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Sample records for weight gain prevention

  1. Preventing Weight Gain

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  2. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ(2) test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  3. Beliefs about weight gain among young adults: potential challenges to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokee LaRose, Jessica; Gorin, Amy A; Clarke, Megan M; Wing, Rena R

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed young adults' beliefs about weight gain with the goal of improving intervention efforts with this high-risk group. A total of 1,347 incoming freshman (45% male; 81% non-Hispanic white; 18.6 ± 1.7 years; BMI = 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2) at a large state university in the Northeast completed a survey designed to assess: (i) degree of concern about weight gain, (ii) level of interest in weight control programs, and (iii) the most acceptable setting for an intervention. Perceptions about freshman weight gain were consistent across gender, with men and women reporting that the average student gains 5.4 ± 1.9 kg and 5.6 ± 1.9 kg respectively. Men in general were less concerned about weight gain (P gain 6.2 ± 4.2 kg before becoming concerned compared to 3.1 ± 1.7 kg among women (P gaining weight than normal weight (NW) men (P gain less weight before becoming concerned (5.0 ± 3.0 kg vs. 6.7 ± 4.5 kg, P prevent weight gain (17% men vs. 40% women, P prevention program did not vary by weight status (P = 0.59). Both men and women were most likely to report a willingness to attend classes on a local college campus compared to other settings. Findings highlight the challenges of engaging young adults in weight gain prevention programs, particularly young men, and are discussed in terms of implications for improving recruitment efforts and intervention development with this population.

  4. Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breedveld Boudewijn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages of behaviour change were investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese Dutch adults aged 25–35 years was conducted. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of Body Mass Index (BMI, demographic factors and psychosocial variables from the TPB with the intention to prevent weight gain. Differences in BMI, demographic and psychosocial factors between PAPM-stages were explored using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results Eighty-five percent of respondents intended to prevent weight gain. Age, attitudes and risk perceptions related to weight gain were the strongest correlates of intention (age: OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.04–1.20; attitude OR = 7.91, 95%CI: 5.33–11.74; risk perception OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.11–1.38. Significant differences were detected between the PAPM-stages in almost all variables. Notably, perceived behavioural control was lowest among people who had decided to prevent weight gain. Conclusion Messages to influence attitudes towards the prevention of weight gain and risk perception may affect people who are not yet motivated to prevent weight gain. Interventions increasing people's perceived behavioural control in overcoming barriers to prevent weight gain may help people to act on their intentions.

  5. Process evaluation of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evuate the process of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Quantitative data on seven process items were assessed and linked to effects on employees' waist circumference and body weight at 6 months. Results: Occupational physicians (n = 7)

  6. Preventing Weight Gain One-Year Results of a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting prevention of weight gain may have better long-term success than when aimed at weight loss. Limited evidence exists about such an approach in the primary care setting. Design: An RCT was conducted. Setting/Participants were 457 overweight or obese patien

  7. Weight-Gain in Psychiatric Treatment: Risks, Implications, and Strategies for Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-gain in psychiatric populations is a common clinical challenge. Many patients suffering from mental disorders, when exposed to psychotropic medications, gain significant weight with or without other side-effects. In addition to reducing the patients′ willingness to comply with treatment, this weight-gain may create added psychological or physiological problems that need to be addressed. Thus, it is critical that clinicians take precautions to monitor and control weight-gain and take into account and treat all problems facing an individual. In this review, we examine some of the key issues surrounding weight-gain in individuals suffering from mental disorders for contemporary practitioners in community clinics. We describe some factors known to make certain patients more susceptible to treatment-induced weight-gain and mechanisms implicated in this process. We also highlight a few psychological and pharmacological interventions that have proven effective in weight management. Importantly, we provide critical steps for management and prevention of weight-gain and related issues in the clinical practice of psychopharmacology.

  8. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle leads to rapid infant weight gain: prevention of future chronic diseases.

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    Oyama, Mari; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    Infants' rapid (catch-up) weight gain is associated with later obesity and chronic adult diseases. The aim of this study was to determine maternal and environmental factors related to rapid weight gain at one month and 18 months after full-term birth in Japan. Subjects were 1,524 infants and their mothers who visited the 18-month check-up in Niigata City between October 1, 2007 and September 30, 2008. An anonymous questionnaire elicited information on the infant's weight (at birth, 1 month, and 18 months), sex, feeding method, presence of food allergy, gestational age, and caregiver. Mother's information was height, pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, age at delivery, pregnancy toxicosis, number of daily meals during pregnancy, smoking and drinking habits. Some questionnaire items were obtained from a maternal and child health handbook. Independence of predictors for rapid weight gain (vs. slow or average weight gain), i.e. a score gain of 0.67 SD, during the first month and first 18 months was tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. In the first month, having a meal once or twice daily during pregnancy (P = 0.0016) and daily smoking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0175) were associated with rapid weight gain. In the first 18 months, use of daycare (P = 0.0083) and daily drinking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0130) were associated with rapid weight gain. We conclude that mother's pre-pregnancy smoking and drinking, dieting during pregnancy, and infant daycare attendance lead to rapid infant weight gain. Controlling these factors may prevent future chronic adult lifestyle-related diseases.

  9. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based

  10. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

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    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  11. The evaluation of a mass media campaign aimed at weight gain prevention among young Dutch adults.

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    Wammes, Birgitte; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate a 3-year nationwide mass media campaign aimed at preventing weight gain. The campaign was aimed primarily at raising awareness of the importance of weight-gain prevention and bringing these issues to the attention of the Dutch public. Eleven serial, independent, cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys were used to assess campaign awareness and impact (N ranged between 483 and 493 for each of the 11 surveys). The surveys were conducted before and after six campaign waves. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test for trends over time and for differences among the surveys for campaign awareness, message recall, perceived body weight status, overweight-related risk perceptions, attitudes, perceived social support, self-efficacy expectations, and motivations for preventing weight gain. Campaign awareness ranged from 61% after the 1st campaign wave to 88.4% after the final wave. The campaign's television broadcasting activities were an important source of campaign awareness, from both the campaign's television commercials and television-based free publicity. Message recall ranged from 41.9% to 68.1%. Small positive differences were found in attitudes, perceived social support, and intentions for preventing weight gain. Additionally, the results suggest mixed effects on self-efficacy expectations and a negative effect on risk perception. The campaign resulted in high campaign awareness, especially as a result of television commercials and free publicity on television. The results suggest that the campaign was able to create more positive attitudes and motivation but lower risk perceptions and efficacy for preventing weight gain.

  12. VETisnietVET : studies on the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe high prevalence of overweight and obesity is an important determinant of avoidable burden of disease in the Netherlands and worldwide. Preventing excessive weight gain among children and adolescents can contribute to reducing this burden. The present thesis adds to the knowledge on

  13. Perceived Importance of Dietary Protein to Prevent Weight Gain: A National Survey among Midlife Women

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    Aldrich, Noel D.; Perry, Courtney; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K.; Reicks, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate reported use of the practice of "eating more protein" to prevent weight gain among midlife women. Design: Cross-sectional national survey. Participants: One thousand eight hundred twenty-four midlife women (40-60 y) from the 9 United States geographic regions, primarily married (71%), white (76%), and well educated; half were…

  14. Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Wammes (Birgitte); B. Breedveld (Boudewijn); J. Brug (Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages) of

  15. Economic evaluation of an occupational health care guideline for prevention of weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wier, M.F. van; Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Tulder, M.W. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine the cost-effectiveness and the financial return of a guideline for occupational physicians (OPs), aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. METHODS:: The guideline consisted of a company-environment scan and up to five individual sessions with an OP. Sixteen OP

  16. Zonisamide prevents olanzapine-associated hyperphagia, weight gain, and elevated blood glucose in rats.

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    Wallingford, Nicholas M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Bymaster, Frank P; Gadde, Kishore M; Krishnan, Ranga K; McKinney, Anthony A; Landbloom, Ronald P; Tollefson, Gary D; Cowley, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), one of the second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), has shown relative advantages in patient adherence and outcomes. However, OLZ has also been associated with a higher incidence of weight gain than most other SGAs. Excessive weight gain may in turn contribute to long-term health concerns for some individuals. Zonisamide (ZNS), a medication approved in the United States as an adjunct in the management of epilepsy, has a diverse pharmacological profile, including sodium channel blockade, monoamine enhancement, and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. ZNS has also been reported to cause weight loss in both humans and rodents. We hypothesized that this profile might be beneficial when co-administered with OLZ. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of OLZ on body weight, as well as the pathways known to regulate feeding behavior and arousal in the Sprague-Dawley rat. As indicated via c-Fos expression, we found an OLZ-induced activation in the nucleus accumbens and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. An OLZ-associated development of hyperphagia, weight gain and elevated blood glucose in the rat was also found. These outcomes were attenuated and reversed in the presence of concomitant ZNS. These results suggest the hypothesis that ZNS may effectively treat or prevent weight gain or metabolic changes associated with the SGAs. Future studies of this combination in patients through appropriately designed human clinical studies are encouraged.

  17. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  18. Preventing bone loss and weight gain with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals.

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    Lai, Ching-Yi; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Lewis, Richard D; Hamrick, Mark W; Hartzell, Diane L; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin D and certain natural compounds have been shown to regulate both lipid metabolism and bone formation. Treatments that prevent or reverse age-related increase in bone marrow adiposity could both increase new bone formation and inhibit bone destruction. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals inhibits bone loss and decreases adiposity to a greater extent than control or vitamin D-alone diets. Aged ovariectomized female rats (12 months old, n=50, initial body weight=240 g) were given control (AIN-93M diet), vitamin D (2,400 IU/kg), or vitamin D plus resveratrol (16, 80, or 400 mg/kg of diet [low, medium, and high dose, respectively]), quercetin (80, 400, or 2,000 mg/kg of diet), and genistein (64, 256, or 1,040 mg/kg of diet) for 8 weeks. The high-dose treatment (vitamin D+400 mg/kg resveratrol+2,000 mg/kg quercetin+1,040 mg/kg genistein) reduced body weight gain (P<.05) and the fat pad weights (P<.05). This treatment also increased the serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (P<.05) and the bone mineral content of the femur. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the high-dose treatment prevented loss of trabecular bone (P<.05) and reduced marrow adipocytes (P<.001) and osteoclasts (P<.05) compared with the control and vitamin D alone (P<.05). We conclude that aged ovariectomized female rats supplemented with vitamin D combined with genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol had improved bone mineral density and reduced body weight gain and a significant decrease in bone marrow adipocytes. The synergistic effects of a combination of phytochemicals with vitamin D may be effective in reducing bone loss and weight gain after menopause.

  19. Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

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    Foley Perry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold

  20. Can a health coaching intervention delivered during pregnancy help prevent excessive gestational weight gain?

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    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McPhie, Skye

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG); and (2) whether there were improved psychological, motivational, and behavioural outcomes for women in the HC intervention compared to a "usual care" control group. In this quasi-experimental study, 267 pregnant women ≤18 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2011 and June 2013 from two hospital antenatal clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention women received four individual HC and two group HC/educational sessions informed by theories of behaviour change. Women completed questionnaires assessing psychological, motivational and behavioural outcomes at 16-18 (baseline) and 33 (post-intervention) weeks gestation. Weight measures were collected. Compared to usual care, the intervention did not limit GWG or prevent excessive GWG. However, HC women reported greater use of active coping skills post-intervention. Despite lack of success of the HC intervention, given the risks associated with excessive weight gain in pregnancy, health professionals should continue to recommend appropriate GWG.

  1. Preventing weight gain by lifestyle intervention in a general practice setting - three-year results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after initial loss of weight is common, which indicates a need for lifestyle counseling aimed at preventing weight gain instead of weight loss. This study was conducted to determine whether structured lifestyle counseling by nurse practitioners (NPs) group compared with usu

  2. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  3. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  4. Prevention of weight gain among overweight adults: development and evaluation of a computer-tailored self-regulation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Genugten (Lenneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health problem because of its negative effect on health. The long-term-effects of weight loss treatment for obesity are limited and therefore, prevention of obesity is very important. This might be achieved by weight gain prevention.

  5. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  6. Barriers and facilitators to implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain among employees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Leffelaar, E.R.; Weel, A.N.H.; Nauta, A.P.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess barriers and facilitators to implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Barriers and facilitators to implementation were assessed among 14 occupational physicians (OPs) and employers and analyzed following a systematic approach u

  7. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...

  8. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect...

  9. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

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    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  10. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

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    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  11. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  12. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rose, Marisa Z.; Skouteris, Helen; Oken, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. ...

  13. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  14. Behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation and prevent weight gain: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Howe, Dorothea; Berendsen, Mark; McFadden, H. Gene; Hitchcock, Kristin; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Hitsman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Aims The prospect of weight gain discourages many cigarette smokers from quitting. Practice guidelines offer varied advice about managing weight gain after quitting smoking, but no systematic review and meta-analysis have been available. We reviewed evidence to determine whether behavioral weight control intervention compromises smoking cessation attempts, and if it offers an effective way to reduce post-cessation weight gain. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials that compared combined smoking treatment and behavioral weight control to smoking treatment alone for adult smokers. English-language studies were identified through searches of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of 779 articles identified and 35 potentially relevant RCTs screened, 10 met criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results Patients who received both smoking treatment and weight treatment showed increased abstinence (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.01,1.64) and reduced weight gain (g = -0.30, 95% CI=-0.63, -0.04) in the short term (6 months). Conclusions Findings provide no evidence that combining smoking treatment and behavioral weight control produces any harm and significant evidence of short-term benefit for both abstinence and weight control. However, the absence of long-term enhancement of either smoking cessation or weight control by the time-limited interventions studied to date provides insufficient basis to recommend societal expenditures on weight gain prevention treatment for patients who are quitting smoking. PMID:19549058

  15. Essential oil from Citrus aurantifolia prevents ketotifen-induced weight-gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Delazar, Abbas; Habibi, Bohlol; Vasfi, Roghayeh; Nahar, Lutfun; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem world-wide. Medical intervention is often needed to tackle this problem, and accordingly the need for developing more effective, safer and cheaper weight reducing drugs has become paramount in recent years. In the present study, the effects of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oils in reducing body weight, individually and in co-administration with ketotifen, an antihistaminic drug that causes weight gain, has been investigated using a mouse model. During the 45 days experimental period, the mice that received ketotifen demonstrated an enhancement both in the amount of food intake and body weight compared with the control group. Groups treated with lime essential oil displayed a reduction in body weight and food consumption in mice, possibly through promoting anorexia which might have played a role in weight loss. Interestingly, co-administration of the lime essential oil and ketotifen caused significant suppression in gaining weight, as well as decreased body weights of mice. The data obtained in this study suggested that lime essential oil plays an important role in weight loss and could be useful in the treatment of drug-induced obesity and related diseases. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of C. aurantifolia was also performed and approximately 22 main components, with limonene (28.27%) being the principal one, were identified and quantified.

  16. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  17. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  18. Opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of excess gestational weight gain: General Practitioners' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Pligt Paige

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of excess gestational weight gain (GWG on maternal and child health outcomes is well documented. Understanding how health care providers view and manage GWG may assist with influencing healthy gestational weight outcomes. This study aimed to assess General Practitioner's (GPs perspectives regarding the management and assessment of GWG and to understand how GPs can be best supported to provide healthy GWG advice to pregnant women. Methods Descriptive qualitative research methods utilising semi - structured interview questions to assess GPs perspectives and management of GWG. GPs participating in shared antenatal care in Geelong, Victoria and Sydney, New South Wales were invited to participate in semi - structured, individual interviews via telephone or in person. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analysed utilising thematic analysis for common emerging themes. Results Twenty eight GPs participated, 14 from each state. Common themes emerged relating to awareness of the implications of excess GWG, advice regarding weight gain, regularity of gestational weighing by GPs, options for GPs to seek support to provide healthy lifestyle behaviour advice and barriers to engaging pregnant women about their weight. GPs perspectives concerning excess GWG were varied. They frequently acknowledged maternal and child health complications resulting from excess GWG yet weighing practices and GWG advice appeared to be inconsistent. The preferred support option to promote healthy weight was referral to allied health practitioners yet GPs noted that cost and limited access were barriers to achieving this. Conclusions GPs were aware of the importance of healthy GWG yet routine weighing was not standard practice for diverse reasons. Management of GWG and perspectives of the issue varied widely. Time efficient and cost effective interventions may assist GPs in ensuring women are supported in achieving

  19. Moving beyond quantity of participation in process evaluation of an intervention to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keriann H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle interventions have successfully prevented excessive gestational weight gain. Understanding the program processes through which successful interventions achieve outcomes is important for the design of effective programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the quantity and quality of participation in a healthy lifestyle intervention on risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Findings Pregnant women (N = 179 received five newsletters about weight, nutrition, and exercise plus postcards on which they were asked to set related goals and return to investigators. The quantity of participation (dose was defined as low for returning few or some vs. high for many postcards (N = 89, 49.7%. Quality of participation was low for setting few vs. high for some or many appropriate goals (N = 92, 51.4%. Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of participation variables on the proportion with excessive weight gain. Quantity and quality of participation alone were each not significantly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, while quality of participation among those with high-levels of participation approached significance (p = 0.07. The odds of gaining excessively was decreased when women had both a high quantity and quality of participation (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.005, 0.30. Conclusions Both quantity and quality of participation are important program process measures in evaluations of lifestyle interventions to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy.

  20. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  1. Japanese and American public health approaches to preventing population weight gain: A role for paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoy, Amy; Roberto, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Controlling population weight gain is a major concern for industrialized nations because of associated health risks. Although Japan is experiencing rising prevalence of obesity and overweight, historically they have had and continue to maintain a low prevalence relative to other developed countries. Therefore, Japan provides an interesting case study of strategies to curb population weight gain. In this paper we explore Japanese approaches to obesity and diet through observational and ethnographic interviews conducted between June 2009 and September 2013. Nineteen interviews were conducted at four companies and three schools in Tokyo, as well as at a central Tokyo community health care center and school lunch distribution center. Interviewees included physicians, a Ministry of Health bureaucrat, human resources managers, welfare nurses employed by health insurance organizations, school nurses (also government employees), school nutritionists, and a school counselor. We highlight the role of culture and social norms in encouraging healthful behavior in Japan, focusing on the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare's metabolic syndrome screening program (implemented in 2005) and the Japanese national school lunch program. The Japanese government prescribes optimal body metrics for all Japanese citizens and relies on institutions such as schools and health insurance organizations that are in some instances closely affiliated with the workplace to carry out education. Japan's socio-cultural approach leads us reflect on the cultural and social conditions that make different policy prescriptions more politically feasible and potentially effective. It also provokes us to question whether limited behavioral modifications and "nudging" can lead to broader change in an environment like the United States where there are fewer broadly shared socio-cultural norms regarding acceptable health behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  3. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  4. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    Telmisartan shows antihypertensive and several pleiotropic effects that interact with metabolic pathways. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis in vitro and weight gain in vivo through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR......)-delta-dependent pathways in several tissues. In vitro, telmisartan significantly upregulated PPAR-delta expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other than enhancing PPAR-delta expression by 68.2+/-17.3% and PPAR-delta activity by 102.0+/-9.0%, telmisartan also upregulated PPAR......-gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration...

  5. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  6. A systematic review investigating healthy lifestyle interventions incorporating goal setting strategies for preventing excess gestational weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG is an important risk factor for long term obesity in women. However, current interventions aimed at preventing excess GWG appear to have a limited effect. Several studies have highlighted the importance of linking theory with empirical evidence for producing effective interventions for behaviour change. Theorists have demonstrated that goals can be an important source of human motivation and goal setting has shown promise in promoting diet and physical activity behaviour change within non-pregnant individuals. The use of goal setting as a behaviour change strategy has been systematically evaluated within overweight and obese individuals, yet its use within pregnancy has not yet been systematically explored. AIM OF REVIEW: To explore the use of goal setting within healthy lifestyle interventions for the prevention of excess GWG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Searches were conducted in seven databases alongside hand searching of relevant journals and citation tracking. Studies were included if interventions used goal setting alongside modification of diet and/or physical activity with an aim to prevent excess GWG. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and a two-stage methodological approach was used. Stage one focused on systematically evaluating the methodological quality of included interventions. The second stage assessed intervention integrity and the implementation of key goal setting components. FINDINGS: From a total of 839 citations, 54 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among interventions reporting positive results a combination of individualised diet and physical activity goals, self-monitoring and performance feedback indicators were described as active components. CONCLUSION: Interventions based on goal setting appear to be useful for helping women achieve optimal weight gain during pregnancy. However, overweight and obese women may

  7. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  8. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics MyPlate Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer ... bring awareness to patients in a preventative healthcare environment. Many of the patients love MyPlate's simple-to- ...

  9. Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Gregory A; McNay, Ewan C

    2013-01-17

    Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism.

  10. Preventing Weight Gain One-Year Results of a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention : one-year results of a randomized lifestyle intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting prevention of weight gain may have better long-term success than when aimed at weight loss. Limited evidence exists about such an approach in the primary care setting. Design: An RCT was conducted. Setting/Participants were 457 overweight or obese patien

  11. Preventing Weight Gain One-Year Results of a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention : one-year results of a randomized lifestyle intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting prevention of weight gain may have better long-term success than when aimed at weight loss. Limited evidence exists about such an approach in the primary care setting. Design: An RCT was conducted. Setting/Participants were 457 overweight or obese patien

  12. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  13. Single-center assessment of nutritional counseling in preventing excessive weight gain in pediatric renal transplants recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Camilla; Krmar, Rafael T

    2016-05-01

    Post-transplantation obesity is a common complication that is associated with a higher risk for decreased allograft function and hypertension. However, the role of diet intervention on reducing post-transplantation obesity is relatively unknown. We investigated the clinical relevance of dietary counseling on the prevalence of overweight/obesity during the first two yr following renal transplantation. The computerized patient records of 42 recipients (31 males) aged 6.3 ± 4.8 yr at transplantation were reviewed. All patients systematically underwent yearly dietary assessment/counseling (motivational interviewing technique) and measurement of renal function and ABPM. At transplantation, 14.2% of patients were overweight/obese, which increased to 42.8% by two yr post-transplantation (p = 0.004). The majority of patients experienced a significant increase in BMI SDS during the first six months post-transplantation that remained sustained throughout the duration of the follow-up period (p = 0.001). By two yr post-transplantation, there were no observable differences between patients classified as having normal BMI or being overweight/obese with regard to renal function and controlled hypertension. The application of yearly tailored dietary assessment/counseling had a poor effect on preventing post-transplantation weight gain, suggesting the need for more comprehensive interventions to reduce post-transplant obesity.

  14. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Suraweera, Chathurie; Ratnatunga, Suhashini S; Dayabandara, Madhubashinee; Wanniarachchi, Nimali; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-10-03

    Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was -3.27 kg (95 % CI -4.66 to -1.89) (Z = 4.64, p resistance index [-1.49 (95 % CI -2.40 to -0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [-2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI -5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  16. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Looij-Jansen Petra M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents targeting energy balance-related behaviours: i.e. consumption of snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, vegetables, and fibre, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. This paper describes the planned development of a school-based computer-tailored intervention aimed at improving energy balance-related behaviours in order to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents, and the protocol for evaluating this intervention. Methods/design Intervention development: Informed by the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the computer-tailored intervention provided feedback on personal behaviour and suggestions on how to modify it. The intervention (VETisnietVET translated as 'FATaintPHAT' has been developed for use in the first year of secondary school during eight lessons. Evaluation design: The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster-randomised trial including 20 schools with a 4-months and a 2-years follow-up. Outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference, energy balance-related behaviours, and potential determinants of these behaviours. Process measures are appreciation of and satisfaction with the program, exposure to the program's content, and implementation facilitators and barriers measured among students and teachers. Discussion This project resulted in a theory and evidence-based intervention that can be implemented in a school setting. A large-scale randomised controlled trial with a short and long-term follow-up will provide sound statements about the effectiveness of this computer-tailored intervention in adolescents. Trial Registration ISRCTN15743786

  17. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (-45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (-51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  18. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuni Asanka de Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn’t been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. Methods All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Results Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was −3.27 kg (95 % CI −4.66 to −1.89 (Z = 4.64, p < 0.001. Metformin compared to placebo resulted in significant reduction in BMI [−1.13 kg/m2 (95 % CI −1.61 to −0.66] and insulin resistance index [−1.49 (95 % CI −2.40 to −0.59] but not fasting blood sugar [−2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI −5.54 to 0.57]. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  19. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Lian

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist and olanzapine (O+B reduced (-45% body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d. and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d. significantly reduced (-51.4% weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT. The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  20. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Obesity > Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Health ...

  1. Levamisole: A positive allosteric modulator for the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents weight gain in CD-1 mice on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeanne A; Yakel, Jerrel L; Pandya, Anshul A

    2016-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in consumption of food in rodents. In this study, we tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet. PNU-120596 and desformylflustrabromine are selective PAMs for the α7 and α4β2 nAChR, respectively. Both of these compounds failed to prevent weight gain in CD-1 mice. These results suggest that modulation of hypothalamic α3β4 nAChRs is an important factor in regulating food intake, and the PAMs for these receptors need further investigation as potential therapeutic agents for controlling weight gain.

  2. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation of a Community-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-08-01

    About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities.

  3. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate educated participants were more likely to achieve high IVR call completion. Participants reported positive attitudes toward IVR self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http

  4. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  5. Exercise prevents weight gain and alters the gut microbiota in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Evans

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity (DIO is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF feeding is unknown.Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO.Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF sedentary (Sed LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation.HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05. Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043.Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.

  6. Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Alters the Gut Microbiota in a Mouse Model of High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christian C.; LePard, Kathy J.; Kwak, Jeff W.; Stancukas, Mary C.; Laskowski, Samantha; Dougherty, Joseph; Moulton, Laura; Glawe, Adam; Wang, Yunwei; Leone, Vanessa; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Smith, Dan; Chang, Eugene B.; Ciancio, Mae J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex) is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF) feeding is unknown. Objective Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO. Methods Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks) were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF) sedentary (Sed) LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation. Results HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05). Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043). Conclusion Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO. PMID:24670791

  7. Weight Gain, Obesity, and Psychotropic Prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Nihalani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of psychiatric medications are known to generate weight gain and ultimately obesity in some patients. There is much speculation about the prevalence of weight gain and the degree of weight gain during acute and longitudinal treatment with these agents. There is newer literature looking at the etiology of this weight gain and the potential treatments being used to alleviate this side effect. The authors undertook a comprehensive literature review in order to present epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options of weight gain associated with antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants.

  8. A community based prevention of weight gain intervention (Mothers In Motion) among young low-income overweight and obese mothers: design and rationale

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; Resnicow, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 45% of American women 20–39 years old are at risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other health conditions because they are overweight or obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is disproportionately high among low-income women. This paper describes the study design and rationale of a community based intervention (Mothers In Motion, MIM) aimed to prevent weight gain among low-income overweight and obese mothers18-39 years old by promoting stress managem...

  9. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  10. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Potter, Kerry L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT), while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR). Methods. Freshmen (n = 45) aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, -0.25 ± 0.45%; P = 0.01). Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR) and 98% (SCT); SCTSR students (>50%) remarked that the online tracking required "too much time." Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  11. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  12. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  13. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents

  14. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents t

  15. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents t

  16. Determinants of inadequate weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Alina Delia; Niţă, Otilia; Popescu, Raluca Maria; Gherasim, Andreea; Arhire, Lidia luliana; Mihalache, Laura; Graur, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the anthropometric maternal characteristics and prenatal care as determinants of pregnancy weight gain. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a total of 400 pregnant women admitted to Cuza-Vodă Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital, Iaşi. Information on demographic characteristics, number of prenatal visits, and education on nutrition and food changes occurring during pregnancy were recorded in a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric parameters analyzed were pregestational BMI (body mass index) and weight gain during pregnancy. Weight gain was associated with pregestational BMI category. An increase in weight more than recommended occured more frequently in overweight (53.1%) and obese women (66.7%) (p < 0.001). Weight gain during pregnancy was related to area of residence, age, APCU (adequate prenatal care utilization) index. The multivariate analysis identified the following variables as significant determinants of pregnancy weight gain: inadequate prenatal care, BMI and changes in diet. Pregestational BMI and changes in diet during pregnancy identified as determinants of weight gain suggests that overweight and underweight women must carefully be counseled regarding recommendations for weight gain in pregnancy. Tracking diet changes is important to ensure that a weight gain lies within the guidelines recommendations.

  17. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  18. Free school fruit: can an extra piece of fruit every school day contribute to the prevention of future weight gain? A cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elling Bere

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several school fruit programs are initiated with the aim to improve diet and thereby contribute to reduce the prevalence of overweight. To date, no published studies have demonstrated that school fruit schemes do prevent overweight. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess if increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, due to free school fruit, have an impact on future weight status. Design: An intervention study including 10- to 12-year-old children from nine schools in two Norwegian counties (Hedmark and Telemark participating in the Norwegian School Fruit Program for free during the school year 2001/2002 and children from 29 control schools. Follow-up studies were performed in 2005 and 2009. The cohort includes 1950 pupils (984 boys, 966 girls at baseline, 1,602 participants in 2005 and 320 participants in the 2009 survey, of which 282 also had participated in 2005. Results: In 2005, there was no significant difference between the free fruit group and the control group regarding weight status, Body mass index, or perceived weight status. In 2009, a significant difference in prevalence of overweight was observed (15% vs. 25%, p=0.04. In the crude logistic analysis, the OR for being overweight was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.28–0.97 for the intervention group compared to controls. When adjusting for school, sex, grade level and parental education, the association was no longer statistically significant. Conclusions: These results indicate that free school fruit might contribute to prevent future excessive weight gain. However, the study results are limited by low participation rate.

  19. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  20. Early Weight Gain Predicting Later Weight Gain Among Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE, Yen-Chi L.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; BERENSON, Abbey B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine if early weight gain in depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users predicts continued excessive weight gain and to identify risk factors of early weight gain in DMPA users. Methods DMPA users (N=240) were assessed prior to initiating contraception and every 3 months for 36 months. Early weight gain was defined as over 5% baseline weight gain within 6 months of DMPA use. Mean weight gain at 6-month intervals was estimated based on early weight gain status (at or below 5% gain vs. above 5% gain). Multiple logistic and mixed-model regression analyses were used. Results About one-fourth of DMPA users had early weight gain. The mean weight gain of the at or below 5% group and above 5% group was 0.63 kg and 8.04 kg, 1.48 kg and 10.86 kg, and 2.49 kg and 11.08 kg after 12, 24, and 36 months (P < 0.001 at all observations), respectively. Early weight gainers also had a much steeper slope of weight gain over time than the regular weight gainers (0.35 kg/month vs. 0.08 kg/month, P < 0.001). Risk factors for early weight gain were: BMI less than 30 (OR 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.513 – 10.455), parity (OR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.040 – 4.761), and self-reported increased appetite after 6 months of DMPA use (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.505 – 6.214). Conclusion Most DMPA users who gain excessive weight experience more than a 5% weight increase within 6 months. These data help physicians predict who is at risk of excessive gain and counsel them appropriately. PMID:19622988

  1. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. Objective This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Methods Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google—social media and advertising—university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. Results From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices—16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar

  2. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette Ty; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-06-05

    Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google-social media and advertising-university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices-16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar (AUD) $139 per person. The least expensive

  3. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  4. Oral Administration of Oleuropein and Its Semisynthetic Peracetylated Derivative Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Hyperinsulinemia, and Weight Gain in Mice Fed with High Fat Cafeteria Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Massimo Lepore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high consumption of olive tree products in the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower incidence of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the protective effects of olive oil have been attributed to the presence of polyphenols such as oleuropein (Ole and its derivatives. We have synthesized a peracetylated derivative of Ole (Ac-Ole which has shown in vitro antioxidant and growth-inhibitory activity higher than the natural molecule. In this study, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed with a standard (std, cafeteria (caf diet, and caf diet supplemented with Ole (0.037 mmol/kg/day and Ac-Ole (0.025 mmol/kg/day for 15 weeks. We observed a significant reduction in the caf diet-induced body weight gain and increase of abdominal adipose tissue. Also, Ole and Ac-Ole prevented the development of hepatic steatosis. Finally, Ole and Ac-Ole determined a lower increase of HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels and corrected caf diet-induced elevation of plasma glucose concentrations by improving insulin sensitivity. The observed beneficial properties of Ole and Ac-Ole make these compounds and in particular Ac-Ole promising candidates for a potential pharmaceutic use in metabolic disorders.

  5. Oral Administration of Oleuropein and Its Semisynthetic Peracetylated Derivative Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Hyperinsulinemia, and Weight Gain in Mice Fed with High Fat Cafeteria Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Saverio Massimo; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Celano, Marilena; Trimboli, Francesca; Oliverio, Manuela; Procopio, Antonio; Di Loreto, Carla; Damante, Giuseppe; Britti, Domenico; Bulotta, Stefania; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The high consumption of olive tree products in the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower incidence of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the protective effects of olive oil have been attributed to the presence of polyphenols such as oleuropein (Ole) and its derivatives. We have synthesized a peracetylated derivative of Ole (Ac-Ole) which has shown in vitro antioxidant and growth-inhibitory activity higher than the natural molecule. In this study, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed with a standard (std), cafeteria (caf) diet, and caf diet supplemented with Ole (0.037 mmol/kg/day) and Ac-Ole (0.025 mmol/kg/day) for 15 weeks. We observed a significant reduction in the caf diet-induced body weight gain and increase of abdominal adipose tissue. Also, Ole and Ac-Ole prevented the development of hepatic steatosis. Finally, Ole and Ac-Ole determined a lower increase of HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels and corrected caf diet-induced elevation of plasma glucose concentrations by improving insulin sensitivity. The observed beneficial properties of Ole and Ac-Ole make these compounds and in particular Ac-Ole promising candidates for a potential pharmaceutic use in metabolic disorders. PMID:26798341

  6. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  7. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  8. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  9. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  10. Causes and Consequences of Interdialytic weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with higher predialysis blood pressure and increased mortality. IDWG is also increasingly being recognized as an indicator of nutritional status. We studied in detail the associations of various patient factors and nutritional pa

  11. The child with poor weight gain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-11

    Apr 11, 2007 ... competence to be able to judge whether there is a problem, to identify babies ... The only objective way of assessing a child's weight gain is to take ... His main interests lie in the fields of gastroenterology and nutrition. 176 .... such as renal tubular disorders or defects ... exist in respect of the energy, protein,.

  12. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Keywords: Malawi, overweight, obesity, university, weight gain. Weight gain, physical ... The authors sought to assess weight gain, physical activity and ..... 47.1% of children under the age of five years (40.7% in urban, and.

  13. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): Systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. METHODS: Applying the

  14. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT) : Systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Singh (Amika); M.J.M. Chin A Paw (Marijke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); J. Brug (Hans); W. van Mechelen (Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods: A

  15. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Aguirre, A. L.; Camacho-Ruíz, R. M.; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Padilla-Camberos, E.; González-Ávila, M.; Gálvez-Gastélum, F. J.; N.E. Díaz-Martínez; Ortuño-Sahagún, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperg...

  16. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  17. Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Elina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. Methods Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy data were collected from patient records of maternity centers. 123 subsequent breast cancer cases were identified through a record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry, and the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 35 – 74. A sample of 979 women (123 cases, 856 controls from the cohort was linked to the Hospital Inpatient Registry to obtain information on the women's stay in hospitals. Results Mothers in the upper tertile of pregnancy weight gain (>15 kg had a 1.62-fold (95% CI 1.03–2.53 higher breast cancer risk than mothers who gained the recommended amount (the middle tertile, mean: 12.9 kg, range 11–15 kg, after adjusting for mother's age at menarche, age at first birth, age at index pregnancy, parity at the index birth, and body mass index (BMI before the index pregnancy. In a separate nested case-control study (n = 65 cases and 431 controls, adjustment for BMI at the time of breast cancer diagnosis did not modify the findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that high pregnancy weight gain increases later breast cancer risk, independently from body weight at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  20. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Brug Johannes; Visscher Tommy LS; Kremers Stef PJ; Chin A Paw Marijke JM; Singh Amika S; van Mechelen Willem

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), a school-based intervention pr...

  1. Adiponectin administration prevents weight gain and glycemic profile changes in diet-induced obese immune deficient Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Perakakis, Nikolaos; Gong, Huizhi; Chamberland, John P; Brinkoetter, Mary T; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state. Adiponectin protects from weight gain despite a small compensatory stimulation of energy intake in mice lacking an adaptive immune system. Additionally, adiponectin protects from dysglycemia. Minor alterations in the macrophage phenotype, but not in the circulating cytokine levels, may contribute to the protective role of adiponectin against hyperglycemia and diabetes. Adiponectin or agents increasing adiponectin may be a promising therapeutic option against obesity and hyperglycemia in immune-deficient populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students. DESIGN: Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders. SETTING: Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group. PARTICIPANTS: From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years. INTERVENTION: Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits. CONCLUSION: Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  3. Improved eating behaviours mediate weight gain prevention of young adults: moderation and mediation results of a randomised controlled trial of TXT2BFiT, mHealth program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-04-02

    Explanatory evaluation of interventions for prevention of weight gain is required beyond changes in weight, to determine for whom the intervention works and the underlying mechanisms of change. It was hypothesised that participant characteristics moderate intervention effect on weight change and improved eating and physical activity behaviours during the 3-month program mediate the relationship between intervention and weight. In our randomised controlled trial, young adults at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were assigned either to an intervention group that received a 3-month mHealth (TXT2BFiT) program with 6-month maintenance or to a control group. Data were collected via online self-report surveys. Hypothesised moderators and mediators of the intervention effect on weight were independently assessed in PROCESS macro models for 3 and 9-month weight change. Males (P = 0.01), mid-20s age group (P = 0.04), and higher income earners (P = 0.02) moderated intervention effects on weight change at 3-months and males only at 9-months (P = 0.02). Weight change at 3 (-1.12 kg) and 9-months (-1.38 kg) remained significant when 3-month nutrition and physical activity behaviours were specified as mediators (P intervention group at 3-months accounted for 19 and 17% and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 8 and 13% of indirect weight change effects at 3 and 9-months respectively. TXT2BFiT was effective for both young men and women. Small sustained behavioural changes, including increased vegetable intake and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages consumption significantly mediated the intervention's effects on weight change. Improved eating behaviours and increased physical activity accounted for approximately 40% of the weight change. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12612000924853 ).

  4. When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11 and 16 kilograms) during pregnancy. If a woman does not gain enough weight, there may be health problems for the mother and baby. What is the Right Amount of Weight to Gain? Most women will ...

  5. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Camacho-Ruíz, R M; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; González-Ávila, M; Gálvez-Gastélum, F J; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Ortuño-Sahagún, D

    2016-12-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %. Interestingly, unfractionated fructans (HFD+F) decreased glucose and triglycerides (TG), whereas fractionated fructans with a higher dp (HFD+LcF) decreased TG but not glucose; in contrast, HFD+ScF decreased glucose but not TG. Our findings suggest that both higher and lower dp agave fructans have complementary effects in metabolic disorders related to obesity. These findings may contribute to the development of improved food supplements with a specific ratio combination of fructans with different dps.

  6. Feedback models allowing estimation of thresholds for self-promoting body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2008-01-01

    . The difference between the two situations is typically an energy imbalance of about 1% over a long period of time. THEORY: Weight gain increases basal metabolic rate. Weight gain is often associated with a decrease in physical activity, although not to such an extent that it prevents an increase in total energy...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... cases do they take values that make weight gain self-promoting. RESULTS: We determine the quantitative conditions under which body weight gain becomes self-promoting. We find that these conditions can easily be met, and that they are so small that they are not observable with currently available...

  7. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  8. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available M Sénéchal1,2, H Arguin6, DR Bouchard4,5, AC Carpentier3, JL Ardilouze3, IJ Dionne1,2, M Brochu1,21Research Centre on Aging, Health and Social Services Centre, University Institute of Geriatrics of Sherbrooke, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sherbrooke, 3Clinical Research Centre, Sherbrooke University Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, QC; 4Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; 5Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute, Winnipeg, MB; 6Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, QC, CanadaObjective: To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program.Methods: Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up.Results: All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01 while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01. Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003 after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders.Conclusion: Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women.Keywords: obesity, body weight, weight regain, postmenopausal women, aging

  9. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  10. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT: systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brug Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT, a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1 reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2 reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3 decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4 increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation. The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes, and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes. We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure, as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures. Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background.

  11. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  12. Role of maternal weight gain on perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alwani

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Maternal weight gain may be a determinant of pregnancy outcomes. Therefore antenatal care are to be offered to all women to help them reach a healthy weight before conceiving and normal weight gain during pregnancy [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 30-32

  13. Managing your weight gain during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly during their pregnancy. Either way, a pregnant woman should not go on a diet or try to lose weight during pregnancy. It is better to focus on eating the right foods and staying active. If you do not ...

  14. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  15. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active gam

  16. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  17. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG...

  18. Pregnancy weight gain in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Christopher, F S; Kandell, L A

    1991-06-01

    We examined whether adolescents required greater prenatal weight gains than nonadolescents to deliver equal weight babies following a low-risk pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and monthly weight gains were collected from medical records obtained from a private health maintenance organization (n = 423). Maternal weight gain, gestational age, parity, and cigarette use during pregnancy were significant predictors of infant birth weight in our regression models. Subjects were nonsmokers with a gestational age greater than 37 weeks and a parity equal to 0 who entered prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. Mean total weight gains for the adolescents (16.2 +/- 4.8 kg; n = 51) and adults (15.2 +/- 5.4 kg; n = 65), and infant birth weights were similar. Mean infant birth weight was 3473 +/- 394 g for the adolescents and 3339 +/- 453 g for the young adults, whereas the optimal weight range for newborns is about 3500-3999 g. Modifiable risks are the important predictors of infant birth weight, and adolescents do not appear to require a greater weight gain than young adults to deliver similar weight babies.

  19. Gestational weight gain in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudy, A M; Siega-Riz, A M; Engel, S M; Franceschini, N; Howard, A G; Clowse, M E B; Petri, M

    2017-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus meeting Institute of Medicine guidelines for gestational weight gain and determine correlates of adherence to guidelines. Methods Singleton, live births in the Hopkins Lupus Pregnancy Cohort 1987-2015 were included. Pre-pregnancy weight was the weight recorded 12 months prior to pregnancy/first trimester. Final weight was the last weight recorded in the third trimester. Adherence to Institute of Medicine guidelines (inadequate, adequate, or excessive) was based on pre-pregnancy body mass index. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance determined factors associated with not meeting guidelines. Stepwise selection estimated predictors of gestational weight gain. Results Of the 211 pregnancies, 34%, 24% and 42% had inadequate, adequate and excessive gestational weight gain, respectively. In exploratory analyses, differences in Institute of Medicine adherence were observed by pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, elevated creatinine during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy blood pressure. Odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain increased 12% with each 1 kg/m(2) increase in pre-pregnancy body mass index. Lower maternal education was associated with increased odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions As in the general population, most women with systemic lupus erythematosus did not meet Institute of Medicine guidelines. Our results identified predictors of gestational weight gain to aid in targeted interventions to improve guideline adherence in this population.

  20. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  1. Obesity and gestational weight gain: cesarean delivery and labor complications

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Luiz Carlos; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Branchtein,Leandro; Gaio, Dea Suzana Miranda; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between pre-gestational obesity and weight gain with cesarean delivery and labor complications. METHODS: A total of 4,486 women 20-28 weeks pregnant attending general prenatal care clinics of the national health system in Brazil from 1991 to 1995 were enrolled and followed up through birth. Body mass index categories based on prepregnancy weight and total weight gain were calculated. Associations between body mass index categories and labor complications w...

  2. Antipsychotic-associated weight gain: management strategies and impact on treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayabandara M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka Abstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine. Weight increases rapidly in the initial period after starting antipsychotics. Patients continue to gain weight in the long term. Children appear to be particularly vulnerable to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Tailoring antipsychotics according to the needs of the individual and close monitoring of weight and other metabolic parameters are the best preventive strategies at the outset. Switching to an agent with lesser tendency to cause weight gain is an option, but carries the risk of relapse of the illness. Nonpharmacologic interventions of dietary counseling, exercise programs and cognitive and behavioral strategies appear to be equally effective in individual and group therapy formats. Both nonpharmacologic prevention and intervention strategies have shown modest effects on weight. Multiple compounds have been investigated as add-on medications to cause weight loss. Metformin has the best evidence in this respect. Burden of side effects needs to be considered when prescribing weight loss medications. There is no strong evidence to recommend routine prescription of add-on medication for weight reduction. Heterogeneity of study methodologies and other

  3. Process evaluation of TXT2BFiT: a multi-component mHealth randomised controlled trial to prevent weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; McGeechan, Kevin; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette T Y; Hebden, Lana; Harris, Mark F; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2016-01-19

    TXT2BFiT was one of the first few innovative mHealth programs designed for young adults (18-35 years) with demonstrated efficacy in weight management. However, research is lacking to understand intervention effectiveness, especially in complex, multi-component mHealth programs. This paper investigates participant perceptions of and engagement with the mHealth program components in the TXT2BFiT to understand program effects. Process evaluation data were collected continuously for the study duration. The TXT2BFiT program was a multi-component lifestyle program delivered intensively for 3-month followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. Program components included personalised coaching calls, text messages, emails, smartphone apps and website access. Process evaluation measures included frequency of use of components and frequency for number of components used (online survey data); dose delivered and engagement with program components (researcher logs and web platform reports); frequency, timing and difficulties experienced with program components (online survey data) and overall perceptions of program components (online survey data and semi-structured telephone interviews). Qualitative data analysis was performed using NVivo10. Over 80% of participants completed post-intervention (3-months, intervention, n = 110, control n = 104) and follow-up surveys (9-months, intervention, n = 96, control n = 104). Thirty intervention participants completed semi-structured telephone interviews. Participants reported high use of coaching calls, text messages and emails and no issues in content delivery from these components. These components were described as helping them to achieve their goals. Website and app use and engagement was low for the duration of the program. Participants would prefer incorporation of the self-monitoring apps and website resources into one smartphone application that can be individualised by entry of their personal data. Our process

  4. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  5. The effect of excess weight gain in teenage pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Masouem, Shahryar; Baker, Arthur M; Saddlemire, Stephanie; Boggess, Kim A

    2010-01-01

    Excess weight gain in pregnancy, as defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has been linked to adverse obstetrical outcomes. However, this relationship has not been examined in the younger maternal population. Our aim was to study excess weight gain in our inner-city teenage population. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed all nulliparous teenage deliveries between 2000 and 2004. The groups were divided by IOM criteria into "underweight" (body mass index [BMI] 29.0 kg/m(2); n = 89). The groups were then compared according to normal (control, n = 257) and excess weight gain (n = 199). Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes were calculated. Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk for cesarean delivery (OR 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 3.01) and postpartum fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.13 to 5.35). Significant neonatal findings included higher birthweight (3199 g versus 2864 g; p < 0.0001) and increased risk of macrosomia (OR, 8.18; 95% CI, 2.02 to 32.99) in the excess weight gain group. We concluded that excess weight gain places teen mothers at increased risk for cesarean delivery, postpartum febrile morbidity, and macrosomia. Interventions aimed at optimal weight gain in teen pregnancies are warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known abo....... Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings....

  7. Factors associated with gestational weight gain in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Santos Amaral Fraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is an important predictor of complications for the mother and infant. This cross-sectional study assessed factors associated with inadequate weight gain among women in the third trimester of pregnancy who received prenatal care under the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from November 2007 to July 2008. A total of 1,079 pregnant women were interviewed, and adequacy of weight gain was obtained by calculating weight gain as recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. Social, demographic, and obstetric factors were analyzed as independent variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used, and pregnant women with weight gain below or above the recommended levels were compared to those with adequate weight gain. Low schooling was associated with insufficient weight gain, while excessive gain was observed in women with hypertension and pre-gestational underweight, overweight, and obesity. Nutritional assessment during prenatal care is essential, and interventions should target cases of inadequate weight gain in order to prevent complications for the mother and infant.

  8. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of working conditions with major weight gain. Three different groups of work-related factors were examined: (i) work arrangements, (ii) physical working conditions, and (iii) psychosocial working conditions. The data are based on the Helsinki Health Study (HHS) questionnaire surveys. A baseline mail survey was made among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002. A follow-up survey was made in 2007. Regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. During the 5- to 7-year follow-up, 26% of women and 24% of men gained in weight 5 kg or more. Working conditions were mostly unassociated with weight gain. However, nighttime shift work, physical threat at work, and hazardous exposures at work were moderately associated with weight gain. More attention should be devoted to the prevention of weight gain in general and among risk groups in particular.

  9. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  10. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  11. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue distributions: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2016;26:185. Greenberg JA, et al. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among ...

  12. Maternal weight gain in second and third trimesters and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: A prospective study was carried out to determine the relationship between weight gain in the ... was about 8% and was significantly higher among infants of teenager mothers. .... pressure for example from family members about sex.

  13. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi...

  14. Food groups and weight gain in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Y; Takahashi, Y; Sone, H

    2014-06-01

    Identifying subjects at high risk of weight gain according to consumption of food groups is important for individualizing nutritional education, but prospective studies of this issue have been few. We determined whether intake of specific food groups could predict future weight gain. We evaluated data from health checkups on 1236 Japanese men aged 28 to 87 years in 2005 and 2006. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall at baseline. Weight change was measured after 1 year. Weight increased in 44.7% (n = 553) of participants. Multivariate regression analysis involving many food groups showed a significant association between sugar intake and weight gain after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, alcohol, smoking and regular physical exercise (β = 0.22, P = 0.04). The effect of intake of 'fats and oils' was significant when adjusted for age and BMI, however, it became insignificant after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake. Intake of sugar, which was evaluated as a food group, was predictive of subsequent weight gain among Japanese men, even after adjustment for many confounders. This corroborates the evidence so far concerning the links between sugar intake and weight gain. Further long-term research is required to give robust recommendation to the public.

  15. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.

  16. The bias in current measures of gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Joseph, K S; Abrams, Barbara; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Platt, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Conventional measures of gestational weight gain (GWG), such as average rate of weight gain, are likely to be correlated with gestational duration. Such a correlation could introduce bias to epidemiological studies of GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes because many perinatal outcomes are also correlated with gestational duration. This study aimed to quantify the extent to which currently used GWG measures may bias the apparent relationship between maternal weight gain and risk of preterm birth. For each woman in a provincial perinatal database registry (British Columbia, Canada, 2000-2009), a total GWG was simulated such that it was uncorrelated with risk of preterm birth. The simulation was based on serial antenatal GWG measurements from a sample of term pregnancies. Simulated GWGs were classified using three approaches: total weight gain (kg), average rate of weight gain (kg/week) or adequacy of GWG in relation to Institute of Medicine recommendations. Their association with preterm birth ≤32 weeks was explored using logistic regression. All measures of GWG induced an apparent association between GWG and preterm birth ≤32 weeks even when, by design, none existed. Odds ratios in the lowest fifths of each GWG measure compared with the middle fifths ranged from 4.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6, 5.4] (total weight gain) to 1.6 [95% CI 1.3, 2.0] (Institute of Medicine adequacy ratio). Conventional measures of GWG introduce serious bias to the study of maternal weight gain and preterm birth. A new measure of GWG that is uncorrelated with gestational duration is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Do low-calorie sweeteners promote weight gain in rodents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are used globally to increase the palatability of foods and beverages, without the calories of sugar. Recently, however, there have been claims that LCSs promote obesity. Here, I review the literature linking LCS consumption to elevated body weight in rodents. A recent systematic review found when the LCSs were presented in water or chow, only a minority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. In contrast, when the LCSs were presented in yogurt, the majority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. This review focuses on this latter subset of studies, and asks why the combination of LCSs and yogurt promoted weight gain. First, LCSs have been hypothesized to induce metabolic derangement because they uncouple sweet taste and calories. However, the available evidence indicates that the LCS-treated yogurts did not actually taste sweet to rats in the published studies. Without a sweet taste, the concerns about uncoupling sweet taste and calories would not be relevant. Second, in several studies, the LCS-treated yogurt increased weight gain without increasing caloric intake. This indicates that caloric intake alone cannot explain the elevated weight gain. Third, there is evidence that LCSs and yogurt can each alter the gut microbiota of rodents. Given recent work indicating that changes in gut microbiota can modulate body weight, it is possible that the combination of LCS and yogurt alters the gut microbiota in ways that promote weight gain. While this hypothesis remains speculative, it is consistent with the observed rodent data. In human studies, LCSs are usually presented in beverages. Based on the rodent work, it might be worthwhile to evaluate the impact of LCS-treated yogurt in humans.

  18. Amantadine for weight gain associated with olanzapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, Walter; Winokur, Andrew; Cavazzoni, Patrizia A; Trzaskoma, Quynh N; Carlson, Christopher D; Bymaster, Frank P; Wiener, Karen; Floris, Michel; Breier, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (Sch), schizoaffective, schizophreniform, or bipolar (BP) I disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)]; not manic or acutely psychotic [Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total score or =5% of their initial body weight were examined to determine whether amantadine could attenuate weight gain or promote weight loss. Olanzapine (Olz; 5-20 mg/day) was co-administered with double-blind treatment of 100-300 mg/day amantadine (Olz+Amt, n=60) or placebo (Olz+Plc, n=65). Visit-wise analysis of weight showed that weight change from baseline [last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF)] in the Olz+Amt group was significantly different from the Olz+Plc group at weeks 8 (P=0.042), 12 (P=0.029), and 16 (primary endpoint, mean+/-S.D.: -0.19+/-4.58 versus 1.28+/-4.26 kg, P=0.045). Mean BPRS total score, positive subscale, and anxiety-depression scores improved comparably in both groups, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score improved in the Olz+Amt group. Overall, amantadine was safe, was well tolerated, and attenuated weight gain or promoted weight loss in some patients who had gained weight during olanzapine therapy.

  19. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  20. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliboni, Carolina Marques; Galletta, Marco Aurelio Knippel; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    To present the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese language of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. This scale was developed in order to verify whether attitude toward thinness affects weight gain during pregnancy and contains statements that express different attitudes of pregnant women regarding their own weight gain. The procedures were: translation, back translation, comprehension evaluation, preparation of a final version, application of the scale to 180 pregnant women (mean age=29.6, gestational age=25.7 weeks) and psychometric analysis. Satisfactory equivalence between the versions and satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.7) were detected. The exploratory factor analysis suggested four subscales with 51.4% total variance explained. The scale proved to be valid and can be used in studies with pregnant women in Brazil to assess attitudes toward weight gain and to detect and prevent dysfunctional behaviors during pregnancy.

  1. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled 5-year clinical trial of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on weight changes, body composition, and bone mass in early postmenopausal women in a partly randomized comprehensive cohort study design. A total of 2016 women ages 45-58 years from 3 months to 2 years past last...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...

  2. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Vos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.

  3. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Desti N.; Paula C. Chandler-Laney

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine...

  4. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  5. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  6. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  7. Substantial weight gains are common prior to treatment-seeking in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 5% body weight), in the year preceding treatment. Overall, participants reported a mean percent weight gain of 8% (16.6 pounds) during the 12months prior to treatment with a wide range of weight changes across participants (from a 52% weight gain to a 13% weight loss). A substantial proportion of patients (35%), categorized as High Weight Gainers (defined as gaining more than 10% of body weight during previous year), reported gaining an average of 16.7% of body weight. Low Weight Gainers (defined as gaining greater than 5%, but less than 10%) comprised 29% of the sample and were characterized by a mean gain of 6.9% of body weight. Weight Maintainers/Losers (defined as having maintained or lost weight during the 12months prior to treatment) comprised 17% of the sample and reported losing on average 2.8% of body weight. These three groups did not differ significantly in their current weight and eating behaviors or eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported in treatment studies of BED. Failure to produce weight loss in these studies may be reinterpreted as stabilization of weight and prevention of further weight gain.

  8. Pregnancy weight gain and postpartum loss: avoiding obesity while optimizing the growth and development of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, S A

    2001-01-01

    Weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to obesity development. Concerns about possible adverse effects of pregnancy weight gain on later maternal weight and on labor and delivery must be rigorously evaluated in light of possible benefits for fetal growth and development. Birth-weight rises with increased pregnancy weight gain, and perinatal and neonatal mortality fall as birthweight increases in both preterm and term infants. The lowest mortality is observed at 3500 to 4500 g in infants of white women. Although often thought to be at high risk, infants termed "macrosomic" include infants of the lowest mortality rate. Thus, restricting weight gain may be detrimental to the baby. Weight gain that is optimal for the mother and the baby differs according to the mother's prepregnancy weight. Pregnancy weight gain exceeding current recommendations is associated with increases in maternal fat gain, pregnancy complications, and delivery problems and should be discouraged. Postpartum weight loss is essential to prevent permanent weight increase. Smoking cessation during pregnancy, reduced postpartum physical activity, and other lifestyle changes can contribute to increased postpartum weight. Health care providers can help to reduce obesity risk by regularly monitoring women's weight; promoting appropriate prepregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, and postpartum weight less; and explicitly encouraging maintenance of an active postpartum lifestyle.

  9. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Hobel, Calvin J; Sing, Charles F

    2010-08-01

    The goals of our study were (1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and (2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analysed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy: preconception (W(0)); 16-20 weeks gestation (W(1)); 30-36 weeks gestation (W(2)), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W(01)) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W(12)); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W(12) but not W(01). Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity.

  10. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  11. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  12. More Evidence That Midlife Weight Gain Harms Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gain was linked to a 14 percent increased risk of high blood pressure and an 8 percent higher risk of heart ... their weight relatively stable over the years. The risk of high blood pressure more than doubled, and the risk of developing ...

  13. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  14. [Antipsychotic-induced weight gain--pharmacogenetic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Godlewska, Beata; Marmurowska-Michałowskal, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Drug-naive patients with schizophrenia often present metabolic abnormalities and obesity. Weight gain may be the side effect of treatment with many antipsychotic drugs. Genetic effects, besides many other factors, are known to influence obesity in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Numerous studies of several genes' polymorphisms have been performed. -759C/T polymorphism of 5HT2C gene attracted most attention. In 5 independent studies of this polymorphism the association between T allele with the lower AP-induced weight gain was detected. No associations could be detected between weight gain and other polymorphisms of serotonergic system genes as well as histaminergic system genes. Studies of adrenergic and dopaminergic system have neither produced any unambiguous results. Analysis of the newest candidate genes (SAP-25, leptin gene) confirmed the role of genetic factors in AP-induced weight gain. It is worth emphasising, that the studies have been conducted in relatively small and heterogenic groups and that various treatment strategies were used.

  15. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  16. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-07-18

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Role of 5-HT2C receptor gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism

  19. Evaluating Provider Advice and Women's Beliefs on Total Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Nkiruka V; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with complications for both mother and child. Minority women are at increased risk for excessive GWG, yet are underrepresented in published weight control interventions. To inform future interventions, we examined the prevalence and accuracy of provider advice and its association with personal beliefs about necessary maternal weight gain among predominantly Latina pregnant women. Secondary analysis examining baseline data (N = 123) from a healthy lifestyle randomized controlled trial conducted in and urban area of the South East. Only 23.6 % of women reported being told how much weight to gain during pregnancy; although 58.6 % received advice that met Institute of Medicine recommendations. Concordance of mothers' personal weight gain target with clinical recommendations varied by mothers' pre-pregnancy weight status [χ (4) (2)  = 9.781, p = 0.044]. Findings suggest the need for prenatal providers of low-income, minority women to engage patients in shaping healthy weight gain targets as a precursor to preventing excessive GWG and its complications.

  20. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  1. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  2. Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to...

  3. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  4. Gestational Weight Gain and Peripartum Cardiomyopathy in a Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsumiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclamptic twin pregnancy with larger gestational weight gain (GWG is suggested to have a higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM. This was true in a 5-year experience at a single center. A primiparous woman with twins and prepregnancy weight of 51.0 kg exhibited hypertension at gestational week (GW 32−6/7 and GWG of 18.3 kg (6.0 kg and 2.9 kg during the last four weeks and one week of gestation, resp. concomitant with generalized edema, gave birth at GW 34−4/7, developed proteinuria, cough, and dyspnea postpartum, and was diagnosed with preeclampsia and PPCM showing left ventricular ejection fraction of 34% and plasma BNP level of 1530 pg/mL. This was the only case of PPCM among 101 (12 with preeclampsia and 3266 women with twin and singleton pregnancies, respectively. Thus, PPCM occurred significantly more often in women with preeclamptic twin pregnancies than in women with singleton pregnancies (8.3% [1/12] versus 0.0% [0/3266], P=0.0355. This patient showed the greatest weight gain of 6.0 kg during the last four weeks of gestation and the greatest weight loss of 19.2 kg during one month postpartum among 90 women with twin deliveries at GW ≥ 32.

  5. Childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Felix, Janine F; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern. In western countries, the prevalence of obesity in pregnant women has strongly increased, with reported prevalence rates reaching 30%. Also, up to 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. Recent observational studies and meta-analyses strongly suggest long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and respiratory related health outcomes in their children. These observations suggest that maternal adiposity during pregnancy may program common health problems in the offspring. Currently, it remains unclear whether the observed associations are causal, or just reflect confounding by family-based sociodemographic or lifestyle-related factors. Parent-offspring studies, sibling comparison studies, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized trials can help to explore the causality and underlying mechanisms. Also, the potential for prevention of common diseases in future generations by reducing maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy needs to be explored.

  6. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane C; Campbell, Karen J; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2015-08-07

    Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women's GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women's sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Consecutive women (n = 1032) received a mailed questionnaire after their first antenatal visit to a public maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Recalled provision of GWG guidelines by doctors and midwives, recalled provided GWG goals, and the obtaining of GWG information and information sources were assessed. Participants (n = 368; 35.7% response) averaged 32.5 years of age and 20.8 weeks gestation, with 33.7% speaking a language other than English. One in ten women recalled receiving GWG guidelines from doctors or midwives, of which half were consistent with Institute of Medicine guidelines. More than half the women (55.4%) had actively sought GWG information. Nulliparous (OR 7.07, 95% CI = 3.91-12.81) and obese (OR 1.96, 95% CI = 1.05-3.65) women were more likely to seek information. Underweight (OR 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.97) women and those working part time (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28-0.97) were less likely to seek information. Most frequently reported GWG sources included the internet (82.7%), books (55.4%) and friends (51.5%). The single most important sources were identified as the internet (32.8%), general practitioners (16.9%) and books (14.9%). More than half of women were seeking GWG guidance and were more likely to consult non-clinician sources. The small numbers given GWG targets, and the dominance of non-clinical information sources, reinforces that an important opportunity to provide evidence based advice and guidance in the antenatal care setting is currently being missed.

  7. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  8. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Asagami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.

  9. Factors associated with knowledge of personal gestational weight gain recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey; Van Den Berg, Patricia; Leung, Patrick; Berens, Pamela D

    2015-08-13

    Excess adiposity (obesity and excess gestational weight gain, GWG) during pregnancy (EADP) increases risk for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and child and maternal obesity. Personal GWG goals predict total GWG. Some estimates suggest only 30% of pregnant women have personal GWG goals that are congruent with Institute of Medicine GWG recommendations. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived pre-pregnancy weight status, healthcare provider advice, knowledge of EADP risks, and value for healthy GWG predicted knowledge of GWG recommendations. The secondary purpose was to determine sources of GWG information among pregnant women. Pregnant women with a confirmed singleton pregnancy completed a one-time survey in obstetric clinic waiting rooms. Logistic regression analysis was used. 246 predominantly African American, low income, overweight/obese women completed surveys. Average age was 25 (SD 5.3) and gestation age ranged from 7 to 40 weeks. Knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight status was the only unique predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (B = .642, p = .03). The top three sources of GWG information were physicians, internet, and books. The least frequently reported sources of GWG information were other healthcare providers, community programs, and television. In low income diverse overweight/obese pregnant women, accurate pre-pregnancy weight status perception was the only significant unique predictor of knowledge of GWG recommendations. Physicians were the preferred source of GWG information. Clinicians should have frequent, ongoing conversations about weight status with women before, during, and after pregnancy.

  10. Weight gain following spinal cord injury: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Deborah A.; Little, James W.; Burns, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Study design Retrospective chart review. Objective To define the temporal course of weight gain in persons with new spinal cord injury (SCI), and to identify predictors of weight gain in this population. Setting A United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI Unit. Methods A retrospective chart review in a VA SCI Unit was conducted. Participants (n = 85) included all persons with new SCI completing initial rehabilitation at the center between 1998 and 2006. Outcome measures were mean change in body mass index (BMI) between rehabilitation admission and final follow-up, time of greatest BMI change, and distribution of participants by BMI classification. These measures were also examined relative to SCI level, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade, primary mode of mobility, and age at rehabilitation admission. Results Mean BMI increased by 2.3 kg/m2 between rehabilitation admission (mean 45 days post-injury) and final follow-up (mean 5 years post-injury). The distribution of participants shifted from lower BMI classifications at rehabilitation admission to higher BMI classifications at final follow-up. For participants transitioning from normal to overweight or obese, the greatest increase occurred during the first year after acute rehabilitation. Neurological level, impairment category, primary mode of mobility, and age at rehabilitation admission did not significantly predict BMI change. BMI at rehabilitation admission correlated significantly with BMI at final follow-up (P < 0.0005). Conclusions These findings confirm a significant increase in BMI after new SCI and suggest that persons with new SCI are at greatest weight gain risk during the first year following acute rehabilitation. PMID:21675361

  11. Is gestational weight gain associated with diet quality during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Bianchi, Leonard; Chung, Hwan; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Song, Won O

    2014-08-01

    The gestational weight gain (GWG) guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) aim to optimize birth outcomes and reduce pregnancy complications. The GWG guidelines are set based on the prepregnancy weight status and optimal weight gain at different trimesters of pregnancy. Dietary references intakes (DRIs) of the IOM are set for each trimester of pregnancy for energy intake and other essential nutrients by age groups (≤ 18, 19-30, 31-51 years). The DRIs, however, do not take into account the differing energy and nutrient requirements of women with different prepregnancy weights. In this cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that diet quality during pregnancy is associated with adequate GWG at different stages of pregnancy. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed from a 24-h recall measured by the healthy eating index of 2005 (HEI-2005). Both GWG and diet quality data were from 490 pregnant women aged 16-43 years included in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the US, during which pregnant women were oversampled. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, trimester of gestation, race/ethnicity, education level, marital status, family poverty income ratio, daily supplement use, physical activity, and prepregnancy BMI were used to investigate if HEI-2005 is a determinant of GWG status at different trimesters of pregnancy. We found that HEI-2005 scores were not determinants of adequate GWG, although inadequate intake of total vegetables (OR 3.8, CI 1.1-13.2, p = 0.03) and oils were associated with excessive GWG (OR 2.8, CI 1.2-6.4, p = 0.02) when covariates were controlled. Although adequate GWG was not associated with diet quality as measured by HEI-2005 during pregnancy in this study, comprehensive prenatal counseling is still important to reduce adverse birth outcomes.

  12. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  13. Weight Gain and Obesity in Infants and Young Children Exposed to Prolonged Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M Bruce; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2017-02-01

    An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Study, a 2-year randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants from 2007 to 2011. All 607 children who were randomized to receive antibiotic (n = 302) or placebo (n = 305) were included. Children with urinary tract anomalies, premature birth, or major comorbidities were excluded from participation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo taken orally, once daily, for 2 years. Weight gain as measured by change in weight-for-age z score from baseline to the end-of-study visit at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight gain at 6, 12, and 18 months and the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months. Participants had a median age of 12 months (range, 2-71 months) and 558 of 607 (91.9%) were female. Anthropometric data were complete at the 24-month visit for 428 children (214 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 214 in the placebo group). Weight gain in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and the placebo group was similar (mean [SD] change in weight-for-age z score: +0.14 [0.83] and +0.18 [0.85], respectively; difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.19 to 0.12]; P = .65). There was no significant difference in weight gain at 6, 12, or 18 months or in the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months (24.8% vs 25.7%; P = .82). Subgroup analyses showed no significant interaction between weight gain effect and age, sex, history of breastfeeding, prior antibiotic use, adherence to study

  14. Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: a discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, David R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss modern lifestyle factors that promote weight gain and to suggest methods for clinicians to more effectively educate patients about weight management. Most adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Multiple factors related to the modern lifestyle appear to play causal roles. In general, the population maintains sedentary lives and overconsumes calorie-dense foods. In particular, refined carbohydrates negatively impact metabolism and stimulate neural addiction mechanisms, which facilitate weight gain. As adipose tissue mass accumulates, satiation centers in the hypothalamus become resistant to insulin and leptin, which leads to increased caloric consumption. Several behavior issues further augment weight gain, such as eating too quickly, a lack of sleep, high stress levels, and a lack of exercise. Finally, adipose tissue accumulation alters the body weight set point, which leads to metabolic changes that function to resist weight loss efforts. Each of these factors may work together to augment weight gain and promote obesity. Health care providers, such as chiropractic physicians, who educate patients on wellness, prevention, and lifestyle changes are well positioned to address these issues. People need to be educated about the modern lifestyle factors that prevent effective weight management. Without this knowledge and the associated practical application of lifestyle choices that prevent weight gain, becoming overweight or obese appears to be an unavoidable consequence of living a modern lifestyle.

  15. Resistance and susceptibility to weight gain: individual variability in response to a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Stubbs, R J; Golding, C; Croden, F; Alam, R; Whybrow, S; Le Noury, J; Lawton, C L

    2005-12-15

    An obesigenic environment is a potent force for promoting weight gain. However, not all people exposed to such an environment become obese; some remain lean. This means that some people are susceptible to weight gain (in a weight-promoting environment) and others are resistant. Identifying the characteristics of appetite control and food motivation in these two groups could throw light on the causes of weight gain and how this can be either treated or prevented. We have investigated the issue experimentally by identifying people who habitually consume a high-fat diet (greater than 43% fat energy). These individuals have been termed high-fat phenotypes. We have compared individuals, of the same age (mean=37 years old) and gender (male), who have gained weight (BMI=34) or who have remained lean (BMI=22). The susceptible individuals are characterised by a cluster of characteristics including a weak satiety response to fatty meals, a maintained preference for high-fat over low-energy foods in the post-ingestive satiety period, a strong hedonic attraction to palatable foods and to eating, and high scores on the TFEQ factors of Disinhibition and Hunger. The analysis of large databases suggests that this profile of factors contributes to an average daily positive energy balance from food of approximately 0.5 MJ. This profile of characteristics helps to define the symptomatology of a thrifty phenotype.

  16. Olanzapine-high potency antipsychotic drug inducing significant weight gain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA with a high level of therapeutic effectiveness in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Along with the positive therapeutic effects, an increase of the body weight frequently occurs. According to the literature, the average weight gain is about 6-7 kg during several months of treatment. This could be valued as a moderate weight increase. CASE OUTLINE This article presents a case of a young female with schizophrenia, without clinical improvement with several antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, haloperidol and with the occurrence of significant neurological side effects. The treatment started with olanzapine (baseline was associated with good initial response (PANSS reduction 20% in the first two weeks and the improvement was maintained further on (PANSS reduction 50% after 16 weeks. Significant increase (20 kg, 40% in weight appeared during the following 16 weeks (BMI at baseline 17.9 kg/m2; BMI 16 weeks later 25.1 kg/m2. CONCLUSION High effectiveness of olanzapine in schizophrenia symptoms reduction was accompanied by a significant weight gain. However, this drug leads to impaired glucoregulation, dyslipidaemia etc. It also increases the risk of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, i.e. the main causes of mortality in schizophrenia after a suicide. Therefore, clinicians are suggested to focus on possible predictors of weight gain during olanzapine therapy, and act accordingly in order to prevent serious health consequences.

  17. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    prepregnancy BMI with cesarean delivery and were strongly associated with high postpartum weight retention. Moreover, greater weight gains and high maternal BMI decreased the risk of growth restriction and increased the risk of the infant's being born large-for-gestational-age or with a low Apgar score....... Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  18. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2008-01-01

    prepregnancy BMI with cesarean delivery and were strongly associated with high postpartum weight retention. Moreover, greater weight gains and high maternal BMI decreased the risk of growth restriction and increased the risk of the infant's being born large-for-gestational-age or with a low Apgar score....... Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby....

  19. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  20. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p 1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  1. Physical activity and gestational weight gain in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Silveira, Marushka; Lynch, Kristine E; Pekow, Penelope; Solomon, Caren G; Markenson, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic women have high rates of excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Observational studies suggest that physical activity may be associated with GWG but have been conflicting and were largely conducted in non-Hispanic white populations. The association between physical activity and compliance with GWG guidelines, total GWG, and rate of GWG among 1,276 Hispanic participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a cohort study in Western Massachusetts was prospectively evaluated. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess pre, early, mid, and late pregnancy physical activity according to both intensity (i.e., sedentary, moderate, and vigorous) and type (i.e., housework/caregiving, occupational, and sports/exercise). A total of 26.9% of women gained within IOM guidelines, 21.2% had inadequate GWG, and 51.9% experienced excessive GWG. Overall, we did not observe statistically significant associations between type or intensity of physical activity during pre, early, mid, and late pregnancy and inadequate or excessive GWG, total GWG, or rate of GWG. In this prospective cohort study of Hispanic women, after controlling for important risk factors, pregnancy physical activity did not appear to be associated with GWG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Unhealthy eating behaviors and weight gain: A prospective study in young and middle-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz M; García-Esquinas, Esther; Soler-Vila, Hosanna; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for obesity prevention recommend reducing certain unhealthy eating behaviors (UEB). However, the association between UEB and weight gain is uncertain. Prospective cohort with 1,638 individuals aged 18-60 years was recruited in 2008-2010. UEB assessed at baseline were: not planning how much to eat, consuming pre-cooked/canned food, buying snacks, eating in fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-calorie foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV or seating on a sofa. Participants were followed up through 2012 to assess weight change. Compared to reporting 0-2 UEB, the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg were 0.97 (0.74-1.28) for 3-4 UEB and 1.61 (1.09-2.39) for ≥5 UEB, P-trend = 0.07. Results were similar for gaining ≥5 kg. The three UEB with the strongest associations with weight gain were: 1) not planning the amount of food to eat, 2) eating at fast-food restaurants, and 3) eating while watching TV; compared to having none of these three behaviors, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg was 1.54 (0.77-3.08) for 1 UEB, 1.70 (0.85-3.37) for 2 UEB, and 2.75 (1.28-5.90) for 3 UEB, P-trend = 0.007. Similar results were obtained for gaining ≥5 kg. Several UEB are associated with weight gain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Physician counseling of young adults with rapid weight gain: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Jason

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of weight gain is highest during young adulthood. Our study aims to describe weight gain patterns among young adults and to evaluate physician recognition of and counseling for rapid weight gain. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients ages 18-35 at an academic internal medicine clinic between 2004-2008. We conducted chart reviews to determine weight change over time, whether weight gain greater than 3 lbs/year was documented, whether counseling was provided, and whether patients became overweight. We categorized weight gain documentation by location on the problem list, encounter diagnosis, or note text. We categorized counseling as weight-specific or general diet and exercise counseling. We used Chi-square tests to evaluate the relationship between weight change over time and the following variables: gender, diagnosis of weight gain, and counseling for weight gain. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for an association between diagnosis and counseling category. Results The study included 365 patients. Weight gain was greater than 3 lbs/year for 24% (90/365 of patients, of whom 56 (15% gained 3-5.9 lbs/year, and 34 (9% gained more than 6 lbs/year. Among patients gaining more than 3 lbs/year, physicians documented weight gain as a problem in only 10% (9/90. Of the 9 patients for whom weight gain was documented, physicians provided weight-specific counseling in three, and general diet and exercise counseling in four. Of the 81 individuals with no documented diagnosis of weight gain, 63% had no documented counseling, but 34% received general diet and exercise counseling. Among patients with over 180 days of follow-up, 8% (10/126 became overweight. Conclusions Physicians infrequently recognize or counsel for weight gain among young adult patients. Improving identification of patients with rapid weight gain can provide an opportunity for tailored weight-related counseling.

  4. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  5. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  6. Prediction of excessive weight gain in insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Johansen, Mette D.;

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight gain is an ongoing challenge when initiating insulin therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, if prediction of insulin associated weight gain was possible on an individualized level, targeted initiatives could be implemented to reduce weight gain. The objective...... of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain in insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in addition to metformin or placebo, randomized into 18-month treatment groups with three different insulin analogue...... treatment regimens. Participants with excessive weight gain were defined as the group with weight gain in the 4(th) quartile. We developed a pattern classification method to predict individuals prone to excessive weight gain. RESULTS: The median weight gain among all patients (n = 412) was 2.4 (95...

  7. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  8. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptin signaling in adipose tissue: role in lipid accumulation and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Peterson, Timothy E; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Glenn, Jason A; Davison, Diane E; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Jensen, Michael D; Somers, Virend K

    2012-08-17

    The link between obesity, hyperleptinemia, and development of cardiovascular disease is not completely understood. Increases in leptin have been shown to impair leptin signaling via caveolin-1-dependent mechanisms. However, the role of hyperleptinemia versus impaired leptin signaling in adipose tissue is not known. To determine the presence and significance of leptin-dependent increases in adipose tissue caveolin-1 expression in humans. We designed a longitudinal study to investigate the effects of increases in leptin on adipose tissue caveolin-1 expression during weight gain in humans. Ten volunteers underwent 8 weeks of overfeeding, during which they gained an average weight of 4.1±1.4 kg, with leptin increases from 7±3.8 to 12±5.7 ng/mL. Weight gain also resulted in changes in adipose tissue caveolin-1 expression, which correlated with increases in leptin (rho=0.79, P=0.01). In cultured human white preadipocytes, leptin increased caveolin-1 expression, which in turn impaired leptin cellular signaling. Functionally, leptin decreased lipid accumulation in differentiating human white preadipocytes, which was prevented by caveolin-1 overexpression. Further, leptin decreased perilipin and fatty acid synthase expression, which play an important role in lipid storage and biogenesis. In healthy humans, increases in leptin, as seen with modest weight gain, may increase caveolin-1 expression in adipose tissue. Increased caveolin-1 expression in turn impairs leptin signaling and attenuates leptin-dependent lowering of intracellular lipid accumulation. Our study suggests a leptin-dependent feedback mechanism that may be essential to facilitate adipocyte lipid storage during weight gain.

  10. Differential effects of leptin on adiponectin expression with weight gain versus obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Sharma, P; Sahakyan, K R; Davison, D E; Sert-Kuniyoshi, F H; Romero-Corral, A; Swain, J M; Jensen, M D; Lopez-Jimenez, F; Kara, T; Somers, V K

    2016-02-01

    Adiponectin exerts beneficial effects by reducing inflammation and improving lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Although the adiponectin level is lower in obese individuals, whether weight gain reduces adiponectin expression in humans is controversial. We sought to investigate the role of weight gain, and consequent changes in leptin, on altering adiponectin expression in humans. Forty-four normal-weight healthy subjects were recruited (mean age 29 years; 14 women) and randomized to either gain 5% of body weight by 8 weeks of overfeeding (n=34) or maintain weight (n=10). Modest weight gain of 3.8±1.2 kg resulted in increased adiponectin level (P=0.03), whereas weight maintenance resulted in no changes in adiponectin. Further, changes in adiponectin correlated positively with changes in leptin (P=0.0085). In-vitro experiments using differentiated human white preadipocytes showed that leptin increased adiponectin mRNA and protein expression, whereas a leptin antagonist had opposite effects. To understand the role of leptin in established obesity, we compared adipose tissue samples obtained from normal-weight versus obese subjects. We noted, first, that leptin activated cellular signaling pathways and increased adiponectin mRNA in the adipose tissue from normal-weight participants, but did not do so in the adipose tissue from obese participants. Second, we noted that obese subjects had increased caveolin-1 expression, which attenuates leptin-dependent increases in adiponectin. Modest weight gain in healthy individuals is associated with increases in adiponectin levels, which correlate positively with changes in leptin. In vitro, leptin induces adiponectin expression, which is attenuated by increased caveolin-1 expression. In addition, the adipose tissue from obese subjects shows increased caveolin-1 expression and impaired leptin signaling. This leptin signal impairment may prevent concordant increases in adiponectin levels in obese subjects despite their

  11. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  12. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild; Knüppel, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population.......Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population....

  13. Effects of nutritional management intervention on gestational weight gain and perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Dong; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Jin

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether nutritional management intervention can prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and improve perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study included 276 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care between June 2010 and December 2011 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Second Affiliate Hospital of the ChongQing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China. Of them, 131 women received individualized nutritional management in addition to routine prenatal care (intervention group), and 145 women received only routine prenatal care (control group). The primary study outcome was gestational weight gain (GWG). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, Apgar score, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Baseline demographic characteristics of the 2 groups were the same. The average GWG was higher in the control group (12.57+/-4.62 kg) compared with the intervention group (7.58+/-1.59 kg; p=0.000). The incidence rate of preeclampsia was 3.1% and gestational diabetes was 3.8% for the intervention group, compared with 11% for preeclampsia and 14.5% gestational diabetes for the control group (p<0.05). The incidence rates of premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, birth weight, birth of a newborn, and major congenital anomalies did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Nutritional management intervention prevented excessive GWG and improved perinatal outcomes. These results support the hypothesis that nutritional management intervention can decrease the rate of complications experienced by expecting mothers. 

  14. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...

  15. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  16. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  17. Estimation of the benchmark duration of shiftwork associated with weight gain in male Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumihiko; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Morimoto, Hideki; Nakada, Satoru; Uetani, Mirei; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi

    2010-10-01

    The authors estimated the benchmark durations (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limit (BMDL) for the reference duration of shiftwork for weight gain. A 14-yr prospective cohort study was conducted in male workers at a Japanese steel company (n = 7254) who had received annual health check-ups between 1991 and 2005. The endpoints in the study were either a 5%, 7.5%, or 10% increase in body mass index (BMI) during the period of observation, compared to the BMI at entry. The association between the duration of shiftwork and weight gain was investigated using multivariate pooled logistic regression analyses with stepwise selection of covariates, including age, BMI measured during the study, drinking and smoking habits, and habitual exercise. The BMDL/BMD for shiftwork in subjects aged in their 40s or ≥50 yrs was estimated using benchmark responses (BMRs) of 5% or 10% and parameters for the duration of shiftwork and other covariates. For workers aged in their 40s, the BMDL/BMD for shiftwork with a BMR of 5% was 18.6/23.0 yrs (≥7.5%) and 16.9/19.4 yrs (≥10%). For workers aged ≥50 yrs, the BMDL/BMD with a BMR of 5% was 22.9/28.2 yrs (≥7.5%) and 20.6/23.6 yrs (≥10%). The reference duration of shiftwork that associated with weight gain was shown to be at least 17 yrs in middle-aged workers. Special attention should be paid to prevent weight gain at an earlier stage and not when this increase in weight has become apparent.

  18. The consequences of obesity and excess weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Reynolds, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in pregnancy is rising exponentially; about 15-20% of pregnant women now enter pregnancy with a BMI which would define them as obese. This paper provides a review of the strong links between obesity and adverse pregnancy outcome which operate across a range of pregnancy complications. For example, obesity is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolism, pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Obesity also complicates operative delivery; it makes operative delivery more difficult, increases complications and paradoxically increases the need for operative delivery. The risk of the majority of these complications is amplified by excess weight gain in pregnancy and increases in proportion to the degree of obesity, for example, women with extreme obesity have OR of 7·89 for gestational diabetes and 3·84 for postpartum haemorrhage compared to their lean counterparts. The consequences of maternal obesity do not stop once the baby is born. Maternal obesity programmes a variety of long-term adverse outcomes, including obesity in the offspring at adulthood. Such an effect is mediated at least in part via high birthweight; a recent study has suggested that the odds of adult obesity are two-fold greater in babies weighing more than 4 kg at birth. The mechanism by which obesity causes adverse pregnancy outcome is uncertain. This paper reviews the emerging evidence that hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may both play a role: the links between hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and both increased birthweight and insulin resistance have been demonstrated in two large studies. Lastly, we discuss the nature and rationale for possible intervention strategies in obese pregnant women.

  19. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  20. Compact Weighted Class Association Rule Mining using Information Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, S P Syed

    2011-01-01

    Weighted association rule mining reflects semantic significance of item by considering its weight. Classification constructs the classifier and predicts the new data instance. This paper proposes compact weighted class association rule mining method, which applies weighted association rule mining in the classification and constructs an efficient weighted associative classifier. This proposed associative classification algorithm chooses one non class informative attribute from dataset and all the weighted class association rules are generated based on that attribute. The weight of the item is considered as one of the parameter in generating the weighted class association rules. This proposed algorithm calculates the weight using the HITS model. Experimental results show that the proposed system generates less number of high quality rules which improves the classification accuracy.

  1. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standar...

  2. Almost all antipsychotics result in weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bak

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics (AP induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss. Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6-16 weeks, 16-38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. RESULTS: 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. CONCLUSION: Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced.

  3. Acute partial sleep deprivation due to environmental noise increases weight gain by reducing energy expenditure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jennifer B; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD. Three-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats slept ad libitum, were noise exposed (12-h light cycle), and allowed to recover (36 h). Weight gain, food intake, sleep/wake, physical activity, and EE were measured. Acute environmental noise exposure had no effect on feeding, increased weight gain (P sleep (P sleep, rest, and physical activity reduce total EE and contribute to weight gain during acute SD and recovery from SD. These data emphasize the importance of increasing physical activity after SD to prevent obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Body weight gain and serum leptin levels of non-overweight and overweight/obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano Filho, Didier Silveira; do Amaral Correa, José Otávio; Dos Santos Ramos, Plínio; de Oliveira Montessi, Marina; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2013-11-22

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in serum leptin levels during pregnancy in overweight/obese and non-obese women and to assess total and percent weight gain during pregnancy as possible factors that influence leptin levels. In a prospective study of 42 low-risk pregnant women receiving prenatal care, we assessed serum leptin levels at gestational weeks 9-12, 25-28, and 34-37. Based on their pre-pregnancy body mass indices (BMIs), the cohort was divided into: non-overweight (BMI pregnant women had a noticeably larger total weight gain. When analyzing the percent weight gain during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy weight, the non-overweight group had a significantly greater percent weight gain than the overweight/obese group. Our results suggest that the greater increase in leptin levels in non-overweight pregnant women can be explained by the higher percent weight gain in this group compared to overweight/obese women. These findings suggest that controlling the percent weight gain may be an important preventive measure when controlling leptin levels during pregnancy and subsequent medical complications.

  5. Excess Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy and the Role of Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rebecca; Teede, Helena; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Boyle, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    With increasingly adverse lifestyles, young women in many countries have rapid weight gain and rising obesity. In keeping with this, most pregnant women exceed recommended gestational weight gain (GWG) and then retain weight postpartum. The consequences of excess GWG include maternal risks during pregnancy, neonatal risks and maternal obesity and chronic disease longer term, presenting a significant public health and economic burden worldwide. This article discusses the adverse maternal and infant risks with excess GWG apparent from observational studies, summarizes the existing guidelines for optimal GWG and highlights the need for further research to identify optimal GWG recommendations across the different ethnicities and weight ranges.We also review the evidence for lifestyle interventions in pregnancy to prevent excess GWG and highlighting the work underway to integrate large scale meta-analyses of individual patient data from lifestyle intervention studies to inform clinical practice beyond current observational data. Finally, we address the need to implement lifestyle interventions into routine pregnancy care to improve short and long term maternal health outcomes.

  6. Medical Care Costs Associated With Long-term Weight Maintenance Versus Weight Gain Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Bell, Kelly; Kimes, Teresa M; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen

    2016-11-01

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight patients with diabetes but avoidance of weight gain may be a more realistic goal. We calculated the 4-year economic impact of maintaining body weight versus gaining weight. Among 8,154 patients with type 2 diabetes, we calculated weight change as the difference between the first body weight measure in 2010 and the last measure in 2013 and calculated mean glycated hemoglobin (A1C) from all measurements from 2010 to 2013. We created four analysis groups: weight change costs between 2010 and 2013, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients who maintained weight within 5% of baseline experienced a reduction in costs of about $400 regardless of A1C. In contrast, patients who gained ≥5% of baseline weight and had mean A1C ≥7% had an increase in costs of $1,473 (P 5% of their baseline weight with mean A1C costs ($387, NS). Patients who gained at least 5% of their baseline body weight and did not maintain A1C costs, whereas those who maintained good glycemic control had a mean cost increase of 3.3%. However, patients who maintained weight within 5% of baseline had costs that were ∼5% lower than baseline. Avoidance of weight gain may reduce costs in the long-term. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. The Association of FTO SNP rs9939609 with Weight Gain at University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, S.F.; Beeken, R.J.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We tested the hypothesis that the obesity-associated FTO SNP rs9939609 would be associated with clinically significant weight gain (>/= 5% of initial body weight) in the first year of university; a time identified as high risk for weight gain. METHODS: We collected anthropometric data from

  8. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  9. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  10. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild; Knüppel, Sven;

    2013-01-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population....

  11. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  12. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  13. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  14. Succession of the turkey gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome related to weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Danzeisen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns related to the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, antibiotic-free alternatives are greatly needed to prevent disease and promote animal growth. One of the current challenges facing commercial turkey production in Minnesota is difficulty obtaining flock average weights typical of the industry standard, and this condition has been coined “Light Turkey Syndrome” or LTS. This condition has been identified in Minnesota turkey flocks for at least five years, and it has been observed that average flock body weights never approach their genetic potential. However, a single causative agent responsible for these weight reductions has not been identified despite numerous efforts to do so. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community composition within the small intestines of heavy and light turkey flocks using 16S rRNA sequencing, and to identify possible correlations between microbiome and average flock weight. This study also sought to define the temporal succession of bacteria occurring in the turkey ileum. Based upon 2.7 million sequences across nine different turkey flocks, dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified and compared between the flocks studied. OTUs that were associated with heavier weight flocks included those with similarity to Candidatus division Arthromitus and Clostridium bartlettii, while these flocks had decreased counts of several Lactobacillus species compared to lighter weight flocks. The core bacterial microbiome succession in commercial turkeys was also defined. Several defining markers of microbiome succession were identified, including the presence or abundance of Candidatus division Arthromitus, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Clostridium bartlettii. Overall, the succession of the ileum bacterial microbiome in commercial turkeys proceeds in a predictable manner. Efforts to prevent disease and promote growth in

  15. Factors that influence excessive gestational weight gain: moving beyond assessment and counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Emily E; Dworatzek, Paula D N; Penava, Debbie; de Vrijer, Barbra; Gilliland, Jason; Matthews, June I; Seabrook, Jamie A

    2016-11-01

    One in four Canadian adults is obese, and more women are entering pregnancy with a higher body mass index (BMI) than in the past. Pregnant women who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications than women of normal weight. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is also associated with childhood obesity. Although the factors influencing weight gain during pregnancy are multifaceted, little is known about the social inequality of GWG. This review will address some of the socioeconomic factors and maternal characteristics influencing weight gain and the impact that excessive GWG has on health outcomes such as post-partum weight retention. The effects of an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy BMI on GWG and neonatal outcomes will also be addressed. The timing of weight gain is also important, as recommendations now include trimester-specific guidelines. While not conclusive, preliminary evidence suggests that excessive weight gain during the first trimester is most detrimental.

  16. Complications of fat grafts growth after weight gain: report of a severe diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Alexandre; Chennoufi, Mehdi; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael

    2013-07-01

    A 47 years old woman underwent autologous fat grafting to treat a 5×4 cm depression of the lower lid and the upper cheek secondary resection of squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent coverage by full thickness skin graft. 20 mL of autologous fat were harvested from lower abdomen, centrifuged and injected subcutaneously. The patient then gained a total of 15 kg over a period of 24 months. Eye dystopia developed while the grafted area became convex. MRI confirmed subcutaneous fat mass going to the orbital floor through the inferior septal defect. The fat excess was removed through a trans-conjonctival approach allowing for a progressive regression of diplopia after 2 months while the oedema reduced. The overall follow up from the resection-coverage and last examination was 5 years. In this case with a context of noticeable weight gain, the growth of a fat graft trapped between a sclerous plane and the eye, that penetrated the orbital cavity through a septal defect led have led to exophthalmos, ocular dystopia and diplopia. Systematic overcorrection in autologous fat grafting should be prevented, especially in functional areas and on low body mass index patient that might gain weight.

  17. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  18. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Rachel F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37 and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite. Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity.

  19. Investigating College Learning Gain: Exploring a Propensity Score Weighting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Liu, Huili; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes assessment has been widely used by higher education institutions both nationally and internationally. One of its popular uses is to document learning gains of students. Prior studies have recognized the potential imbalance between freshmen and seniors in terms of their background characteristics and their prior academic…

  20. Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is related to higher anthropometric measurements in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, H; Shirasawa, T; Ochiai, H; Nomoto, S; Hoshino, H; Kokaze, A

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between rapid weight gain during infancy and/or early childhood and anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in preadolescence by sex. Subjects were fourth-grade school children (aged 9 to 10 years) from elementary schools in Ina-town, Japan, in 2010. Measurements of height, weight, %BF and WC were conducted for each subject. We obtained data on height and weight of subjects at birth, age 1.5 years and age 3 years from the Maternal and Child Health handbook. Rapid weight gain was defined as a change in weight-for-age standard deviation score greater than 0.67 from birth to age 1.5 years (infancy) or from age 1.5 to 3 years (early childhood). All anthropometric variables (BMI, %BF, WC and WHtR) at age 9 to 10 years were significantly higher in the rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood period group than in the no rapid weight gain group, regardless of sex. When compared with the no rapid weight gain group, rapid weight gain during early childhood period had significantly higher BMI and WC in boys and BMI, %BF and WC in girls. Compared with the no rapid weight gain group, the rapid weight gain during infancy group had a significantly higher WC in boys and significantly higher BMI and WC in girls. Rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood was related to higher anthropometric measurements, including WHtR, among Japanese preadolescents, regardless of sex. This study suggests that rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood may be a risk factor for general/abdominal obesity later in life. © 2017 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain side effect by using betahistine: a study in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H₁ receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H₁ receptor agonist and H₃ receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H₃ receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H₁ receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects.

  2. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  3. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  4. Association of second and third trimester weight gain in pregnancy with maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Drehmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. METHODS: Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional--EBDG. Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA. Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.33, and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31; in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70 and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.44. Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.96 than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. CONCLUSION: Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy.

  5. Gaining effciency via weighted estimators for multivariate failure time data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate failure time data arise frequently in survival analysis.A commonly used tech-nique is the working independence estimator for marginal hazard models.Two natural questions are how to improve the effciency of the working independence estimator and how to identify the situations under which such an estimator has high statistical effciency.In this paper,three weighted estimators are proposed based on three different optimal criteria in terms of the asymptotic covariance of weighted estimators.Simplifiedclose-form solutions are found,which always outperform the working indepen-dence estimator.We also prove that the working independence estimator has high statistical effciency,when asymptotic covariance of derivatives of partial log-likelihood functions is nearly exchangeable or diagonal.Simulations are conducted to compare the performance of the weighted estimator and work-ing independence estimator.A data set from Busselton population health surveys is analyzed using the proposed estimators.

  6. Low-dose Naltrexone Augmentation of Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation with Reduced Weight Gain: A Randomized Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A.; White, Marney; Wu, Ran; Meandzija, Boris; Jatlow, Peter; Makuch, Robert; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fear of weight gain is a significant obstacle to smoking cessation, preventing some smokers from attempting to quit. Several previous studies of naltrexone yielded promising results for minimization of post-quit weight gain. Given these encouraging findings, we endeavored to test whether minimization of weight gain might translate to better quit outcomes for a population that is particularly concerned about gaining weight upon quitting. Methods Smokers (N = 172) in this investigation were prospectively randomized to receive either 25 mg naltrexone or placebo for 27 weeks (1 week pre-, 26 weeks post-quit) for minimization of post-quit weight gain and smoking cessation. All participants received open label therapy with the nicotine patch for the first 8 weeks post-quit and behavioral counseling over the 27 week treatment. The 2 pre-specified primary outcomes were change in weight for continuously abstinent participants and biologically verified end-of-treatment 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 26 weeks after the quit date. Results The difference in weight at 26 weeks post-quit between the naltrexone and placebo groups (naltrexone: 6.8 lbs ± 8.94 vs placebo: 9.7 lbs ± 9.19, p = .45) was not statistically different. Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks post-quit was not significantly different between the 2 groups (naltrexone: 22% vs placebo: 27%, p = .43). Conclusions For smokers high in weight concern, the relatively small reduction in weight gain with low dose naltrexone is not worth the potential for somewhat lower rates of smoking abstinence. PMID:20542391

  7. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  8. Assessing Weight Gain by the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines and Perinatal Outcomes in Twin Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Tulin; Bacak, Stephen J; Zozzaro-Smith, Paula; Li, Dongmei; Sagcan, Seyhan; Seligman, Neil; Glantz, Christopher J

    2016-07-23

    Objective The objective is to estimate the impact of maternal weight gain outside the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. Study Design Twin pregnancies with two live births between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 delivered after 23 weeks Finger Lakes Region Perinatal Data System (FLRPDS) and Central New York Region Perinatal Data System were included. Women were classified into three groups using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Perinatal outcomes in women with low or excessive weekly maternal weight gain were assessed using normal weekly weight gain as the referent in each BMI group. Results Low weight gain increased the risk of preterm delivery, birth weight less than the 10th percentile for one or both twins and decreased risk of macrosomia across all BMI groups. There was a decreased risk of hypertensive disorders in women with normal pre-pregnancy weight and an increased risk of gestational diabetes with low weight gain in obese women. Excessive weight gain increased the risk of hypertensive disorders and macrosomia across all BMI groups and decreased the risk of birth weight less than 10th percentile one twin in normal pre-pregnancy BMI group. Conclusion Among twin pregnancies, low weight gain is associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery in all BMI groups and increased risk of gestational diabetes in obese women. Our study did not reveal any benefit from excessive weekly weight gain with potential harm of an increase in risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Normal weight gain per 2009 IOM guidelines should be encouraged to improve pregnancy outcome in all pre-pregnancy BMI groups.

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  10. Annual and spatial variability in gains of body weight in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, J.J.; Cadée, G.C.A.; Dekker, R.; Philippart, C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a long-term field study on the simultaneous influence of 2 environmental factors (temperature and food supply) on annual growth rates in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica. For > 30 y (1978–2009) we monitored twice-annually the weight changes of soft par

  11. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, A S; Skuladottir, G V; Thorsdottir, I; Hauksson, A; Steingrimsdottir, L

    2006-03-01

    To identify dietary factors related to the risk of gaining weight outside recommendations for pregnancy weight gain and birth outcome. An observational study with free-living conditions. Four hundred and ninety five healthy pregnant Icelandic women. The dietary intake of the women was estimated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering food intake together with lifestyle factors for the previous 3 months. Questionnaires were filled out at between 11 and 15 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. Comparison of birth outcome between the three weight gain groups was made with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Dietary factors related to at least optimal and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were represented with logistic regression controlling for potential confounding. Of the women, 26% gained suboptimal and 34% excessive weight during pregnancy. Women in late pregnancy with at least optimal, compared with women with suboptimal, weight gain were eating more (OR = 3.32, confidence interval (CI)=1.81-6.09, P lifestyle modifications affecting consequent weight gain during pregnancy. They are most likely to gain excessive weight and therefore most likely to suffer pregnancy and delivery complications and struggle with increasing overweight and obesity after giving birth.

  13. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  14. Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring body mass index and obesity from infancy through adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2010-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....

  15. Genetic factors as predictors of weight gain in young adult Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J.C.; Bouchard, C.; Baak, van M.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Chagnon, M.; Graaf, de C.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in several candidate genes for obesity and weight gain. Polymorphisms in these genes may contribute to weight gain through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or adipogenesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: From two large cohorts in T

  16. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  17. The "Freshman 5": A Meta-Analysis of Weight Gain in the Freshman Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To use the available research to estimate the amount of weight gained by college freshman during their first year of college. (2) To identify potential predictors of freshman weight gain. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted in November 2008. The analysis focused on articles published in English scientific journals between 1985…

  18. Genetic factors as predictors of weight gain in young adult Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J.C.; Bouchard, C.; Baak, van M.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Chagnon, M.; Graaf, de C.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in several candidate genes for obesity and weight gain. Polymorphisms in these genes may contribute to weight gain through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or adipogenesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: From two large cohorts in

  19. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-07-16

    Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P feed intake for the high group was less (P feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.

  20. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  1. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J.; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  2. Can metformin limit weight gain in the obese with pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal overweight and obesity is associated with many obstetric complications. Obesity is linked to insulin resistance. Improving insulin sensitivity may therefore account for weight reduction. Metformin was found to be effective in type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome through improving insulin sensitivity. Several studies proved its efficacy in the obese non- pregnants, but its role during pregnancy is not yet well-established. In this study, we are testing the abil...

  3. The Midwest Exercise Trial for the Prevention of Weight Regain: MET POWeR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Washburn, Richard A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Jaehoon; Szabo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Weight reduction in overweight and obese individual’s results in physiological and behavioral changes that make the prevention of weight regain more difficult than either initial weight loss or the prevention of weight gain. Exercise is recommended for the prevention of weight regain by both governmental agencies and professional organizations. To date, the effectiveness of exercise recommendations for the prevention of weight regain has not been evaluated in a properly designed, adequately powered trial. Therefore, we will conduct a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 levels of exercise on the prevention of weight regain, in initially overweight and obese sedentary men and women. Participants will complete a 3 month weight loss intervention of decreased energy intake (EI) and increased exercise (100 minutes/week). Participants achieving clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5% of initial weight), will then be randomly assigned to 12 months of verified exercise at 3 levels (150, 225 or 300 minutes/week). This study will evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of 3 levels of exercise on the prevention of weight regain over 12 months subsequent to clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5%); 2) gender differences in weight regain in response to 3 levels of exercise; and 3) potential compensatory changes in daily physical activity (PA) and EI on weight regain in response to 3 levels of exercise. Results of this investigation will provide information to develop evidenced based recommendations for the level of exercise associated with the prevention of weight regain. PMID:24012915

  4. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, E; Malavolti, M; Bertarini, V; Pignatti, L; Neri, I; Battistini, N C; Facchinetti, F

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether changes in lifestyle in women with BMI > 25 could decrease gestational weight gain and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Women with BMI > 25 were randomized at 1st trimester to no intervention or a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Program including diet (overweight: 1700 kcal/day, obese: 1800 kcal/day) and mild physical activity (30 min/day, 3 times/week). At baseline and at the 36th week women filled-in a Food Frequency Questionnaire. gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery. Data stratified by BMI categories. Socio-demographic features were similar between groups (TLC: 33 cases, 28 cases). At term, gestational weight gain in obese women randomized to TLC group was lower (6.7 ± 4.3 kg) versus controls (10.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.047). Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension and preterm delivery were also significantly lower. TLC was an independent factor in preventing gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension. Significant changes in eating habits occurred in the TLC group, which increased the number of snacks, the intake of fruits-vegetables and decreased the consumption of sugar. A caloric restriction associated to changes in eating behavior and constant physical activity, is able to reduce gestational weight gain and related pregnancy complications in obese women.

  5. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ....001) and prevalence of large-for-gestational-age infants (48 vs. 20%; P women with non-excessive gestational weight gain, the median weight gain in the first half of pregnancy was 371, 114 and 81 g/week, and in the second half of pregnancy 483, 427 and 439 g....../week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06-0.14), P

  6. Relationship of postdialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Rafiquee, Zahid; Shafi, Tahir

    2007-08-01

    To assess the relationship of postdialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A descriptive study. Hemodialysis Department, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from May to October 2006. A total of 50 adult patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled for the study with nonprobability convenience sampling technique. Pre-, post- and pre-next dialysis serum sodium were measured in each patient and their weights were recorded. Intradialytic sodium gains (delta Na1=postdialysis minus pre-dialysis sodium), interdialytic sodium fall (delta Na2 = previous postdialysis sodium minus pre subsequent dialysis sodium), and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) (IDWG = weight, pre subsequent dialysis weight minus previous postdialysis weight) were computed. The relationship between delta Na1 and delta Na 2 with interdialytic weight gain was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. There were 26 males and 24 females. The mean age of the patients was 49.6+/-14.5 years, and mean duration of HD was 40.9+/-40.8 months. The mean sodium gain during the session (delta Na1) was 4.0+/-3.1 and mean sodium fall in interdialytic period (delta Na2) was 4.2+/-2.7. The mean interdialytic weight gain was 2+/-0.8 Kg. The relationship between deltaNa1 and delta Na2 with interdialytic weight gain was statistically non-significant (r - .048, p = 0.739 and r = .019, P = 0 .897 respectively). The trend towards higher post dialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain was not statistically significant. Studies are needed with measurement of serum osmolality and investigation of other factors affecting interdialytic weight gain like dietary habits and medication etc.

  7. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  8. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Restall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  9. Association Between Gestational Weight Gain According to Body Mass Index and Postpartum Weight in a Large Cohort of Danish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses...... on data based on questionnaires from 1,898 women from the "Smoke-free Newborn Study" conducted 1996-1999 at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Relationship between GWG and PWR was examined according to BMI as a continuous variable and in four groups. Association between PWR and GWG according to IOM...... weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining = 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women...

  10. Effect of body image on gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Turnbull, Deborah; Dodd, Jodie

    2013-12-01

    There is little information available describing how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their bodies, and in particular the effect of body image dissatisfaction on gestational weight gain. To describe how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their body, and the effect of body image on gestational weight gain. This prospective nested cohort study evaluated self estimation of body weight, preferred body shape, dieting behavior, satisfaction with body weight and shape, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women who were overweight or obese, through self-completed questionnaire in early pregnancy in South Australia from October 2010 to February 2012. Of the 442 women who completed the questionnaire, 25.8% correctly identified their BMI, with 70.1% under-estimating and 4.1% over-estimating their BMI. Women who were obese were significantly less likely to correctly identify their BMI, as were younger women. Women who incorrectly identified their BMI were significantly more likely to have higher gestational weight gain (Pwomen indicated dissatisfaction with their weight or body shape, with this being more common in women of higher parity and higher BMI. Dissatisfaction was significantly related to gestational weight gain. Women who report increasing dissatisfaction with their body size and shape are more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Further research should explore insights about maternal body image and diet related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-lived success: assessment of an intervention to improve pregnancy weight gain in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sue; Tolliver, Rickey; Schwalberg, Renee

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate weight gain in pregnancy is a major contributor to low birth weight in Colorado, where the low birth weight rate is among the highest in the nation. In 2004, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment implemented a population-based intervention in 9 counties, including provider training and a public media campaign, to encourage pregnant women to gain an adequate amount of weight in pregnancy as defined by the 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey data were used to track weight gain in pregnancy in 1997 through 2004 (baseline), 2005 (post-intervention), and 2006 and 2007 (after the intervention had concluded). During the period immediately after the implementation of the intervention, the percentage of women delivering in the 9 study counties who gained an inadequate amount of weight during pregnancy dropped from 18.4 at baseline to 12.8 in 2005. However, this progress was reversed in 2006, when the percentage of women with inadequate weight gain rose to 19.7. Training providers to educate women about the importance of adequate weight gain in pregnancy, in conjunction with a social marketing campaign, appears to be a promising approach to addressing a major contributor to low birth weight. However, a time-limited intervention is likely to have temporary results.

  12. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  13. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  14. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment.

  15. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weightweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  16. Health behaviours of pregnant women and gestational weight gains – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy may exert a negative effect on the development of the foetus, the course of pregnancy, and later the state of health of the mother and her baby. Due to the unfavourable health consequences of abnormal body weight gains in expectant mothers studies of the factors that determine the amount of these gains are important. Aim of the research : Evaluation of the relationship between health behaviours in pregnancy, nutritional status before pregnancy, selected socio-demographic factors, and gestational weight gain. Material and methods : The investigation included 274 women. Using a questionnaire, information was collected pertaining to the place of residence, age, body height and weight, cigarette smoking, and eating habits during pregnancy. The total weight gain during pregnancy was calculated as the difference between perinatal weight and pre-pregnancy body weight. Gestational weight gains were classified as low, recommended, or high. Results: Increased risk of high weight gain was associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages (odds ratio (OR = 2.82, especially beer (OR = 2.72, high consumption of products supplying proteins of animal origin (OR = 2.87, and overweight before pregnancy (OR = 3.37, as well as the delivery being the mother’s first, compared to the third and subsequent childbirth (OR = 4.17. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a need for health education among females at reproductive age in order to reduce excess weight before conception, and promotion of adequate health behaviours in pregnancy, which would allow the maintenance of normal weight gain during this period.

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Ishøy, Pelle L

    2012-01-01

    between schizophrenia and overweight patients. DISCUSSION: Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogues used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss...

  18. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  19. Psychological responses to genetic testing for weight gain: a vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susanne F; Walker, Catherine; Wardle, Jane

    2012-03-01

    Genetic testing for obesity risk is increasingly available to the public but few studies have examined motivational or affective reactions. Here we report findings from a "vignette" study investigating reactions to "higher-risk" and "average-risk" results for the obesity-related FTO gene in two groups: a panel sample of individuals with weight concerns, for whom testing may have treatment implications (n = 306, mean age = 45 years, mean BMI = 35) and a student sample (n = 395, mean age = 25 years, mean BMI = 23), for whom testing would have implications for obesity prevention. Participants were given FTO gene information that described higher-risk alleles as linked with modest weight gain and slightly higher risk of obesity. They responded to both higher- and average-risk vignettes, with order randomized. Interest in genetic testing was high overall, and higher in panel respondents than students (93% vs. 78% would "probably" or "definitely" have the test; P testing has the potential to be a useful clinical or preventive tool when combined with appropriate information.

  20. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  1. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  2. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  3. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  4. Maternal pregnancy weight gain and cord blood iron status are associated with eosinophilia in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, R; Dosch, N C; Bacsik-Campbell, M E; Guilbert, T W; Coe, C L; Kling, P J

    2015-08-01

    Allergic disease is multifactorial in origin. Because iron nutrition affects immune responses and maternal pregnancy weight gain impairs fetal iron delivery while increasing fetal demands for growth, the study examined maternal pregnancy weight gain, newborn iron status and an index of atopic disease, infant eosinophilia. Within a larger prospective study of healthy newborns at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia, umbilical cord iron indicators were compared to infant eosinophil counts. Infants who developed eosinophilia exhibited higher cord reticulocyte-enriched zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio, Peosinophilia was 90%. High maternal pregnancy weight gain predicted infant eosinophil counts, Peosinophilia, Peosinophilia.

  5. Gestational weight gain and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zheng; Ao Deng; Yang Huixia; Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication during pregnancy,and gestational weight gain is one of the major and modifiable risk factors.This study aims to estimate the relationship between the rate of gestational weight gain before diagnosis of GDM and the subsequent risk of GDM.Methods A case-control study was conducted with 90 GDM cases and 165 women in the control group from May 2012 to August 2012 at Peking University First Affiliated Hospital.GDM was diagnosed according to the standards issued by the Ministry of Health of China in 2011.The plasma glucose levels,weights,and covariate data of the women were obtained based on medical records.Univariate analysis and unconditional Logistic regression model were used to estimate the associations.Results After adjusting for age at delivery,parity,and pre-pregnancy body mass index,the risk of GDM increased with increasing rates of gestational weight gain.Compared with the lower rate of gestational weight gain (less than 0.28 kg per week),a rate of weight gain of 0.28 kg per week or more was associated with increased risk of GDM (odds ratio:2.03; 95% confidence interval:1.15 to 3.59).The association between the rate of gestational weight gain and GDM was primarily attributed to the increased weight gain in the first trimester.Conclusion High rates of gestational weight gain,particular during early pregnancy,may increase a woman's risk of GDM.

  6. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  7. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self...

  8. Successful Use of Add - On Topiramate for Antipsychotic - Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic induced weight gain is the most common and distressing side effect. This also affects the compliance toward the treatment and hence the prognosis. Non - pharmacological interventions such as exercise and diet modifications alone might not be sufficient most of the times; also ensuring compliance toward this is difficult in patients with psychiatric illness. So, the role of weight - reducing drugs become important. In this case report, we describe the use of low - dose topiramate as a weight - reducing agent, in a patient with a bipolar affective disorder - mania with psychotic symptoms, who had significant risperidone - induced weight gain.

  9. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  10. Increase of gastric area and weight gain in rats submitted to the ingestion of gasified water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Roberto Ferreira Santiago; Shoiti Kobayasi; José Mauro Granjeiro

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the progressive increasing in the use of gasified drinks and weight gain in the Brazilian population, in addition to the fact that carbonic gas is present in all soft drinks, an experimental...

  11. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S;

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  12. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  13. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mech

  14. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  15. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  16. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying

  17. The Effect of Early Excessive Weight Gain on the Development of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Bastek, Jamie A; Thomas, Ann; Mcelrath, Thomas F; Parry, Samuel I; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-10-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between total excessive gestational weight gain and hypertension in pregnancy. However, this may be a reflection of excessive water retention associated with the pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early excessive weight gain, prior to the third trimester, results in greater maternal fat deposition and inflammation, which has also been associated with the development of hypertension. By focusing on early excessive weight gain, the association between maternal weight gain and the future development of hypertension can be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between early excessive maternal weight gain and the development of hypertension during pregnancy. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of 1,441 women without chronic hypertension who were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating maternal angiogenic factors and the prediction of preeclampsia. Initial body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height at the first study visit. Early excessive maternal weight gain was defined as weight gain by 28 weeks that exceeded the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and was calculated utilizing the maximum amount of weight gain per week recommended by the IOM based on the patient's starting BMI (normal: 0.45 kg; overweight: 0.32 kg; obese: 0.27 kg). Hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between early excessive weight gain, initial BMI, and the development of hypertension, including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, during pregnancy. Results Of 1,441 women, 767 (53.2%) had weight gain that exceeded the IOM guidelines in the first 28 weeks and 154 (10.8%) developed hypertension during pregnancy. Women whose weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines were more likely to develop

  18. Clinical Assessment of Weight Gain with Atypical Antipsychotics - Blonanserin vs Amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, T S; Raveesh, B N; Parashivamurthy, B M; Kumar, Ms Narendra; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Nagesh, H N

    2015-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics appear to have the greatest potential to induce weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is the one of main cause of non-compliance and discontinuation of treatment, often resulting in the relapse of psychosis. To compare the weight gain between amisulpride and blonanserin treatment, in persons with psychosis. Fifty six subjects with psychosis attending psychiatry department at KR Hospital, Mysore were randomized into two equal groups. After obtaining informed consent, subjects of group I received amisulpride tablets 200 mg BD, and group II received blonanserin tablets 4 mg BD, for eight weeks. Body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The mean weight gain with amisulpride at 4 weeks was 2.73 kg (5.21%) and at 8 weeks was 4.34 kg (8.28%) from the baseline. The mean weight gain with blonanserin at 4 weeks was 1.77 kg (3.46%) and at 8 weeks was 3.46 kg (6.75%) from the baseline. The mean BMI increase at 8 weeks with amisulpride was 1.66 ± 0.56 and with blonanserin was 1.34 ± 0.77. The mean WHR increase at 8 weeks with amisulpride was 0.036 ± 0.026 and with blonanserin was 0.029 ± 0.020. There was statistically significant increase in weight, BMI and WHR associated with both blonanserin and amisulpride at 8 weeks. But there was no statistically significant difference in those parameters between blonanserin and amisulpride, at eight weeks. Even though there was no significant difference in the weight gain caused by blonanserin, in comparison with amisulpride, both these drugs individually caused significant weight gain at 8 weeks, which is in contrast with the earlier studies, which needs to be further evaluated.

  19. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  20. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  1. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... of many published observational studies on this topic has been a reliance on a single baseline assessment of PA. Using only the baseline information on PA in a prospective study cause misclassification because of participants often change activity level during follow-up. In turn this causes regression...

  2. Personal history of dieting and family history of obesity are unrelated: implications for understanding weight gain proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M R; Shank, L M; Mikorski, R; Butryn, M L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of future weight gain is important in obesity prevention efforts. Both family history of obesity and personal dieting history have been established as predictors of future weight gain; however, it is unknown if they are independent or overlapping predictors. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between these two predictors using cross-sectional data. Baseline data from four studies were examined separately and in combination for a total of 561 female participants, and analyses were conducted to examine parent anthropometric variables by dieting status within and across studies. All participants were female university students between the ages of 17 and 30. For each study, as well as for the entire sample combined, parent anthropometric variables were examined by dieting status using factorial ANOVAs. No meaningful pattern was found when examining parent anthropometric variables by dieting status, which suggests that the two risk factors are largely independent. This suggests that the processes associated with the development of future weight gain by each variable are different; therefore, future research should use a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that using both variables to predict future weight gain would account for more variance than using either variable alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, M F

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research have reported only weak associations between the intakes of specific foods or drinks and weight gain and obesity. Randomized controlled dietary intervention trials have only shown very modest effects of changes in nutrient intake and diet composition on body weight in obese su...... decreasing the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We also review evidence for the role that lifestyle and stress management may play in achieving weight loss in stress-vulnerable individuals with overweight.......Decades of research have reported only weak associations between the intakes of specific foods or drinks and weight gain and obesity. Randomized controlled dietary intervention trials have only shown very modest effects of changes in nutrient intake and diet composition on body weight in obese...... subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...

  4. Effect of Weight Gain on Cardiac Autonomic Control During Wakefulness and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Taro; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Calvin, Andrew D.; Singh, Prachi; Romero-Corral, Abel; van der Walt, Christelle; Davison, Diane E.; Bukartyk, Jan; Konecny, Tomas; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Somers, Virend K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness, but the effect on sleep-related sympathetic modulation is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fat gain on cardiac autonomic control during wakefulness and sleep in humans. We performed a randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on heart rate variability (HRV). We recruited 36 healthy volunteers, who were randomized to either a standardized diet to gain approximately 4 kg over 8 weeks followed by an 8 week weight loss period (n=20), or to serve as a weight-maintainer control (n=16). An overnight polysomnogram with power spectral analysis of HRV was performed at baseline, after weight gain, and after weight loss to determine the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) power, and to examine the relationship between changes in HRV and changes in insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels. Mean weight gain was 3.9 kg in the fat gain group versus 0.1 kg in the maintainer group. LF/HF increased both during wakefulness and sleep after fat gain and returned to baseline after fat loss in the fat gain group, and did not change in the control group. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin also increased after fat gain and fell after fat loss, but no clear pattern of changes were seen that correlated consistently with changes in HRV. Short-term fat gain in healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness and sleep but the mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:21357280

  5. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  6. Are breaks in daily self-weighing associated with weight gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina E Helander

    Full Text Available Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001. Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain.

  7. Australian Pregnant Women’s Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlood Bookari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women’s knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N=326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2% or obese (23.6%; and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P<0.000. Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM’s GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese.

  8. HelpDesk answers: do hormonal contraceptives lead to weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Maria; Rani, Saira; Gavagan, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    It depends. Weight doesn't appear to increase with combined oral contraception (OC) compared with nonhormonal contraception, but percent body fat may increase slightly. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA) users experience weight gain compared with OC and nonhormonal contraception (NH) users.

  9. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  10. The role of diet and physical activity in post-transplant weight gain after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,

  11. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  12. Assessment of weight gain during pregnancy in general prenatal care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an emerging major health risk for women around the world. In this regard, little attention has been given to pregnancy, a moment of risk not only for major weight gain in these women, but also for macrosomia in their offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate weight gain during pregnancy. Data pertains to a cohort of pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six state capitals in Brazil, from 1991 to 1995. We studied women aged 20 years and over with singleton pregnancies and no diagnosis of diabetes outside pregnancy, enrolled at approximately 20 - 28 weeks of gestation. According to the Institute of Medicine criteria, 38% (95%CI: 36-40% of the women studied gained less and 29% (95%CI: 28-31% had more than the recommended total weight gain. These proportions vary according to pre-pregnancy nutritional status. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian women prior to pregnancy, and the lack of achievement of recommended weight gain during pregnancy, more effective means of managing weight gain during pregnancy are necessary.

  13. In Vitro lipolysis is associated with whole-body lipid oxidation and weight gain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Joseph; Piaggi, Paolo; Foley, James E; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of adipocyte size with cellular lipolysis and between cellular lipolysis and whole-body lipid oxidation. This study also assessed the association between adipocyte size and cellular lipolysis with weight and fat mass gain. Subjects had assessment of percent body fat (%fat) and adipose tissue biopsy for in vitro lipolysis (n = 325), and a subset of subjects had measurement of whole-body lipid oxidation (n = 112). A subset of subjects (n = 243) returned for repeated measurements of body weight and composition (mean follow-up 8.2 ± 5.5 years). In vitro lipolysis (r = 0.47, P lipolysis (P = 0.04) but not adipocyte size (P = 0.44) was associated with whole-body fat oxidation. Adipocyte size was not associated with rate of percent weight gain (P = 0.20) but was negatively associated with rate of percent fat mass gain (P = 0.01). In vitro lipolysis was negatively associated with rate of percent weight gain (P = 0.02) and had a marginal negative association with rate of percent fat mass gain (P = 0.08). These results indicate inherent characteristics of adipocytes, including size and lipolytic activity, may be important determinants of whole-body lipid oxidation and subsequent weight gain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Weight gain is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence after prostatectomy in the PSA era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshu, Corinne E; Mondul, Alison M; Menke, Andy; Meinhold, Cari; Han, Misop; Humphreys, Elizabeth B; Freedland, Stephen J; Walsh, Patrick C; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose While obesity at time of prostatectomy has been associated with prostate cancer recurrence, it is unknown whether obesity before or after surgery, or weight change from the years prior to surgery to after surgery is associated with recurrence. Thus, we examined the influence of obesity and weight change on recurrence after prostatectomy. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,337 men with clinically-localized prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy performed during 1993-2006 by the same surgeon. Men self-reported weight and physical activity at 5 years before and 1 year after surgery on a survey during follow-up. Mean follow up was 7.3 years. We estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of prostate cancer recurrence comparing obesity at 5 years before and at 1 year after surgery with normal weight, and a gain of >2.2 kg from 5 years before to 1 year after surgery with stable weight. Results During 9,797 person years of follow-up, 102 men recurred. Compared with men who had stable weight, those whose weight increased >2.2 kg had twice the recurrence risk (HR=1.94, 95% CI 1.14-3.32) after taking into account age, pathological stage and grade, and other characteristics. The HR of recurrence was 1.20 (95% CI 0.64-2.23) and 1.72 (95% CI 0.94-3.14) comparing obesity at 5 years before and at 1 year after surgery, respectively, with normal weight. Physical activity (≥5 hrs/wk) did not attenuate risk in men who gained >2.2 kg. Conclusions By avoiding weight gain, men with prostate cancer may both prevent recurrence and improve overall well-being. PMID:21325564

  15. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI. RESULTS: Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend ....001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs

  16. Maternal weight gain in excess of pregnancy guidelines is related to daughters being overweight 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L C; Ester, W A; Lumey, L H; Michels, K B; Wei, Y; Cohn, B A; Susser, E; Terry, M B

    2016-08-01

    Exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases childhood and adolescent obesity. However, it is unknown if these effects extend to midlife. We sought to determine if exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases risk of overweight/obesity in daughters 40 years later. This cohort study is based on adult offspring in the Child Health and Development Studies and the Collaborative Perinatal Project pregnancy cohorts originally enrolled in the 1960s. In 2005 through 2008, 1035 daughters in their 40s were recruited to the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density study. We classified maternal pregnancy weight gain as greater than vs less than or equal to the 2009 clinical guidelines. We used logistic regression to compare the odds ratios of daughters being overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) at a mean age of 44 years between mothers who did not gain or gained more than pregnancy weight gain guidelines, accounting for maternal prepregnant BMI, and daughter body size at birth and childhood. We also examined potential family related confounding through a comparison of sisters using generalized estimating equations, clustered on sibling units and adjusted for maternal age and race. Mothers who exceeded guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy were more likely to have daughters who were overweight/obese in their 40s (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-5.7). This magnitude of association translates to a relative risk (RR) increase of 50% (RR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6). The association was of the same magnitude when examining only the siblings whose mother exceeded guidelines in 1 pregnancy and did not exceed the guidelines in the other pregnancy. The association was stronger with increasing maternal prepregnancy BMI (P trend 30). This pattern held irrespective of daughters' weight status at birth, at age 4 years, or at age 20 years. Our findings support that obesity prevention

  17. Weight Gain While Switching from Polypharmacy to Ziprasidone: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Alice Pei-Jung; Juang, Yeong-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), valproate, and sulpiride are related to significant weight gain and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Among SGAs, olanzapine and clozapine are associated with the highest metabolic risk while ziprasidone is among one of the SGAs with the lowest risk. Several reports suggest that weight loss is observed in switching other antipsychotics to ziprasidone. Here we describe a female patient with chronic paranoid schizophrenia who had an unexpected weight gain and developed MetS during a cross-switch from a polypharmacy of olanzapine, valproate and sulpiride to ziprasidone monotherapy.

  18. Joint estimation for curves for weight, feed intake, rate of gain, and residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Rate of gain and feed efficiency are very important traits in most breeding programs for growing farm animals. Rate of gain (GAIN) is usually expressed over a certain age period and feed efficiency is often expressed as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as observed feed intake (FI) minus expected...... feed intake based on live weight (WGT) and GAIN. In any case the basic traits recorded are always WGT and FI and other the traits are derived from these records. A bivariate longitudinal random regression model were employed on 9284 individual longitudinal records of WGT and FI from 2827 bulls of six...

  19. Weight gain is associated with medial contact site of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Filip; Jech, Robert; Nováková, Lucie; Urgošík, Dušan; Vymazal, Josef; Růžička, Evžen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T) magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III) was used for motor assessment. The distance of the contacts from the wall of the third ventricle in the mediolateral direction inversely correlated with weight gain (r = -0.55, pweight gain (9.4 ± (SD)4.4 kg, N = 11) than those with both contacts located laterally (3.9 ± 2.7 kg, N = 9) (pweight gain, suggesting a regional effect of subthalamic stimulation on adjacent structures involved in the central regulation of energy balance, food intake or reward.

  20. Could Reward-Disturbances Caused by Antipsychotic Medication Lead to Weight Gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating the reward system. Further, the reward system is known to be central...... putamen (r=0.541, p=0.001). There was no relation between weight gain and treatment response or medication dose. DISCUSSION As expected, antipsychotic treatment on average caused a moderate weight gain in the patients. The highest weight gain was found in the patients with the most aberrant f...... to assume that it is related to changes in dopamine transmission. Thus our results suggest that by altering the dopaminergic transmission in putamen, antipsychotic medication might through the influence on reward system affect appetite regulation and thereby, together with other mechanisms, lead to weight...

  1. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  2. Adequate weight gain in pregnancy: An analysis of its determinants in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Alina Delia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prenatal care is considered an important tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle, but has not been studied as a predictor for maternal weight gain during pregnancy, especially in Romania, where evidence about pregnancy and nutrition is scarce. Objective. This study has aimed to explore the relationship between pre-gestational body mass index (BMI, adequacy of prenatal care and weight gain during pregnancy. Methods. We carried a cross-sectional study on a sample of 400 pregnant women admitted at the “Cuza Voda” Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Iasi. Information regarding demographic characteristics, number of prenatal visits, date of the initial hospital record, nutritional education during pregnancy were registered throughout a questionnaire filled out by means of a direct interview. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were the pre-gestational BMI and the pregnancy weight gain. Data on caloric intake were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Results. Weight gain within the limits of the Institute of Medicine recommendations was noticed at 44.35% of the women who declared that they received nutritional advice compared to 40.7% of those who did not receive advice regarding diet during pregnancy. Overweight (53.1% and obese women (66.7% had a larger weight gain than those with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (29.8% (p<0.001. The variables that were identified with an effect on weight gain in this sample of pregnant women were: inadequate prenatal care, pre-gestational BMI and energy intake. Conclusion. Identifying the pre-gestational BMI and diet changes as predictors of weight gain underline the importance of an individualized prenatal care.

  3. Interdelivery weight gain and risk of cesarean delivery following a prior vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ(2) statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m(2) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m(2) to cesarean

  4. Weight gain following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Le Jeune, Florence; Drapier, Sophie; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Lalys, Florent; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain weight gain after deep brain stimulation (DBS), but none provides a fully satisfactory account of this adverse effect. We analyzed the correlation between changes in brain metabolism (using positron emission tomography [PET] imaging) and weight gain after bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose 3 months before and 4 months after the start of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in 23 patients with Parkinson's disease. Motor complications (United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]-IV scores) and dopaminergic medication were included in the analysis to control for their possible influence on brain metabolism. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) body mass index increased significantly by 0.8 ± 1.5 kg/m(2) (P = 0.03). Correlations were found between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in limbic and associative areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann areas [BAs] 10 and 11), lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe (BAs 20, 21, 22,39 and 42), anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), and retrosplenial cortex (BA 30). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in sensorimotor areas. These findings suggest that changes in associative and limbic processes contribute to weight gain after subthalamic nucleus DBS in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  6. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David; Maughan, Barbara

    2009-09-11

    Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032). Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  7. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie;

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0......Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow...

  8. Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Weight Gain of Crossbred Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Cifuentes Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics has been used to substitute antibiotic treatments used as growth promoters and to improve productive performance. The term probiotic is used to namelive micro-organisms such as microbes and bacteria with beneficial effects to livestock farms when consumed as dietary supplements. This review investigates the evidence for the use of probiotics in sheep’s final body weight gain combined with livestock grazing management system with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Twenty one native sheep were chosen randomly for this study, with an average weight of 14.71 kg ± 1.9 under continuous grazing; the meadows are used as sheep pastures where Kikuyo grass grows (Pennisetum clandestinum and water ad libitum. Sheep were classified in three different treatments: T1, control treatment, without adding yeast; T2, added with 5 g/day of yeast; and T3, supplemented with 15 g/day of yeast. Throughout this study was possible to find a beneficial effect on final weight and average daily gain. The results were compared by ANOVA with a significance level of 95%. A significant difference was observed on final body weight of sheep for T3 (p ≤ 0.05. In addition, it was found that daily weight gain was 100 g, 120 g and 220 g for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. This research leads us to conclude that the addition of 15 g of yeast improves daily bodyweight gain and final weight of grazing native sheep.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  10. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  11. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

  12. Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Ginton, Guy; Shimp, Kristy G; Avena, Nicole M; Gold, Mark S; Setlow, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Cessation of drug use often coincides with increased food consumption and weight gain in recovering addicts. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon (particularly the weight gain) is uniquely human, or whether it represents a consequence of drug cessation common across species. To address this issue, rats (n = 10/group) were given systemic injections of D-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days after the final injection, rats were given free access to a highly palatable food mixture (consisting of sugar and butter) along with their standard chow diet, and food consumption and body weight were measured every 48 h for 30 days. Consistent with clinical observations, amphetamine-treated rats showed a greater increase in body weight over the course of the 30 days relative to vehicle-treated rats. Surprisingly, there was no difference in highly palatable food consumption between amphetamine- and vehicle-treated groups, but the amphetamine-treated group consumed significantly more standard chow than the control group. The finding that a history of chronic amphetamine exposure increases food consumption is consistent with previous work in humans showing that withdrawal from drugs of abuse is associated with overeating and weight gain. The current findings may reflect amphetamine-induced sensitization of mechanisms involved in reward motivation, suggesting that weight gain following drug cessation in humans could be due to similar mechanisms.

  13. Duration of breastfeeding has a positive effect on infant weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Kurniawan Saputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing maternal age hopefully the mother knows more about raising a baby and supervising their growth and development. With normal birth weight and adequate duration of exclusive breastfeeding the baby can be expected to have optimal growth and development. The goal of this historical-cohort prospective study was to analyze the relation between maternal age, infant birth weight and duration of breastfeeding on the one hand with infant weight gain on the other. The population under study were six-month-old infants in the catchment area of Pagar Gading Community Health Center, Pino Raya Region, South Bengkulu Regency. The total sample consisted of 31 six-month-old infants, selected by consecutive nonrandom sampling of subjects meeting the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the correlation-regression test. There was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and infant weight gain using the correlation test (p0.05. Furthermore, with the multiple linear regression test, duration of breastfeeding affected infant weight gain (p0.05. The conclusion of this study is that duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects infant weight gain. Breastfeeding of infants should be prolonged beyond the age of 6 months.

  14. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in 481 obese glucose-tolerant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    .0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester......-weight women (3,478 g). In multivariate analyses, increasing weight gain was associated with significantly higher rates of hypertension (OR 4.8 [95% CI for group 4 vs. group 1: 1.7-13.1]), cesarean section (3.5 [1.6-7.8]), induction of labor (3.7 [1.7-8.0]), and large-for-gestational-age infants (4.7 [2...

  15. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  16. Eruption of first permanent incisors and live weight gain in grazing yearling Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, B A; Butler, K L

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the timing and duration of eruption of the first permanent incisors, live weight, sex and other factors on contemporaneous live weight gain in Angora goats. Goats were previously part of a pen study on the effects of energy intake of Angora does during pregnancy and lactation on kid development. The design was 3 levels of nutrition in mid-pregnancy by 2 levels of postnatal nutrition in 17 randomised blocks. Artificial insemination, ultrasound examination and feeding does in pens enabled accurate conduct of the study. After weaning, goats were grazed in sex groups. Live weight change between 14 and 20 months of age was related to deciduous first incisor loss and permanent first incisor development and other attributes assessed before the study. Live weight change was related to the elapsed time for first permanent incisors to commence eruption and to the length of time for first permanent incisors to erupt. This response was affected by sex. Over summer and autumn, entire males with short eruption intervals gained 2-3 kg more than entire males with long eruption intervals. Females that reached first permanent incisor eruption by mid-summer had a live weight gain of 3 kg more than those that reached the same development 3 months later. Live weight change in yearling Angora goats was associated with the process of first permanent incisor eruption. In females, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was earlier. In males, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was faster. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (intake. The results...... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  18. The antipsychotic olanzapine interacts with the gut microbiome to cause weight gain in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Morgan

    Full Text Available The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine is effective in reducing psychotic symptoms but can cause extreme weight gain in human patients. We investigated the role of the gut microbiota in this adverse drug effect using a mouse model. First, we used germ-free C57BL/6J mice to demonstrate that gut bacteria are necessary and sufficient for weight gain caused by oral delivery of olanzapine. Second, we surveyed fecal microbiota before, during, and after treatment and found that olanzapine potentiated a shift towards an "obesogenic" bacterial profile. Finally, we demonstrated that olanzapine has antimicrobial activity in vitro against resident enteric bacterial strains. These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients.

  19. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  20. Could Reward-disturbances caused by antipsychotic medication lead to weight gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik

    BACKGROUND The reward system is known to be central to the regulation of appetite. Further, disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating...... response in right putamen (r=0.541, p=0.001). There was no relation between weight gain and treatment response or medication dose. DISCUSSION As expected, antipsychotic treatment on average caused a moderate weight gain in the patients. The highest weight gain was found in the patients with the most......, it seems reasonable to assume that it is related to changes in dopamine transmission. Thus our results suggest that by altering the dopaminergic transmission in putamen, antipsychotic medication might affect appetite regulation through its influence on the reward system and thereby, together with other...

  1. Compensatory weight gain due to dopaminergic hypofunction: new evidence and own incidental observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr Iwo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (overcompensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased dopamine signaling after dopaminergic overstimulation, for example after smoking cessation or overconsumption of high palatable food. This hypothesis is in line with our incidental finding of increased weight gain after discontinuation of pharmaceutical dopaminergic overstimulation in rats. These findings support the crucial role of dopaminergic signaling for eating behaviors and offer an explanation for weight-gain after cessation of activities associated with high dopaminergic signaling. They further support the possibility that dopaminergic medication could be used to moderate food intake.

  2. Mechanisms of body weight gain in patients with Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaurier, C; Morio, B; Bannier, S; Derost, P; Arnaud, P; Brandolini-Bunlon, M; Giraudet, C; Boirie, Y; Durif, F

    2007-07-01

    Chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation leads to a spectacular clinical improvement in patients with motor complications. However, the post-operative body weight gain involved may limit the benefits of surgery and induce critical metabolic disorders. Twenty-four Parkinsonians (61.1 +/- 1.4 years) were examined 1 month before (M - 1) and 3 months after (M + 3) surgery. Body composition and energy expenditure (EE) were measured (1) over 36 h in calorimetric chambers (CC) with rigorous control of food intakes and activities [sleep metabolic rate, resting activities, meals, 3 or 4 sessions of 20 min on a training bicycle at 13 km/h and daily EE] and (2) in resting conditions (basal metabolic rate) during an acute L-dopa challenge (M - 1) or according to acute 'off' and 'on' stimulation (M + 3). Before surgery, EE was compared between the Parkinsonian patients and healthy subjects matched for height and body composition (metabolic rate during sleep, daily EE) or matched to predicted values (basal metabolic rate). Before surgery, in Parkinsonian men but not women, (1) daily EE was higher while sleep metabolic rate was lower compared to healthy matched men (+9.2 +/- 3.9 and -8.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively, P weight gain. Parkinson's disease is associated with profound alterations in the central control of energy metabolism. Normalization of energy metabolism after DBS-STN implantation may favour body weight gain, of which quality was gender specific. As men gained primarily fat-free mass, a reasonable weight gain may be tolerated, in contrast with women who gained only fat. Other factors such as changes in free-living physical activity may help to limit body weight gain in some patients.

  3. Risk factors and outcomes of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Durmuş, Büşra; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age is increasing. We aimed to determine risk factors and maternal, fetal and childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 6959 mothers and their children. The study was based in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2001-2005). Maternal lower educational level, lower household income, multiparity, and FTO risk allel were associated with an increased risk of maternal obesity, whereas maternal European ethnicity, nulliparity, higher total energy intake, and smoking during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of excessive gestational weight gain (all p-values obesity was associated with increased risks of gestational hypertension (OR 6.31 (95% CI 4.30, 9.26)), preeclampsia (OR (3.61, (95% CI 2.04, 6.39)), gestational diabetes (OR 6.28 (95%CI 3.01, 13.06)), caesarean delivery (OR 1.91 (95% CI 1.46, 2.50)), delivering large size for gestational age infants (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.16, 4.08)), and childhood obesity (OR 5.02 (95% CI:2.97, 8.45)). Weaker associations of excessive gestational weight gain with maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes were observed, with the strongest effects for first trimester weight gain. Our study shows that maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and genetic factors and with increased risks of adverse maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes. As compared to prepregnancy overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain has a limited influence on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.

  5. Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Overweight and obesity have been associated with unemployment but less is known about changes in weight associated with changes in employment. We examined weight changes associated with job-loss, retirement and maintaining employment in two samples of working adults in the United Kingdom. This was a prospective study of 7201 adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study (aged 39-76 years) and 4539 adults in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) who were followed up over 43 months and 26 months, respectively. In both samples, changes in measured (EPIC) and self-reported (BHPS) weight were computed for each participant and assessed in relation to three employment transitions: maintaining paid employment, retirement and job-loss. Regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Further analyses evaluated the contribution of diet, physical activity and smoking to weight gain. In EPIC-Norfolk, weight change differed across the three employment transitions for women but not men. The mean (95% CI) annualised change in weight for women who became unemployed over the follow-up period was 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) kg/y while those who maintained employment gained 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) kg/y (P = 0.007). Accounting for changes in smoking, diet and physical activity did not substantially alter the difference in weight gain among groups. In BHPS, job-loss was associated with weight gain of 1.56 (0.89, 2.23) kg/y, while those who maintained employment 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) kg/y (P < 0.001). In both samples, weight changes associated with retirement were similar to those staying in work. In BHPS, job-loss was also associated with significant declines in self-reported well-being and increases in sleep-loss. Two UK-based samples of working adults reveal strong associations between job-loss and excess weight gain. The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among individuals

  6. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m(2); gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  7. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    OpenAIRE

    Collier David; Ternouth Andrew; Maughan Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional ...

  8. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  9. Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psarros Constantin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.

  10. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  11. College-Aged Males Experience Attenuated Sweet and Salty Taste with Modest Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Corinna A; Cassano, Patricia A; Dando, Robin

    2017-08-23

    Background: Human and animal studies report a blunted sense of taste in people who are overweight or obese, with heightened sensitivity also reported after weight loss. However, it is unknown if taste changes concurrently with weight gain.Objective: This study investigated the association of weight gain with changes in suprathreshold taste intensity perception in a free-living population of young adults.Methods: Taste response, anthropometric measures, and diet changes were assessed with a longitudinal study design in first-year college students 3 times throughout the academic year. At baseline, 93 participants (30 males, 63 females) were an average of 18 y old, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 21.9. Sweet, umami, salty, sour, and bitter taste intensities were evaluated at 3 concentrations by using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Ordinary least-squares regression models assessed the association of weight gain and within-person taste change, adjusting for sex, race, and diet changes.Results: Participants gained an average of 3.9% in weight, ranging from -5.7% to +13.8%. With each 1% increase in body weight, males perceived sweet and salty as less intense, with taste responses decreasing by 11.0% (95% CI: -18.9%, -2.3%; P = 0.015) and 7.5% (95% CI: -13.1%, -1.5%; P = 0.015) from baseline, respectively. Meanwhile, females did not experience this decrement, and even perceived a 6.5% increase (95% CI: 2.6%, 10.5%; P = 0.007) in sour taste with similar amounts of weight gain. Changes in the consumption of meat and other umami-rich foods also negatively correlated with umami taste response (-39.1%; 95% CI: -56.3%, -15.0%; P = 0.004).Conclusions: A modest weight gain is associated with concurrent taste changes in the first year of college, especially in males who experience a decrement in sweet and salty taste. This suggests that young-adult males may be susceptible to taste loss when gaining weight. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Weight gain restriction during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan; Cedergren, Marie; Jeppsson, Annika; Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcome among obese pregnant women who took part in an intervention study for weight restriction differed from a group of obese pregnant women attending regular antenatal care. The intervention group consisted of 155 obese pregnant women and 193 obese pregnant women who formed a control group. We found that a weight gain restriction of less than 7 kg during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and the neonate.

  13. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  14. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence links perceived stress—a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor—with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes’s Effects on Moms (GEM) study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10). Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), there was a significant association between high (Q4) PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1) [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45–3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01–1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:28350836

  15. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos. Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and winter the rates were 164, 2.38, 3.26 and 3.89 UA/ha. In summer, the stocking rate of 4.34 UA/ha enabled best combination between weight gain per animal and per area with daily average gains of 0.560kg/animal and 2.99 kg/ha on cameroon grass and of 0.505 kg/animal and 2.79 kg/ha for braquiarão grass. However, in winter, the stocking rate of 3.26 UA/ha was the one which enabled greatest animal yield with daily average gains of 0.670kg/animal and 2.86 kg/ha on cameroon grass and 0.503 kg/animal and 2.10kg/ha on braquiarão grass. The weight gain per animal and per area is influenced by stocking rate. The cameroon grass provides greater weight than grass braquiarão gains, both animal as per area, in both rainy and dry seasons.

  16. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  17. Weight gain is associated with medial contact site of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Růžička

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III was used for motor assessment. The distance of the contacts from the wall of the third ventricle in the mediolateral direction inversely correlated with weight gain (r = -0.55, p<0.01 and with neurostimulation-related motor condition expressed as the contralateral hemi-body UPDRS-III (r = -0.42, p<0.01. Patients with at least one contact within 9.3 mm of the wall experienced significantly greater weight gain (9.4 ± (SD4.4 kg, N = 11 than those with both contacts located laterally (3.9 ± 2.7 kg, N = 9 (p<0.001. The position of the active contact is critical not only for motor outcome but is also associated with weight gain, suggesting a regional effect of subthalamic stimulation on adjacent structures involved in the central regulation of energy balance, food intake or reward.

  18. [Effects of obesity and weight gain during pregnancy on obstetrical factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisaka, K; Ando, S; Kokuho, K; Tawada, T; Kaneda, S; Tomonari, R; Yoshimatsu, J; Sasaki, S; Yoshida, K

    1988-12-01

    The relationship between the body weight or weight gain during pregnancy and various obstetrical factors was investigated in 731 patients who delivered in San-ikukai Hospital for in the year 1986. The patients were classified into three groups according to their body weight in non-pregnant states: slender (n = 214), ordinary (n = 379) and obese (n = 138), according to the standard for "The decision diagram for the estimation of obesity and emaciation in Japanese" published in 1986 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Each of these groups was further divided into two groups according to the degree of weight gain during pregnancy (more or less than 15kg). Then, the duration of labor, the blood loss during delivery, the birth weight, the placental weight and the obstetrical abnormalities (prolonged labor, arrested labor, blood loss of more than 500 ml, fetal distress and toxemia of pregnancy) were investigated in these groups. The blood loss, the neonatal birth weight and the placental weight in the obese groups were much greater than those in the ordinary or the slender group (p less than 0.005). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the labor among these groups. The incidence of obstetrical abnormalities in the obese group was significantly higher than in the ordinary or the slender group (chi 2 = 4.37, p less than 0.05, chi 2 = 5.27, p less than 0.025).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

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    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  20. The Association of FTO SNP rs9939609 with Weight Gain at University

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    Susanne F. Meisel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We tested the hypothesis that the obesity-associated FTO SNP rs9939609 would be associated with clinically significant weight gain (≥5% of initial body weight in the first year of university; a time identified as high risk for weight gain. Methods: We collected anthropometric data from university students (n = 1,411, mean age: 22.4 ± 2.5 years, 49.1% male at the beginning and end of the academic year. DNA was analysed for FTO rs9939609. Associations of FTO genotype with BMI at baseline were analysed using ANCOVA, and with risk of 5% weight gain over follow-up with logistic regression; both analyses adjusting for age and sex. The alpha level was reduced to 0.0125 to account for multiple testing. Results: Using an additive model, FTO status was not associated with higher BMI at baseline (22.2 vs. 21.9 kg/m2, p = 0.059. Dropout was high but unrelated to genotype. Among the 310 (21.9% completing follow-up, those with AT genotypes had twice the odds of ≥5% weight gain compared with TTs (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.05-4.01, p = 0.036, but this was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. There was a trend for AA carriers for ≥5% weight gain compared with TT carriers (p = 0.089, but sample size was small. Conclusion: This study provides nominal evidence for the genetic susceptibility hypothesis, but findings need to be replicated.

  1. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  2. Prevention of Weight Regain Following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Sorensen, Kirsten Webb

    2015-06-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with severe or moderate obesity; however, long-term studies have identified that weight regain occurs post-operatively among a portion of patients. The underlying factors that influence weight regain following bariatric surgery are multifactorial and include endocrine/metabolic alterations, anatomic surgical failure, nutritional indiscretion, mental health issues, and physical inactivity. The extent and significance of these factors is currently uncertain and likely varies between individuals and the operative procedure performed. Multiple observational and non-randomized studies and a few randomized controlled trials have been reported that focus on improving post-operative weight loss. Across all of the behavioral and group support studies, patients in the treatment groups showed either no benefit or modestly greater weight loss than patients in the control groups. There are no randomized controlled trials that have specifically targeted weight regain. Additional clinical research is needed to identify etiological factors and interventional strategies.

  3. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of gestational weight gain recommendations and related outcomes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Godoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, different guidelines are used to assess the adequacy of gestational weight gain. This study identified the recommendations for gestational weight gain in Brazilian women. We also determined the proportion of women with adequate weight gain in accordance with these recommendations and the associated perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was performed. A computerized search was conducted utilizing the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, SciELO and Google Scholar. Observational studies of healthy, Brazilian, pregnant women were included. Studies were excluded if they did not provide pregestational weight and gestational weight gain or if they studied women with comorbid conditions. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio of inadequate (insufficient or excessive gestational weight gain. Seventeen studies were included in the systematic review and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. The most widely used recommendations were from the Institute of Medicine. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with fetal macrosomia and high rates of cesarean delivery. Overweight women had a higher risk of excessive gestational weight gain than eutrophic women (OR=2.80, 95%CI=2.22-3.53. There are no standardized recommendations concerning gestational weight gain based on Brazilian population-based data. Many Brazilian women are overweight or obese at the beginning of pregnancy. Overweight pregnant women have a higher risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with cesarean delivery and fetal macrosomia.

  5. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  6. Reflections from a systematic review of dietary energy density and weight gain: is the inclusion of drinks valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Wilks, D C; Lindroos, A K; Jebb, S A

    2009-11-01

    The association between dietary energy density, increased energy intake and weight gain is supported by experimental evidence, but confirmation of an effect in free-living humans is limited. Experimental evidence supports a role of energy density in obesity through changes in food composition, not drinks consumption. The inclusion of drinks in the calculation creates a variable of questionable validity and has a substantive impact on the estimated energy density of the diet. We posit, based on the experimental evidence, that calculating the energy density of diets by excluding drinks and including calories from drinks as a covariate in the analysis is the most valid and reliable method of testing the relationship between energy density and weight gain in free-living humans. We demonstrate, by systematically reviewing existing observational studies of dietary energy density and weight gain in free-living humans, how current variation in the method for calculating energy density hampers the interpretation of these data. Reaching an a priori decision on the appropriate methodology will reduce the error caused by multiple comparisons and facilitate meaningful interpretation of epidemiological evidence to inform the development of effective obesity prevention strategies.

  7. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  8. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  9. Freshmen Women and the "Freshman 15": Perspectives on Prevalence and Causes of College Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Freshman weight gain has been assessed using quantitative inquiry, but this qualitative study allowed for an in-depth exploration of freshmen women's experiences surrounding body image, nutrition, and exercise. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact and explanations for the "Freshman 15." Participants: Freshmen…

  10. Freshmen Women and the "Freshman 15": Perspectives on Prevalence and Causes of College Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Freshman weight gain has been assessed using quantitative inquiry, but this qualitative study allowed for an in-depth exploration of freshmen women's experiences surrounding body image, nutrition, and exercise. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact and explanations for the "Freshman 15." Participants: Freshmen…

  11. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  12. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  13. The association between portion size, nutrient intake and gestational weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumfield, M.L.; Schreurs, M.; Rollo, M.E.; Macdonald-Wicks, L.K.; Kokavec, A.; Collins, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal-child health outcomes. Managing energy intake and GWG versus optimising nutrient intake can be challenging. The present study aimed to examine the relationships between dietary portion size, GWG and nutrient i

  14. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Schaap, M.M.; Pennings, J.; Hoebee, B.; Keijer, J.

    2005-01-01

    VAN SCHOTHORST, EVERT M., NICOLE FRANSSEN-VAN HAL, MIRJAM M. SCHAAP, JEROEN PENNINGS, BARBARA HOEBEE, AND JAAP KEIJER. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis. Obes Res. 2005;13:1031-1041. Objective: To identify early molecular changes in weigh

  15. Weight Gain in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate without Use of Palatal Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Freitas, Renato; Lopes-Grego, Andrey Bernardo; Dietrich, Helena Luiza Douat; Cerchiari, Natacha Regina de Moraes; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Tonocchi, Rita; Gabardo, Juarez; da Silva, Éder David Borges; Forte, Antonio Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Goals/Background. To evaluate children's growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF), in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50) and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care. PMID:23304489

  16. Weight Gain in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate without Use of Palatal Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Goals/Background. To evaluate children’s growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF, in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50 and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care.

  17. Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby′s weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units.

  18. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  19. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Boniface, D.; Jebb, S.A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939

  20. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  1. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  2. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  3. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  4. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  5. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... for the analysis. EXPOSURE: Macronutrient intake was quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire administered in the 25th week of gestation. The P/C ratio and added sugar intake were examined in quintiles. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: GWG was based on self-reported weight in gestational weeks 12 and 30.......001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs reduction). A high P/C ratio was inversely related to intake of added...

  6. Weight Gain in Older Adolescent Females: The Internet, Sleep, Coffee, and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Catherine S.; Rockett, Helaine R.H.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether excessive recreational Internet time, insufficient sleep, regular coffee consumption, or alcoholic beverages promote weight gain. Study design A longitudinal cohort of >5000 girls (Growing Up Today Study), from all over the US and aged 14–21yrs, returned surveys in 2001 reporting typical past-year recreational Internet time, sleep, coffee (with caffeine) and alcohol consumption. We estimated correlations among these four exposures. Each girl also reported her height and weight in 2000 and again in 2001. Multivariate models investigated associations between 1-year change in body mass index (BMI) and same-year exposures, adjusted for adolescent growth/development, activity and inactivity. Results The exposures were highly (pcoffee with Internet time (p>0.50). More Internet time, more alcohol, and less sleep were all associated (pdrinking coffee promotes weight gain. Conclusions Older girls may benefit from replacing recreational Internet time with sleep and by avoiding alcohol. PMID:18614178

  7. Abdominal obesity, weight gain during adulthood and risk of liver and biliary tract cancer in a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sabrina; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Trepo, Elisabeth; Boffetta, Paolo; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van den Berg, Saskia; Peeters, Petra H M; Braaten, Tonje; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Regner, Sara; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Norat, Teresa; Wark, Petra A; Riboli, Elio; Nöthlings, Ute

    2013-02-01

    General obesity has been positively associated with risk of liver and probably with biliary tract cancer, but little is known about abdominal obesity or weight gain during adulthood. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to investigate associations between weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), weight change during adulthood and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic (IBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct system cancer [EBDSC including gallbladder cancer (GBC)] among 359,525 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Hepatitis B and C virus status was measured in a nested case-control subset. During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 177 cases of HCC, 58 cases of IBDC and 210 cases of EBDSC, including 76 cases of GBC, occurred. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with risk of HCC and GBC. WHtR showed the strongest association with HCC [relative risk (RR) comparing extreme tertiles 3.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.09-5.87; p(trend) obesity and risk of IBDC and EBDSC. Our results provide evidence of an association between obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, and risk of HCC and GBC. Our findings support public health recommendations to reduce the prevalence of obesity and weight gain in adulthood for HCC and GBC prevention in Western populations. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  9. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy E Elks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have identified several common genetic variants that are robustly associated with adult obesity risk. Exploration of these genotype associations in children may provide insights into the timing of weight changes leading to adult obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort were genotyped for ten genetic variants previously associated with adult BMI. Eight variants that showed individual associations with childhood BMI (in/near: FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, and ETV5 were used to derive an "obesity-risk-allele score" comprising the total number of risk alleles (range: 2-15 alleles in each child with complete genotype data (n = 7,146. Repeated measurements of weight, length/height, and body mass index from birth to age 11 years were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS. Early infancy was defined as birth to age 6 weeks, and early infancy failure to thrive was defined as weight gain between below the 5th centile, adjusted for birth weight. The obesity-risk-allele score showed little association with birth weight (regression coefficient: 0.01 SDS per allele; 95% CI 0.00-0.02, but had an apparently much larger positive effect on early infancy weight gain (0.119 SDS/allele/year; 0.023-0.216 than on subsequent childhood weight gain (0.004 SDS/allele/year; 0.004-0.005. The obesity-risk-allele score was also positively associated with early infancy length gain (0.158 SDS/allele/year; 0.032-0.284 and with reduced risk of early infancy failure to thrive (odds ratio = 0.92 per allele; 0.86-0.98; p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The use of robust genetic markers identified greater early infancy gains in weight and length as being on the pathway to adult obesity risk in a contemporary birth cohort.

  10. Polymorphisms in FTO and MAF Genes and Birth Weight, BMI, Ponderal Index, Weight Gain in a Large Cohort of Infants with a Birth Weight below 1500 Grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haller

    Full Text Available The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI, Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams.The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene and rs1424233 (MAF gene were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols.1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model.Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.

  11. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits pancreatic lipase and reduces body weight gain in high fat-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Kimberly A; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Kennett, Mary J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-11-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) has been shown to have obesity preventive effects in laboratory studies. We hypothesized that dietary epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could reverse metabolic syndrome in high fat-fed obese C57bl/6J mice, and that these effects were related to inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL). Following treatment with 0.32% EGCG for 6 weeks, a 44% decrease in body weight (BW) gain in high fat-fed, obese mice (P EGCG treatment increased fecal lipid content by 29.4% (P fat-fed control, whereas in vitro, EGCG dose-dependently inhibited PL (IC(50) = 7.5 µmol/l) in a noncompetitive manner with respect to substrate concentration. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate exhibited similar inhibitory activity, whereas the nonester-containing (-)-epigallocatechin did not. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation reduced final BW and BW gain in obese mice, and some of these effects may be due to inhibition of PL by EGCG.

  12. Thoracic Duct Narrowing-Innovative Technique Restraining Weight Gain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Barak; Barshack, Iris; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv

    2015-12-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for the absorption of fats from the digestive system, conveying 60-70 % of ingested fat to the blood stream. From the anatomical point of view, all the lymphatic drainage from the lower half of the body converges in the abdomen to enter the thoracic duct. This experimental study aim was to study the result of thoracic duct narrowing (TDN), an innovative surgical technique, on weight gain restrain in high-fat diet-fed rats. Forty-seven rats were allocated into three groups: thoracic duct narrowing ("S"-surgery), sham operation ("CS"-control surgery), and no surgery ("C"-control). All rats were fed with high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet. Food consumption and metabolic syndrome parameters including weight gain, plasma lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and viscera weight and histopathology were analyzed. Thoracic duct narrowing was proved simple and safe surgical procedure in the rat model. TDN induced weight gain restrain, associated with mild hepatic steatosis compared to moderate-severe hepatic steatosis in control groups. Splenomegaly and splenic fatty histiocytes were shown in the treated animals. TDN improved several parameters of the metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. TDN carries the potential of innovative obesity treatment using the lymphatic route of lipid absorption.

  13. Weight Gain, Schizophrenia and Antipsychotics: New Findings from Animal Model and Pharmacogenomic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Panariello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess body weight is one of the most common physical health problems among patients with schizophrenia that increases the risk for many medical problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, and hypertension, and accounts in part for 20% shorter life expectancy than in general population. Among patients with severe mental illness, obesity can be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle, personal genetic profile, as well as the effects of psychotropic medications, above all antipsychotic drugs. Novel “atypical” antipsychotic drugs represent a substantial improvement on older “typical” drugs. However, clinical experience has shown that some, but not all, of these drugs can induce substantial weight gain. Animal models of antipsychotic-related weight gain and animal transgenic models of knockout or overexpressed genes of antipsychotic receptors have been largely evaluated by scientific community for changes in obesity-related gene expression or phenotypes. Moreover, pharmacogenomic approaches have allowed to detect more than 300 possible candidate genes for antipsychotics-induced body weight gain. In this paper, we summarize current thinking on: (1 the role of polymorphisms in several candidate genes, (2 the possible roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in this adverse drug reaction, and (3 the state of development of animal models in this matter. We also outline major areas for future research.

  14. Is weight gain associated with the incidence of periodontitis? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Gustavo G; Leite, Fábio R M; Do, Loc G; Peres, Karen G; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F; Peres, Marco A

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review assessing the effects of weight gain on the incidence of periodontitis in adults. Electronic searches in four databases were performed up to and including February 2015. Only prospective longitudinal studies assessing the association between weight gain and the incidence of periodontitis in adults were eligible to be included in this study. All studies should state a clear description of nutritional status (Body Mass Index; Waist Circumference) as well as the case definition of periodontitis. Pooled relative risks (RR) for becoming overweight and obese on the incidence of periodontitis were estimated by meta-analysis. Quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies. Five articles were included in this review and meta-analysis with 42,198 subjects enrolled. Subjects who became overweight and obese presented higher risk to develop new cases of periodontitis (RR 1.13; 95%CI 1.06-1.20 and RR 1.33 95%CI 1.21-1.47 respectively) compared with counterparts who stayed in normal weight. A clear positive association between weight gain and new cases of periodontitis was found. However, these results are originated from limited evidence. Thus, more studies with longitudinal prospective design are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivatkusol Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG.Results: Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001. The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different.Conclusion: More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes. Keywords: prevalence, pregnancy outcome, inappropriate gestational weight gain, teenage pregnancy

  16. Pregnancy as a window to future health: Excessive gestational weight gain and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Klempel-Donchenko, Monica; Redman, Leanne M

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy have well-known effects on maternal and fetal health during the immediate pregnancy and now are thought to be a catalyst for future health throughout later life. Recommendations for appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) and lifestyle modifications during pregnancy have changed throughout history as more is known about this crucial time. Herein we discuss the current GWG recommendations and the impact of pregnancy and excess GWG gain on the current and future health of women and children including risk of obesity, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Weston-Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65, enzyme for GABA synthesis mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R binding density (using [(3H]SR-141716A were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and dorsal vagal complex (DVC of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days. Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.

  18. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  19. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  20. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk.

  1. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende; José Marques Pereira; Thasia Martins Macedo; Augusto Magno Ferreira Borges; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Érico de Sa Petit Lobão; Isis Miranda Carvalho Nicory

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos). Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and w...

  2. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  3. Comparison of weight gain and energy intake after subthalamic versus pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Leray, Emmanuelle; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Drapier, Dominique; Blanchard, Sophie; Drillet, Gwenolla; Péron, Julie; Vérin, Marc

    2009-10-30

    To compare body mass index (BMI) and daily energy intake (DEI) after subthalamic versus pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). Weight gain following DBS in Parkinson's disease patients remains largely unexplained and no comparison of subthalamic and pallidal (GPi) stimulation has yet been performed. BMI and DEI, dopaminergic drug administration and motor scores were recorded in 46 patients with PD before STN (n = 32) or GPi (n = 14) DBS and 3 and 6 months after. At M6, BMI had increased by an average of 8.4% in the STN group and 3.2% in the GPi group. BMI increased in 28 STN and 9 GPi patients. This increase was significantly higher in the STN group (P weight gain, inadequately explained by motor improvement or reduced dopaminergic drug dosage, occurred in subthalamic DBS patients. The difference between groups suggests additional factors in the STN group, such as homeostatic control center involvement.

  4. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  5. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin E. Champ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients.

  6. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed...... by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P

  7. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  8. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...... intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results...... of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity...

  9. Genetic parameters and trends of morphometric traits of GIFT tilapia under selection for weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main factor considered in breeding programs for fish is growth, which can be assessed in terms of a gain in either weight or body measurements. This study was undertaken to evaluate the morphometric traits of GIFT strain tilapia (Oreochromis sp. selected for weight gain. The data set used contained information on 6,650 animals. The genetic values of 8,590 animals in a relationship matrix of five generations were predicted. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: standard length; body depth and body width. Body area and volume were also calculated. Bi-character analyses involving morphometric traits were used to estimate (covariance components. Heritability, larval and fingerling common environmental effects were estimated for each trait, together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits. Bayesian procedures were utilised by Gibbs chains, and the convergence of the chains was tested using the Heidelberger and Welch method. Genetic trends were estimated by segmented regression of the fish breeding values of the generations considered in this study. Estimates of heritability (0.28 a 0.31 had moderate to high magnitudes for all traits. Genetic correlations between traits were all above 0.8, and the genetic gains were satisfactory from the third generation onwards. From the estimates of the genetic parameters and genetic gain the morphometric traits evaluated have good potential for selection.

  10. [Gestational weight gain and nutritional state of the newborn: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kelen Cristina Ramos; Muraro, Luana Oliveira; Witkowski, Maria Carolina; Breigeirond, Márcia Koja

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to characterize puerperal women in relation to gestational weight gain and their newborns in accordance with the nutritional state at birth. This is a descriptive, quantitative and retrospective study approved by the Ethics Committee at the institution responsible. The collection of data was from December 2012 to May 2013. The sample was composed of 24 puerperal women and their children. The participants presented an average age of 26.5 (DP=5.4) years, 79.2% white; 91.7% married; 58.3% multiparous; 75% with a level of education between secondary school and higher education; 58.3% with a low family income; 54.1% presented an altered pre-gestational nutritional state and 75% obtained an inadequate gestational weight gain. 79.2% of the newborns were classified as Adequate for Gestational Age (AIG). The newborns classified as Large for Gestational Age (GIG) were from pregnant women that had excessive weight gain or were overweight. It was concluded that health professionals should be attentive to nutritional deviations with the intention of avoiding complications for maternal/fetal health.

  11. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Grandner, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD = 0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N = 54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p < 0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship.

  12. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and risk of macrosomia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaoqing; Hu, Chengwen; He, Xiujie; Zhu, Meng; Qin, Fengyun; Liu, Yue; Hu, Chuanlai

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the relation between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia. We performed a meta-analysis by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for English-language literature from inception to 1 October 2014. Studies assessing the relationship between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia were included. Characteristics including study design, country, sample size, definition of macrosomia, adjusted odds ratios, CIs and adjustment factors were extracted independently by two reviewers. Summary odds ratios were calculated by using a random-effects model meta-analysis. 15 relevant articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. Incorporated by random-effect model before the heterogeneity tests, the value of OR was 2.35 (95 % CI: 1.95, 2.85). Stratified analysis showed no differences regarding different study design, definition of macrosomia and location of study. There was no indication of a publication bias either from the result of Egger's test (P = 0.572) or Begg's test (P = 0.572). Our meta-analysis indicated that excessive gestational weight gain might increase the risk of macrosomia.

  13. Leptin serum concentrations are associated with weight gain during lithium augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricken, Roland; Bopp, Sandra; Schlattmann, Peter; Himmerich, Hubertus; Bschor, Tom; Richter, Christoph; Stamm, Thomas J; Bauer, Frank; Heinz, Andreas; Hellweg, Rainer; Lang, Undine E; Adli, Mazda

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analytical data show lithium augmentation (LA) as an effective treatment strategy in major depression. Weight-gain is a common side effect of LA. The proteohormone leptin is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of weight gain induced by psychopharmacological treatment. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of leptin and body mass index (BMI) during LA in a prospective cohort study. Leptin serum concentrations and body mass index (BMI) were measured in a total of 89 acute depressive patients before and then after four weeks of LA. In a linear mixed model analysis the following variables had a significant positive effect on BMI: time (equal with "treatment effect of LA"; F1.83=6.05; p=0.016) and leptin (F1.111=13.83; p=0.0003) as well as the covariates male gender (F1.89=5.08; p=0.027) and adiposity (F1.85=105.13; pleptin on BMI is specific to LA remains unclear without a control group. Leptin signalling might be involved in lithium-induced weight-gain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Betahistine decreases olanzapine-induced weight gain and somnolence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Beck, Yaffa; Albeck, Joseph H

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine's efficacy in schizophrenia is attributed to antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors. Olanzapine is also a potent histamine-H1 antagonist that results in weight gain and somnolence. Betahistine is a centrally acting histamine-H1 agonist, and therefore may reduce olanzapine's effect on histamine receptors in the brain. Olanzapine's high affinity for the histamine-H1 receptor warrants the use of high doses of betahistine. Forty-eight healthy women were recruited and randomized to receive either betahistine 144 mg/day or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Due to the high dose of betahistine, olanzapine was started only on the second week and titrated up to 10 mg/day, and co-administration continued for an additional 2 weeks. Only nominal differences in adverse events were noted between the treatment groups. Betahistine caused a 37% reduction in mean weight gain (1.24 kg in the betahistine arm vs. 1.93 kg in the placebo arm; p=.049) and 60% reduction in the mean increase in daytime Epworth sleepiness scores (1.82 units in the betahistine group vs. 3.57 units in the placebo group; p=.042). The present study suggests that betahistine-olanzapine co-administration, in healthy female subjects, yields an acceptable safety profile with mitigation of weight gain and somnolence. This should be further tested in a patient cohort.

  15. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Grandner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD=0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N=54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p<0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship. PMID:23688114

  16. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body weight gain in patients with bilateral deep brain stimulation for dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marc E; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Lütjens, Götz; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K; Blahak, Christian

    2016-03-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease, significant weight gain following chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported. Recently, relevant weight gain could be demonstrated also following subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Prospective analyses of body weight changes following DBS in patients with dystonia, however, have not been published so far. We aimed to analyse the changes of body weight following DBS in patients with dystonia. The body mass index (BMI) of 17 consecutive patients with segmental or generalised dystonia (mean age 54.6 ± 16.1 years) treated with bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n = 14) or the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (n = 3) was measured preoperatively (pre-OP) and at three follow-up (FU) time points post-DBS surgery (FU1 = 7 months, FU2 = 17 months, FU3 = 72 months). All patients benefited from marked improvement in their dystonia. The mean BMI pre-OP (SD) was 22.5 (±3.7) kg/m(2) and increased stepwise to 24.0 (±3.3) kg/m(2) at FU1, 24.4 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU2 and 24.9 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU3 (p weight gain, in particular during the first 6 months post-OP. This probably is a result of improvement of dystonic motor symptoms and recovery of eating dysfunction rather than a target-specific phenomenon.

  18. Dietary Intake and Weight Gain Among Adolescents on Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Hannah L H; Belury, Martha A; Secic, Michelle; Thomas, Alicia; Bonny, Andrea E

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary intake and weight gain among adolescent females initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Prospective observational study. Two urban Adolescent Medicine clinics. 45 postmenarchal females, age 12 to 21, enrolled after self-selecting to initiate DMPA. Participants received 150 mg DMPA intramuscularly every 12 weeks. Height, weight, and 24-hour dietary recall were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Body mass index (BMI) over time calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Associations between dietary variables and BMI were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of variance modeling. Mean chronological and gynecologic ages were 16.2 ± 1.5 and 4.2 ± 1.8 years, respectively. Mean BMI increased from 23.7 ± 5.3 to 25.3 ± 5.7 over 12 months. Average dietary intake included: 1781.4 ± 554.1 total kilocalories, 228.5 g ± 69.8 carbohydrates, 71.0 g ± 27.3 fat, and 61.0 g ± 20.2 protein. These diet measures were not associated with BMI over time. Dietary fiber, magnesium, and linoleic acid were inversely associated with increased BMI over time (P < .05) CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that general measures of diet (energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein), as assessed by 24-hour recall, were predictive of weight gain on DMPA. Several nutrients abundant in foods that benefit overall health were inversely associated with increased BMI over time, suggesting that diet quality, rather than quantity, is a more important predictor of DMPA-associated weight gain. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  20. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  1. The association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant mortality among U.S. infants born in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Regina R; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

  2. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  3. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Y. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.

  4. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and elevated depressive symptoms in a Hispanic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; Silveira, Marushka L; Pekow, Penelope S; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the associations among prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and elevated depressive symptoms across pregnancy. We evaluated these associations among 1,090 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. BMI and GWG were self-reported; GWG was classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early, mid-, and late pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We defined elevated depressive symptoms as EPDS scores ≥13 and ≥15. In multivariable, longitudinal modeling, overweight (25.0 to <30 kg/m2) women had an odds ratio of 0.53 (95% CI [0.31, 0.90]) for EPDS scores ≥13 and 0.51 (95% CI [0.28, 0.91]) for EPDS scores ≥15 compared to normal weight women. We did not observe an association between GWG or an interaction between BMI and GWG, in predicting elevated depressive symptoms. Our findings provide preliminary support for an association of prepregnancy overweight status and lower depressive symptoms across pregnancy in Hispanic women. Future research should focus on potential social and cultural differences in perceptions of weight and weight gain in the perinatal period and how these influence psychological health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. School year versus summer differences in child weight gain: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Teresia; Johnston, Craig; Hughes, Sheryl; Moreno, Jennette; Chen, Tzu-An; Meltzer, Lisa; Baranowski, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in child adiposity or related phenomena. The most common seasonal pattern in six longitudinal descriptive studies was that overweight and obese children experienced accelerated gain in weight or some BMI indicator during the summer, whereas healthy weight children gained less or not at all. Four physical activity (PA) intervention studies demonstrated that school year fitness improvements were lost during the summer. One study showed that PA declined across the summer. Another study provided conflicting results of lower total energy expenditure in the summer, but no seasonal difference in total energy expenditure after adjusting for fat-free mass. This pattern of fairly rapid seasonal differences suggests that PA is the primary factor contributing to seasonal differences in weight or BMI, but the documented seasonal pattern in PA (i.e., higher in summer) does not support this relationship. Sleep duration has also been inversely related to child adiposity. Seasonal patterns in adiposity, PA, and sleep need to be clearly established separately for overweight and healthy weight children in further longitudinal research to provide a clear focus for national policy.

  6. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  7. Gestational weight gain and body mass index in children: results from three german cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on offspring's body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. METHODS: We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine with offspring's mean body mass index (BMI standard deviation scores (SDS and overweight at the age of 5-6 years (total: n = 6,254. Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15 units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24 kg/m(2 of 'real' BMI in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. DISCUSSION: Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.

  8. Structural equation modeling of latent growth curves of weight gain among treated tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalingam Vasantha

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis still remains a major public health problem even though it is treatable and curable. Weight gain measurement during anti tuberculosis (TB treatment period is an important component to assess the progress of TB patients. In this study, Latent Growth Models (LGMs were implemented in a longitudinal design to predict the change in weight of TB patients who were given three different regimens under randomized controlled clinical trial for anti-TB treatment. Linear and Quadratic LGMs were fitted using Mplus software. The age, sex and treatment response of the TB patients were used as time invariant independent variables of the growth trajectories. The quadratic trend was found to be better in explaining the changes in weight without grouping than the quadratic model for three group comparisons. A significant increase in the change of weight over time was identified while a significant quadratic effect indicated that weights were sustained over time. The growth rate was similar in both the groups. The treatment response had significant association with the growth rate of weight scores of the patients.

  9. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  10. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  11. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical reports have demonstrated that most antipsychotics of the new generation, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, induce weight gain in schizophrenic patients. Since weight gain induces serious health complications in humans, it is crucial to test upcoming antipsychotic co...

  12. Predicting the "Freshman 15": Environmental and Psychological Predictors of Weight Gain in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate weight gain in first-year university students; and (2) to examine whether environmental and psychological factors, specifically accommodation and stress, predict weight gain. Methods: Eighty-four first-year university students (77 per cent female) were weighed and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck…

  13. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  14. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  15. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Butte, Nancy F.; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is due to increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. Methods In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n=33 and BMI ≥ 25, n=12) were measured preconceptionally 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water and energy deposition determined by the 4-compartment body composition model. Weight, body composition, and metabolic chamber measurement were completed preconceptionally, 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Results Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3437 ± 99 kcal/d) versus low + ideal gainers (n=26) (2687 ± 110 pbody composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (151 ± 33 vs. 129 ± 36 kcal/d; p=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low + ideal gainers: −150 ± 70 kcal/d; p=.04 and high gainers: −230 ± 92 kcal/day; p=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (p=.49). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase adherence to the IOM guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity. PMID:27054928

  16. Weight gain, behavioral and cortisol changes after orchiectomy with or without local anaesthesia in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Sturlini Barticciotto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intratesticular local anesthesia on weight gain and behavioral and cortisol changes in piglets submitted to castration. Study design was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-nine male Landrace crossbred piglets aged 3 to 6 days were used. The piglets were randomly divided into two groups: orchiectomy with anesthesia (A, n = 15 and orchiectomy without anesthesia (NOA, n = 14. Piglets in the A and NOA groups were treated with 0.5 mL of intratesticular 2% lidocaine with a vasoconstrictor in each testicle and 0.5 mL of intratesticular 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. Blood samples were collected from all animals immediately after surgery and at 3 and 6 days postoperatively for measurement of the serum cortisol concentration. Behavior was assessed daily for 6 days by two observers blinded to the treatment. Weight was measured at the same time as cortisol measurement. Analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to investigate differences in time within and between the two groups. Mean times of six evaluations done for 90 minutes during 6 days of each behavior were compared by Tukey t test. The level of statistical significance was 5%. The serum cortisol concentration was higher immediately after surgery than at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in both groups. Weight gain was greater at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in the A group than in the NOA group. Intratesticular local anesthesia before castration in piglets is technically practical, is in accordance with good welfare practice, and improves short-term weight gain in piglets submitted to castration.

  17. Gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining classifier for medical diagnostic interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Nithya; K Duraiswamy

    2014-02-01

    The health care environment still needs knowledge based discovery for handling wealth of data. Extraction of the potential causes of the diseases is the most important factor for medical data mining. Fuzzy association rule mining is wellperformed better than traditional classifiers but it suffers from the exponential growth of the rules produced. In the past, we have proposed an information gain based fuzzy association rule mining algorithm for extracting both association rules and membership functions of medical data to reduce the rules. It used a ranking based weight value to identify the potential attribute. When we take a large number of distinct values, the computation of information gain value is not feasible. In this paper, an enhanced approach, called gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining, is thus proposed for distinct diseases and also increase the learning time of the previous one. Experimental results show that there is a marginal improvement in the attribute selection process and also improvement in the classifier accuracy. The system has been implemented in Java platform and verified by using benchmark data from the UCI machine learning repository.

  18. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  19. Cup or bottle for preterm infants: effects on oxygen saturation, weight gain, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Neide M N; Martinez, Francisco E; Jorge, Salim M

    2002-05-01

    The impact of cup-feeding or bottle-feeding on weight gain, oxygen saturation, and breastfeeding rates of preterm infants was studied in 34 bottle-fed and 44 cup-fed preterm infants. At initiation of oral feeding, postconceptional age and weight were 37.2 +/- 2.2 weeks and 1676 +/- 83 g for the bottle-fed group (BF) and 37.0 +/- 1.6 weeks and 1637 +/- 40 g for the cup-fed (CF) group, respectively. No significant differences between groups were found with regard to time spent feeding, feeding problems, weight gain, or breastfeeding prevalence at discharge or at 3-month follow-up. Possible beneficial effects of cup-feeding were lower incidence of desaturation episodes (13.6% vs 35.3%, CF vs BF, P = .024) and a higher prevalence of breastfeeding at 3 months among those still breastfeeding at the first follow-up visit (68.4% vs 33.3%, CF vs BF, P = .04).

  20. Treatment with FGFR2-IIIc monoclonal antibody suppresses weight gain and adiposity in KKAy mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, K; Kaji, T; Yamazaki, T; Murakami, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Expression of β-Kotho, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1c and 2c, which bind FGF21, is decreased in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of FGFR2c in the development of obesity and diabetes in KKAy mice. Treatment with mouse monoclonal FGFR2-IIIc antibody (0.5 mg kg−1) significantly suppressed body weight gain and epididymal white adipose tissue weight in individually housed KKAy mice while having no effect on daily food intake. In addition, treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody significantly increased plasma-free fatty acid levels while having no effect on blood glucose or plasma FGF21 levels. Moreover, treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody had no significant effect on the expression of uncoupling protein-1, uncoupling protein-2 or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α in the epididymal white adipose tissue. The treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody had no significant effects on daily food intake and body weight gain in individually housed KK mice. These findings suggest that FGFR2-IIIc upregulates the adiposity induced by social isolation in KKAy mice, and that decreased expression and/or function of FGFR2c might be a compensatory response to enhanced adiposity. Inhibition of FGFR2-IIIc function might be a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. PMID:27892934

  1. Linear Growth Arrest Without Weight Gain Due to Overuse of Topical Clobetasol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged potent topical glucocorticoid therapy in infants can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. This case highlights the rarity of poor weight gain in iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. A 17-month-old boy was referred to outpatients pediatric endocrine clinic for evaluation of growth failure. On presentation his weight was 9.7kg (5th percentile and height was 72cm (-3.6 SD below mean for age and sex. Systemic examination revealed grossly moon-like face, hypertrichosis and thin skin in the genital area. His mother reported using local clobetasol for the previous seven months for his diaper dermatitis. Baseline plasma cortisol was low (0.3ng/ml, normal range: 60 to 280ng/ml. During standard dose of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone test, the peak cortisol level was 0.4ng/ml (N>180ng/ml and was consistent with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis suppression. The patient’s clinical presentation and laboratory investigations confirmed the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency and iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. He was treated successfully by discontinuing use of clobetasol. His appearance and growth returned to normal within two months. Morning cortisol was 101.2ng/ml after stopping the oral physiologic dose of hydrocortisone. Our case differed from other reports of iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome by presenting in poor weight gain rather than obesity.

  2. The relationship between gestational weight gain and fetal growth: time to take stock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Amy C; Doolan, Anne; Mullaney, Laura; Daly, Niamh; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current evidence on gestational weight gain (GWG). Maternal obesity has emerged as one of the great challenges in modern obstetrics as it is becoming increasingly common and is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. There has been an upsurge of interest in GWG with an emphasis on the relationship between excessive GWG and increased fetal growth. Recent recommendations from the Institute of Medicine in the USA have revised downwards the weight gain recommendations in pregnancy for obese mothers. We believe that it is time to take stock again about the advice that pregnant women are given about GWG and their lifestyle before, during, and after pregnancy. The epidemiological links between excessive GWG and aberrant fetal growth are weak, particularly in obese women. There is little evidence that intervention studies decrease excessive GWG or improve intrauterine fetal growth. Indeed, there is a potential risk that inappropriate interventions during the course of pregnancy may lead to fetal malnutrition that may have adverse clinical consequences, both in the short- and long-term. It may be more appropriate to shift the focus of attention from monitoring maternal weight to increasing physical activity levels and improving nutritional intakes.

  3. Pregnancy outcome according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess birth weight in relation to gestational weight gain (GWG) among women who were and were not obese before pregnancy. METHODS: For a retrospective cohort study, data were obtained for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided......). RESULTS: A total of 231 obese women were included in analyses. In non-obese and obese women, fetal weight was highest when GWG was above the recommended amount. Among women who had a GWG in line with the recommendations, mean birth weight was higher among those with a pre-pregnancy BMI of 35.0-39.9 (3758...... by the square of height in meters) of at least 30 who had a singleton delivery at a center in Denmark in 2010-2011. Data were also obtained for 455 non-obese women (BMI 20.0-24.9). GWG was expressed in absolute terms and relative to published recommendations (11-16kg in non-obese women; 5-9kg in obese women...

  4. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  5. Serum adipocytokines and adipose weight gain: a pilot study in adolescent females initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Andrea E; Lange, Hannah L H; Hade, Erinn M; Kaufman, Bram; Reed, Michael D; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether serum adipocytokine concentrations, controlling for baseline adiposity, are predictive of adipose weight gain in adolescents initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Percent body fat was measured at baseline and 6 months. Baseline serum adipocytokine concentrations were quantified. Mean percent body fat was 31.6% (±7.6) at baseline and 33.5% (±7.6) at 6 months. In multivariable linear regression modeling (adjusted for baseline percent body fat), Hispanic ethnicity and baseline serum adiponectin concentration were inversely associated (p≤.05) with absolute change in percent body fat at 6 months. Serum adiponectin concentration may be useful for assessing risk of DMPA-associated adipose gains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. College expectations in high school mitigate weight gain over early adulthood: Findings from a national study of American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Lee, Hedwig; Colabianchi, Natalie; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-07-01

    Research conducted on school-based interventions suggests that school connectedness protects against a variety of risk behaviors, including substance abuse, delinquency and sedentary behavior. The line of research is extended by examining the link between college expectations and early adult weight gain using nationally representative panel data from thirty cohorts of American high school seniors followed prospectively to age 30 in the Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2009). Growth mixture models identified two latent classes of trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from age 19 to 30: a persistently overweight class (BMI ≥ 25) and a second class exhibiting more moderate growth in BMI to age 30. Compared to those who did not expect to graduate from college, students fully expecting to graduate from college had 34% lower odds of being in the persistently overweight class (adjusted odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.54, 0.81), controlling for academic performance and socioeconomic status. Successful prevention of obesity early in the life course is based on a multifactorial approach incorporating strategies that address the contexts in which adolescents are embedded. The school setting may be one avenue where successful educational attachment could have positive consequences for subsequent weight gain in early adulthood. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  7. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  8. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  9. Betahistine ameliorates olanzapine-induced weight gain through modulation of histaminergic, NPY and AMPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Olanzapine is widely used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders, but causes adverse obesity and other metabolic side-effects. Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for ameliorating olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity. To reveal the mechanisms underlying these effects, this study investigated the effects of co-treatment of olanzapine and betahistine (O+B) on expressions of histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus associated with reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain. Olanzapine significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of H1R, while O+B co-treatment significantly downregulated the H1R levels, compared to the olanzapine-only treatment group. The NPY mRNA expression was significantly enhanced by olanzapine, but it was significantly reversed by O+B co-treatment. The hypothalamic H1R expression was positively correlated with total food intake, and NPY expression. Olanzapine also increased AMPKα activation measured by the AMPKα phosphorylation (pAMPKα)/AMPKα ratio compared with controls, whereas O+B co-treatment decreased the pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio, compared with olanzapine only treatment. The pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio was positively correlated with total food intake and H1R expression. Although olanzapine administration decreased the POMC mRNA level, this level was not affected by O+B co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggested that co-treatment with betahistine may reverse olanzapine-induced body weight gain via the H1R-NPY and H1R-pAMPKα pathways.

  10. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination

  11. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination

  12. Metabolic changes during treatment with valproate in humans: implication for untoward weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Astrup, A; Gram, L

    1992-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate the mechanisms behind valproate-induced weight gain. Eight patients with epilepsy were studied with identical examination programs before and during the end of the first month of treatment with sodium valproate (VPA). The measurements included registration...... of food intake, indirect calorimetry, and determination of pancreatic and thyroid hormones, catecholamines, albumin, electrolytes, glycerol, and free fatty acids. Measurements were performed both at the basal condition and during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After the start of VPA...

  13. Severe weight gain and generalized insulin edema after the starting of an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Domenico

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of a generalized edema after initiation or intensification of insulin treatment in patients with diabetes, although considered a rare event, has long been described in the literature. In this case, a state of clinically significant edema, with a concurrent severe weight gain, occurred in a patient with type 1 diabetes in whom the implantation of an insulin pump resulted in a dramatic and abrupt improvement in glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Stefano DellaVigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 3 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. There is no discernable effect...

  15. Food availability as a determinant of weight gain among renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Robin F; Ward, Kenneth D; Relyea, George E; Cashion, Ann K

    2014-06-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients' residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change.

  16. Influence of porcine coat colour genotypes on haematological parameters, piglet birth weight and body weight gain until weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fésüs, L; Zsolnai, A; Komlósi, I

    2005-04-01

    Two F2 generations of an intercross between Hampshire boars and Hungarian Large White sows were produced to estimate the effects of the porcine KIT genotypes (II, Ii and ii) on quantitative and qualitative haematological indices, on piglet birth weight and growth performance until weaning. Piglets carrying the I allele had significantly fewer lymphocytes (p = 0.041) than the ii homozygotes, heterozygotes had measures between the two homozygotes. KIT genotypes did not influence white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrite. II genotype piglets were significantly lighter at birth than the ones carrying the recessive i allele, the effect of KIT genotypes on gain until weaning was not significant, but II piglets tended to gain less. The results of this study support the hypothesis of M. Johansson, H. Ellegren, L. Marklund, U. Gustavsson, E. Ringmar-Cederberg, K. Andersson, I. Edfors-Lilja and L. Andersson [(1992) Genomics, 14, 965] that the pleiotrophic effect of the porcine KIT mutations on haematopoietic cells must be mild.

  17. Weight Gain After Breast Cancer Diagnosis and All-Cause Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Michael B.; Sanft, Tara B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Harrigan, Maura; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with breast cancer mortality. However, the relationship between postdiagnosis weight gain and mortality is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer–specific, all-cause mortality and recurrence outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases identified articles up through December 2014, including: PubMed (1966-present), EMBASE (1974-present), CINAHL (1982-present), and Web of Science. Language and publication status were unrestricted. Cohort studies and clinical trials measuring weight change after diagnosis and all-cause/breast cancer–specific mortality or recurrence were considered. Participants were women age 18 years or older with stage I-IIIC breast cancer. Fixed effects analysis summarized the association between weight gain (≥5.0% body weight) and all-cause mortality; all tests were two-sided. Results: Twelve studies (n = 23 832) were included. Weight gain (≥5.0%) compared with maintenance (breast cancer–specific mortality (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.38, P = .05). Conclusions: Weight gain after diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher all-cause mortality rates compared with maintaining body weight. Adverse effects are greater for weight gains of 10.0% or higher. PMID:26424778

  18. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  19. Parkinson's disease patients with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation gain weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Frédéric; Perlemoine, Caroline; Coman, Irène; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Tison, François

    2004-02-01

    Weight, body mass index (BMI) and energy expenditure/energy intake (EE/EI) was studied in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) versus 14 nonoperated ones. Operated patients had a significant weight gain (WG, + 9.7 +/- 7 kg) and BMI increase (+ 4.7 kg/m2). The fat mass was higher after STN-DBS. Resting EE (REE; offdrug/ON stimulation) was significantly decreased in STN-DBS patients, while their daily energy expenditure (DEI) was not significantly different. A significant correlation was found among WG, BMI increase, and pre-operative levodopa-equivalent daily dose, their reduction after STN-DBS, and the differential REE related to stimulation and the REE in the offdrug/OFF stimulation condition. In conclusion, STN-DBS in PD induces a significant WG associated with a reduction in REE without DEI adjustment.

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  1. Food cue reactivity and craving predict eating and weight gain: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Rebecca G; Kober, Hedy

    2016-02-01

    According to learning-based models of behavior, food cue reactivity and craving are conditioned responses that lead to increased eating and subsequent weight gain. However, evidence supporting this relationship has been mixed. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to assess the predictive effects of food cue reactivity and craving on eating and weight-related outcomes. Across 69 reported statistics from 45 published reports representing 3,292 participants, we found an overall medium effect of food cue reactivity and craving on outcomes (r = 0.33, p food cues (e.g. pictures and videos) were associated with a similar effect size to real food exposure and a stronger effect size than olfactory cues. Overall, the present findings suggest that food cue reactivity, cue-induced craving and tonic craving systematically and prospectively predict food-related outcomes. These results have theoretical, methodological, public health and clinical implications.

  2. Influence of intestinal microbiota on body weight gain: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinelli, Camila S; Sala, Priscila C; Alves, Claudia C; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, experimental and clinical studies have associated the development of obesity with the composition of the gut microbiota. Mechanisms potentially involved in the contribution of gut microbiota to body weight gain include changes in energy extraction from the diet and the modulation of lipid metabolism, endocrine functions, and the immune system. The host's specific genetic heritage, the type and amount of food intake, chronic inflammation, reduced body energy expenditure, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants are also potential contributing factors. The pathophysiological processes involved in the relationship between gut microbiota and obesity are not fully understood, and further studies are needed to establish whether differences in gut bacterial diversity between obese and normal body weight individuals are the cause or a consequence of obesity.

  3. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  4. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  5. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; Gorgulho, Alessandra A; Behnke, Eric J; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS) stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8) which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4) concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz) VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM) that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05), suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  6. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Melega

    Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  7. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  8. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

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    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  9. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-02

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Provider Advice by Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status: A Qualitative Study of Pregnant Latinas With Excessive Gestational Weight Gain.

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    Wang, Monica L; Arroyo, Julie; Druker, Susan; Sankey, Heather Z; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-01-01

    Latina women are at high risk of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy; yet little is known about whether factors related to GWG differ by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within this population. We conducted in-depth interviews with 62 pregnant Latina women with pre-pregnancy BMIs in the healthy, overweight, and obese ranges, gestational age ≥22 weeks, and GWG for gestational age above Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Compared to healthy weight and obese women, overweight women least often reported viewing weight as important, making efforts to control their GWG, being aware of the role of diet on GWG, and receiving GWG advice from health-care providers. Among those who received GWG advice, overweight women more often recalled a target GWG above IOM guidelines. Obese women more often reported low acceptance of their GWG, concern about GWG, having received GWG advice from providers, difficulty following providers' dietary advice, and emotional eating as a challenge for controlling GWG. Participants welcomed practical advice to manage GWG. Future interventions to prevent excessive GWG among Latina women should consider differences among women of varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and include multi-level strategies to address psychosocial as well as provider factors.

  11. Healthy gestational weight gain prevalence and associated risk factors: A population-based study in the far South of Brazil

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    Luana Patricia MARMITT

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To measure and identify the factors associated with healthy weight gain during pregnancy in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study that included all parturient women from the municipality who gave birth at its maternity hospitals in 2013. Information was collected by interview with the mothers in the first 48 hours following parturition and from the prenatal care cards. Healthy weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Data analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance using previous hierarchical model. Results Among the 1,784 pregnant participants, 89% attended at least six prenatal care visits, and 32% had healthy weight gain during pregnancy. Higher education level and fewer children resulted in a higher prevalence ratio for healthy weight gain (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively. Underweight women at conception had a higher proportion of healthy weight gain (p<0.001. Despite extensive coverage, prenatal care did not affect healthy weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.104. Conclusion The low proportion of women with healthy gestational weight gain suggests a need of better prenatal care services. Women who are overweight, have lower education levels, and had had multiple pregnancies at conception need special attention.

  12. Factors Associated With Women's Plans to Gain Weight Categorized as Above or Below the National Guidelines During Pregnancy.

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    Park, Christina K; Timm, Valerie; Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph; Schmidt, Louis A; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-03-01

    Given that planning to gain gestational weight categorized as above the national guidelines is associated with actually gaining above the guidelines, we sought to identify physical, lifestyle, knowledge, and psychological factors associated with planned weight gain. Using a piloted, self-administered questionnaire, a cross-sectional study of women with singleton pregnancies was conducted. Women's plans for weight gain were categorized as above, within, or below the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 90.7% (n = 330). Compared with women whose plans to gain weight were within the guidelines, women whose plans to gain were above the guidelines were more likely to be older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.09 per year; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16), to have a greater pre-pregnancy BMI (aOR 1.17 per unit of BMI; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.25), to drink more than one glass of soft drink or juice per day (aOR 2.73; 95% CI 1.27 to 5.87), and to report receiving a recommendation by their care provider to gain weight above the guidelines (aOR 5.46; 95% CI 1.56 to 19.05). Women whose plans to gain weight were categorized as below the guidelines were more likely to eat lunch in front of a screen (aOR 2.27; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.66) and to aspire to greater social desirability (aOR 2.51; 95% CI 1.01 to 6.22). Modifiable factors associated with planned gestational weight gain categorized as above the guidelines included soft drink or juice consumption and having a recommendation from a care provider, while planned weight gain categorized as below the guidelines was associated with eating lunch in front of a screen and social desirability.

  13. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

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    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2016-10-06

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p<0.0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hours) body mass increased significantly (p<0.001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal·day(-1) and 471 ± 124 g·day(-1), respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol·kg(-1)). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hour duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  14. Modification of Hidden Layer Weight in Extreme Learning Machine Using Gain Ratio

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    Anggraeny Fetty Tri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.

  15. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes.

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    Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG. Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m(2). The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all Pteenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Tungstate decreases weight gain and adiposity in obese rats through increased thermogenesis and lipid oxidation.

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    Claret, Marc; Corominola, Helena; Canals, Ignasi; Saura, Josep; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon

    2005-10-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and the limitations of current treatments raise the need for finding novel therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. The purpose of the current study was first to investigate the effects of tungstate on body weight and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Second, we aimed to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. Oral administration of tungstate significantly decreased body weight gain and adiposity without modifying caloric intake, intestinal fat absorption, or growth rate in obese rats. Moreover, the treatment ameliorated dislipemia and insulin resistance of obese rats. These effects were mediated by an increase in whole-body energy dissipation and by changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue. Furthermore, treatment increased the number of small adipocytes with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that tungstate treatment may provide the basis for a promising novel therapy for obesity.

  17. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  18. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

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    Marcella K Vaicik

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/- and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+ control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  19. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

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    Vaicik, Marcella K; Thyboll Kortesmaa, Jill; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N; Brey, Eric M; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/-) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  20. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

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    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  1. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  2. Depression as a predictor of weight regain among successful weight losers in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David W; Ma, Yong; Rubin, Richard R; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Marrero, David; Knowler, William C; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lacoursiere, D Yvette

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether depression symptoms or antidepressant medication use predicts weight regain in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who are successful with initial weight loss. A total of 1,442 participants who successfully lost at least 3% of their baseline body weight after 12 months of participation in the randomized controlled Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) continued in their assigned treatment group (metformin, intensive lifestyle, or placebo) and were followed into the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcome Study (DPPOS). Weight regain was defined as a return to baseline DPP body weight. Participant weight and antidepressant medication use were assessed every 6 months. Depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] score ≥11) were assessed every 12 months. Only 2.7% of the overall cohort had moderate to severe depression symptoms at baseline; most of the participants with BDI score ≥11 had only mild symptoms during the period of observation. In unadjusted analyses, both depression symptoms (hazard ratio 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67], P = 0.03) and antidepressant medication use at either the previous visit (1.72 [1.37-2.15], P weight regain. After adjustment for multiple covariates, antidepressant use remained a significant predictor of weight regain (P weight, antidepressant use may increase the risk of weight regain.

  3. Captopril intake decreases body weight gain via angiotensin-(1-7).

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    Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of short term clinoptilolite supplementation on weight gain in Holstein calves

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    Deniz Alic Ural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether short term supplemantation at two levels (1 or 2 g/kg of clinoptilolite (CLNP in the colostrum of dairy calves had any effect on total weight gain (TWG and mean daily gain of weight (mdwg. Materials and methods. A total of 24 clinically healthy calves without diarrhea were assigned in a subset of three major groups of calves were studied: group I (n=8 received colostrum with clnp at the rate of 1/kg started immediately following calving at 12 and 24 hours, for a total of 2 doses. Group II consisted of calves (n=8 receiving colostrum with clnp at the rate of 2/kg within the same interval as the first experimental group. The last group III, which served as control, received solely colostrum. Results. Group had significant effect on weight (kg of Holstein calves [twg (mean±SE- control: 12.66±0.349, group I: 14.73±0.414, group II: 14.19±0.468, p<0.01; mdwg (mean±SE-control: 0.338±0.0155, group I: 0.396±0.0189, group II: 0.397±0.0196, p<0.05]. There was a significant difference observed for twg (p<0.01 and mdwg (p<0.05 among control group and both clnp treatment groups. Conclusions. The results showed that the addition of both levels of clinoptilolite administration via colostrum appeared to enhance twg and mdwg in newborn calves without having any observable adverse effect.

  5. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.

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    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.

  6. Classification tree analysis of postal questionnaire data to identify risk of excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; Teede, Helena; McPhie, Skye

    2016-01-01

    overweight/obese weight status during pregnancy increases risk of a range of adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Whereas identification of those who are overweight/obese pre-pregnancy and in early pregnancy is straightforward, prediction of who will experience excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), and thus be at greater risk of becoming overweight or obese during pregnancy is more challenging. The present study sought to better identify those at risk of EGWG by exploring pre-pregnancy BMI as well as a range of psychosocial risk factors identified as risk factors in prior research. 225 pregnant women completed self-reported via postal survey measures of height, weight, and psychosocial variables at 16-18 weeks gestation, and reported their weight again at 32-34 weeks to calculate GWG. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to find subgroups in the data with increased risk of EGWG based on their pre-pregnancy BMI and psychosocial risk factor scores at Time 1. CART confirmed that self-reported BMI status was a strong predictor of EGWG risk for women who were overweight/obese pre-pregnancy. Normal weight women with low motivation to maintain a healthy diet and who reported lower levels of partner support were also at considerable risk of EGWG. present findings offer support for inclusion of psychosocial measures (in addition to BMI) in early antenatal visits to detect risk of EGWG. However, these findings also underscore the need for further consideration of effect modifiers that place women at increased or decreased risk of EGWG. Proposed additional constructs are discussed to direct further theory-driven research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

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    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  8. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  9. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Kawabata, Kanami; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelder, Thomas; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Cohen, Louis H; Havekes, Louis M; Princen, Hans M; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism and its mechanisms of action in high-fat-fed hyperlipidemic APOE*3 Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice. Mildly insulin-resistant E3L mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1.5% colestilan for 8 weeks. Colestilan treatment decreased body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased food intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were decreased, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity, particularly in peripheral tissues. In addition, colestilan decreased energy expenditure and physical activity, whereas it increased the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating that colestilan induced carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that colestilan increased [(3)H]NEFA incorporation in biliary cholesterol and phospholipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. Gene expression analysis in liver, fat, and muscle supported the above findings. In summary, colestilan decreases weight gain and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed E3L mice by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and increased fecal lipid excretion.

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Scharf, Rebecca J; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-09-01

    Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, and television viewing. Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10-1.85, P children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children.

  11. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  12. Development and validation of a risk score predicting substantial weight gain over 5 years in middle-aged European men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Steffen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. METHODS: We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG for the next 5 years (derivation sample. Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥ 10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample. RESULTS: Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63-0.65 in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.56-0.58 in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥ 200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score.

  13. Heritability of childhood weight gain from birth and risk markers for adult metabolic disease in prepubertal twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beardsall, Kathryn

    2009-10-01

    Associations between size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and potential risk for adult disease have been variably explained by in utero exposures or genetic ri