正相关,r =0.77,P =0.00

  5. Nutritional assessment of very low birth weight infants: relationships between anthropometric and biochemical parameters Evaluación nutricional de lactantes de muy bajo peso al nacimiento: relaciones entre los parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Monteiro Bigélli Cardoso

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analyze the importance of biochemical data and their relationship with anthropometric data in the longitudinal nutritional assessment of very low birth weight infants. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on 55 very low birth weight preterm infants (birth weight Objetivo: Analizar la importancia de los datos bioquímicos y su relación con los datos antropométricos en la evaluación nutricional longitudinal de los lactantes de muy bajo peso al nacimiento. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohortes prospectivo en 55 lactantes prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacimiento (peso al nacer < 1.500 g y < 37 semanas de edad gestacional. Se realizaron mediciones del peso, longitud, las circunferencias cefálica y de la mitad del brazo, el cociente circunferencia de la mitad del brazo: circunferencia cefálica,índice ponderal y el índice de masa corporal. Como parámetros bioquímicos se midieron la prealbúmina sérica y la proteína fijadora de retinol. Todas las variables se recogieron al nacimiento y a los 14 y 28 días de vida. Resultados: El peso medio al nacimiento de los lactantes fue de 1,076,7 ± 286 g y la edad gestacional media de 30,7± 2,1 semanas. Al nacimiento, el promedio de la prealbúmina sérica fue de 7,0 ± 1,7 mg/dl y de la proteína fijadora de retinol fue de 1,3 ± 0,4 mg/dl. Hubo una elevación significativa de todas las variables estudiadas desde el nacimiento hasta el día 28. De acuerdo con la idoneidad nutricional, no hubo diferencias entre los lactantes con edad gestacional adecuada y aquellos con edad gestacional pequeña ni en los parámetros antropométricos ni en los bioquímicos. Las medidas antropométricas no se correlacionaban con las medidas bioquímicas. Las concentraciones de proteínas séricas se convirtieron a masa de proteína sérica (MPS como sigue: MPS = concentración de proteína sérica x (100 x peso x (1 - hematocrito, puesto que las proteínas estudiadas son principalmente

  6. Punctate white matter lesions in infants: new insights using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Tetsu [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital/University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, KE 04.123.1, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Takahara, Taro [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (PWML) are recognized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as hypersignal on T1-weighted imaging and hyposignal on T2-weighted imaging. Our aim was to assess how often a hemorrhagic component was present in PWML using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Seventeen preterm (gestational age, 25-34 weeks) and seven full-term infants (age at MRI, 37-42 weeks) with PWML were included. Seven preterm infants had sequential MRIs. PWML were diagnosed with conventional MRI and compared with SWI, where signal loss is suggestive of hemorrhage. The pattern of associated brain lesions was taken into account, and the percentage of lesions with signal loss on SWI was calculated for each infant. A significantly higher percentage of signal loss on SWI (median, 93.9%) was found among infants with germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage as the primary diagnosis (n = 8) compared to those with a primary diagnosis of white matter injury (n = 14; median, 14.2%; p < 0.01). In the infants with serial MRIs, a reduction in the number of PWML and/or signal loss on SWI was noted at term equivalent age. In the patient who died, cystic lesions, associated with hemorrhage and gliosis, were demonstrated on histology. SWI can distinguish hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic PWML. Signal loss on SWI was more common when PWML were associated with an intraventricular hemorrhage. Longitudinal imaging showed a decrease in the number of PWML over time, with some PWML no longer showing signal loss on SWI, suggesting early gliosis. (orig.)

  7. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  8. Thermal support for the very-low-birth-weight infant: role of supplemental conductive heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, W H; Stewart, T P

    1984-11-01

    Heated water pads were placed underneath very-low-birth-weight preterm infants receiving care under overhead radiant warmers with plastic heat shields to evaluate the effects on their thermal environments. The electrical input (watts) to the overhead warmer was monitored and temperatures at various locations in the environment and on the infants were recorded. The electrical input to the radiant warmers decreased significantly (P = 0.0015) with the introduction of the heated water pads. Several of the temperatures recorded during the study also showed significant changes, including increased abdominal skin temperatures in these prone infants (P = 0.007) and decreased back-to-abdomen skin temperature gradients (P = 0.007). Less marked changes included higher mattress or pad temperatures (P = 0.019), lower ambient air temperatures within the plastic heat shields (P = 0.022), and increased infant foot temperatures (P = 0.036). We believe that conduction has a significant influence on the thermal environment of the VLBW infant cared for under an overhead radiant warmer and that the use of a heated water pad can markedly alter heat transfer. The impact of conduction appears to have been previously underestimated.

  9. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5% had zone 1 and 19 (65.5% had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2% eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8% eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5% eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9% eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥1500 g birth weight premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor.

  10. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  11. The relationship of maternal mentalization and executive functioning to maternal recognition of infant cues and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jennifer M; Wittkowski, Anja; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2008-11-01

    The study examined associations between maternal mentalization ability, executive functioning, recognition of infant cues, and bonding in a non-clinical sample of mothers. It employed a correlational design. Sixty-four mothers of young infants completed assessments of mentalization ability, executive functioning, and bonding. Photographs of infant facial expressions were utilized to assess ability to recognize infant cues of emotion, but this was not found to correlate with either maternal mentalization or executive functioning ability. Whilst a trend towards a significant positive relationship between mothers' cued ability to attribute mental states and their ability to recognize infant facial expressions was observed, no significant relationships were found between bonding scores and performance on the executive functioning and mentalization measures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influence of maternal cognitive factors, specifically mentalization and executive functioning, on the development of the mother-infant relationship. Future research, methodological issues, and clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  12. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  13. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  14. A Fortified Donor Milk Policy is Associated With Improved In-Hospital Head Growth and Weight Gain in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovart, Gemma; Gich, Ignasi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Verd, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has reported that infants fed donor milk grow slower than those fed formula. However, most of the trials used unfortified donor milk, which limits the ability to generalize the results to current clinical practice. To evaluate the impact of early human milk feeding (donor milk and/or mother's own milk) with standard fortification on in-hospital growth of very low-birth-weight infants. This pre-/postretrospective study included selected newborn infants less than 1500 g admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit before and after the introduction of a policy providing donor milk when mother's own milk was not available in sufficient quantity to meet her infant's need. When enteral feeds reached 80 mL/kg per day, all human milk was fortified. Seventy-two "before" (any formula-fed) and 114 "after" (human milk-fed) infants were enrolled in this study. Infant characteristics and neonatal morbidity were similar in both groups. Outcomes revealed that an initial human milk diet with standard fortification was associated with significantly higher early extrauterine weight gain and head growth in very low-birth-weight infants than a formula-fed diet. Very early initiation of fortified breast and/or donor milk feeding can help promote in-hospital head growth and weight gain of preterm infants. Formula may not be appropriate for early use among preterm infants. Further large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine the best initiation and composition of enteral feeding for preterm infants.

  15. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Development of a Diet Quality Score for Infants and Toddlers and its association with weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Elaine M.; Sinigaglia, Olga; Diaz, Beatriz; Campos, Maribel; Palacios, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Objective To create a Diet Quality Index Score (DQIS) for infants and toddlers and to assess its relative validity. Design Three DQIS were created (0–5, 8–11 and 12–24 months) based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nine components were included, scored from 0 (inadequate) to 5 (adequate consumption) based on guidelines for timing of food’s introduction and portion sizes; the component on breastfeeding (Yes/No) was scored (0–15). Infants 6–7 months were excluded as new foods are introduced during this period. The total score (0–55 points) was categorized as Excellent (≥45), Good (35–44), Needs improvement (25–34), and Poor (diets. In infants 8–11 months (n=42), mean DQIS was 36.1±7.7 and most had ‘Good’ diets (47.6%). Among toddlers 12–24 months (n=117), mean DQIS was 25.7±8.0 and most had ‘Poor’ diets (50.4%). There was a trend for a higher odd of Excessive weight in those with ‘Poor’ diets compared to those with ‘Excellent’ diets, after controlling for confounders (OR 2.01; 95% CI: 0.85, 5.18). Conclusions These scores could be used to assess diet quality in infants and toddlers. There was a trend for a higher odd of Excessive weight among those with ‘Poor’ diets. To our knowledge, this is the first algorithm for the assessment of diet quality in infants and toddlers considering intake of each food group and their portion sizes.

  17. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  18. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  19. Changes in Survival and Neonatal Morbidity in Infants with a Birth Weight of 750 g or Less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, M. J.; Bruinse, H. W.; van der Heide-Jalving, M.; Termote, J. U. M.; de Vries, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Improvement in perinatal and neonatal care has resulted in increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Objectives: To describe survival and neonatal morbidity in a cohort of ELBW infants, to compare two consecutive 5-year periods, and compare appropriate (AGA) with s

  20. Randomised trial of continuous nasogastric, bolus nasogastric, and transpyloric feeding in infants of birth weight under 1400 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, P D; Skeoch, C H; Carse, H; Dryburgh, F; Alroomi, L G; Galea, P; Gettinby, G

    1992-04-01

    Forty three infants under 1400 g were fed by a bolus nasogastric, continuous nasogastric, or transpyloric route. There were more complications with transpyloric feeding and no identifiable benefits in the growth rate, oral energy input, or chosen biochemical indices of nutrition. Bolus or continuous nasogastric feeds rather than transpyloric are better routine methods in infants of low birth weight.

  1. Pattern of growth of very low birth weight preterm infants, assessed using the WHO Growth Standards, is associated with neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Andrea; Dunn, Michael; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Corey, Mary; Mulvihill-Jory, Bridget; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-08-01

    Several Canadian professional organizations recently recommended that the growth of preterm infants be monitored using the World Health Organization Growth Standards (WHO-GS) after hospital discharge. The WHO-GS are a prescriptive set of growth charts that describe how term infants should grow under ideal environmental conditions. Whether preterm infants following this pattern of growth have better outcomes than infants that do not has yet to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the pattern of growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the first 2 years, assessed using the WHO-GS or the traditional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts (CDC-RGC), is associated with neurodevelopment. Pattern of weight, length, and head circumference gain of appropriate-for-gestation VLBW preterm infants (n = 289) from birth to 18-24 months corrected age was classified, using the WHO-GS and CDC-RGC, as sustained (change in Z-score ≤1 SD), decelerated (decline >1 SD), or accelerated (incline >1 SD). Development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III at 18-24 months corrected age. Using the WHO-GS, children with a decelerated pattern of weight gain had lower cognitive (10 points), language (6 points), and motor (4 points) scores than infants with sustained weight gain (p neurodevelopment scores on the BSID-III than a pattern of sustained growth.

  2. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  3. Metabolic and energy balance in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age, very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, J C; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Salle, B L; Senterre, J

    1994-12-01

    This study compared nutrient utilization and postnatal weight gain composition in eight appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight 1293 +/- 107 g; gestational age 28.8 +/- 1.4 weeks) and eight symmetrically growth-retarded (SGA: birth weight 1110 +/- 230 g; gestational age 32.7 +/- 1.9 weeks), very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. There was no significant difference in protein, mineral and energy intake between AGA and SGA infants. Nitrogen absorption (84 +/- 3 and 83 +/- 4%) and nitrogen retention (356 +/- 48 and 352 +/- 43 mg/kg/day) were similar in both groups. Fat absorption tended to be lower in AGA (78 +/- 15%) than in SGA (87 +/- 4%) infants. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorptions were similar in AGA and SGA infants. Metabolizable energy utilization was similar in both groups; about 55% was expended and 45% stored in new tissues. Energy expenditure was 58 +/- 4 kcal/kg/day in SGA infants and 61 +/- 9 kcal/kg/day in AGA infants. Weight gain and its composition were similar in both groups. We conclude that nutrient and energy utilization are similar in AGA and symmetrically growth-retarded, VLBW infants.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  5. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  6. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Harrison_2001.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9938 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Harrison_2001.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Short communication... Length?weight relationships of ?shes from South African estuaries By T. D. Harrison Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Technology, Congella, South Africa Summary Length?weight relationships are presented for some 83 ?sh spe- cies representing 31...

  7. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  8. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  9. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  10. The Relationship Between Intuitive Eating and Postpartum Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Katie; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Banks, Gabrielle G; Bachman, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to determine the relationship between IE, breastfeeding, weight gain during pregnancy, and postpartum weight trajectories. Results Participants (n = 50) were 28.5 ± 4.9 years old, had an average pre-pregnancy BMI of 26.4 ± 6.8 and the majority were married, and non-Hispanic white. The conditional model revealed that more intuitive eating practices predicted greater postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.10, p < .05) when controlling for breastfeeding duration, exercise duration, and initial BMI and pregnancy BMI changes. Greater pregnancy BMI increases were associated with more rapid postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.34, p < .001) while breastfeeding duration, exercise and initial BMI were not related. Conclusions for Practice Postpartum weight retention is a challenge for many women. Following a more intuitive eating approach to food consumption may encourage postpartum weight loss without the required weighing, measuring, recording and assessing dietary intake that is required of traditional weight loss programs. IE could offer an alternative approach that may be less arduous for new mothers.

  11. Prediction Value of CRIB-II in Outcome of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants: a Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Heidarzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common methods of identifying mortality risk is the Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB- II. The aim of this study was assessing the value of CRIB- II in predicting mortality risk in preterm and low birth weight infants in East Azerbaijan- Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out in 2013-2014 during 6 months in NICUs of Alzahra, Taleqani and Children hospitals of Tabriz-Iran. All infants ≤ 32 weeks’ gestational age or ≤ 1500gr birth weight were included in the study using consecutive method. After calculating CRIB- II score, the infants were followed up at 3 months of age and their outcome was determined. The data was analyzed using SPSS-13, t- test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC and area under curve (AUC and relative risk (RR. Results: Of total 215 infants, 64 infants (29.7% died in the hospital and one infant (0.4% died after discharging from the hospital. 150 (68.8% infants, were alive at 3 months age follow up. The mean of CRIB- II score in the group of dead infants was higher and statistically significant compared to the group of alive infants (P

  12. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  13. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  14. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes. PMID:27747104

  15. Maternal serum lipids during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of prepregnancy BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Trudeau, Sheri; Perni, Uma

    2011-07-01

    Maternal obesity may be associated with metabolic factors that affect the intrauterine environment, fetal growth, and the offspring's long-term risk for chronic disease. Among these factors, maternal serum lipids play a particularly important role. Our objective was to estimate the influence of variation in maternal serum lipid levels on variation in infant birth weight (BW) in overweight/obese and normal weight women. In a prospective cohort of 143 gravidas, we measured maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation. Effects of maternal serum lipid levels on infant BW adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using linear regression models. In analyses stratified by maternal prepregnancy BMI categorized as normal (≤25.0 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (>25.0 kg/m(2)), we found a significant (P aBW and HDL-C at all time points starting at 10 weeks gestation in overweight/obese women. No significant effect was found in normal weight women. In contrast, increased maternal serum TG was significantly associated with increased aBW only for normal weight women at 10-14 and 22-26 weeks gestation. Variation in aBW is not associated with variation in maternal serum TC or LDL-C for either stratum at any time point. We postulate that such differences may be involved in the "physiological programming" that influences later risk of chronic disease in the infants of overweight/obese mothers.

  16. Disseminated candidemia refractory to caspofungin therapy in an infant with extremely low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ju Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, especially neonates with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW. Here, we describe a 21-day-old ELBW female infant with an amphotericin B-unresponsive congenital Candida albicans infection that was treated with caspofungin. Blood sterilization was performed during the first episode, but a second episode of candidemia occurred after the discontinuation of caspofungin. Blood sterilization was again performed during the second round of caspofungin treatment, but fungal endocarditis and renal fungal balls still developed during the second episode. Caspofungin can be considered for invasive candidiasis in premature infants, especially in life-threatening situations. As for the focal lesions, more aggressive treatments other than just parenteral antibiotics should be considered. The literature regarding caspofungin therapy for neonatal candidiasis is also reviewed.

  17. The Relationship between Maternal Life Stress and Social Support and Quality of Mother-Infant Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Marian; Sapp, Joan

    This study examined the relationship between maternal stress, changes in stress, specific stressors, and social support and quality of mother-infant attachment. Life stress of 132 mothers was assessed prenatally and when the child was 13 months old. The mothers' social support and the quality of infant-mother attachment were also measured at the…

  18. Educators' Understandings Of, and Support For, Infant Peer Relationships in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Belinda; Degotardi, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    This research adopted a qualitative methodology to investigate the reported beliefs and pedagogical practices relating to infant peer relationships held by three early childhood infant educators. Thematic analysis was used to derive commonalties and differences that reflected these educators' views and practices about children's early…

  19. The Relationship between Infants' Production Experience and Their Processing of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    The early relationship between children's emerging articulatory abilities and their capacity to process speech input was investigated, following recent studies with English-learning infants. Twenty-six monolingual Italian-learning infants were tested at 6 months (no consistent and stable use of consonants, or vocal motor schemes [VMS]) and at…

  20. Etiology of acute bronchiolitis and the relationship with meteorological conditions in hospitalized infants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-Rong Chen; Wei Ji; Yu-Qing Wang; Yong-Dong Yan; Xue-Jun Shao; Xue-Lan Zhang; Jun Xu

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of common viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in hospitalized infants with acute bronchiolitis and study the relationship between bronchiolitis and meteorological conditions. Methods: A 2-year prospective study was conducted on infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis admitted to Respiratory Department of Suzhou Children's Hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics and meteorological conditions were obtained and analyzed. Results: Pathogens ...

  1. Could elective cesarean sections influence the birth weight of full-term infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are no studies on birth weights among full-term infants born by means of elective cesarean section. We aimed to study this in private and public hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the municipal medical birth register of Uberaba from January to December 2000. The data obtained (maternal age, type of delivery, number of prenatal care visits and birth weight, from full-term pregnancy from the university hospital (UH, which is a tertiary hospital that only attends patients within the National Health System (SUS, were compared with data from four private hospitals (PHs that attend health insurance plans and private patients. Student's t test, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, with the significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the PHs, 1,100 out of 1,354 births (81.2% were by cesarean section and in the UH, 373 out of 1,332 (28%. Birth weight increased significantly in association with increasing numbers of prenatal care visits, except for cesarean section cases in PHs. Birth weights among vaginal delivery cases in PHs were greater than in the UH (p < 0.05, but this was not observed among cesarean section cases. Multiple logistic regression showed that there was greater risk of low birth weight in PHs (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 4.55. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean section performed in PHs may be associated with low birth weight among full-term infants.

  2. Association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Greenberg, Rachel G; Quek, Bin H; Clark, Reese H; Laughon, Matthew M; Smith, P Brian; Hornik, Christoph P

    2017-06-19

    In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], ppatent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.15). Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.

  3. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  4. The Wonder and Complexity of Infant and Toddler Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Wise teachers of infants and toddlers know how concerned, helpful, empathic, cooperative, and friendly--that is, how prosocial--very young children can be. Teachers see older infants crawl or toddle over to "friends" arriving later in the morning and greet them as if they had not seen them in weeks. Teachers and families know that these young…

  5. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  6. Relationships between nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant responses during bathing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Meei-Horng; Chao, Shih-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between specific nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant behavioural responses during bathing and to identify nurse behaviours associated with infant 'stress'. Although recent advances in medical technology have improved neonatal intensive care, the high mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants have not decreased proportionally. As caregivers strive to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, a factor for consideration is which caregiver behaviours are associated with preterm infant well-being. A descriptive correlational design. Convenience samples of 24 preterm infants and 12 nurses were recruited. A total of 120 baths were videotaped. Infant and nurse behaviours were measured using the coding schemes developed by the researchers. Pearson coefficient correlation, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and generalised linear models were methods for data analysis. As nurses provided more support, stress was reduced in the infants, and their self-regulation during the bath was enhanced especially by the use of 'containment' and 'positional support'. Conversely, non-therapeutic caregiver behaviours including 'rapid and rough handling' of the baby, 'chatting with other people' and 'inappropriate handling' increased infant 'stress' during the bath. The findings provide new information about the link between care-giving and infant responses and how caregivers can better interact with preterm infants during a very sensitive period of brain development. How nurses take care of the preterm infants influences their responses to care-giving stimuli. To interact better with the infant during care-giving procedures, nurses need to provide more supportive care-giving behaviours especially 'position support' and 'containment' based on the infant's needs, and avoid care-giving that may be too rough and occur too quickly without attending the baby's stressful signals, positioning the baby in

  7. Weight-based policy of hepatitis B vaccination in very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current recommendation of giving the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine to very low birth weight (VLBW infants at 30 days of chronologic age usually is not practical, because most VLBW infants are not medically stable at that age. We use an alternative body-weight-based protocol, and evaluate its efficacy in an endemic area under a universal immunization program. METHODS: The immunogenicity of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in 155 VLBW preterm infants was evaluated at age 2 to 13 years, with parental consent. All of the infants were born between 1995 and 2006, and received their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine when they reached 2,000-2,200 g, irrespective of chronological age. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG was given at birth to infants born to HBsAg(+/HBeAg(+ mothers. RESULTS: All 155 of the recruited children were HBsAg and anti-HBc negative. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate (geometric mean titer was 84.1% (146.5 mIU/mL for children under 3 years, 73.5% (68.8 mIU/mL for 4- to 7-year-olds, 27.7% (55.4 mIU/mL for 8- to 11-year-olds and 20% (6.0 mIU/mL for children ≥12 years of age. More than 90% of these children received the first vaccination after 30 days of age, half (51% at 60 to 90 days, and 29 children (18.6% after 90 days of age. Of the 26 infants born to HBsAg(+ mothers, 6/6 infants of HBeAg(+ mothers received HBIG at birth, and 12/20 infants of HBeAg(- mothers received HBIG. None of the 26 infants became infected. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying hepatitis B vaccinations in VLBW preterm infants until they reach a weight of 2,000 g, with the administration of HBIG at birth for infants of HBsAg(+ mothers provided adequate immunogenicity and protection in a highly endemic area. Weight-based policy of hepatitis B vaccination is an effective and practical alternative strategy for VLBW infants.

  8. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  9. Cup or bottle for preterm infants: effects on oxygen saturation, weight gain, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Neide M N; Martinez, Francisco E; Jorge, Salim M

    2002-05-01

    The impact of cup-feeding or bottle-feeding on weight gain, oxygen saturation, and breastfeeding rates of preterm infants was studied in 34 bottle-fed and 44 cup-fed preterm infants. At initiation of oral feeding, postconceptional age and weight were 37.2 +/- 2.2 weeks and 1676 +/- 83 g for the bottle-fed group (BF) and 37.0 +/- 1.6 weeks and 1637 +/- 40 g for the cup-fed (CF) group, respectively. No significant differences between groups were found with regard to time spent feeding, feeding problems, weight gain, or breastfeeding prevalence at discharge or at 3-month follow-up. Possible beneficial effects of cup-feeding were lower incidence of desaturation episodes (13.6% vs 35.3%, CF vs BF, P = .024) and a higher prevalence of breastfeeding at 3 months among those still breastfeeding at the first follow-up visit (68.4% vs 33.3%, CF vs BF, P = .04).

  10. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpana; Kader, Manzur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14-45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting.

  11. Functioning within a relationship : Mother-infant synchrony and infant sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graag, Jolien A.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred; Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coupling of the biological system of infant sleep and the social system of mother-infant synchrony. Before birth and shortly after birth the systems appear to be connected, but it is unclear whether this remains the case over time. This study therefore ex

  12. Weight Gain and Obesity in Infants and Young Children Exposed to Prolonged Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M Bruce; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2017-02-01

    An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Study, a 2-year randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants from 2007 to 2011. All 607 children who were randomized to receive antibiotic (n = 302) or placebo (n = 305) were included. Children with urinary tract anomalies, premature birth, or major comorbidities were excluded from participation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo taken orally, once daily, for 2 years. Weight gain as measured by change in weight-for-age z score from baseline to the end-of-study visit at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight gain at 6, 12, and 18 months and the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months. Participants had a median age of 12 months (range, 2-71 months) and 558 of 607 (91.9%) were female. Anthropometric data were complete at the 24-month visit for 428 children (214 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 214 in the placebo group). Weight gain in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and the placebo group was similar (mean [SD] change in weight-for-age z score: +0.14 [0.83] and +0.18 [0.85], respectively; difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.19 to 0.12]; P = .65). There was no significant difference in weight gain at 6, 12, or 18 months or in the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months (24.8% vs 25.7%; P = .82). Subgroup analyses showed no significant interaction between weight gain effect and age, sex, history of breastfeeding, prior antibiotic use, adherence to study

  13. Refinement of the community detection performance by weighted relationship coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DONG MIN; KAI YU; HUI-JIA LI

    2017-03-01

    The complexity of many community detection algorithms is usually an exponential function with the scale which hard to uncover community structure with high speed. Inspired by the ideas of the famous modularity optimization, in this paper, we proposed a proper weighting scheme utilizing a novel k-strength relationship whichnaturally represents the coupling distance between two nodes. Community structure detection using a generalized weighted modularity measure is refined based on the weighted k-strength matrix. We apply our algorithm on both the famous benchmark network and the real networks. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the weighted algorithm can uncover communities fast and accurately and can be easily extended to large-scale real networks.

  14. Refinement of the community detection performance by weighted relationship coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIN, DONG; YU, KAI; LI, HUI-JIA

    2017-03-01

    The complexity of many community detection algorithms is usually an exponential function with the scale which hard to uncover community structure with high speed. Inspired by the ideas of the famous modularity optimization, in this paper, we proposed a proper weighting scheme utilizing a novel k-strength relationship which naturally represents the coupling distance between two nodes. Community structure detection using a generalized weighted modularity measure is refined based on the weighted k-strength matrix. We apply our algorithm on both the famous benchmark network and the real networks. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the weighted algorithm can uncover communities fast and accurately and can be easily extended to large-scale real networks.

  15. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  16. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (pintakes were consistently less than 15% of the prescribed intakes. Growth velocity between the age when full EN was achieved and 36 weeks' PMA was 6.7% lower than Ziegler's estimate. One-third to one-half of the infants have EUGR at 36 weeks' PMA.

  17. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Roig, J C; Meetze, W H; Veerman, M; Carter, C; Millsaps, M; Bowling, D; Dallas, M J; Sleasman, J; Knight, T; Auestad, N

    1997-11-01

    Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral glutamine supplementation in 68 very low birth weight neonates randomly assigned to receive glutamine-supplemented premature formula versus premature formula alone between days 3 and 30 of life. Primary end points consisted of hospital-acquired sepsis, tolerance to subsequent enteral feedings (days with no oral intake), and duration of hospital stay. Hospital acquired sepsis was 30% (control group) and 11% (glutamine group). Logistic regression with birth weight as a covariate showed that: (1) feeding group was significant (p = 0.048) in determining the probability of developing proven sepsis over the course of hospitalization and (2) the estimated odds of developing sepsis were 3.8 times higher for infants in the control group than for those treated with glutamine. Glutamine-supplemented infants had better tolerance to enteral feedings as measured by percent of days on which feedings needed to be withheld (mean percentage of 8.8 vs 23.8, p = 0.007). Analysis of T cells demonstrated a blunting of the rise in HLA-DR+ and CD16 subsets in glutamine-supplemented infants. There were no differences in growth; in serum ammonia, urea, liver transaminase, or prealbumin concentrations; or in mean hospital stay. This study provides evidence for decreased morbidity in very-low-birth-weight neonates who receive enteral glutamine supplementation.

  18. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  19. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants.

  20. Length and weight of very low birth weight infants in Germany at 2 years of age: does it matter at what age they start complementary food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, J; Eisemann, N; Ehlers, S; Orlikowsky, T; Kannt, O; Herting, E; Göpel, W

    2015-06-01

    We analysed at what age parents start complementary food in very low birth weight infants, determined risk factors for early introduction of complementary food (post-term age) and analysed whether the age at introduction of complementary food influences height or weight at 2 years of age. Parents of premature infants born in 2009-2011 answered questionnaires regarding introduction of complementary food in the first year of life (N=2262) and were followed up at a post-term age of 2 years (N=981). Length and weight were compared with full-term infants from the KiGGs study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study predictors for early introduction of complementary food and the influence of age at introduction of complementary food on later height and weight. Average age at introduction of complementary food was 3.5 months post-term age. The lower the gestational age at birth, the earlier (post-term age) vegetables and meat were introduced. Age at introduction of complementary food was influenced by intrauterine growth restriction, gestational age at birth, maternal education and a developmental delay perceived by the parents. Length and weight at a post-term age of 2 years was not negatively influenced by early introduction of complementary food. VLBW infants are introduced to complementary food on average before a post-term age of 4 months. There was no negative effect of early introduction of complementary food on height and weight at 2 years of age.

  1. Preterm birth during influenza season is associated with adverse outcome in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Härtel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the relationship between influenza seasonality and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI in a large observational cohort study of the German Neonatal Network (GNN.Materials and Methods: Within the observational period (July 2009 until Dec 2014 5 influenza seasons occurred (mean duration: 97 days, range: 48-131 days. We stratified VLBWI (n=10187 according to date of birth into three categories; (1 before influenza season, (2 during influenza season and (3 three months after the end of the respective season. Outcomes were assessed in univariate and logistic regression analyses. In a subgroup of infants (n=1497 the number of respiratory infections during the first 24 months of life was assessed.Results: VLBWI born during influenza season carried a higher risk for clinical sepsis (31.0% vs. 28.2%; p=0.014 and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, 3.7 vs. 2.5%, p=0.004. In a multivariate logistic regression model birth during influenza season was associated with PVL [OR 1.47 (1.11-1.95, p=0.007] and clinical sepsis [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27, p=0.036], independent of known risk factors, i.e. gestational age, multiple birth, gender and small-for-gestational age. The risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia was not influenced by influenza seasonality. In the small subgroup with information on 24 months follow-up (n=1497, an increased incidence of common cold and bronchitis episodes was noted in infants born during influenza season.Conclusions: Our observational data indicate that preterm birth during influenza season is associated with PVL and sepsis. These are novel aspects which deserve further investigations to address underlying causes and to include virus surveillance.

  2. [Follow-up of infants with birth weight under 1,500 g].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldt, E; Valenzuela, B; Angulo, G; Muñoz, E; Gómez, S; Levy, M L; Rosselot, S; Norambuena, N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study of 199 children with birth weight less than 1,500 g was done. 86 boys and 113 girls, 141 (71%) adequate for gestational age and 58 (29%) small for gestational age. At follow-up 43 (21.6%) infants were lost to control, 17 (7%) moved to other places and 7 (3.5%) died in the first year of life. In the first year of life, infants whose birthweights were adequate for gestational age had been hospitalized more frequently and the small for dates showed higher percentage of undernutrition. After the second year of life, it was possible to know the impairment. It was found 7.4% of cerebral palsy, 2.9% of hipoacusia and 2.2% of retinopathy of prematurity, these diagnosis were most frequent in children that were adequate for gestational age. We concluded that small for dates infants are at risk of undernutrition and that those adequate for gestational age are at risk of permanent sequelae.

  3. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  4. Relationship between respiration rate and weight of loach oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernyuk, N D; Zotin, A I

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the constant k in the equation QO2 equals apk and the constant b in the equation qo2 equals aP-b change during the oogenesis of the loach. Hence, the growth of oocytes differs considerably from the growth of animals, where the constants k and b do not change with increase in weight. It is suggested that the relationship between the respiration rate and weight of the oocytes is due to the change in the amount of mitochondria in the oocytes.

  5. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  6. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb &lt;10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P&lt;0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  7. IL-10, IL-6 and CD14 polymorphisms and sepsis outcome in ventilated very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanamandra Krishna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation in the innate immune system of the host may play a role in determining the risk of developing infection, as well as outcome from infection. Methods Infectious complications were retrospectively determined in 293 (233 African-American (AA, 57 Caucasian and 3 Hispanic mechanically ventilated very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Results The IL-6 -174C allele was associated with an increased incidence of late blood stream infection (BSI in AA but not Caucasian infants. In AA infants with the C allele the incidence of late BSI was 20/29 (69% compared to 94/204 (46% in homozygous GG infants (RR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.0, p = 0.021. The IL-10 -1082A allele was associated with an increased incidence of late BSI. One or more episodes of late BSI developed in 14 (35% of 40 infants with the GG genotype, 71 (49% of 145 infants with the GA genotype and 63 (58% of 108 infants with the AA genotype (p = 0.036. Infants with the A allele (AA or GA genotypes had an incidence of late BSI that was 134/253 (53% compared to 14/40 (35% in homozygous GG infants (RR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.04–4.19, p = 0.035. The CD14 -260 C/T SNP did not alter the overall risk for BSI in ventilated VLBW infants. Multiple BSI episodes were more common in the TT genotype group (CC: 17%, CT: 11%, TT: 30%, p = 0.022. This effect was due to the strong effect of the TT genotype on the incidence of multiple BSI in AA infants (CC: 15%, CT: 11%, TT: 39%, p = 0.003. Conclusion The IL-6 -174 G/C, IL-10 -1082 G/A and CD14 -260 C/T SNPs may alter risk for BSI in ventilated VLBW infants.

  8. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhavat, Leila; Davar, Robab; Hosseinidezoki, Somaiasadat

    2011-11-01

    Pregnancy considerably increases iron needs in a mother and her fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal hemoglobin concentration in labor with neonatal birth weight. A population-based study in Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran, was performed by comparing 1842 singleton term pregnancies of patients with and without anemia and their newborns. Maternal characteristics, including hemoglobin values, were recorded at the labor visit. Maternal anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dl during pregnancy. Main outcome measures included birth weight and Apgar score. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Anemia (Hb 13 g/dl) increased the risk of low birth weight but it was not significant. The risk of a low Apgar score was significantly increased in women with anemia. The minimum incidence of low birth weight occurs in association with a hemoglobin concentration of 10-13 g/dl. Maternal anemia was significantly associated with effect on birth weight. Also Hb > 13 g/dl was also associated with an increased risk of low birth weight.

  9. 极低出生体重儿行PICC置管时患儿体表测量长度和理想置管深度的关系%Relationship analysis of length of body surface measurement and ideal depth of tube detaining in very low birth weight infant with PICC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房莉; 史德利; 郝祥梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of length of body surface (LBSM ) measurement and ideal depth of tube detaining (IDTD) in very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) with PICC. Methods From May 2012 to January 2014, in NICU of the Children's Hospital of Xuzhou City, 40 VLBWI with upper PICC and 24 VLBWI with cephalic vein and cubital vein PICC were selected. The relationship of LBSM and IDTD at PICC was analyzed. Results The results of 40 VLBWI with upper PICC showed that the highest was IDTD acquired, for 67.50%, the next was followed placed too deep, the lowest was too shallow into the lowest percentage, only 12.50%. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed except the left cephalic vein of LBSM had no correlation with IDTD (r=0.397, P=0.512), the rest were corre-lated throughout the vein. By regression analysis, LBSM and IDTD regression equation was as follows, the right side of the vein:Y =-6.23±1.01X;the right of the cephalic vein:Y =-14.36±1.15X;the right of the median cubital vein;Y =4.12±0.82X; the left side of your vein; Y = 2.86±0.84X; the left of the cubital vein: Y = -19.52±1.23X. Conclusion When the right side of VLBWI vein catheterization to have a good correlation with IDTD LBSM, the clinical treatment should be valued.%目的:分析极低出生体重儿(VLBWI)行PICC置管时患儿体表测量长度(LBSM)和理想置管深度(IDTD)的关系。方法选择2012年5月~2014年1月于徐州市儿童医院新生儿重症监护室上肢植入PICC的40例贵要静脉置管及24例头静脉和肘正中静脉PICC置管的VLBWI患儿。分析对行PICC置管时LBSM和IDTD的关系。结果40例贵要静脉置管结果表明,获得理想深度的比例最高,为67.50豫;置入过深次之,置入过浅的比例最低,仅为12.50豫。 Pearson相关性分析显示,除左侧头静脉的LBSM与IDTD无相关性之外(r =0.397,P=0.512),其余各处静脉均有相关性。经回归分析,LBSM与IDTD的回归方程如下

  10. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment of the Relationship Between Fathers and Premature Infants in Neonatal Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Milette, Isabelle; Bell, Linda; Tribble, Denise St-Cyr; Payot, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Parents and their preterm infants (born between 32-37 weeks of gestation) are often overlooked by the healthcare system. And very little attention is given to the relationship parents develop with their infants in the neonatal unit (NNU). Specifically, very few studies focused on fathers and how they establish a relationship with their infants. However, we know that the father-infant relationship is extremely important for their future social development and more. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of the establishment of the father-premature infant relationship in an NNU. The study's theoretical framework was Bell's model of the parent-infant relationship, which encompasses discovery, physical proximity, communication, involvement, and emotional attachment. Ten fathers of premature infants (gestational age: 32-37 weeks) participated in 2 semistructured interviews (1 individual and 1 "in situ," ie, at the infant's bedside) during the first week following the premature birth. The results confirm the emergence of different components of the relationship between fathers and their children from the first days of hospitalization in the NNU. The commitment component is the basis for the development of other components in the relationship with their children. Furthermore, involvement influences the deployment of emotional attachment, discovery, physical proximity, and communication toward premature infants. Similarly, the 5 themes of the model can be seen as forming a dynamic nexus in which each theme influences the others. For neonatal nurses, this model of the early father-child relationship helps the understanding of the deployment of that relationship according to 5 components. Similarly, it provides awareness of the experiences of fathers so that nurses can be better equipped to support and individualize interventions tailored to their specific needs, thus helping them develop and sustain the relationship with their children. This study allows

  12. Maternal Physical Activity and Insulin Action in Pregnancy and Their Relationships With Infant Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renström, Frida; Gradmark, Anna M.; Mogren, Ingrid; Persson, Margareta; Bluck, Les; Wright, Antony; Kahn, Steven E; Domellöf, Magnus; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to assess the association between maternal gestational physical activity and insulin action and body composition in early infancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At 28–32 weeks' gestation, pregnant women participating in an observational study in Sweden underwent assessments of height, weight, and body composition, an oral glucose tolerance test, and 10 days of objective physical activity assessment. Thirty mothers and infants returned at 11–19 weeks postpartum. Infants under...

  13. Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Early-onset Sepsis Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Opportunities for Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2017-05-01

    Most very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight onset sepsis (EOS). The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of VLBW infants with culture-confirmed EOS at a single center during 25 years and to identify opportunities for antibiotic stewardship. Retrospective cohort study includes VLBW infants admitted from 1990 to 2015. EOS was defined as isolation of a pathogen in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained at labor, preterm rupture of membranes and/or the obstetrical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis were present in 106/109 cases (97%). Obligate anaerobic organisms accounted for 16% of cases. Time to culture positivity was 36 hours for 88% and 48 hours for 98% of cases. From 1999 to 2013, 97% of VLBW infants were evaluated for EOS and 90% administered empiric antibiotics; 22% of these infants were born by cesarean section to mothers with preeclampsia and without preterm labor or chorioamnionitis and had a 12-fold lower incidence of EOS compared with the remaining infants. Decisions to initiate and discontinue empiric antibiotics among VLBW infants can be informed by the delivery characteristics of infected infants and by local microbiologic data.

  14. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  15. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. OBJECTIVE: This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. METHODS: Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. RESULTS: Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  16. Current Status of Therapeutic Strategies for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin A; Kim, Myo-Jing; Oh, Sohee; Choi, Byung Min

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate current therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea. A total of 2,254 VLBW infants among 2,386 from Korean Neonatal Network cohort born from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. No PDA was seen for 1,206 infants (53.5%) and the infants diagnosed or treated for PDA were 1,048 infants (46.5%). The proportion of infants with PDA was decreased according to the increase in gestational age (GA) and birthweight. Infants with PDA were divided into groups according to the therapeutic strategies of PDA: prophylactic treatment (PT, n = 69, 3.1%), pre-symptomatic treatment (PST, n = 212, 9.4%), symptomatic treatment (ST, n = 596, 26.4%), and conservative treatment (CT, n = 171, 7.6%). ST was the most preferred treatment modality for preterm PDA and the proportion of the patients was decreased in the order of PST, CT, and PT. Although ST was still the most favored treatment in GA < 24 weeks group, CT was more preferred than PST or ST when compared with GA ≥ 32 weeks group [CT vs. PST, OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.56-18.18; CT vs. ST, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.03-8.13]. A total of 877 infants (38.9%) received pharmacological or surgical treatment about PDA, and 35.5% (801 infants) received pharmacological treatment, mostly with ibuprofen. Seventy-six infants (3.4%) received primary ligation and 8.9% (201 infants) received secondary ligation. Diverse treatment strategies are currently used for preterm PDA in Korea. Further analyses of neonatal outcomes according to the treatment strategies are necessary to obtain a standardized treatment guideline for preterm PDA.

  17. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring with Reduced-Temperature Probes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Safwat; El-Dib, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mohamed; Aly, Hany

    2017-04-01

    Background Obtaining blood gases in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is an invasive procedure. Studies using transcutaneous carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) have reported variable skin complications with high-temperature probes. No enough data available on tcPCO2 monitoring using reduced-temperature probes (41°C). Objective The objective of this study was to assess reliability and safety of tcPCO2 monitoring at reduced-temperature probe in VLBW infants. Design and Methods A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants. tcPCO2 was monitored for 12 hours. Default skin probe temperature was adjusted at 41°C. Blood gases were done as clinically indicated. Arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) as well as capillary CO2 were compared with simultaneous tcPCO2. Results A total of 124 data points were identified from 50 patients (gestational age [GA] = 28.1 ± 2.4 weeks and birth weight [BW] = 1,035 ± 291 g). Patients were supported with continuous positive airway pressure (40%), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (16%), mechanical ventilation (18%), and high-frequency oscillation ventilation (24%). PaCO2 was measured using either capillary (58%) or arterial (42%) samples. Mean CO2 did not differ between tcPCO2 (51.3 ± 16) and PaCO2 (49.1 ± 13.7) mm Hg. tcPCO2 showed positive correlation with partial pressure of CO2 (r = 0.6, p < 0.001). This correlation continued to be significant after controlling for GA, postmenstrual age, type of sample, and pH. No skin complications were reported. Conclusion tcPCO2 monitoring using a temperature of 41°C is feasible and reliable in VLBW infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.

  19. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  20. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  1. [Changes in homecare for preterm and low-birth-weight infants from 2002 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras Aloy, Josep; Esqué Ruiz, M Teresa; Arroyo Gili, Lourdes; Bella Rodriguez, Julia; Álvarez Miró, Roser; Carbonell Estrany, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Homecare (HC) is a service offering home medical and nursing care to the patient at home in equal quantity and quality as in the hospital. The aim of the article is to describe the changes in the HC of preterm and full-term low-birth-weight infants in our department from 2002-2014. The HC database is revised. The characteristics of the newborns and the social characteristics of the family in three consecutive time periods are analysed. A satisfaction survey of parents is also presented. The main changes in HC include a decrease in the weight at discharge (from 1880g in the 2002-2006 period to 1850g in the 2011-2014 period; P=.006) and at the end of HC (from 2187g to 2163g; P=.001), an increase in the duration of HC (from 10 to 11 days; P=.007) and a lower incidence of new hospitalization (from 3.4% to 1.3%; P=.019) The social characteristics of the family show a higher maternal age with more previous alive children, a family context better suited with a more appropriate housing, and an increase in exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge (from 25.5% to 49.0%; P<.001). The overall assessment of the program is ≥7/10 in 98.8% of responses. The results of the HC of preterm and low-birth-weight infants have improved over time, saving approximately 10-11 days of hospitalisation, and without compromising the quality of care or reducing family satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily eRundjan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bloodstream infection (BSI is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight.Methods Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September, 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect towards the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.85, p=0.026. Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227 to 90.662, p=0.026. BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group.Conclusions The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously.

  3. Maternal hypoxic ventilatory response, ventilation, and infant birth weight at 4,300 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L G; Brodeur, P; Chumbe, O; D'Brot, J; Hofmeister, S; Monge, C

    1986-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that increased hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness (HVR) raised maternal ventilation and arterial oxygenation during high-altitude pregnancy and related to the birth weight of the offspring, we studied 21 residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,300 m), while eight of them were 36 +/- 0 wk pregnant and 15 of them 13 +/- 0 wk postpartum. HVR was low in the nonpregnant women (mean +/- SE shape parameter A = 23 +/- 8) but increased nearly fourfold with pregnancy (A = 87 +/- 17). The increase in HVR appeared to account for the 25% rise in resting ventilation with pregnancy (delta VE observed = 2.4 +/- 0.7 l/min BTPS vs. delta VE predicted from delta HVR = 2.6 +/- 1.7 l/min BTPS, P = NS). Hyperoxia decreased ventilation in the pregnant women (P less than 0.01) to levels similar to those measured when nonpregnant. The increased ventilation of pregnancy raised arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) from 83 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 0%, and SaO2 was correlated positively with HVR in the pregnant women. The rise in SaO2 compensated for a 0.9 g/100 ml decrease in hemoglobin concentration to preserve arterial O2 content at levels present when nonpregnant. Cardiac output in the 36th wk of pregnancy did not differ significantly from values measured postpartum. The increase in HVR correlated positively with infant birth weight. An increase in HVR may be an important contributor to increased maternal ventilation with pregnancy and infant birth weight at high altitude.

  4. The effect of music on weight gain of preterm infants older than 32 weeks: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria L. Auto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of recorded music with multimodal stimulation on the weight gain of preterm infants included in the Kangaroo-Mother Program. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with 61 premature infants, of both sexes, with postconceptional age greater or equal to 32 weeks and at least ten days of life, without detected abnormalities in the visual and hearing systems, and hospitalized in the Kangaroo-Mother Unit. Patients were randomized in two groups: of 31 preterm infants received multimodal stimulation with music daily, for seven days; 30 preterm infants received only multimodal stimulation. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight gain, energy consumption, heart rate and respiratory rate, stress signs and feeding method. Comparison between groups was made by Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney test and chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. Results: The two groups did not present significant differences in relation to the feeding method and energy consumption (p=0.46; however, weight gain was greater in the Experimental Group (p=0.002, which also presented better stability in cardiac and respiratory rates (p<0.001 and a significant reduction of stress signs (p=0.007, compared with the Control Group. Conclusions: The recorded music with multimodal stimulation is associated with a greater gain in body weight of hospitalized preterm infants as well as presents a positive influence on vital and stress signs (Clinical Trials Registry - UTN: U1111-1153-9301.

  5. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. Methods: We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1–12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Results: Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement, and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. Conclusions: We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it.

  6. Preverbal Infants Infer Third-Party Social Relationships Based on Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-07-29

    Language provides rich social information about its speakers. For instance, adults and children make inferences about a speaker's social identity, geographic origins, and group membership based on her language and accent. Although infants prefer speakers of familiar languages (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007), little is known about the developmental origins of humans' sensitivity to language as marker of social identity. We investigated whether 9-month-olds use the language a person speaks as an indicator of that person's likely social relationships. Infants were familiarized with videos of two people who spoke the same or different languages, and then viewed test videos of those two individuals affiliating or disengaging. Results suggest that infants expected two people who spoke the same language to be more likely to affiliate than two people who spoke different languages. Thus, infants view language as a meaningful social marker and use language to make inferences about third-party social relationships.

  7. Relationship of Characteristics of Baby’s Mother with the Low Birth Weight in Regional General Hospital in Sorong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Naa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mortality rate of low birth weight is part of a reflection of the public health status. Low birth weight babies are born with birth weight less than 2,500 grams regardless of pregnancy. The aim of research to determine the relationship characteristic of mothers of infants with LBW. This type of research is observational analytic with cross sectional design. Collecting data through observation sheet on record medic mothers who gave birth in hospitals 2014, in Sorong, West Papua Province in July-August 2015. The results reveal no relationship nutritional status of mothers with LBW (p = 0.000 and 9.54 RP. No relationship of anemia in mothers with LBW (p = 0.000 and 9.20 RP, no relationship of pregnancy range with LBW births (p = 0.000 and 5.01 RP, no maternal employment status relationship with the incidence of low birth weight (p = 0.001 and RP 3.22, there is a relationship with the mother's education level LBW (p = 0.005 and 2.82 RP, no correlation between age mothers with LBW (p = 0.011 and 2.51 RP and the biggest risk factors based on the RP is factor of maternal nutritional status (p = 0.000 and 9.54 RP.

  8. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  9. Oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants: theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy A; Caplan, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk-placing drops of milk onto the infant's oral mucosa-may serve as a preventative strategy against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) for extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW: birth weight milk to ELBW infants may serve to expose the infant's oropharynx to protective (immune and trophic) biofactors (also present in amniotic fluid) and may protect the infant against NEC. Emerging evidence suggests that this intervention may have many benefits for extremely premature infants including protection against bacteremia, NEC, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, an earlier attainment of full enteral feeds, enhanced maturation of oral feeding skills, improved growth, and enhanced breast-feeding outcomes. While more research is needed to definitively establish safety and efficacy of this intervention, this article will examine biological plausibility and will describe the theoretical mechanisms of protection against NEC for ELBW infants who receive this intervention. Nurses play a key role in advancing the science and practice of this intervention. Future directions for research and implications for nursing practice will also be presented.

  10. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina Castellanos, Gerardo Rogelio; Riesgo Rodríguez, Solangel de la Caridad

    2016-04-07

    Neonatal sepsis has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (VLBW infants). The impact of neonatal sepsis on neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants discharged from Cuban neonatal intensive care units is unknown. To determine the impact of neonatal sepsis as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental disorders in a Cuban very low birth weight infants’ population. A cohort study was carried out that enrolled 89 infants with birth weight less than 1500 g who were admitted during the period 2006-2010 to the Teaching Provincial Gynecological and Obstetrical Hospital of Matanzas. All patients were followed-up at the outpatient clinic until two years of corrected gestational age. Then they were divided into two groups: those who had been diagnosed with neonatal sepsis (n=19) and those who had not (n=70). The association power of neonatal sepsis with neurodevelopmental disorders was determined with calculation of relative risk (RR) and their confidence intervals at 95% (CI95%). A multivariate analysis with logistic regression enabled us to compare sepsis with other neonatal variables as risk factors. Very low birth weight infants with neonatal sepsis had an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (47.4 vs 17.1%; RR 2.7 CI95% 1.3-5.5; p=0.005). This risk was significant after correction for other variables (male sex, mechanical respiratory assistance, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hyperbilirrubinemia >15 mg/dl) (odds ratio 4.0; CI95% 1.1-14.3; p=0.03). Neonatal sepsis should be considered an important factor among the multiple events related to poor neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm newborn.

  11. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  12. Does visceral osteopathic treatment accelerate meconium passage in very low birth weight infants?- A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Haiden

    Full Text Available To determine whether the complementary approach of visceral manipulative osteopathic treatment accelerates complete meconium excretion and improves feeding tolerance in very low birth weight infants.This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in premature infants with a birth weight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks who received a visceral osteopathic treatment 3 times during their first week of life or no treatment.Passage of the last meconium occurred after a median of 7.5 days (95% confidence interval: 6-9 days, n = 21 in the intervention group and after 6 days (95% confidence interval: 5-9 days, n = 20, in the control group (p = 0.11. However, osteopathic treatment was associated with a 8 day longer time to full enteral feedings (p = 0.02, and a 34 day longer hospital stay (Median = 66 vs. 100 days i.e.; p=0.14. Osteopathic treatment was tolerated well and no adverse events were observed.Visceral osteopathic treatment of the abdomen did not accelerate meconium excretion in VLBW (very low birth weight-infants. However infants in the osteopathic group had a longer time to full enteral feedings and a longer hospital stay, which could represent adverse effects. Based on our trial results, we cannot recommend visceral osteopathic techniques in VLBW-infants.Clinical trials.gov: NCT02140710.

  13. Bedside detection of low systemic flow in the very low birth weight infant on day 1 of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between the clinical and biochemical parameters of perfusion and superior vena cava (SVC) flow in a prospective observational cohort study of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Newborns with congenital heart disease were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Capillary refill time (forehead, sternum and toe), mean blood pressure, urine output and serum lactate concentration were also measured simultaneously. Thirty-eight VLBW infants were examined. Eight patients (21%) had SVC flow less than 40 ml\\/kg\\/min. There was a poor correlation between the capillary refill time (in all sites), mean blood pressure, urine output and SVC flow. The correlation coefficient for the serum lactate concentration was r = -0.28, p = 0.15. The median serum lactate concentration was 3.5 (range 2.8-8.5) vs. 2.7 (range 1.2-6.9) mmol\\/l (p = 0.01) in low flow versus normal flow states. A serum lactate concentration of >2.8 was 100% sensitive and 60% specific for detecting a low flow state. Combining a capillary refill time of >4 s with a serum lactate concentration of >4 mmol\\/l had a specificity of 97% for detecting a low SVC flow state. Serum lactate concentrations are higher in low SVC flow states. A capillary refill time of >4 s combined with serum lactate concentrations >4 mmol\\/l increased the specificity and positive and negative predictive values of detecting a low SVC flow state.

  14. Blood Culture Proven Early Onset Sepsis and Late Onset Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.

  15. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri (DSM 17938 on the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nouri Shadkam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feeding intolerance is a common problem among premature infants. There is limited information on the safety and effects of oral probiotic supplements, especially products containing Lactobacillus reuteri, and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in low birth weight preterm infants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on the gastrointestinal complications and feeding tolerance in premature infants. Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 premature infants divided into two groups of intervention and placebo. Subjects in the intervention group received one drop/kg of supplementary oral probiotic with 0.5 ml of distilled water, and infants in the placebo group only received 0.5 ml of distilled water. Probiotic administration continued to reach full enteral feeding. Results: In this study, mean time to reach full enteral feeding was 12.83 and 16.75 days in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, which was indicative of a significant difference (P=0.01. However, mean of neonatal weight at discharge had no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, 6.7% and 36.7% of infants in the intervention and placebo groups were diagnosed with NEC, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P=0.005. Also, prevalence of jaundice and sepsis was not significantly different between the study groups. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the time to reach full enteral feeding while diminishing the incidence of NEC in very low birth weight premature infants.

  16. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  17. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  18. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings.

  19. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT...

  20. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Infant feeding practices and weight gain for length of term normal birth weight infants in the first 6 months of life%喂养习惯与婴儿出生后前6个月按身长体质量增加的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉; 孙倩倩; 胡燕琪; 刘金荣; 刘珊珊; 张杰; 盛晓阳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between infant feeding practices and infants growth,especially the weight gain for length in the first 6 months of life. Methods Two-hundred healthy full-term singlet normal birth weight 5 - 6 months old infants and their main care givers were recruited in Kongjiang community health service center in Shanghai. The questionnaires included infants feeding pattern, feeding environment and care givers feeding behaviors, and were completed on-site by investigators. The birth weight was obtained. The weight and length of infants at 6 months were measured. Results There were 70/200 (35.0%) infants overweight (BMI for age Z score>+1) at 6 months. There were more overweight boys than girls (40.0% vs. 30.9%, x2 = 1.798, P = 0.180). Compared with normal weight infants, the overweight infants had same birth weight (3.30 ± 0.35 kg vs. 3.35 ± 0.32 kg, t =1.010, P = 0.314) and same length at 6 months (67.64 ± 2.10 cm vs. 67.91 ± 1.97 cm, t=- 0.896, P = 0.371). However, the overweight infants gained much more weight for length in the first six months of life. At 6 months, the weight and BMI of overweight infants was significantly higher than that of normal weight infants (9.16 ± 0.67 vs. 7.94 ±0.64, t = 12.324, P 0.05). The grandparents played an important role in infants feeding in Shanghai. There were 39.0% infants fed only by grandparents, and 23.0% infants fed jointly by grandparents and parents (x2 = 0.175, P > 0.05).The care givers' educational level and knowledge of feeding skill were similar in overweight and normal weight infants (x2 = 0.446, t = 0.949, P > 0.05). However, the overweight infants were fed more quickly than normal weight infants (Z = 2.753, P +1),占35%.男婴超重多于女婴(40.0%对30.9%,x2=1.798,P=0.180).超重婴儿和体质量正常婴儿的出生体质量一致(3.30±0.35 kg对3.35±0.32 kg,t=1.010,P=0.314),6月龄时两组婴儿的身长也一致(67.64±2.10 cm对67.91±1.97cm,t=0.896,P=0.371).

  2. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Single Center’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chieh Lin

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: ELBW infants have a high incidence of growth and developmental delay at corrected age of 2 years, particularly in male infants or those with BW less than 750 g. This study reveals that ELBW infants require well predischarge planning and postdischarge follow-up.

  3. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedijk, Maaike A.; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H. T.; Baartmans, Martin G. A.; Wafelman, Leontien S.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently

  4. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  5. Impact of a standardized hand hygiene program on the incidence of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Tridapalli, Elisabetta; Galletti, Silvia; Petracci, Elisabetta; Faldella, Giacomo

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the effects of a standardized hand hygiene program on the rate of nosocomial infection (NI) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight < 1500 g) admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We compared the rate of NI in VLBW infants in 2 separate periods. In the first period, staff were encouraged to perform handwashing using a plain fluid detergent (0.5% triclosan). In the second period, a standardized hand hygiene program was implemented using antimicrobial soap (4% chlorhexidine gluconate) and alcohol-based hand rubs. NI after 72 hours of life was detected in 16 of the 85 VLBW infants in the first period and in 5 of the 80 VLBW infants in the second period. The rate of central venous catheter colonization was significantly lower in the second period (5.8%) than in the first period (16.6%). In our NICU, the incidence of NI in VLBW infants was significantly reduced after the introduction of a standardized handwashing protocol. In our experience, a proper hand hygiene program can save approximately 10 NI episodes/year, at a cost of $10,000 per episode. Therefore, improving hand hygiene practice is a cost-effective program in the NICU.

  6. Targeted home visiting intervention: the impact on mother-infant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne Marie; Johnson, Rebecca; Banner, Catherine; Delaney, Jill; Farley, Rita; Ford, Margaret; Lake, Helen; Douglas, Hazel

    2008-03-01

    This paper reviews and reflects on six papers, which describe various early home visiting interventions that resulted in positive outcomes, particularly in relation to the mother-infant relationship. The papers were published in a special issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal in 2006. We provide a brief overview of each paper, highlighting the conclusions drawn across the six papers. Key learning points for health visitors in the UK are explored throughout. Suggestions are described for improvements to the way in which health visiting services in the UK are structured in order to further enhance mother-infant relationships. The overall finding is that mother-infant relationships and interactions can be improved through early home visiting interventions over a period of time, and that this prevents childhood problems later on. It is recommended that specific patient groups be targeted and offered tailored programmes of interventions that have a relevant theoretical base, by trained nursing staff who are supported by an infant mental health consultant.

  7. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  8. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  9. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsivos ZL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoe-Lydia Tsivos,1 Rachel Calam,1 Matthew R Sanders,1,2 Anja Wittkowski1 1School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Parenting and Family Support Center, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Postnatal depression (PND has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. Keywords: postnatal depression, infant development, intervention, dyad, mother–infant relationship, systematic review

  10. The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Orvay Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the effects of high dietary protein and energy intake on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Study design Thirty-eight VLBW infants whose weights were appropriate for their gestational ages were assessed for when they could tolerate oral intake for all their nutritional needs. Thirty-two infants were included in a longitudinal, randomized clinical trial over an approximate 28-day period. One control diet (standard preterm formula, group A, n = 8, 3.7 g/kg/d of protein and 129 kcal/kg/d and two high-energy and high-protein diets (group B, n = 12, 4.2 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d; group C, n = 12, 4.7 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d were compared. Differences among groups in anthropometry and body composition (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis were determined. An enriched breast milk group (n = 6 served as a descriptive reference group. Results Groups B and C displayed greater weight gains and higher increases in fat-free mass than group A. Conclusion An intake of 150 kcal/kg/d of energy and 4.2 g/kg/d of protein increases fat-free mass accretion in VLBW infants.

  11. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  12. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  13. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  14. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  15. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Preterm birth is often associated with prolonged hospitalisation, complicating the parent-child relationship and breastfeeding rates. As a result, an early discharge programme was implemented in the department of neonatology at Rigshospitalet. The infants were stable, but required tube feeding...

  16. Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianwei; Uto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication.

  17. Total body bone development during early childhood in very low birth weight infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, T; Hasegawa, K; Yoshioka, H; Mizuta, R; Sawada, T

    1998-04-01

    Total body bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 children who were very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation (postconceptional age, from 10 mo to 6 y and 6 mo). VLBW infants in this study seemed to show compensatory acceleration of total body bone development, catching up with the control group during early childhood. However, in VLBW infants with at least one of the three factors such as total parenteral nutrition for 1 week or more, assisted ventilation for 1 week or more, or oxygen therapy for 28 d or more in their early stage after birth, adequate mineral supplementation might be especially important for long-term bone development.

  18. Reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Koeda, Tatsuya; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuo; Sugino, Noriko; Bonno, Motoki; Kada, Akiko; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and the perinatal risk factors related to reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with normal intelligence. Subjects were 79 Japanese children in the second to fourth grade of elementary school who had been born at very low birth weight and who regularly visited a follow-up clinic at one of four hospitals. All members had a full-scale IQ score of 80 or higher. Perinatal information was obtained retrospectively from medical records. Each subject underwent four reading tasks, testing monomoratic syllable reading, word reading, non-word reading and short sentence reading. Subjects with an SD reading time score greater than 2.0 in two or more tasks were considered to have reading difficulty (RD). Furthermore we investigated the relations between RD and perinatal factors using logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors. Twenty-five (31.6%) out of 79 subjects had RD. We discovered that treated retinopathy of prematurity (tRoP) was a significant risk factor (adjusted OR=5.80, 95% confidence interval=1.51-22.33). The rate of RD in school-aged VLBWI was higher than the estimated prevalence of dyslexia in Japan. Even in children with normal intelligence, long-term developmental follow-up including support for reading skills is necessary for VLBWI. Further investigation is desired to elucidate the relations between visual problems and RD in school-aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcomes of very-low-birthweight infants after discharge with a discharge weight of 1500 grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour-Kacho, Mousa; Pasha, Yadollah Zahed; Aliabadi, Behdis Motevalli

    2012-04-01

    Discharge of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) neonates from hospital is an important issue and has a standard criterion worldwide. According to this criterion, VLBW infants will be discharged from hospital when weighing 1800-2100 g but in the newborn services at Amirkola Children's Hospital (ACH), VLBW neonates are discharged when reaching 1500 g. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of this policy. In this analytic-prospective study, 100 premature neonates with discharging weight (DW) of 1500 g and a control group of 150 neonates with DW of 1600-2500 g were included. Both groups showed similar socioeconomic, perinatal and postnatal conditions. They were admitted and treated in the newborn services at ACH. The outcome variables, including death after discharge, readmission and need for emergency visit for an acute problem up to 3 months after discharge, were studied. The information was analyzed by SPSS-16 software and a P-value discharge reached a significant difference between the two groups (31 in the case group vs 21 in the control group, P= 0.000), but there were no significant differences in the readmission rate and death after discharge (two deaths and 15 readmissions in the case group vs two deaths and 21 readmissions in the control group, P= 0.855) In order to decrease the need for emergency visits, we suggest a program of early hospital discharge with home nursing visits and neonatologist support. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%, whereas 20 (23.3% had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72% infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg were significantly different (p = 0.015. Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. CONCLUSION: The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low

  1. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  2. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  3. The relationship between eosinophilia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants at less than 34 weeks' gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joo Yun; Cha, Jihei; Shim, So-Yeon; Cho, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Eosinophilia is common in premature infants, and its incidence increases with a shorter gestation period. We investigated the clinical significance of eosinophilia in premature infants born at Eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil percentage of >3% of the total leukocytes. Perinatal parameters and clinical parameters were also analyzed. Results Of the 261 infants born at eosinophilia at birth. The eosinophil percentage peaked in the fourth postnatal week at 7.5%. The incidence of severe eosinophilia increased after birth up to the fourth postnatal week when 8.8% of all patients had severe eosinophilia. Severity of eosinophilia was positively correlated with a lower gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. Respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and sepsis were associated with a higher eosinophil percentage. The eosinophil percentage was significantly higher in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia from the first postnatal week and the percentage was the highest in the fourth postnatal week, with the maximal difference being 4.1% (PEosinophilia is common in premature infants and reaches peak incidence and severity in the fourth postnatal week. The eosinophil percentage was significantly higher in bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients from the first postnatal week. Severe eosinophilia was significantly associated with the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia even after adjusting for other variables. PMID:24868214

  4. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85) at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1%) children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI<85). Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10). There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI and mental development index (MDI of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: mean birth weight was 1,119 g (SD: 247 and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2. Approximately 44.3%(n = 86 of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n = 79 had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85 at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1% children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI < 85. Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10. There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. CONCLUSION: neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment.

  6. Late onset sepsis and intestinal bacterial colonization in very low birth weight infants receiving long-term parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Castro Cordeiro Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to establish the late onset sepsis (LOS rate of our service, characterize the intestinal microbiota and evaluate a possible association between gut flora and sepsis in surgical infants who were receiving parenteral nutrition (PN. METHODS: Surveillance cultures of the gut were taken at the start of PN and thereafter once a week. Specimens for blood culture were collected based on clinical criteria established by the medical staff. The central venous catheter (CVC tip was removed under aseptic conditions. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify the microorganisms that grew on cultures of gut, blood and CVC tip. RESULTS: 74 very low birth weight infants were analyzed. All the infants were receiving PN and antibiotics when the gut culture was started. In total, 21 (28.4% infants experienced 28 episodes of LOS with no identified source. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria identified, both in the intestine (74.2% and blood (67.8%. All infections occurred in patients who received PN through a central venous catheter. Six infants experienced episodes of microbial translocation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, LOS was the most frequent episode in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition who had been submitted to surgery; 28.6% of this infection was probably a gut-derived phenomenon and requires novel strategies for prevention.

  7. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, D E

    2004-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight (LBW) infants at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has previously been found to be high. Other centres have shown that even with lack of neonatal intensive care facilities, selective interventions can be implemented that improve neonatal survival rates. It is important to identify those factors at KNH that when selectively modified, will improve the quality of care hence survival rates. To quantify the morbidity and mortality of LBW infants in KNH. To audit the quality of care and identify factors that can be selectively modified to improve the quality of care and improve the currently low survival rates. Retrospective study utilising case notes. New born unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All LBW infants admitted to the NBU at KNH from January to December 2000. Out of an expected 694 files, 533 (77%) were studied. The male to female ratio and LBW to VLBW ratio was 1:1 respectively. Small for gestational age (SGA) accounted for 11.6%. Overall mortality was 57.4% (574/1000 admissions) while mortality for SGA was 37%. Infants born out of KNH had significantly higher mortality (p=0.0047). Compared to Caeserian delivery, infants born via spontaneous vertex delivery had higher mortality (p=0.0087). The leading diagnoses on admission or death were respiratory distress(69%), apnoeic attacks (42%) suspected sepsis and jaundice (37% each), hypothermia(27%) and anaemia(17%). By time of death or discharge, 43% had no laboratory investigations done. While 37% had suspected sepsis, only 14% had blood culture done. Antibiotics were started in 460 (86%) of infants yet only 37% had diagnosis of suspected sepsis. Change of antibiotics was guided by culture and sensitivity reports in only 62(13.5%). Apnoeic spells were managed with rectal aminophyline in 156(29%) infants of whom 19(12%) survived. The terminal events for the dead infants included recurrent apnoeic spells. The only mode of nutrition was enteric feeding in 59% with

  8. Taiwanese women's experiences of becoming a mother to a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Nu Chang; Long, Ann; Boore, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the survival rates of small preterm infants. As more infants survive their preterm birth, the number of parents associated with this experience has also increased. Clearly, the birth of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants poses considerable challenges for all mothers. These challenges are further compounded in Taiwan, where women are traditionally required to practise the cultural ritual (Zuo Yue Zi) which includes confinement to the house with a special balanced diet for the first month postnatally. Moreover, there is a deficit of information on mothers' experiences when their preterm infants are in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' (n=26) parenting experiences when their preterm infants were in NICUs. A qualitative research approach, grounded theory, was used to explore the mothers' lived reality of these experiences. In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to gain insight into the experience of parenting. A theoretical model was formulated from the findings delineating Taiwanese mothers' parenting experiences during their preterm infants stay in hospital. The findings indicated that the preterm birth, together with the admission of their infants to a NICU, presented mothers with an unexpected crisis. The particular cultural postnatal ritual posed this group of Taiwanese mothers with an additional difficulty in establishing physical interactions. However, the Taiwanese mothers created alternative channels of contact with their hospitalised infants using emotional connections, while the physical interactions were certainly limited. Despite all the difficulties this group of Taiwanese mothers faced and resolved, they all gradually captured and embraced the parenting role. The finding of this study further indicated that the support the mothers received from the healthcare professionals and the social networks the mothers made

  9. Serial investigation of continuous glucose monitoring in a very low birth weight infant with transient late-onset hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshihiko; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mari; Kusakari, Michiko; Takahashi, Hidehiro; Kamohara, Takashi

    2016-12-16

    Transient late-onset hyperglycemia was detected in a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant (gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 1,082 g) by routine point-of-care glucose monitoring. The infant had no clinical symptom. Serial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted for 3 days at 31, 35, and 39 weeks' post conceptual age. The difference values between the maximum and minimum blood glucose levels during the interval from one enteral feeding to the next enteral feeding were 32.3±14.3 mg/dL, 47.5±22.9 mg/dL, and 27.5±12.9 mg/dL for the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) CGM, respectively. The serial change in the values was statistically significant (plate-onset hyperglycemia was investigated by serial CGM.

  10. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  11. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood

  12. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  13. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  14. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  15. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  16. Early home intervention with low-birth-weight infants and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M E; Rosenbaum, P L; Cunningham, C E

    1986-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a year-long home intervention with a sample of preterm infants randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a developmental intervention, a parent-infant intervention, and a no-treatment control group. A full-term no-treatment control was also used. Both intervention approaches focused on the parent-child unit, providing training for parents to improve observational skills, emotional support, and information about community resources. However, whereas specific tasks to facilitate the child's development were provided in the developmental intervention group, the quality of the parent-infant interaction was the target for treatment in the other group. All infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age corrected for prematurity. The results suggest that although both intervention approaches were effective in modifying some aspects of the home environment and, to a lesser degree, in improving infants' cognitive development, the parent-infant interaction approach seemed to have the greater impact. These findings confirm previous observations regarding the cognitive development of preterm and full-term infants during the first 18 months of life and demonstrate changes in behavior and behavior styles in both pre- and full-term infants as they become older.

  17. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  18. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  19. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  20. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  1. An increasing proportion of infants weight more than 4000 grams at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskou, J.; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2001-01-01

    Background. To investigate how mean birthweight has changed in the past decade, and to describe changes in the proportion of infants with a birthweight above 4000 grams (g). Methods. We analyzed data on 43,561 singleton infants born between 1990 and 1999 at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. In...

  2. Bloodstream Infections in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Conrad R.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine pathogens and other characteristics associated with late-onset bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants with intestinal failure (IF) as a consequence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study design Infants weighing 401-1500 g at birth who survived for >72 hours and received car

  3. The effect of kangaroo ward care in comparison with "intermediate intensive care" on the growth velocity in preterm infant with birth weight control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo

    2016-10-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight birth weight <1100 g) infants at term gestational age. Clinical trial registry of India CTRI/2014/05/004625 WHAT IS KNOWN: • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in VLBW infants. What is new: • Baby care by mother can be given safely in kangaroo ward from a weight of 1150 g in stable preterm infants without any adverse effects.

  4. A mathematical algorithm for detection of late-onset sepsis in very-low birth weight infants: a preliminary diagnostic test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ilan; Markel, Gal; Nave, Yaron; Vainshtein, Igor; Eisenkraft, Arik; Riskin, Arieh

    2014-08-01

    To study the diagnostic ability of RALIS (computerized mathematical algorithm and continuous monitoring device) to detect late onset sepsis among very low birth weight preterm neonates. Randomly chosen 24 very low birth weight infants with proven sepsis were compared to 22 infants without sepsis. The clinical parameters were retrospectively collected from the medical records. The ability of RALIS to detect late onset sepsis was calculated. RALIS positively identified 23 of the 24 infants with sepsis (sensitivity 95.8%). It indicated sepsis alert median 2.0 days earlier than clinical suspicion. A false positive alert was indicated in 23% (5/22) infants. The specificity, and positive and negative predictive ability of RALIS were 77.3%. 82.1% and 94.4%, respectively. RALIS may aid in the early diagnosis of late onset sepsis in very low birth weight preterm infants.

  5. Attachment Classification from the Perspective of Infant-Caregiver Relationships and Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1985-01-01

    Temperament and attachment, as defined by Bowlby and his followers, are fundamentally different constructs, and research guided by the attachment perspective cannot meaningfully be assimilated to the temperament construct. Qualitative aspects of relationships simply cannot be reduced to individual behavioral dimensions. (RH)

  6. Birth weight for gestational age norms for a large cohort of infants born to HIV-negative women in Botswana compared with norms for U.S.-born black infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Lynn T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard values for birth weight by gestational age are not available for sub-Saharan Africa, but are needed to evaluate incidence and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation in settings where HIV, antiretrovirals, and other in utero exposures may impact birth outcomes. Methods Birth weight data were collected from six hospitals in Botswana. Infants born to HIV-negative women between 26-44 weeks gestation were analyzed to construct birth weight for gestational age charts. These data were compared with published norms for black infants in the United States. Results During a 29 month period from 2007-2010, birth records were reviewed in real-time from 6 hospitals and clinics in Botswana. Of these, 11,753 live infants born to HIV-negative women were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 39 weeks (1st quartile 38, 3rd quartile 40 weeks, and the median birth weight was 3100 grams (1st quartile 2800, 3rd quartile 3400 grams. We constructed estimated percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age which demonstrate increasing slope during the third trimester and leveling off beyond 40 weeks. Compared with black infants in the United States, Botswana-born infants had lower median birth weight for gestational age from weeks 37 through 42 (p Conclusions We present birth weight for gestational age norms for Botswana, which are lower at term than norms for black infants in the United States. These findings suggest the importance of regional birth weight norms to identify and define risk factors for higher risk births. These data serve as a reference for Botswana, may apply to southern Africa, and may help to identify infants at risk for perinatal complications and inform comparisons among infants exposed to HIV and antiretrovirals in utero.

  7. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as refl

  8. Sympathetic-leptin relationship in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliot, Didier; Böhme, Philip; Zannad, Faiez; Ziegler, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    Obese patients have high plasma leptin concentrations that do not induce the expected responses on weight regulation, suggesting a leptin resistance in obesity. Elevated leptin levels are also thought to be related to a high sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. This effect could be preserved, lowered, or even abolished in obesity. We planned to investigate the possible association in a longitudinal study. Ninety-five normotensive healthy women, aged 40.4 +/- 11.4 years and body mass index of 33.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2), were studied. Baseline leptin, fat mass, and heart rate variability were measured and included in a 6-month longitudinal study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption. Time domain heart rate variability, QT dynamicity, and spectral components on ambulatory electrocardiographs were analyzed. Dietary advice was given by a dietitian to the patient (maximum caloric reduction of 30%), and subjects were randomized in 3 treatment groups: sibutramine 10 mg, sibutramine 20 mg, or placebo. At baseline, low frequencies (LF) and the LF-high frequencies (HF) ratio, mainly related to the SNS, were negatively correlated to leptin concentration (r = -0.30, P = .002 and r = -0.36, P < .001) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (r = -0.28, P = .004 and r = - 0.33, P = .0007), thus explaining 38% of the LF variance and 33% of the LF/HF variance. Diastolic blood pressure was also negatively correlated to leptin concentrations (-0.20, P = .04) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (-0.22, P = .022). In contrast, no consistent correlations between leptin and the time domain components related to vagal activity were observed. At 6 months, after completion of the weight loss program, LF significantly decreased (-7.7% +/- 7.9%, P < .001), whereas HF was higher than the initial value (+20% +/- 5.2%). The leptin-fat mass ratio remained negatively correlated to the LF (r = -0.34, P = .030) and to LF/HF (r = -0.35, P = .021) values, explaining 21% of the LF

  9. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  10. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Panti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate at term pregnancy in a Nigerian hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto between 1 st October 2008 and 31 st March 2009. Data gestational age at delivery (in weeks, parity, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, placental weight, fetal gender, presence or absence of maternal medical diseases were obtained from 1009 singleton term deliveries who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The data was processed using EPI-INFO version 2005 and statistical analysis performed using one-way analysis of variance. A probability of 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results: The placental birth weight ranged from 300 to 890 g with a mean of 590±82 g while the birth weight of the neonate ranged from 2030 to 5020 g with an average of 3275±469 g. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.8±1.1 weeks while the mean placental birth weight ratio was 18.2±2.4 Increase in birth weight of the neonate was associated with corresponding increase in placental weight. However, as the gestational age at term advances the proportion of increase in the former was greater than that of the latter. Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, the ratio of the placental and neonatal birth weights at term decreases with advancing gestational age. Thus, prolongation of pregnancy at term may adversely affect the fetus.

  11. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.

  12. Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction During Feeding at Six and Nine Months and Its Relationship to Maternal Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Jill C.

    This study explored the relationship between maternal sensitivity and the development of mother-infant vocal interaction. Two characteristics of mother and infant vocalizations were assessed at six and nine months in a home feeding situation: (1) the degree of mutual responsiveness, and (2) the affective quality of vocalization. These assessments…

  13. The Limits of Genetic Influence: A Behavior-Genetic Analysis of Infant-Caregiver Relationship Quality and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on 9-month-old twin pairs (n[MZ]=172; n[DZ]=333) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, demonstrating that the role of genetic variation among infants is trivial and the shared and nonshared environment is substantial in accounting for the observed quality of infant-caregiver relationships. In contrast, maternal…

  14. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  15. Impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on mortality and morbidity of very low birth weight infants: a multicenter Latin America study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Tapia, Jose L; Cardoso, Viviane C

    2015-01-01

    To compare mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) born to women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). This was a cohort study with retrospective data collection (2001-2010, n=11.991) from the NEOCOSUR network. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as a function of maternal DM. Women with no DM served as the reference group. The rate of maternal DM was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1), but a significant (p=0.019) increase was observed between 2001-2005 (2.4%, 2.1-2.8) and 2006-2010 (3.2%, 2.8-3.6). Mothers with DM were more likely to have received a complete course of prenatal steroids than those without DM. Infants of diabetic mothers had a slightly higher gestational age and birth weight than infants of born to non-DM mothers. Distribution of mean birth weight Z-scores, small for gestational age status, and Apgar scores were similar. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus. Delivery room mortality, total mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and early-onset sepsis rates were significantly lower in the diabetic group, whereas necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was significantly higher in infants born to DM mothers. In the logistic regression analysis, NEC grades 2-3 was the only condition independently associated with DM (adjusted OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.2 -2.27]). VLBWI born to DM mothers do not appear to be at an excess risk of mortality or early morbidity, except for NEC. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on mortality and morbidity of very low birth weight infants: a multicenter Latin America study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Grandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI born to women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS: This was a cohort study with retrospective data collection (2001-2010, n = 11.991 from the NEOCOSUR network. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as a function of maternal DM. Women with no DM served as the reference group. RESULTS: The rate of maternal DM was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1, but a significant (p = 0.019 increase was observed between 2001-2005 (2.4%, 2.1-2.8 and 2006-2010 (3.2%, 2.8-3.6. Mothers with DM were more likely to have received a complete course of prenatal steroids than those without DM. Infants of diabetic mothers had a slightly higher gestational age and birth weight than infants of born to non-DM mothers. Distribution of mean birth weight Z-scores, small for gestational age status, and Apgar scores were similar. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus. Delivery room mortality, total mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and early-onset sepsis rates were significantly lower in the diabetic group, whereas necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC was significantly higher in infants born to DM mothers. In the logistic regression analysis, NEC grades 2-3 was the only condition independently associated with DM (adjusted OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.2 -2.27]. CONCLUSIONS: VLBWI born to DM mothers do not appear to be at an excess risk of mortality or early morbidity, except for NEC.

  17. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jia Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3% died and another 69 infants (26.7% died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019. BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other

  18. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Jia Lin; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Jia-Hua Pan; Xiao-Mei Tong; Qiu-Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:With the progress ofperinatal medicine and neonatal technology,more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world.This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.Methods:All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) <1000 g were included between January 1,2011 and December 3 1,201 1.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire.The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed.Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test.Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.Results:A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs,of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks,and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g.The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%.Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal.Furthermore,the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs.35.3%,P =0.019).BW <750 g and GA <28 weeks were the largest risk factors,and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality.Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication.The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus,intraventricular hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%,33.7%,6.7%,48.1%,and 41.4%,respectively.Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.Conclusions:Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China.The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.

  19. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, María I; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A

    2008-02-10

    Nowadays, infant botulism is the most important form of human botulism in some countries. This illness affects infants younger than 52 weeks of age. The infection occurs in the intestinal tract; therefore, ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores with food is proposed. In some countries, people use chamomile tea as a household remedy for intestinal colics and given this tea to infants. Chamomile can be contaminated with C. botulinum and could be a vehicle of its spores. Our aim was to study the prevalence and spore-load of C. botulinum in chamomile. We analysed 200 samples; the 7.5% of them were contaminated with botulinum spores. However, prevalence of these spores was significantly higher in chamomile sold by weight in herbal stores (unwrapped chamomile) than prevalence in chamomile sold in tea bags (p=0.0055). The spore-load detected in all positive samples was 0.3-0.4 spores per gram of chamomile. We identified C. botulinum types A, B, and F in the 53.3%, 6.7%, and 13.3%, respectively. Chamomile (principally, unwrapped chamomile) is a potencial vehicle of C. botulinum spores, and ingestion of chamomile tea could represent a risk for infant botulism.

  20. The outcome at 12 months of very-Iow-birth-weight infants ventilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-07-07

    Jul 7, 1995 ... referring hospital before cranial ultrasound studies could be ... complicated by an amorphous acardiac fetus. .... severity of the lung disease.'· ..... Finnstrom O. Studies on maturity in newborn infants: Further observations of.

  1. Lung Maturation: The Survival Miracle of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Jobe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased survival of very preterm infants is generally attributed to improved care strategies. This review develops the thesis that the features of abnormal pregnancies responsible for very preterm deliveries also provide an explanation of why very preterm infants often survive. A normal fetus born at 24 weeks is very unlikely to survive. However, pregnancies that result in deliveries at 24 weeks are generally highly abnormal, and may have been so for prolonged periods prior to the preterm deliveries. Inflammatory or vascular developmental abnormalities resulting in very preterm birth can alter fetal development in such a way that organ system maturation is induced. This is supported clinically by the relative lack of very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions such as antenatal corticosteroid treatment and postnatal surfactant treatment for infants with respiratory distress syndrome and gentle ventilation strategies maximize fetal adaptations to the abnormal fetal environment and improve outcomes.

  2. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in infants: relationship to postconceptional age and serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildoo, C W; Lin, L M; Gabriel, M H; Folli, H L; Modanlou, H D

    1989-01-01

    Multidose pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied in 15 infants with gestational age less than 36 weeks and suspected or confirmed Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. Postconceptional age (PCA) at the time of the study ranged from 26 to 44 weeks. Vancomycin individual doses ranged from 6.7 to 10.6 mg/kg and were infused over 60 min. Five postinfusion samples were obtained in 13 infants, while 4 samples were obtained in 2 patients. Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by fitting the data to a two-compartment model using a weighted least-squares nonlinear regression method. Mean vancomycin body clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vdss) and terminal elimination half-life were 1.37 ml/min, 0.58 liters and 5.6 h, respectively. When standardized for patient weight, the CL and Vdss values were 1.07 ml/min/kg and 0.48 liters/kg, respectively. The CL (ml/min/kg) was strongly inversely correlated with the serum creatinine (r = -0.82), while a weaker but significant association was noted with PCA (r = 0.41). These data suggest that in sick infants, in addition to the PCA, serum creatinine should be considered when determining the initial vancomycin dosing regimen.

  3. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763 were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07. The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG, which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth weight. Associations were estimated using simple and hierarchical multiple linear regression, considering the survey sampling design, and presented in standard deviations of CWG with their respective 95% of confidence intervals. Hierarchical models were designed considering the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for Malnutrition (basic, underlying and immediate causes. RESULTS: The poorest Brazilian regions (-0.14 [-0.25; -0.04] and rural areas (-0.14 [-0.26;-0.02] were inversely associated with CWG in the basic causes model. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal and household characteristics. In the final hierarchical model, lower economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03], human capital outcomes (maternal education < 4th grade (-0.14[-0.29; 0.01], higher maternal height (0.02[0.01; 0.03], and fever in the past 2 weeks (-0.13[-0.26; -0.01] were associated with postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results showed that poverty and lower human capital are still key factors associated with poor postnatal weight gain. The approach used in these analyses was sensitive to characterize inequalities among different socioeconomic contexts and to identify factors associated with CWG in different levels of determination.

  4. A comparison of the efficacy of weight-shift vs. joystick control of a robotic mobility device by infants ages 5 to 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Sharon; Dennis, Carole; Altman, Rachel; Smith, Janelle; Larin, Hélène

    2017-02-02

    The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it. This study compares the efficacy of using the WeeBot vs. using the traditional manual joystick to control a robotic mobility device. Participants were 20 typically developing infants between 5 and 10 months who had not yet achieved independent mobility. A quasi-experimental two-group design was used: The first 10 participants recruited used the WeeBot (weight-shift); the next 10 used the joystick. Results showed that infants learned to use weight-shift control more easily and more skilfully than did infants using the joystick. The ability of infants to use the WeeBot suggests that an intuitive alternative control might allow very early powered mobility for children with disabilities, which might have implications for various aspects of their development.

  5. Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Hyun; Lee, Si Won; Lee, In Ho; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Cho, A Reum; Kang, Young Soon; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon; Seong, Seok Ju; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Tae Jin

    2012-01-01

    ...) in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants. We have assessed the extent of HPV infection during the perinatal period, and the relationship between mode of delivery and vertical transmission...

  6. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4......BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea...... or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS:  Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation...

  7. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya;

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...... and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim...... of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l...

  8. Environmental temperature control in very low birth weight infants (less than 1000 grams) cared for in double-walled incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessex, P; Blouet, S; Vaucher, J

    1988-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluctuations in environment and body temperatures on preterm infants, we recorded these variables in very immature newborn infants (birth weight less than 1000 gm) cared for in double-walled incubators (Air-Shields model C-100 and Ohio model IC). Both incubators maintained environmental temperatures corresponding overall to the set point, despite incubator openings. Under skin temperature servocontrol, however, environmental temperature fluctuations were greater than 2 degrees C even in strictly controlled conditions. The pattern of incubator temperature fluctuations depended on the set point rather than on the type of incubator (conventionally heated or heated by warm air blown between the double walls). The long-term clinical significance of the incubator temperature variability remains to be determined; the choice between air and skin servocontrolling should depend in part on the need for environmental stability.

  9. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants in the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hanke

    Full Text Available It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants < 32 weeks of gestation.Observational, epidemiological study design.Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN.6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth.Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age.PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03 but not with other major outcomes.The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM.

  10. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy MM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary M Murphy,1 Nicolas Stettler,1,2 Kimberly M Smith,1 Richard Reiss3 1Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC, USA; 2The Lewin Group, Falls Church, VA, USA; 3Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Alexandria, VA, USA Abstract: Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01; another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001 and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined, respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for

  11. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Maternal Postpartum Deworming to Improve Infant Weight Gain in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D.; Marquis, Grace S.; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H.; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Pezo, Lidsky

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional interventions targeting the critical growth and development period before two years of age can have the greatest impact on health trajectories over the life course. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that interventions investing in maternal health in the first 1000 days of life are beneficial for both mothers and their children. One such potential intervention is deworming integrated into maternal postpartum care in areas where soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic. Methodology/Principal Findings From February to August 2014, 1010 mother-infant pairs were recruited into a trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of maternal postpartum deworming on infant and maternal health outcomes. Following delivery, mothers were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose 400 mg albendazole or placebo. Participants were followed-up at 1 and 6 months postpartum. There was no statistically significant difference in mean weight gain between infants in the experimental and control groups (mean difference: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.08) at 6 months of age. Further, deworming had no effect on measured infant morbidity indicators. However, ad hoc analyses restricted to mothers who tested positive for STHs at baseline suggest that infants of mothers in the experimental group had greater mean length gain in cm (mean difference: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) and length-for-age z-score (mean difference: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) at 6 months of age. Conclusions/Significance In a study population composed of both STH-infected and uninfected mothers, maternal postpartum deworming was insufficient to impact infant growth and morbidity indicators up to 6 months postpartum. Among STH-infected mothers, however, important improvements in infant length gain and length-for-age were observed. The benefits of maternal postpartum deworming should be further investigated in study populations having higher overall prevalences and intensities of STH infections and, in

  12. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  13. 极低及超低出生体重儿的预后因素分析%Prognostic factors in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恋; 李娟; 毛健; 张静; 陈丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) (birth weight≤1 200 g) and to provide prewarning indicators for prognostic evaluation and clinical intervention. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 108 VLBWIs and ELBWIs to investigate the maternal history of diseases during pregnancy, neonatal birth status, the process of diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine prognostic factors. Results Of the 108 preterm infants, 15 had a birth weight of<800 g, 29 had a birth weight of 800-999 g, and 64 had a birth weight of 1000-1200 g. The mortality was 33.3%(36/108). Placenta previa and Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes were the main risk factors for death within 24 hours of birth;premature rupture of membrane, Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes, and pulmonary hemorrhage were the main risk factors for death between 24 hours and 7 days after birth;late-onset sepsis caused by invasive fungal infection was an independent risk factor for death over 7 days after birth, while pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome was a protective factor. Conclusions The mortality in VLBWIs and ELBWIs is relatively high, and the prognostic factors vary between preterm infants of different ages. Clinicians should discuss management options for the infants on the basis of these ifndings to increase the survival of preterm infants.%目的:分析极低及超低出生体重儿(出生体重≤1200 g)的临床资料,为其预后及临床干预提供预警指标。方法回顾性分析108例极低及超低出生体重儿的母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后,采用非条件logistic回归分析筛选预后的影响因素。结果108例极低及超低出生体重儿,出生体重范围在<800 g,800~999 g和1000~1200 g的早产儿分别为15例、29例和64例。存活72例,死亡36

  14. Relationship between maternal growth, infant birthweight and nutrient partitioning in teenage pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R L; Cederberg, H M S; Wheeler, S J; Poston, L; Hutchinson, C J; Seed, P T; Oliver, R L; Baker, P N

    2010-01-01

    Teenagers are susceptible to delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Previous studies suggest that maternal growth may contribute, as a result of preferential nutrient partitioning to the mother. We investigated the impact of maternal growth on birthweight in pregnant teenagers in the UK, and examined endocrine mediators of nutrient partitioning. A prospective observational multicentre study, About Teenage Eating, conducted between 2004 and 2007. Four hospitals in socially-deprived areas of Manchester and London. A total of 500 pregnant adolescents (14-18 years of age) with a singleton pregnancy were recruited at 10-21 weeks of gestation, with follow-up studies on 368 subjects. A cohort of 80 pregnant adults (25-40 years of age) provided a control group for determining growth. Skeletal growth, weight gain and skinfold thickness were measured from first to third trimester, together with maternal levels of micronutrients and metabolic hormones: insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and leptin. Dietary analyses were performed. SGA birth. Maternal growth was not associated with SGA birth: growing mothers delivered more large-for-gestational-age infants (OR 2.51; P Teenagers that were underweight at booking or with low weight gain were at greater risk of SGA birth. Maternal growth was not detrimental to fetal growth in this UK population of teenagers. Greater weight gain and higher concentrations of IGF-I in growing teenagers may provide anabolic drive for maternal and fetal growth.

  15. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  16. Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadhoob, Abdulraoof; Ohlsson, Arne

    2015-01-30

    dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity).2. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on sleep patterns at three months of age.3. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on staff performance.4. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parents' satisfaction with the care. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, abstracts from scientific meetings, clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp), Pediatric Academic Societies Annual meetings 2000 to 2014 (Abstracts2View(TM)), reference lists of identified trials, and reviews to November 2014. Preterm infants (sound reduction. We made a deviation from our protocol and included this study in which some infants would have been > 48 hours old. There was no significant difference in weight at 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA): mean difference (MD) 111 g (95% confidence interval (CI) -151 to 374 g) (n = 23). There was no significant difference in weight at 18 to 22 months corrected age between the groups: MD 0.31 kg, 95% CI -1.53 to 2.16 kg (n = 14). There was a significant difference in Mental Developmental Index (Bayley II) favouring the silicone earplugs group at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD 14.00, 95% CI 3.13 to 24.87 (n = 12), but not for Psychomotor Development Index (Bayley II) at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD -2.16, 95% CI -18.44 to 14.12 (n =12). To date, only 34 infants have been enrolled in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of reducing sound levels that reach the infants' ears in the NICU. Based on the small sample size of this single trial, we cannot make any recommendations for clinical practice. Larger, well designed, conducted and reported trials are needed.

  17. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  18. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  19. Is the Relationship Between Breastfeeding and Childhood Risk of Asthma and Obesity Mediated by Infant Antibiotic Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Kościński, Krzysztof; Puch, Elżbieta A; Zelent, Anna; Bręborowicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma have not brought unequivocal results, and thus this issue remains controversial. Antibiotic use, known to increase asthma risk, may be involved in this relationship. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of breastfeeding duration on obesity and asthma risk in childhood and to test a mediating role of antibiotic use in infancy. A cross-sectional anthropometric and questionnaire study was conducted on 1,277 schoolchildren 8 years of age. Data on weight status, asthma, breastfeeding duration, antibiotic administration in infancy, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle were analyzed. Multivariate standard and logistic regression and mediation analyses, controlling for confounders, were applied. Total duration of breastfeeding was negatively related to the child's body mass index (p=0.038), fat percentage (p=0.030), and obesity risk (p=0.032). Dropping the variable of antibiotic use from the model made the breastfeeding duration a significant predictor of low asthma risk (p=0.027). Antibiotic treatment mediated the relationship between breastfeeding duration and asthma risk (Sobel's z=-2.61, p=0.009). Our findings support protective effects of longer duration of breastfeeding against obesity and asthma. We propose a new mechanism for a relationship between breastfeeding and asthma: shorter breastfeeding compromises infant health and thereby leads to antibiotic treatment, which in turn increases the risk of asthma.

  20. The Relationship between Planned and Reported Home Infant Sleep Locations among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥ 37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Methods Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a U.S. hospital following birth and by phone at one month postpartum during 2010–2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Results Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. Conclusions The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women’s preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  1. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: The role of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on ma...

  2. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  3. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness of two nasal continuous positive airway pressure devices in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Klaudiusz; Świetliński, Janusz; Zejda, Jan; Kornacka, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Dorota; Behrendt, Jakub; Gajewska, Elżbieta; Czyżewska, Małgorzata; Korbal, Piotr; Witalis, Janusz; Walas, Wojciech; Wilińska, Maria; Turzańska, Agnieszka; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Czeszyńska, Beata; Bachman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Many studies suggest nasal continuous positive airway pressure is an effective and relatively complication-free means of respiratory support in premature infants. However, only limited data exist regarding the practical aspects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery, including the best way to provide the positive airway pressure. Our aim was to compare the results of treatment using two different nasal continuous positive airway pressure devices: variable flow Infant Flow and constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure in two different groups of very-low-birth-weight infants in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The indication groups were elective to avoid intubation and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Twelve leading tertiary care neonatal centers in Poland. Among 276 infants (weighing between 750-1500g, with a gestational age ≤32 wks) enrolled, 51% were randomized to receive Infant Flow and 49% to receive constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Treatment success (i.e., no need for intubation/reintubation) occurred in 75% of our patients with a nonstatistically significant advantage seen with Infant Flow. The incidence of severe nasal complications and necrotizing enterocolitis were statistically significantly lower in the infants treated with Infant Flow. In our study, factors associated with elective nasal continuous positive airway pressure failure were birth weight ≤1000 g, gestational age ≤28 wks, clinical risk index for babies score >1, and PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio of <150. Only birth weight ≤1000 g was associated with weaning failure. We found fewer severe nasal complications but no statistically significant advantage in treatment success in infants assigned to Infant Flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure compared with those assigned to constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Significant risk factors of treatment failure include small size, maturity, and severity

  4. [BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS--THE OLD NEW PROBLEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrilova, L; Hitrova, St; Dimitrova, V; Slancheva, B; Radulova, P; Neikova, K

    2015-01-01

    The advances in perinatal intensive care have increased the survival rate of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) and gestational age infants. Among them the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains high. To evaluate the frequency of BPD by birthweight and gestational age, to identify the main postnatal risk factors and the associated comorbidities. 683 VLBW infants ( 30% and/or ventilator support). Infants with BPD were with significantly higher CRIB (9.9 ± 3.1) compared with those without BPD (4.0 ± 3.0), p birthweight 1200g. Logistic regression analysis showed that each gestational week decreased the odds of BPD by 60%; each CRIB point increased the odds by 62%. Each point increment in 1/5 min Apgar-scores reduced the risk by 40%/50% respectively The need for ventilator support increased from 1.4 ± 2.7 days (no-BPD group) to 52.8 ± 5.1 days (severe-BPD infants), p birthweight and CRIB. Additional risk factors are low A pgar scores, PDA and air leak syndrome. Associated comorbidities as severe brain injury and ROP further worsen the long term prognosis.

  5. Diagnosis and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana Daga

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The determination of AKI using the pRIFLE and AKIN criteria yielded different results. pRIFLE appears to be more sensitive in VLBW infants. A high CRIB II score was recorded for AKI. Future studies are necessary to develop a uniform definition and identify the risk factors to improve the outcomes in this population.

  6. Coagulation abnormalities and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Andrzej; Dabrowska-Wojciak, Iwona; Mikinka, Marek; Fendler, Wojciech; Walas, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof Marek

    2010-07-01

    The association between intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and coagulation in infants has been a subject of controversy. Only few publications assessing risk factors for development of IVH reported results of coagulation studies. To evaluate the levels of coagulation and fibrinolysis systems in ELBW infants and determine their influence on IVH. Following IRB approval coagulation status of 38 ELBW infants was evaluated on first and second day of life. Severity of IVH assessed by cerebral ultrasonography was graded according to Papile classification. Newborns were assigned to either Group A--Grade III or IV, or Group B--Grade I-II, or no IVH. Neonates with Grade III/IV IVH had significantly lower plasma Factor VII (FVII) level on first day of life and FVII differed significantly between Groups A and B with sensitivity of 100%, specificity 41% for a cut-off value of< 7%. In Group A there was no improvement of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times on Day 2. A significant decline of platelet count was also observed. High-grade IVH coincides with severe derangement of coagulation in ELBW infants with FVII level being the most sensitive, it is not clear what the reason for such low FVII concentration is. Further studies are indicated.

  7. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  8. Outcome of Very Lov Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Care Unit of Dicle University Faculty of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for infants weighing less than 1500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal care unit of our hospital from April 2005 to February 2006.The number of VLBW admissions to the our neonatal care unit was 91, fourty one percent female and %49 were male. The mean birth weight was 1191±261 g and gestational age was 29±2.4 weeks. The mortality rate was 37.3 %. Antenatal steroids had been given to only 8% of mothers. The most important maternal risk factors were preeclampsia/eclampsia 30%, premature rupture of membranes 13%, hemorhage 8%. Respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed 47%, surfactant was given to 40% of these infants. The major causes of death were sepsis, respiratuar distres syndrome, and extreme prematurity.Compared with reports from other developed NICU, VLBW infants at our center had higher mortality rates. We conclude that, the major cause of high mortality rate depends on low-social –cultural –education conditions associated with insufficient prenatal care, neonatal care and inaccurate neonatal transport in our region.

  9. Effect of red blood cell storage time on markers of hemolysis and inflammation in transfused very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Tamara G; Bateman, David A; Bowker, Rakhee M; Hod, Eldad A; Kashyap, Sudha

    2017-07-24

    Prolonged storage of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with hemolysis in healthy adults and inflammation in animal models. We aimed to determine whether storage duration affects markers of hemolysis (e.g., serum bilirubin, iron, and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI)) and inflammation (e.g., interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) in transfused very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Blood samples from 23 independent transfusion events were collected by heel stick before and 2-6 h after transfusion. Serum iron, total bilirubin, NTBI, and MCP-1 levels were significantly increased after transfusion of RBCs (P<0.05 for each comparison). The storage age of transfused RBCs positively correlated with increases in NTBI following transfusion (P<0.001; R(2)=0.44). No associations between storage duration and changes in the other analytes were observed. Transfusion of RBCs into VLBW infants is associated with increased markers of hemolysis and the inflammatory chemokine MCP-1. RBC storage duration only correlated with increases in NTBI levels following transfusion. NTBI was only observed in healthy adults following 35 days of storage; however, this study suggests that VLBW infants are potentially more susceptible to producing this pathological form of iron, with increased levels observed after transfusion of only 20-day old RBCs.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 24 July 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.177.

  10. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... These periods coincided with the phase of rapid gain in body weight in the various groups. Significant (P < 0.05) between ... in terms of loss of animals of good genetic standing may be of no practical value to the farmer.

  11. Postnatal weight loss in term infants: what is "normal" and do growth charts allow for it?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is a well known phenomenon, limited normative data on neonatal weight loss and subsequent gain are available, making it hard to assess individual children with prolonged weight loss.

  12. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  13. A STUDY OF ROUTINE ANTENATAL CARE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BIRTH WEIGHT IN DIMORIA BLOCK, KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally , more than 20 million infants are born with low birth weight . The large number of factors that could theoretically influence birth weight indicates that each of them may have rather small individual impact . [1] In Assam study indicates the prevalence of low birth weight of 25 . 5 % , 13% , and 8 . 7% . [ 2 , 3 , 4] Again the NFHS 3 data shows that the percentage of at least three ANC in last pregnancy was only 36 . 3% . With this rationale , the present study was undertaken from August 2010to July 2011 in Dimoria block with the objective to know the distribution of birth weight in the study area and Relationship of Birth weight with r outine antenatal care . METHODS: A total of 257 mothers and their new born were included in the study from 13 randomly selected village of Dimoria block . For calculation the sample size , correction factor for finite population was used . All the relevant inf ormation were collected in pre designed and pre tested schedule and the salient findings are summarized below . RESULT : Mean birth weight was more in mothers receiving ANC than those who did not . Out of 233 mothers (90 . 66% who had received antenatal care , majority (43 . 35% had 2 antenatal visits . A definite trend of increase mean birth weight was observed with increasing number of antenatal visit of mothers . A trend of decreasing mean birth weight was observed with increasing weeks of gestation at first a ntenatal checkup which was highly significant . Percentage of low birth weight baby was highest among the mothers who did not receive any doses of TT . Low birth weight babies were highest among the mothers who had not taken any IFA tablet during their pregn ancy . CONCLUSION: The study reveals that highest number of mothers was availing antenatal care during their pregnancy and it was noted that the mean birth weight was more in mothers receiving ANC than those who did not . To bring down the percentage of low birth weight in

  14. Enhancing biomedical concept extraction using semantic relationship weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleik, Said; Xiong, Wei; Song, Min

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publications are often associated with a set of keywords to describe their content. Automating the process of keyword extraction and assignment could be useful in indexing electronic documents and building digital libraries. In this paper we propose a new approach to biomedical Concept Extraction (CE) using semantic features of concept graphs. We represent full-text documents by graphs and map biomedical terms to predefined ontology concepts. We adopt concept relation weights to improve the ranking process of potential key concepts. We perform both objective and human-based subjective evaluations. The results show that using relation weights significantly improves the performance of CE. The results also highlight the subjectivity of the CE procedure as well as of its evaluation.

  15. Sequential cranial ultrasound and cerebellar diffusion weighted imaging contribute to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha J Brouwer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS and term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging (TEA-MRI including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in a cohort of very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <31 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 93 preterm infants (median [range] GA in weeks: 28.3 [25.0-30.9] were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and underwent early and term cUS as well as TEA-MRI including DWI. Early cUS abnormalities were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe. Term cUS was evaluated for ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (VM and enlargement of the extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF space. Abnormalities on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI were scored according to Kidokoro et al. Using DWI at TEA, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs were measured in four white matter regions bilaterally and both cerebellar hemispheres. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years' corrected age (CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between the different neuroimaging modalities and outcome. RESULTS: Moderate/severe abnormalities on early cUS, ex-vacuo VM and enlargement of the eCSF space on term cUS and increased cerebellar ADC values on term DWI were independently associated with worse motor outcome (p<.05. Ex-vacuo VM on term cUS was also related to worse cognitive performance at two years' CA (p<.01. CONCLUSION: These data support the clinical value of sequential cUS and recommend repeating cUS at TEA. In particular, assessment of moderate/severe early cUS abnormalities and ex-vacuo VM on term cUS provides important prognostic information. Cerebellar ADC values may further aid in the prognostication of gross motor function.

  16. Prenatal and neonatal variables associated with enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth in low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW. The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP. FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE, 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result.

  17. Etiology of acute bronchiolitis and the relationship with meteorological conditions in hospitalized infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Rong; Ji, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qing; Yan, Yong-Dong; Shao, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Lan; Xu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of common viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in hospitalized infants with acute bronchiolitis and study the relationship between bronchiolitis and meteorological conditions. A 2-year prospective study was conducted on infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis admitted to Respiratory Department of Suzhou Children's Hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics and meteorological conditions were obtained and analyzed. Pathogens were identified in 59.6% of 998 cases analyzed. The most frequent pathogen identified was respiratory syncytial virus (28.7%), followed by human bocavirus (11.6%), MP (9.0%), human parainfluenza virus-3 (7.8%), human metapneumovirus (6.6%), influenza A (3.5%), adenovirus (1.0%), and human parainfluenza virus-1 (0.3%). The clinical scores in children with MP or human metapneumovirus single infections, based on the assessment of severity of acute bronchiolitis, were significantly lower than in children with respiratory syncytial virus single infections. Respiratory syncytial virus had the strongest inverse correlation with mean temperature, followed by influenza A and human metapneumovirus. In addition, MP and human parainfluenza virus-3 showed positive correlations with mean temperature. Although respiratory syncytial virus was the most frequent pathogen in patients in whom bronchiolitis was diagnosed, other pathogens, including newly identified viruses and MP, also play important roles in infants with bronchiolitis. Different respiratory pathogens have different traits in response to certain meteorological conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    treatment at the time of labor (0.84 [0.70-1.00]), number of pregnancy consultations (1.03 [1.00-1.05]), maternal age (0.91 [0.84-0.98]), Apgar score (1.06 [1.03-1.10]), and infant convulsions (0.44 [0.29-0.65]) were all independent determinants of thymic index but not all were determinants of thymus...

  19. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  20. Initial Nutritional Assessment of Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Interventions and Return to Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Alison; Thaete, Kristi; Snell, Audrey; Chesser, Connie; Goldak, Claudia; Huff, Helen

    2017-03-01

      To assess and quantify cleft team practices with regard to nutritional support in the neonatal period Design :  Retrospective review.   Tertiary pediatric hospital.   One hundred consecutive newborn patients with a diagnosis of cleft lip and/or cleft palate between 2009 and 2012.   Birth weight, cleft type, initial cleft team weight measurements, initial feeding practices, recommended nutritional interventions, and follow-up nutritional assessments.   All patients in the study were evaluated by a registered dietitian and an occupational feeding therapist. Average birth weight and average age at the first cleft team visit were similar for each cleft type: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP). The calculated age (in days) for return to birth weight was significantly different between cleft types: CL = 13.58 days, CLP = 15.88 days, and CP = 21.93 days. Exclusive use of breast milk was 50% for patients with CL, 30.3% for patients with CLP, and 21.4% for patients with CP. Detailed nutritional interventions were made for 31 patients at the first visit: two with CL, 14 with CLP, and 15 with CP.   Distinct differences were seen in neonatal weight gain between cleft types. There was significantly greater total weight gain for patients with CL at their first visit and significantly slower return to birth weight for patients with isolated CP. Patients with CL required far fewer interventions at the initial assessment and were more likely to be provided breast milk exclusively or in combination with formula. Infants with CP were far less likely to receive any breast milk. Patients with CLP and CP required frequent nutritional interventions.

  1. Household tobacco smoke and admission weight predict severe bronchiolitis in infants independent of deprivation: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm G Semple

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine demographic, environmental and clinical factors associated with severe bronchiolitis in infants admitted to hospital and quantify the independent effects of these factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 378 infants admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, of whom 299 (79% were antigen positive to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. OUTCOME: Severity of disease during admission, defined as "no need for supplemental oxygen" (reference group, "any need for supplemental oxygen" and "any need for mechanical ventilation". RESULTS: Univariate analysis found male sex (p = 0.035 and tobacco smoking by a household member (p<0.001 were associated with need for both supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Premature birth, low gestation, low birth weight, low admission weight and low corrected age on admission were also associated with need for mechanical ventilation (all p≤0.002. Deprivation scores (IMD 2004 were significantly higher in households where a member smoked compared to non-smoking households (p<0.001. The odds of smoking predicted by deprivation were 7 times higher (95%CI (3.59, 14.03, when comparing the least and most deprived quintiles of the study population. Family history of atopic disease and deprivation score were not associated with severe disease. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression which initially included all covariates, found household tobacco smoking (adjusted OR = 2.45, 95%CI (1.60, 3.74 predicted need for oxygen supplementation. Household tobacco smoking (adjusted OR = 5.49, (2.78, 10.83 and weight (kg on admission (adjusted OR = 0.51, (0.40, 0.65 were both significant predictors in the final model for mechanical ventilation. The same associations and similar size of effects were found when only children with proven RSV infection were included in analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Low

  2. The Relationship Between Thyroxine Level and Short Term Clinical Outcome Among Sick Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1st 2004 to March 30th 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36. Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08. Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11% and 9(12%, and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively. Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  3. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  4. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  5. Effect of the INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention on Rapid Infant Weight Gain and Overweight Status at Age 1 Year: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Marini, Michele; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Paul, Ian M

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant weight gain is associated with later obesity, but interventions to prevent rapid infant growth and reduce risk for overweight status in infancy are lacking. To examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention on infant weight gain between birth and 28 weeks and overweight status at age 1 year. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing an RP intervention designed to prevent childhood obesity with a safety control. The study includes primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) and was conducted at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, in addition to home visits. Enrollment was initiated in January 2012, and evaluable population analyses for this study were conducted between April 2015 and November 2015. At 2 weeks post partum, initial intervention materials appropriate to the assigned treatment group were mailed to the participant's home. Research nurses conducted home visits at 3 weeks, 16 weeks, 28 weeks, and 40 weeks, and a research center visit occurred at 1 year. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories curriculum included messages about infant feeding, sleep hygiene, active social play, emotion regulation, and growth record education. The control group received a developmentally appropriate home safety intervention also delivered by nurse home visitors. Conditional weight gain from birth to 28 weeks was calculated. General linear models examined intervention effect on conditional weight gain. The intervention's effect on infant weight-for-length percentiles was tested using analysis of variance. Logistic regression compared the odds of overweight status (weight for length ≥95th percentile) at 1 year as a function of conditional weight gain. Of the mothers included in the study, 246 were white (88%), 260 were non-Hispanic (93%), 210 were married (75%), and 201 were working full

  6. Parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hopewell, J

    2012-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g\\/kg\\/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g\\/kg\\/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g\\/kg\\/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g\\/kg\\/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg\\/kg\\/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.

  7. A note on the length-weight relationship in dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Length-weight relationship in Coryphaena hippurus almost follows the cube law and the weight of the fish increases more than the square of the length. The value of 'b' was higher in males as compared to females. The equations for length...

  8. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  9. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Maggio, Luca; Beghetti, Isadora; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2017-08-22

    Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  10. Factors affecting prenatal sonographic estimation of weight in extremely low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R R; Filly, R A; Callen, P W; Laros, R K

    1988-04-01

    Because critical management decisions are based on sonographic estimation of fetal weight in fetuses less than 1000 g, we sought to evaluate the accuracy of birthweight prediction in this range and to identify factors affecting this accuracy. Fetal weight was estimated using several published methods in 53 fetuses with birthweights less than 1000 g. Standard deviations greater than 12.3% indicate more random error in the sonographic weight prediction than has been reported in higher weight groups. No statistically significant differences were found between patient groups with decreased, normal, or increased amniotic fluid volume or portable examination. There was a trend toward lower mean deviation (2.9 vs 6.0%) and standard deviation (8.9 vs. 15.0%) in studies with scan quality judged "good" compared with "poor" based on ability to visualize anatomic landmarks.

  11. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  12. Sepsis-Related Mortality of Very Low Birth Weight Brazilian Infants: The Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sylvia Maria Porto; de Almeida Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral; Figuexeds, Ana Lucia; Mattos, Haroldo; Rozembaum, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vanessa Isidoro; Portinho, Maria Antonieta; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; da Costa, Elaine Sobral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for sepsis-related mortality in low birth weight (1000 g), five-minute Apgar ≤7, gram-negative sepsis, mechanical ventilation (6.7 times higher than no use), and intravascular catheter. Sepsis-related mortality was due, mainly, to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. PMID:20182631

  13. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  14. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  15. The Role of Immunonutrients in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l-citrulline. Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials.

  16. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  17. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  18. Age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants with normal motor development at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, M A; Pallás Alonso, C R; De La Cruz Bértolo, J; Caserío Carbonero, S; López Maestro, M; Moral Pumarega, M; Alonso Díaz, C; Lora Pablos, D

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study is to (i) determine the age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g (very low birth weight, VLBW); (ii) estimate differences between VLBW children and a reference population and (iii) estimate the association between clinical characteristics and late age at sitting and walking. A longitudinal study was conducted of a cohort of 876 children with VLBW. The World Health Organization (WHO) motor development study population was used as a reference. Ages for both skills were established by interview with parents. Means were compared with t-test, ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment where appropriate. The inclusion criteria were complied with 694 patients; 50% of VLBW sat at 7 m corrected age (CA) and walked at 13 m CA. Both motor skills were acquired later (7.3 +/- 1.5 and 13.6 +/- 2.8 m) compared with the control group (6 +/- 1.1 and 12.1 +/- 1.8 m). Weight or head circumference at birth below the 10th percentile or the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated with delayed acquisition of both skills. Very low birth weight infants typically sit unsupported and walk later than term infants. Tables describing reference values for milestones acquisition for different categories of infants (gestational age, birth weight and other determinants) may contribute to inform the decision making process on access to available resources.

  19. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-12-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.

  20. Review of interventional procedures in the very low birth-weight infant (<1.5 kg): complications, lessons learned and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McNamara, Patrick J.; Whyte, Hilary; L' Herault, Johanne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Image-Guided Therapy Unit, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)

  1. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  2. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  3. The relationship between acculturation and infant feeding styles in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancel, Liz D; Perrin, Eliana; Yin, Shonna H; Sanders, Lee; Delamater, Alan; Perreira, Krista M; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Eden, Svetlana; Shintani, Ayumi; Rothman, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between parental acculturation and infant feeding style in a sample of Latino parents. A post hoc analysis was performed using data from an ongoing four-site randomized controlled trial to promote early childhood obesity prevention. Cross-sectional data of parent-child dyads at the 12-month well-child visit who self-reported their Latino ethnicity were analyzed. The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) and a subset of the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (IFSQ) that assessed four primary feeding styles were administered. SASH level (low vs. high) with each feeding style was compared by analyses. Complete SASH data were available for 398 of 431 Latino dyads. Median SASH score was 1.8 (IQR 1.4-2.7); 82% of participants had low acculturation (score acculturation were more likely than those with higher acculturation to endorse feeding styles that are associated with child obesity. Further research is needed to determine why acculturation and feeding style relate. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  5. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  6. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  7. Introduction of percutaneous-tunneled transfontanellar external ventricular drainage in the management of hydrocephalus in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Mino; Lefosse, Mariella; Corvaglia, Luigi; Martini, Silvia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Soffritti, Silvia; Ancora, Gina; Mammoliti, Palma; Gargano, Giancarlo; Galassi, Ercole

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus treatment in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants still represents a challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon, particularly when the patient weighs far less than 1000 g. In such cases, the benefits in terms of neurological outcome following early treatment do not always outweigh the surgical risks, especially considering the great difference in the surgical risk before patient weight increases. To assess the efficacy and reliability of a percutaneous-tunneled, transfontanellar external ventricular drain (PTTEVD) in ELBW infants, the authors started a new protocol for the early surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. METHODS Ten cases of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in ELBW infants (5 cases introduction of PTTEVD placement in our standard protocol for the management of PHH has proved to be a wise option for small patients.

  8. Survival rates of infants with birth weights between 501 and 1,000 g. Improvement by excluding certain categories of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, W H; Murton, L J

    1985-05-01

    Reported survival rates of infants with birth weights under 1,001 g vary greatly; by implication, high survival rates may be used as a measure of the standard of perinatal care. To illustrate the importance of precisely defining the population sample, we determined the survival rate to 2 years of 238 infants with birth weights of 501 to 1,000 g, born between 1977 and 1980. The rate was 33.6%; however, by excluding certain categories of patients, the survival rate was augmented to 46.9%. There were 36 infants who died in the delivery room and an additional 34 who died before the age of 3 hours in the intensive care unit; together they contributed 29.4% to the total mortality of 66.4%. This group is especially liable to influence reported survival rates. Although exclusion of patients is legitimate, the criteria need to be precisely defined if data between centers are to be compared.

  9. Acquisition of motor abilities up to independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Sandra C P; Rugolo, Lígia M S S; Peraçoli, José C; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    To determine chronological and corrected ages at acquisition of motor abilities up to unaided walking in very low weight preterms and to determine up to what point it is necessary to use corrected age. This was a longitudinal study of preterms with birth weight walking. Nine percent of the 155 preterms recruited were excluded from the study, leaving a total of 143 patients. The mean gestational age was 30+/-2 weeks, birth weight was 1,130+/-222 g, 59% were female and 44% were small for gestational age. Preterms achieved head control in their second month, could sit unaided at 7 months and walked at 12.8 months' corrected age, corresponding to the 4th, 9th and 15th months of chronological age. There were significant differences between chronological age and corrected age for all motor abilities. Preterms who were small for their gestational age acquired motor abilities later, but still within expected limits. Very low weight preterms, free from neurosensory disorders, acquired their motor abilities within the ranges expected for their corrected ages. Corrected age should be used until unaided walking is achieved.

  10. Relationship of food addiction to weight loss and attrition during obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Eichen, Dawn M; Goldbacher, Edie; Wadden, Thomas A; Foster, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food addiction (FA) and weight and attrition outcomes in overweight and obese adults participating in weight loss interventions were prospectively examined in this study. Participants were 178 adults (51.2 ± 11.7 y, 36.1 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) ) in one of two outpatient weight loss treatment programs for approximately 6 months. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) assessed FA diagnosis and symptom count. The relationship between FA and weight loss and attrition was assessed. After controlling for treatment arm, gender, and baseline weight, there was no effect of FA status on weight loss (P = 0.17) or attrition (P = 0.37). Similarly, baseline FA symptom count was not associated with weight loss (P = 0.14) or attrition (P = 0.10). Neither FA status nor symptom count affects weight loss or attrition during weight loss treatment. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Protein and Amino Acid Needs and Relationship with Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, Ricardo; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Ghosh, Shibani

    2015-01-01

    Over a third of all deaths of children under the age of five are linked to undernutrition. At a 90% coverage level, a core group of ten interventions inclusive of infant and young child nutrition could save one million lives of children under 5 y of age (15% of all deaths) (Lancet 2013). The infant and young child nutrition package alone could save over 220,000 lives in children under 5 y of age. High quality proteins (e.g. milk) in complementary, supplementary and rehabilitation food products have been found to be effective for good growth. Individual amino acids such as lysine and arginine have been found to be factors linked to growth hormone release in young children via the somatotropic axis and high intakes are inversely associated with fat mass index in pre-pubertal lean girls. Protein intake in early life is positively associated with height and weight at 10 y of age. This paper will focus on examining the role of protein and amino acids in infant and young child nutrition by examining protein and amino acid needs in early life and the subsequent relationship with stunting.

  12. Relationship of postdialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Rafiquee, Zahid; Shafi, Tahir

    2007-08-01

    To assess the relationship of postdialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A descriptive study. Hemodialysis Department, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from May to October 2006. A total of 50 adult patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled for the study with nonprobability convenience sampling technique. Pre-, post- and pre-next dialysis serum sodium were measured in each patient and their weights were recorded. Intradialytic sodium gains (delta Na1=postdialysis minus pre-dialysis sodium), interdialytic sodium fall (delta Na2 = previous postdialysis sodium minus pre subsequent dialysis sodium), and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) (IDWG = weight, pre subsequent dialysis weight minus previous postdialysis weight) were computed. The relationship between delta Na1 and delta Na 2 with interdialytic weight gain was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. There were 26 males and 24 females. The mean age of the patients was 49.6+/-14.5 years, and mean duration of HD was 40.9+/-40.8 months. The mean sodium gain during the session (delta Na1) was 4.0+/-3.1 and mean sodium fall in interdialytic period (delta Na2) was 4.2+/-2.7. The mean interdialytic weight gain was 2+/-0.8 Kg. The relationship between deltaNa1 and delta Na2 with interdialytic weight gain was statistically non-significant (r - .048, p = 0.739 and r = .019, P = 0 .897 respectively). The trend towards higher post dialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain was not statistically significant. Studies are needed with measurement of serum osmolality and investigation of other factors affecting interdialytic weight gain like dietary habits and medication etc.

  13. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  14. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  15. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  16. Heritable environmental variance causes nonlinear relationships between traits: application to birth weight and stillbirth of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Herman A; Hill, William G; Knol, Egbert F

    2015-04-01

    There is recent evidence from laboratory experiments and analysis of livestock populations that not only the phenotype itself, but also its environmental variance, is under genetic control. Little is known about the relationships between the environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of other traits, however. A genetic covariance between these is expected to lead to nonlinearity between them, for example between birth weight and survival of piglets, where animals of extreme weights have lower survival. The objectives were to derive this nonlinear relationship analytically using multiple regression and apply it to data on piglet birth weight and survival. This study provides a framework to study such nonlinear relationships caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other. It is shown that positions of phenotypic and genetic optima may differ and that genetic relationships are likely to be more curvilinear than phenotypic relationships, dependent mainly on the environmental correlation between these traits. Genetic correlations may change if the population means change relative to the optimal phenotypes. Data of piglet birth weight and survival show that the presence of nonlinearity can be partly explained by the genetic covariance between environmental variance of birth weight and survival. The framework developed can be used to assess effects of artificial and natural selection on means and variances of traits and the statistical method presented can be used to estimate trade-offs between environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of others. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Very Low Birth Weight Infant Necessitating Nissen Fundoplication for Weaning off the Mechanical Ventilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Güney Varal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER is one of the common problems of neonatal intensive care units. Although this condition does not always need to be treated, it occasionally causes clinically serious consequences. Initial management is medical; however, in some cases surgery might be required. A premature neonate with birth weight of 1370 grams was managed in our ICU. The patient was mechanical ventilator dependent due to GER. The patient needed Nissen fundoplication for successfully weaning off the ventilator.

  18. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. The Role of Parent, Provider, and Child Characteristics in Parent-Provider Relationships in Infant and Toddler Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mallary I.; Easterbrooks, M. Ann

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how characteristics of parents, providers, and children contribute to the quality of parent--provider relationships in infant and toddler classrooms. Parents (n = 192) and providers (n = 95) from 14 child care centers in a large metropolitan area participated by completing questionnaires about the nature of…

  20. 妊娠前体重指数与妊娠期增重和母婴并发症的关系及其影响因素%Influence factors of body mass index before pregnancy and the relationship with gestational weight gain,maternal and infants complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓英; 周敏; 何晓春; 刘青; 仇杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and the relative factors of the overweight and the obese in a population of Gansu Province pre-pregnancy women.and the effects of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) on gestational weight gain and pregnant outcome.Methods We conducted a populationbased birth cohort study in Gansu Province Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from February,2010 to December,2011.Single live term birth women who have complete anthropometry were enrolled this study.They were categorized into four BMI groups according to World Health Organization's BMI recommendations for Asian populations.We explored the prevalence and the relative factors of the overweight and the obese,and the effects of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index on gestational weight gain and birth outcomes by Chi-square test,analysis of variance.Results A total of 6 400 cases included in this study.The BMI range is from 13.3 to 38.1,the average BMI is (20.6 ±2.7).Among 6 400 cases,636 cases(9.9%) and 416 cases (6.5%) were overweight and obese.The average age (unit:years) is increase gradually in low weight group (27.8±3.8),normal group (29.1 ±4.3),overweight group (30.3 ±4.7) and obese group (30.6±4.6),the difference was statistically significant (F=77.490,P<0.01).The result prompt that the median BMI increased with the increasing of maternal age (r=0.18,P<0.01).The BMI of multiparous women (21.22 ±2.63) is higher than nulliparous women (20.43 ± 2.64),the difference was statistically significant (t=-9.630,P<0.01).The BMI has negatively correlated with education level and economic income level (r=-0.06,P<0.01; r=-0.04,P=0.036).With the increase of BMI,the weight gain of early (13 weeks) pregnancy (F=8.892,P< 0.01) and the total weight gain during whole pregnancy (F=21.700,P< 0.01) gradually reduced in four groups.The neonatal birth weight in overweight group is largest,in turn higher than obesity group,normal group and low weight group

  1. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants.

  2. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding. Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.0001. According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86, p < 0.0001. Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80 p < 0.00001. The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  3. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation in weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Many studies have demonstrated that pre-term neonates gained more weight over the 10 days stimulation period. This research has been conducted to determine the effects of five days Tactile- Kinesthetic stimulation (TKS on weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in Fatemiye neonatal intensive care unit."n"n Methods: Fifty one babies who graduated from the NICU to the intermediate care nursery were randomly allocated into test and control groups (24 and 27 neonate respectively. TKS was provided for three 20 minute periods per day for five consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in left and right lateral position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. They were observed for changes in physiologic parameters and weight gaining during five days stimulation in hospital."n"n Results: Over the five days TKS an increase in weight was seen in the test group (p=0.018, 43.1 vs 5.4. Infants in both the test and control groups were matched for mean weight before study and days in which they received antibiotics and photo therapy. Mean temperature and O² saturation had no meaningful difference, but an increase in

  4. The relationship between physical activity, volitional skills and weight loss maintenance in Danish obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    . However, the relationship between weight loss maintenance and volitional skills has not been investigated yet. This study investigates if volitional skills are related to the amount of physical activity in obese individuals, and their relationship with actual successful weight loss. Methods: Participants...... to exercise. Results: Success was determined by the difference between an individual’s highest ever and current BMI. Analyses indicated that the successful weight maintainers’ possessed significantly higher values in the volitional skills initiative, general self-confidence, volitional self......-confidence and coping with failure and lower values in lack of energy, postponing training, and avoiding effort than unsuccessful weight maintainers. Furthermore, the successful were significantly more physically active. Higher physical activity was related to higher positive lower negative values in a total of 9...

  5. Performance of a Novel Molecular Method in the Diagnosis of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Davis

    Full Text Available To compare the use of a generic molecular assay to 'standard' investigations used to assist the diagnosis of late onset bacterial sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g.VLBW infants, greater than 48 hours of age, who were clinically suspected to have sepsis were investigated using standard tests (full blood count, C-reactive protein (at presentation and blood culture, in addition, blood was taken for a universal molecular assay (16S rRNA reverse transcriptase PCR for comparison. Clinical data were recorded during the suspected infection episode. A validated sepsis score (NEO-KISS was used to retrospectively determine the presence of sepsis (independent of blood culture. The performance of each of the tests were compared by sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likihood ratios (+/-LR and postive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV.Sixty-five babies with suspected clinical sepsis were prospectively included. The performance indicators are presented with 95% confidence limits. For the detection of bacteria, blood culture had sensitivity of 0.57 (0.34-0.78, specificity of 0.45 (0.30-0.61; +LR of 1.05 (0.66-1.66 and-LR of 0.94 (0.52-1.7; PPV of 33.3 (18.56-50.97 and NPV of 68.97 (49.17-87.72. Serum CRP had sensitivity of 0.92 (0.64-1 and specificity of 0.36 (0.17-0.59; +LR of 1.45 (1-2.1 and-LR of 0.21 (0.03-1.5; PPV of 44.46 (26.6-66.6 and NPV of 88.9 (51.8-99.7. The universal molecular assay had sensitivity of 0.76 (0.53-0.92, specificity of 0.95 (0.85-0.99; +LR of 16.8 (4.2-66.3 and-LR of 0.25 (0.1-0.5; PPV of 88.9 (65.3-98.6 and NPV of 89.4 (76.9-96.5.In VLBW infants this universal molecular assay performed better in the diagnosis of late onset sepsis (LOS than blood culture and CRP. Further development is required to explore and improve the performance of the assay in real-time diagnosis.

  6. Length-weight relationships for six freshwater fish species in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. S. HEYDARNEJAD

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the length-weight relationship parameters (a and b) for some economically important fish species from Iranian freshwaters. The length-weight relationships (LWR) are calculated for six freshwater fish species collected during 2006 and 2007 in Iran. The values of the exponent b in the LWR (W=aLb) vary between 2.985 and 3.543. The LWR with high correlation coefficient (r2) is significant for all the species. These parameters are of great importance to evaluate the relative condition of populations, biology, species management and their fisheries and stock assessment. The application of the length-weight relationships presented here should be limited to the observed length ranges.

  7. The effect of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of late-onset bloodstream infections in very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Linda; Saslow, Judy; Shah, Sahil; Bhat, Vishwanath; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Brandon, Emma; Kemble, Nicole; Pyon, Kee; Stahl, Gary; Aghai, Zubair H

    2011-03-01

    Late-onset bloodstream infection (LOBI) is a significant problem in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and can lead to increased mortality and morbidity. The incidence of LOBI in VLBW infants in our unit was >35% before 2004, much higher than 20% reported in other studies. A comprehensive infection control measure was introduced in our unit in 2005. Here we report the effects of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants. Infants in the preintervention group (born 2001 to 2004) were compared with the intervention group (born 2005 to 2008) for baseline demographics, risk factors for infection, and the rate of LOBI. LOBI was defined as a positive blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture after 3 days of life. Three hundred thirty-four VLBW infants were admitted to our unit during the preintervention period and 303 during the intervention period. There was no significant difference in baseline demographics and risk factors for LOBI between the two groups. The incidence of LOBI was significantly reduced from 38% before intervention to 23% after intervention ( P control measures significantly reduced the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Development of Left Ventricular Longitudinal Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with and without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia during the Neonatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Christoph; Rhode, Stefanie; Helfer, Sven; Schmalisch, Gerd; Bührer, Christoph; Schmitz, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. Study Design Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL) 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10%) were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001) in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR) and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR). The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001) and in LSSR (p<0.01). Conclusions Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7) ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR) in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD. PMID:25184634

  9. Postnatal changes in adrenal size in very low-birth-weight infants: sonographic evaluation for the prediction of late-onset glucocorticoid-responsive circulatory collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Shigeo; Uga, Naoki; Ohzeki, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the postnatal pattern of changes in adrenal size in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and its relation to late-onset glucocorticoid-responsive circulatory collapse (LGCC) that may be associated with adrenal insufficiency. In 36 VLBW infants born at birth and unchanged at 3 weeks; group B (N = 24), the actual adrenal area was greater than or equal to the predicted value and decreased at 3 weeks; and group C (N = 6), the actual adrenal area was less than the predicted value and unchanged at 3 weeks. Five infants developed LGCC, and all five were in group A. These observations suggest that the life of the adrenal fetal zone might be extended beyond 3 weeks after birth in some VLBW infants and that prolonged fetal zone activity might correlate with LGCC. On the other hand, adrenal maturation might have already occurred at birth in some VLBW infants. Sonographic evaluation of adrenal size may enable prediction of subsequent LGCC in VLBW infants.

  10. Development of left ventricular longitudinal speckle tracking echocardiography in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10% were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001 in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR. The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001 and in LSSR (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7 ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD.

  11. Small for Gestational Age and Higher Birth Weight Predict Childhood Obesity in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Liu, Jing; Shankaran, Seetha; Lester, Barry M.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We sought to determine the association between small for gestational age (SGA), birth weight, and childhood obesity within preterm polysubstance exposed children. We sampled 312 preterm children with 11-year body mass index (BMI; age- and sex-specific) data from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (51% girls, 21.5% SGA, 46% prenatal cocaine, and 55% tobacco exposed). Multinomial regression analyzed the association between 11-year obesity (OBE) and overweight (OW) and SGA, birth weight, first-year growth velocity, diet, and physical activity variables. Overall, 24% were OBE (BMI for age ≥95th percentile) and 16.7% were OW (BMI ≥85th and <95th percentiles). In adjusted analyses, SGA was associated with OW (odds ratio [OR]=3.4, confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 7.5). Higher birth weight was associated with OBE (OR = 1.8, CI 1.3 to 2.4) and OW (OR=1.4, CI 1.1 to 2.0). Growth velocity was associated with OBE (OR=2.7, CI 1.8 to 4.0) and OW (OR=1.6, CI 1.1 to 2.4). Low exercise was associated with OBE (OR=2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.4) and OW (OR=2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.5). There was no effect of substance exposure on obesity outcomes. Many (41%) of these high-risk preterm 11-year-olds were obese/overweight. Multiple growth-related processes may be involved in obesity risk for preterm children, including fetal programming as indicated by the SGA effect. PMID:20408111

  12. Effects of high carnitine supplementation on substrate utilization in low-birth-weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkers, E J; Lafeber, H N; Degenhart, H J; Przyrembel, H; Schlotzer, E; Sauer, P J

    1990-11-01

    Parenterally fed preterm neonates are known to be at risk for carnitine deficiency. We studied substrate utilization in low-birth-weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with (A) and without (B) supplementation of 48 mg carnitine.kg-1.d-1 on days 4-7 (birth weights 1334 +/- 282 vs 1318 +/- 248 g, gestational age 32 +/- 2 vs 32 +/- 2 wk, A vs B, respectively). TPN consisted of 11 g glucose.kg-1.d-1 and 2.4 g.kg-1.d-1 of both protein and fat. Plasma carnitine concentrations at day 7 were for free carnitine 11.8 +/- 5.0 vs 164 +/- 56 mumol/L and for acyl carnitine 3.8 +/- 2.0 vs 33.9 +/- 15.4 mumol/L, respectively. Indirect calorimetry at day 7 showed a higher fat oxidation (0.21, -0.31 to +0.60 vs 1.18, 0.70 to 1.95 g. kg-1.d-1, respectively, P less than 0.02, median and interquartile range) in group B and a higher protein oxidation (0.37, 0.30-0.43 vs 0.63, 0.53-0.88 g.kg-1.d-1, P less than 0.001). The time to regain birth weight was also higher in group B (7, 5.5-9 vs 9, 7-14 d, P less than 0.05). Carnitine supplementation and calorie intake were the best explanatory variables for metabolic rate (R2 = 0.45, P less than 0.002). We conclude that carnitine supplementation of TPN in this dosage does not seem advisable.

  13. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  14. Weight-for-length relationship at birth to predict neonatal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth curves are extremely useful for classifying newborn children and predicting neonatal diseases. However, such curves rely on knowledge of the gestational age, which is not always easily obtained. Therefore, the study of other anthropometric measurements and their interrelationship is always desirable, in order to attain such objectives. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether newborns' birth weight and length can identify neonatal diseases, independent of knowledge of the gestational age. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Institute of Teaching and Research of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: During the period from February 1995 to January 1998, 8,397 live newborns were studied in the hospital's maternity ward. PROCEDURES: The weight and length of live newborns were obtained at birth, thus allowing the analysis of weight-for-length adequacy, i.e. the distribution of birth weight for each class of birth lenght. These measurements were determined for the first 4,634 live newborns and the 10th and 90th percentiles were established. These parameters were applied to the next 3,763 consecutive newborns of the same population. The relationships between these variables and some neonatal diseases were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Birth weight and length, weight-for-length adequacy (10th and 90th percentiles for weight distribution in each 1-cm length class, weight/length index (10th and 90th percentiles of newborn's weight divided by the length and frequent neonatal diseases in this population. RESULTS: There was a significant association of adequacy and index with the following affections: asphyxia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, congenital pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Additionally, there was a relationship between the index and respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea and persistent ductus arteriosus

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  16. On the Relationship Between Confidence Sets and Exchangeable Weights in Multiple Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R Philip; Monette, Georges

    2016-01-01

    When statistical models are employed to provide a parsimonious description of empirical relationships, the extent to which strong conclusions can be drawn rests on quantifying the uncertainty in parameter estimates. In multiple linear regression (MLR), regression weights carry two kinds of uncertainty represented by confidence sets (CSs) and exchangeable weights (EWs). Confidence sets quantify uncertainty in estimation whereas the set of EWs quantify uncertainty in the substantive interpretation of regression weights. As CSs and EWs share certain commonalities, we clarify the relationship between these two kinds of uncertainty about regression weights. We introduce a general framework describing how CSs and the set of EWs for regression weights are estimated from the likelihood-based and Wald-type approach, and establish the analytical relationship between CSs and sets of EWs. With empirical examples on posttraumatic growth of caregivers (Cadell et al., 2014; Schneider, Steele, Cadell & Hemsworth, 2011) and on graduate grade point average (Kuncel, Hezlett & Ones, 2001), we illustrate the usefulness of CSs and EWs for drawing strong scientific conclusions. We discuss the importance of considering both CSs and EWs as part of the scientific process, and provide an Online Appendix with R code for estimating Wald-type CSs and EWs for k regression weights.

  17. Leptin and IGF-I/II during the first weeks of life determine body composition at 2 years in infants born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Isabel; Rossel, Katherine; Peña, Verónica; Cavada, Gabriel; Avila, Alejandra; Iñiguez, German; Mericq, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Rapid early growth is associated with adverse metabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in body composition (BC) between very-low-birth-weight preterm (VLBWPT) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) and whether these differences relate to first-year growth. Twenty-six VLBWPT (15 AGA and 11 SGA). The BC was analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 2 years, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and leptin were administered weekly for 8 weeks and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. At 24 months, the VLBW SGA infants were lighter and had less peripheral fat and lean mass than VLBW AGA infants. In all patients, the percentage of fat mass correlated inversely with the change in weight [standard deviation scores (SDS)] from newborn to 2 and 4 weeks and the 1-month leptin and lean mass (SDS) correlated inversely with the change in weight (SDS) from newborn to 2, 4, and 8 weeks and with 4-week IGF-I and 8-week IGF-II. Lean mass (SDS) inversely correlated with 6-month IGF-I and directly correlated with 1-week and 3-month IGF-I in SGA VLBW infants only. A longer follow-up period will show whether additional differences will develop later.

  18. Effects of poverty on home environment: an analysis of three-year outcome data for low birth weight premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J E; Kirby, R S; Kelleher, K J; Bradley, R H

    1996-06-01

    Investigated the relationship between poverty and parenting in a sample of low birth weight (poverty levels, poor families scored lower on the HOME inventory (used to measure the caregiving environment) than nonpoor families. A regression model including poverty, race, site, and representative environmental, maternal, and child variables accounted for 60% of variance in total HOME scores. Poverty and maternal IQ had significant and independent effects on HOME scores, whereas maternal distress accounted for little of the variance. In a LBWPT sample, our results find a strong relationship between parenting and poverty, suggest a modest role for maternal psychological distress in this relationship, and indicate that the influence of poverty likely extends beyond commonly measured environmental, maternal, and child factors.

  19. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  1. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  2. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  3. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Gibertoni; Luigi Corvaglia; Silvia Vandini; Paola Rucci; Silvia Savini; Rosina Alessandroni; Alessandra Sansavini; Maria Pia Fantini; Giacomo Faldella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths ...

  4. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters.

  5. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  6. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  7. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  8. Weight Loss Instead of Weight Gain within the Guidelines in Obese Women during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Maternal and Infant Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufiza Zia Kapadia

    Full Text Available Controversy exists about how much, if any, weight obese pregnant women should gain. While the revised Institute of Medicine guidelines on gestational weight gain (GWG in 2009 recommended a weight gain of 5-9 kg for obese pregnant women, many studies suggested even gestational weight loss (GWL for obese women.A systematic review was conducted to summarize pregnancy outcomes in obese women with GWL compared to GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines (5-9 kg.Five databases were searched from 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2014. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA Statement were followed. A modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess individual study quality. Small for gestational age (SGA, large for gestational age (LGA and preterm birth were our primary outcomes.Six cohort studies were included, none of which assessed preterm birth. Compared to GWG within the guidelines, women with GWL had higher odds of SGA 90th percentile (AOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.52-0.62. There was a trend towards a graded relationship between SGA <10th percentile and each of three obesity classes (I: AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.53-1.97; II: AOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.44-1.85 and III: AOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.17-1.66, respectively.Despite decreased odds of LGA, increased odds of SGA and a lack of information on preterm birth indicate that GWL should not be advocated in general for obese women.

  9. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2017-06-12

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marieke; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Fall, Caroline H D; van Eijsden, Manon; Osmond, Clive; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-01-01

    Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0-1 month; 1-3 months; 3-6 months; 6-12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; Pgrowth. Compared to breastfeeding 1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P6 months, introduction of complementary feeding pressure (e.g. 4-6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be associated with lower adult blood pressure.

  11. Bartter syndrome presenting as poor weight gain and abdominal mass in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Annie; Steffensen, Thora S; Gilbert-Barness, Enid; Perlman, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Bartter syndrome, a group of disorders that encompasses multiple genetic defects with similar clinical presentation, has been divided into six different genotypes, according to different genetic defects, and into three main clinical variants (or phenotypes). Classic laboratory findings in all variants include hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with excessive excretion of chloride and potassium. Classic Bartter syndrome, neonatal Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome are the three main clinical variants. Classic Bartter syndrome and neonatal Bartter syndrome have defects in genes that affect transport channels in the ascending loop of Henle, where as in Gitleman syndrome the defect occurs in the transport channels of the distal convoluted tubule. Classic Bartter syndrome and neonatal Bartter syndrome have similar presenting symptoms, potential outcomes, and treatment, but different ages at presentation. Gitelman syndrome, a more benign condition than the other clinical variants, has the classic hallmark finding of hypomagnesemia and low to normal excretion of calcium. This differentiates it from the classic and neonatal variants of the disease. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, Bartter syndrome has a good prognosis. But failure to identify it can lead to tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal failure. We present a case of a 6-month-old boy with Bartter syndrome who presented with poor weight gain and an abdominal mass.

  12. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  13. Reduced Hospital Mortality With Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after surgical ligation (SL) of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Optimal management of PDA in this specialized population remains undefined. Currently, surgical therapy is largely reserved for infants failing medical management. To date, a large-scale, risk-matched population-based study has not been performed to evaluate differences in mortality and resource utilization. Data on identified premature (Propensity score-matched analysis of 1620 SL versus 1584 non-SL found reduced mortality (15% vs 26%) and more routine disposition (48% vs 41%) for SL (P Propensity score-matched analysis demonstrates reduced mortality in premature/ELBW infants with SL for PDA. NEC and sepsis are predictors of mortality and resource utilization.

  14. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: the role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-04-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on maternal sleep. We tested a path model, with sleep disturbance and depression mediating the effect of stress on health-related well-being. Results showed that the majority of the study participants were stressed, depressed, fatigued, and at risk for poor physical and mental health. Poor sleep quality as perceived by mothers was significantly associated with their stress, fatigue, and poor mental and physical H-QOL. A cascading effect was found in the path model where maternal stress contributed to poor sleep quality and depression, which in turn contributed to poor mental H-QOL. In addition, poor sleep quality was associated with fatigue, which in turn contributed to poor physical and mental H-QOL. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms through which sleep affects the stress-health relation are discussed. The implications of sleep for intervention and prevention are also addressed.

  15. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  16. Length weight relationship of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille, 1804) and Zenodon niger (Ruppell, 1835)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahayak, S.

    The relationship between total length and total weight in balistids is not significantly different in males and females. The common equation for both the sexes in Sufflamen fraenatus is Log W= -9.0429+2.7296 log L or W=0.000000000905 L sup(2...

  17. A review of the relationship between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies assessing a relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice by children and adolescents and weight are contradictory. The purpose of this review was to assess the 9 cross-sectional and 12 longitudinal studies that have looked at this association. Of the 9 cross-sectional studies revie...

  18. Impact of adjusting for the reciprocal relationship between maternal weight and free thyroxine during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haddow, James E

    2013-02-01

    Among euthyroid pregnant women in a large clinical trial, free thyroxine (FT4) measurements below the 2.5th centile were associated with a 17 lb higher weight (2.9 kg\\/m(2)) than in the overall study population. We explore this relationship further.

  19. LMC Blue Supergiant Stars and the Calibration of the Flux-weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, M. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Bresolin, F.; Przybilla, N.

    2017-09-01

    High-quality spectra of 90 blue supergiant stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud are analyzed with respect to effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, reddening, extinction, and extinction law. An average metallicity, based on Fe and Mg abundances, relative to the Sun of [Z] = -0.35 ± 0.09 dex is obtained. The reddening distribution peaks at E(B-V) = 0.08 mag, but significantly larger values are also encountered. A wide distribution of the ratio of extinction to reddening is found ranging from {R}{{V}} = 2 to 6. The results are used to investigate the blue supergiant relationship between flux-weighted gravity, g f ≡ g/{T}{eff}4, and absolute bolometric magnitude M bol. The existence of a tight relationship, the Flux-weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relationship (FGLR), is confirmed. However, in contrast to previous work, the observations reveal that the FGLR is divided into two parts with a different slope. For flux-weighted gravities larger than 1.30 dex, the slope is similar to that found in previous work, but the relationship becomes significantly steeper for smaller values of the flux-weighted gravity. A new calibration of the FGLR for extragalactic distance determinations is provided.

  20. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h(2), fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  1. Milk composition and its relationship with weaning weight in Charolais catte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Inocencio Pacheco Contreras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of a number of non-genetic factors on milk components and estimate their indirect relationships with weaning weight (WW205, the percentages of protein, fat, lactose and solids non-fat in Charolais cows from Mexico were estimated. Lactation period (LP and calving season (CS had significant effects on protein and fat, whereas lactose and solids non-fat were only affected by the LP. Sire line and age of the dam had significant effects on calf birth weight, while CS affected WW205. Residual correlations between milk components and WW205 suggest a low but significant correlation with lactose. These results demonstrate the importance of several non-genetic factors on the composition of milk from Charolais cows managed under extensive cow-calf production systems and the indirect relationships between these factors and the weaning weight of a calf.

  2. Growth and development of very low birth weight infants aged 18-24 months at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtawesin, Varaporn; Singarj, Yupayao; Kanjanapattanakul, Wiboon

    2011-08-01

    The number of very low birth weight (VLBW) births is increasing worldwide. Despite better care in recent years, they have a high incidence of delayed growth and development. There are no previous studies regarding the growth and development of these infants at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). To study growth and developmental outcome of VLBW infants, aged 18-24 months who were discharged from QSNICH. VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007 were recruited in the study. Patients with chromosomal abnormalities, major congenital anomalies, definite congenital infections and positive maternal anti-HIV tests were excluded. At the corrected age of 18-24 months, the parents were called upon to bring their infants for complete physical examination and developmental evaluation on 2 occasions, two months apart. There were 111 cases of VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007. Fifty-four patients were eligible for the present study. Thirty cases (55.56%) were contacted for the first examination. During this examination, there were 3 cases (10%) with low head circumference, 1 case (3.33%) with poor weight gain, 5 cases (16.67%) with visual defect, 1 case (3.33%) with moderately severe hearing loss, 1 case (3.33%) with cerebral palsy and 7 cases (23.33%) with delayed development. Twenty-one cases could be recalled for a second evaluation. Two of the 5 cases had delayed language development. There were no cases with hydrocephalous, blindness or profound hearing loss. VLBW infants at QSNICH had much better survival during recent years. Most of these survivors had normal growth and development. Those with delayed growth and development need aggressive intervention and long-term follow-up for enhancement of quality of their lives.

  3. Birth weight, infant growth, and adolescent blood pressure using twin status as an instrumental variable in a Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the credibility of twin status as an instrumental variable for birth weight and infant growth and to obtain less-confounded estimates of the associations of birth weight or infant growth with adolescent blood pressure (BP). Prospective population-based "Children of 1997" birth cohort of all surviving infants born in Hong Kong, China, from April to May 1997 with sex-, age-, and height-specific BP z-score at approximately 11 years (n = 6276) and approximately 13 years (n = 5305). In instrumental variable analyses, birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to 0.25) or diastolic BP (0.04; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.18) at approximately 11 years adjusted for maternal age and migrant status (F = 38.6). Change in weight z-score at 0 to 12 months was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (-0.003; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.15) or diastolic BP (-0.02; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.07) at approximately 11 years (F = 54.4). Estimates were similar for BP at approximately 13 years, although the F-statistic was lower. Birth weight and infant growth may make little contribution to adolescent BP. Extending consideration of the effects of early life to other growth periods, such as puberty, on BP might yield public health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal weight gain in second and third trimesters and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: A prospective study was carried out to determine the relationship between weight gain in the ... was about 8% and was significantly higher among infants of teenager mothers. .... pressure for example from family members about sex.

  5. Maternal Intimate Partner Violence: Relationships with Language and Neurological Development of Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Sharps, Phyllis; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B

    2016-07-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the influence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) experience of pregnant women participating in the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program on the language and neurological development of infants and toddlers. Methods A total of 210 infants and toddlers born to women reporting low, moderate, and high levels of IPV were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the bivariate association between maternal IPV and risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers and between covariates and language and neurological delay. Generalized estimating equation models with logit link was used to predict the risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers as a result of maternal IPV. Results Infants and toddlers born to women exposed to moderate levels of IPV had increased odds of language delay compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of violence (OR 5.31, 95 % CI 2.94, 9.50, p Maternal IPV is associated with increased risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers. These findings have implications for health care for women and infants exposed to IPV. Clinicians including pediatricians working with pregnant women should screen for IPV throughout pregnancy to identify women and children at risk. Interventions to reduce maternal IPV and early intervention services for infants and toddlers exposed to IPV are necessary for optimal maternal and child health.

  6. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  7. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  9. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  10. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Halldorsdottir, Sveinbjorg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2004-09-01

    This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p fish. Infants of women in the highest quartile of fish oil intake (> or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.

  11. Length–Weight Relationships for Freshwater Fish Species in Küçük Menderes River Basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-10-01

    Specimens of ten species belonging to three families were analyzed. The exponent b in the length-weight relationship ‘W=a(TLb’ ranged from 2.54 to 3.52. The length-weight relationships for Barbus pergamonensis, Carassius carassius, Carassius gibelio, Chondrostoma holmwoodii, Cyprinus carpio, Gambusia affinis, Perca fluviatilis, Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus, Squalius kosswigi and Rhodeus amarus were given in this study. Information of length–weight relationships will be useful for researchers especially in conservation.

  12. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  13. Timing of nutritional interventions in very-low-birth-weight infants: optimal neurodevelopment compared with the onset of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam

    2013-08-01

    Recent nutritional research in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants is focused on the prevention of protein malnutrition during the first postnatal weeks. At this early age, nutritional protein fortification depends on amino acid infusion via a central vein because of the immature gastrointestinal tract. In 2010 new guidelines on nutrition were proposed by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition nutrition committee. In particular, the relative increase in the protein fraction in the nutrition of these infants aims to prevent early postnatal weight loss, to prevent morbidity, and to stimulate neurodevelopment. On the other hand, an increasing number of follow-up studies in VLBW infants indicate that, in particular, those infants who show rapid growth after preterm birth are at risk of metabolic consequences and cardiovascular disease later in life. In this review, we describe the quest to develop a customized diet that offers optimal nutrition at several time points of growth and development during the first year of life. This diet should prevent early malnutrition, enhance neurodevelopment, and limit the increase in total body fat during the first 6 mo. We question whether one type of early diet suffices for normal neurodevelopment with a normal body composition in later life or whether we need several types of diet at various stages of development.

  14. Weight Status and Psychological Distress in a Mediterranean Spanish Population: A Symmetric U-Shaped Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villalobos Martínez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain. Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2, Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2 and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2. Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R. We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001 for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.

  15. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  16. A Qualitative Study to Examine Perceptions and Barriers to Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain among Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Pham Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of reproductive age are particularly at risk of obesity because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and postpartum weight retention, resulting in poor health outcomes for both mothers and infants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions and barriers to GWG among low-income women in the WIC program to inform the development of an intervention study. Eleven focus groups were conducted and stratified by ethnicity, and each group included women of varying age, parity, and prepregnancy BMI ranges. Participants reported receiving pressure from spouse and family members to “eat for two” among multiple barriers to appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. Participants were concerned about gaining too much weight but had minimal knowledge of weight gain goals during pregnancy. Receiving regular weight monitoring was reported, but participants had inconsistent discussions about weight gain with healthcare providers. Most were not aware of the IOM guidelines nor the fact that gestational weight gain goals differed by prepregnancy weight status. Results of these focus groups analyses informed the design of a pregnancy weight tracker and accompanying educational handout for use in an intervention study. These findings suggest an important opportunity for GWG education in all settings where pregnant women are seen.

  17. Understanding the relationship between family communication and the development of weight stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Asbury

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examined the relationship between family communication and weight stigma. The Family Communication Patterns Theory was used as a framework to explain the relationships between two dimensions of family communication (i.e., conversation orientation and conformity orientation and antifat attitudes (i.e., physical unattractiveness and weight blame. Participants and procedure A total of 585 college-aged participants completed an on-line questionnaire. We used the following instruments: body mass index (BMI, Antifat Attitudes Scale (AFAT, Revised Family Communication Patterns Scale (RFCP. Results Significant relationships were found between the two dimensions of family communication and antifat attitudes. Conversation orientation was negatively associated with antifat attitudes and conformity orientation was positively associated with antifat attitudes. In addition, pluralistic families were less likely to stigmatize the overweight and obese by demonstrating less discrimination with physical attraction and personal weight blame. Conclusions These findings highlight the important association between family communication and antifat attitudes. Families that endorse a pluralistic family type (i.e., high conversation orientation and low conformity orientation appear to engage in the least amount of discrimination with regard to weight stigma. These families are not only less discriminating of others, they perhaps bring about more awareness and information to family members as compared to other family types.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  19. Study of relationship between volume of distribution and body weight application to amikacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M

    2014-06-01

    Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information.

  20. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L.

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  1. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field.

  2. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  3. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Methods Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental...

  4. 足月小样儿生长发育状况分析%A survey on growth development status of mature low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 江雯; 何慧静

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低出生体重对儿童生长发育的影响.方法 采用1:1配对病例对照研究方法,测定6~12月龄的212名足月小样儿和212名正常婴儿身高、体重、头围,采用Bayley婴幼儿量表发展量表进行智能评估.结果 足月小样儿的身高、体重、头围均值低于正常对照组,分别相差2.70±0.39cm、0.81±0.39kg、0.95±0.14cm,差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为6.88、3.85、6.86,均P<0.05);足月小样儿智力发育指数低于对照组(t=3.53,P<0.05),足月小样儿运动发育指数低于对照组(t=4.33,P<0.05).结论 低出生体重对儿童的生长发育有明显的不利影响,应采取干预措施,减少低出生体重的发生.%Objective To investigate the influence of low birth weight ( LBW ) on children' s growth and development. Methods With 1:1 matched case-control study, the weight, height and head circumference of 212 mature LBW infants and 212 normal term infants ( control group ) aged 6-12 months were measured, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development was used to assess infants' intelligence development. Results Compared with normal term infants, the height, weight and head circumference of LBW infants were significantly lower, and the differences were 2.70 ±0.39cm, 0. 81 ± 0.39kg and 0. 95 ±0. 14cm, respectively. The differences were statistically significant ( t value was 6. 88, 3. 85 and 6. 86, respectively, all P < 0. 05 ). The mental development index ( MDI ) and psychomotor development index ( PDI ) of LBW infants were lower than those of control group ( t value was 3. 53 and 4. 33 , respectively, both P <0. 05 ). Conclusion LBW has obvious adverse impact on children' s growth and development, so intervention measures should be adopted to reduce the incidence of LBW.

  5. The earliest relationship between an infant and a mother through the prism of the psychoanalytic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaja Lorenčič

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the mother-infant dyad in the oral or cannibal phase which in Freudian psychoanalysis denotes the first psychosexual development stage. In the first part of the article author describes the child's development in the earliest stage, from primary narcissism, the primal state where id, ego and external world are not yet differentiated, to object relations wherein an infant realizes that the existence of object is necessary for satisfaction of needs. The second part of the article discusses the role of the mother who appears as the omnipotent Other to the infant and at the same time acts as an infant's "support ego". The third part reviews results of the oral stage that are reflected in the mother- infant relations.

  6. The relationship between prior night's sleep and measures of infant imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S; Schneider, Silvia; Seehagen, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether sleep quality during the night and naps during the day preceding a learning event are related to memory encoding in human infants. Twenty-four 6- and twenty-four 12-month-old infants' natural sleeping behavior was monitored for 24 hr using actigraphy. After the recording period, encoding was assessed using an imitation paradigm. In an initial baseline phase, infants were allowed to interact with the stimulus to assess spontaneous production of any target actions. Infants then watched an experimenter demonstrate a sequence of three target actions and were immediately given the opportunity to reproduce the demonstrated target actions to assess memory encoding. Analyses revealed significant correlations between nighttime sleep quality variables (sleep efficiency, sleep fragmentation) and immediate imitation in 6-month-olds, but not in 12-month-olds. High sleep quality in the preceding night was thus positively associated with next day's memory encoding in 6-month-old infants.

  7. Morbidity and mortality trends in very-very low birth weight premature infants in light of recent changes in obstetric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Péter; Berecz, Botond; Gasparics, Ákos; Dombi, Zsófia; Varga, Zsuzsa; Jeager, Judit; Magyar, Zsófia; Rigó, János; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we describe trends in morbidity and mortality of preterm infants with less than 500mg birth weight in the changing landscape of obstetric and neonatal care. During a ten year study period between 2006 and 2016 we assessed outcome data for all neonates with less than 500mg birth weight born at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We divided study subjects into two groups based on whether their birth date fell in the first half (2006-2010; n=39) versus the second half (2011-2015; n=27) of the study period comparing clinical outcomes in the two groups. We also assessed several clinical parameters for association with postnatal survival by comparing relative frequencies for each clinical parameter among surviving infants versus mortality cases. Survival rate for preterm neonates with less than 500mg birth weight born between 2006 and 2010 was 30.8%. This survival rate rose to 70.4% in the second half of the study period between 2011 and 2015 (ppremature birth was found to be predominantly associated with maternal hypertension or intrauterine growth restriction while in those who died premature birth due to premature rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm labor were significantly more common. All surviving infants with less than 500mg birth weight were born via cesarean section whereas among those who died cesarean section had been performed in only 80% and vaginal delivery in 20% representing a significant difference between the groups (ppremature neonates with less than 500mg birth weight preterm delivery due to premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine infections represents the worse mortality risk. Steroid prophylaxis and measures to prevent and treat intrauterine infections with appropriate use of antibiotics can markedly improve survival in these cases. In premature neonates with less than 500mg birth weight survival is more favorable after cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Relationship between the nutritional status of breastfeeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frojo, Gianfranco A; Rogers, Nathaniel G; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age, and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesised that maternal excess caloric intake [measured as body mass index (BMI)] would increase the association, while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breastfeeding) will diminish the effect. Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (ORs), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age, while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Cases (n = 84) had an increased odds (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared with controls (n = 85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI: 1.30-5.02). Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥ 25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI: -0.96), as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI: -2.27). Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner.

  9. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention