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Sample records for weight function method

  1. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND METHODS OF PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEM DEVICES. METHOD OF WEIGHT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mishchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and substantiation of a new method of structural identification of electrical devices of electric traction systems for both DC and AC current. Methodology. To solve this problem the following methods are used: the methods and techniques of the linear electrical engineering, in particular, the Laplace operator method; the numerical method for solving the integral equation, which is based on the representation of the Wiener-Hopf linear equations system (this allows forming the solutions of the problem in a mathematical form of the correlation and weight functions; the factorization method, which provides certain partition of the correlation functions of the stochastic processes. Findings. It was developed the method of weight function of the electrical devices identification, which can be fully used in the systems of electric traction. As the use example of the developed method it was considered a feeder section of DC electric traction with the single power supply. On this section move two electric locomotives of the type DE 1, they have been identified by the weighting functions. The required currents and voltages of electric locomotives are also formulated in the electric traction network in probabilistic and statistical form, that is, the functions of mathematical expectation and the correlation functions are determined. At this, it is taken into account that the correlation function of the sum of random functions is equal to the sum of the correlation functions of additives, and the correlation function of the integral of a random function is defined as the double integral of the correlation function of the output of a random function. Originality. Firstly, originality consists of the adaption of the developed method of structural identification for the devices of electric traction system. Secondly, it lies in the proper development of the new method of weight function. And finally, it lies in the solution of the Wiener

  2. Function-weighted frequency response function sensitivity method for analytical model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Since the frequency response function (FRF) sensitivity method was first proposed [26], it has since become a most powerful and practical method for analytical model updating. Nevertheless, the original formulation of the FRF sensitivity method does suffer the limitation that the initial analytical model to be updated should be reasonably close to the final updated model to be sought, due the assumed mathematical first order approximation implicit to most sensitivity based methods. Convergence to correct model is not guaranteed when large modelling errors exist and blind application often leads to optimal solutions which are truly sought. This paper seeks to examine all the important numerical characteristics of the original FRF sensitivity method including frequency data selection, numerical balance and convergence performance. To further improve the applicability of the method to cases of large modelling errors, a new novel function-weighted sensitivity method is developed. The new method has shown much superior performance on convergence even in the presence of large modelling errors. Extensive numerical case studies based on a mass-spring system and a GARTEUR structure have been conducted and very encouraging results have been achieved. Effect of measurement noise has been examined and the method works reasonably well in the presence of measurement uncertainties. The new method removes the restriction of modelling error magnitude being of second order in Euclidean norm as compared with that of system matrices, thereby making it a truly general method applicable to most practical model updating problems.

  3. A modified weighted function method for parameter estimation of Pearson type three distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongmin; Hu, Yiming; Li, Binquan; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, an unconventional method called Modified Weighted Function (MWF) is presented for the conventional moment estimation of a probability distribution function. The aim of MWF is to estimate the coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of skewness (CS) from the original higher moment computations to the first-order moment calculations. The estimators for CV and CS of Pearson type three distribution function (PE3) were derived by weighting the moments of the distribution with two weight functions, which were constructed by combining two negative exponential-type functions. The selection of these weight functions was based on two considerations: (1) to relate weight functions to sample size in order to reflect the relationship between the quantity of sample information and the role of weight function and (2) to allocate more weights to data close to medium-tail positions in a sample series ranked in an ascending order. A Monte-Carlo experiment was conducted to simulate a large number of samples upon which statistical properties of MWF were investigated. For the PE3 parent distribution, results of MWF were compared to those of the original Weighted Function (WF) and Linear Moments (L-M). The results indicate that MWF was superior to WF and slightly better than L-M, in terms of statistical unbiasness and effectiveness. In addition, the robustness of MWF, WF, and L-M were compared by designing the Monte-Carlo experiment that samples are obtained from Log-Pearson type three distribution (LPE3), three parameter Log-Normal distribution (LN3), and Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV), respectively, but all used as samples from the PE3 distribution. The results show that in terms of statistical unbiasness, no one method possesses the absolutely overwhelming advantage among MWF, WF, and L-M, while in terms of statistical effectiveness, the MWF is superior to WF and L-M.

  4. An improved adaptive weighting function method for State Estimation in Power Systems with VSC-MTDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Yang, Xiaonan; Lang, Yansheng; Song, Xuri; Wang, Minkun; Luo, Yadi; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for state estimation in power systems that include multi-terminal voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-MTDC), called improved adaptive weighting function method. The proposed approach is simplified in which the VSC-MTDC system is solved followed by the AC system. Because the new state estimation method only changes the weight and keeps the matrix dimension unchanged. Accurate and fast convergence of AC/DC system can be realized by adaptive weight function method. This method also provides the technical support for the simulation analysis and accurate regulation of AC/DC system. Both the oretical analysis and numerical tests verify practicability, validity and convergence of new method.

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... you feel better. There are proven ways to lose weight. You can find what works for you. Research ...

  6. Computing light statistics in heterogeneous media based on a mass weighted probability density function method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Patrick; Mourad, Safer; Stamm, Tobias; Vöge, Markus; Simon, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Based on the transport theory, we present a modeling approach to light scattering in turbid material. It uses an efficient and general statistical description of the material's scattering and absorption behavior. The model estimates the spatial distribution of intensity and the flow direction of radiation, both of which are required, e.g., for adaptable predictions of the appearance of colors in halftone prints. This is achieved by employing a computational particle method, which solves a model equation for the probability density function of photon positions and propagation directions. In this framework, each computational particle represents a finite probability of finding a photon in a corresponding state, including properties like wavelength. Model evaluations and verifications conclude the discussion.

  7. A new method to measure complexity in binary or weighted networks and applications to functional connectivity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Klaus; Massopust, Peter R; Prigarin, Sergei

    2016-02-13

    Networks or graphs play an important role in the biological sciences. Protein interaction networks and metabolic networks support the understanding of basic cellular mechanisms. In the human brain, networks of functional or structural connectivity model the information-flow between cortex regions. In this context, measures of network properties are needed. We propose a new measure, Ndim, estimating the complexity of arbitrary networks. This measure is based on a fractal dimension, which is similar to recently introduced box-covering dimensions. However, box-covering dimensions are only applicable to fractal networks. The construction of these network-dimensions relies on concepts proposed to measure fractality or complexity of irregular sets in [Formula: see text]. The network measure Ndim grows with the proliferation of increasing network connectivity and is essentially determined by the cardinality of a maximum k-clique, where k is the characteristic path length of the network. Numerical applications to lattice-graphs and to fractal and non-fractal graph models, together with formal proofs show, that Ndim estimates a dimension of complexity for arbitrary graphs. Box-covering dimensions for fractal graphs rely on a linear log-log plot of minimum numbers of covering subgraph boxes versus the box sizes. We demonstrate the affinity between Ndim and the fractal box-covering dimensions but also that Ndim extends the concept of a fractal dimension to networks with non-linear log-log plots. Comparisons of Ndim with topological measures of complexity (cost and efficiency) show that Ndim has larger informative power. Three different methods to apply Ndim to weighted networks are finally presented and exemplified by comparisons of functional brain connectivity of healthy and depressed subjects. We introduce a new measure of complexity for networks. We show that Ndim has the properties of a dimension and overcomes several limitations of presently used topological and fractal

  8. On the Fast Evaluation Method of Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Planetary Atmospheres in Thermal IR and Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of weighting functions in the atmospheric remote sensing is usually the most computer-intensive part of the inversion algorithms. We present an analytic approach to computations of temperature and mixing ratio weighting functions that is based on our previous results but the resulting expressions use the intermediate variables that are generated in computations of observable radiances themselves. Upwelling radiances at the given level in the atmosphere and atmospheric transmittances from space to the given level are combined with local values of the total absorption coefficient and its components due to absorption of atmospheric constituents under study. This makes it possible to evaluate the temperature and mixing ratio weighting functions in parallel with evaluation of radiances. This substantially decreases the computer time required for evaluation of weighting functions. Implications for the nadir and limb viewing geometries are discussed.

  9. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  10. Analysis and alternatives in two-dimensional multigrid particle image velocimetry methods: application of a dedicated weighting function and symmetric direct correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J.; Lecuona, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, U.; Rodríguez, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    Multigrid particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an open path in the search for high-resolution PIV methods. It is based on an iterative scheme that uses the information of initial processing to adapt the method parameters in order to improve the measurements. This is mainly performed by reducing the size of the interrogation windows and shifting them. In multigrid PIV, two sources of error can significantly affect the final measurement quality: (1) the error coming from the amplitude response of the initial large interrogation windows to spatial frequencies; (2) the error originating from the truncation of particles at the borders of the final small interrogation windows. By applying weighting functions and using symmetric direct correlation both errors can be reduced, respectively. These techniques have been separately tested in the past, but a joint implementation has not yet been analysed. This task is fulfilled and both sources of error are further clarified. For this purpose, a one-dimensional single wavelength displacement field is used. This gives us the opportunity to analyse the non-linear behaviour of PIV, together with the influence of basic parameters on it. In addition to this, the multigrid method, so far described, is enhanced by compensation of the particle pattern deformation. The metrological performance of this advanced method is tested using synthetic images and the results are compared with those delivered by established PIV methods. Coherence between these results and those obtained in a real image is also detailed.

  11. Weights of Exact Threshold Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babai, László; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Boolean exact threshold functions defined by linear equations, and in general degree d polynomials. We give upper and lower bounds on the maximum magnitude (absolute value) of the coefficients required to represent such functions. These bounds are very close and in the linear case...... and the Boolean cube {0,1} n . In the process we construct new families of ill-conditioned matrices. We further stratify the problem (in the linear case) in terms of the dimension k of the affine subspace spanned by the solutions, and give upper and lower bounds in this case as well. Our bounds here in terms of k...

  12. Representing utility functions via weighted goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, J.; Chevaleyre, Y.; Endriss, U.; Lang, J.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the expressivity, succinctness, and complexity of a family of languages based on weighted propositional formulas for the representation of utility functions. The central idea underlying this form of preference modeling is to associate numerical weights with goals specified in terms of

  13. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  14. Iterative methods for weighted least-squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovnikova, E.Y.; Vavasis, S.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A weighted least-squares problem with a very ill-conditioned weight matrix arises in many applications. Because of round-off errors, the standard conjugate gradient method for solving this system does not give the correct answer even after n iterations. In this paper we propose an iterative algorithm based on a new type of reorthogonalization that converges to the solution.

  15. The Flight Optimization System Weights Estimation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.; Horvath, Bryce L.; McCullers, Linwood A.

    2017-01-01

    FLOPS has been the primary aircraft synthesis software used by the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. It was created for rapid conceptual aircraft design and advanced technology impact assessments. FLOPS is a single computer program that includes weights estimation, aerodynamics estimation, engine cycle analysis, propulsion data scaling and interpolation, detailed mission performance analysis, takeoff and landing performance analysis, noise footprint estimation, and cost analysis. It is well known as a baseline and common denominator for aircraft design studies. FLOPS is capable of calibrating a model to known aircraft data, making it useful for new aircraft and modifications to existing aircraft. The weight estimation method in FLOPS is known to be of high fidelity for conventional tube with wing aircraft and a substantial amount of effort went into its development. This report serves as a comprehensive documentation of the FLOPS weight estimation method. The development process is presented with the weight estimation process.

  16. Eigenvector Weighting Function in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Ying Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF, is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.

  17. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  18. Some Properties of Weighted Pseudo almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several interesting and new properties of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions are established. Firstly, we obtain an equivalent definition for weighted pseudo almost periodic functions, which shows a close relationship between asymptotically almost periodic functions and weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; secondly, we prove that the space of asymptotically almost periodic functions is always a proper subspace of the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; thirdly, we show that under some cases, the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions equals the classical space of pseudo almost periodic functions.

  19. Degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lipα class and weighted (Lr,ξ(t class by product summability method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Krishna Nigam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A good amount of work has been done on degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lipα, Lip(α,r, Lip(ξ(t,r and W(Lr, ξ(t classes using Cesàro and (generalized Nörlund single summability methods by a number of researchers like Alexits, Sahney, Goel, Qureshi, Neha, Chandra, Khan, Leindler and Rhoades. But till now no work seems to have been done so far in the direction of present work. Therefore, in present paper, two quite new results on degree of approximation of functions f∈ Lipα and f∈ W(Lr,ξ(t class by (E,1(C,1 product summability means of Fourier series have been obtained.

  20. Text Classification by Combining Different Distance Functions with Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Naohiro; Nakashima, Toyoshiro

    The text classification is an important subject in the data mining. For the text classification, several methods have been developed up to now, as the nearest neighbor analysis, the latent semantic analysis, etc. The k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification is a well-known simple and effective method for the classification of data in many domains. In the use of the kNN, the distance function is important to measure the distance and the similarity between data. To improve the performance of the classifier by the kNN, a new approach to combine multiple distance functions is proposed here. The weighting factors of elements in the distance function, are computed by GA for the effectiveness of the measurement. Further, an ensemble processing was developed for the improvement of the classification accuracy. Finally, it is shown by experiments that the methods, developed here, are effective in the text classification.

  1. Prior weight loss exacerbates the biological drive to gain weight after the loss of ovarian function

    OpenAIRE

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Foright, Rebecca M.; Presby, David M.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Houck, Julie A.; Houser, Jordan L.; Oljira, Robera; MacLean, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both the history of obesity and weight loss may change how menopause affects metabolic health. The purpose was to determine whether obesity and/or weight loss status alters energy balance (EB) and subsequent weight gain after the loss of ovarian function. Female lean and obese Wistar rats were randomized to 15% weight loss (WL) or ad?libitum fed controls (CON). After the weight loss period, WL rats were kept in EB at the reduced weight for 8?weeks prior to ovariectomy (OVX). After OV...

  2. Monte Carlo sampling for stochastic weight functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Daan; Schrenk, K Julian; Martiniani, Stefano

    2017-07-03

    Conventional Monte Carlo simulations are stochastic in the sense that the acceptance of a trial move is decided by comparing a computed acceptance probability with a random number, uniformly distributed between 0 and 1. Here, we consider the case that the weight determining the acceptance probability itself is fluctuating. This situation is common in many numerical studies. We show that it is possible to construct a rigorous Monte Carlo algorithm that visits points in state space with a probability proportional to their average weight. The same approach may have applications for certain classes of high-throughput experiments and the analysis of noisy datasets.

  3. Influence of Type of Frequency Weighting Function On VDV Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Stypuła, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Transport vibrations are the subject of many research, mostly their influence on structural elements of the building is investigated. However, nowadays, especially in the centres of large cities were apartments, residential buildings are closer to the transport vibration sources, an increasing attention is given to providing vibrational comfort to humans in buildings. Currently, in most countries, two main methods of evaluation are used: root mean squared method (RMS) and vibration dose value (VDV). In this article, VDV method is presented and the analysis of the weighting functions selection on value of VDV is made. Measurements required for the analysis were made in Krakow, on masonry, residential, two storey building located in the city centre. The building is subjected into two transport vibration sources: tram passages and vehicle passages on very close located road. Measurement points were located on the basement wall at ground level to control the excitation and in the middle of the floor on the highest storey (in the place where people percept vibration). The room chosen for measurements is located closest to the transport excitation sources. During the measurements, 25 vibration events were recorded and analysed. VDV values were calculated for three different weighting functions according to standard: ISO 2631-1, ISO 2631-2 and BS-6841. Differences in VDV values are shown, but also influence of the weighting function selection on result of evaluation is also presented. VDV analysis was performed not only for the individual vibration event but also all day and night vibration exposure were calculated using formulas contained in the annex to the standard BS-6841. It is demonstrated that, although there are differences in the values of VDV, an influence on all day and night exposure is no longer so significant.

  4. Sensing Attribute Weights: A Novel Basic Belief Assignment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Xie, Chunhe; Wu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is widely used in many soft sensors data fusion systems on account of its good performance for handling the uncertainty information of soft sensors. However, how to determine basic belief assignment (BBA) is still an open issue. The existing methods to determine BBA do not consider the reliability of each attribute; at the same time, they cannot effectively determine BBA in the open world. In this paper, based on attribute weights, a novel method to determine BBA is proposed not only in the closed world, but also in the open world. The Gaussian model of each attribute is built using the training samples firstly. Second, the similarity between the test sample and the attribute model is measured based on the Gaussian membership functions. Then, the attribute weights are generated using the overlap degree among the classes. Finally, BBA is determined according to the sensed attribute weights. Several examples with small datasets show the validity of the proposed method. PMID:28358325

  5. Baryons with functional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.

  6. [Weight gain after functional surgery for Parkinsons disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironell, A; Pascual-Sedano, B; Otermin, P; Kulisevsky, J

    2002-01-01

    The origin of weight gain after functional surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is incompletely known. We have done a prospective study to determine the possible causes of weight gain after pallidal and subthalamic surgery. Twenty-seven patients were studied (9 unilateral pallidotomy, 9 bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of palidum, and 9 bilateral DBS of suthalamic nucleus) with a follow-up of 12 months. The relationship between weight gain and changes in motor situation, levodopa dosage, dyskinesias, dysphagia and mood state were analyzed. The patients filled a questionnaire about the severity and etiology of weight gain. Weight gain was noted in 26 patients (mean of 4.7 kg at 12 months). It was found a significant correlation between weight gain and improvement of dyskinesias (AIMS) (r = 0.461; p = 0.023), the scores of the UPDRS part III, (r = 0.479; p = 0.028), and a significant inverse correlation with the pre-operative weight of the patient (r = 0.399; p = 0.050). Weight gain was most pronounced with bilateral than unilateral pallidal surgery (p = 0.021). The majority of patients referred weight gain as an slight adverse event and secondary to the improvement of dyskinesias. Functional surgery for PD, independently of the surgical target, provokes weight gain which is benign in the majority of cases. Reduction of energy expenditure with respect to the pre-operative situation would be the responsible of that phenomenon.

  7. Augmenting Ordinal Methods of Attribute Weight Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneilson, Mats; Ekenberg, Love; He, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) methods have been around for quite some time. However, the elicitation of preference information in MCDA processes and the lack of supporting practical means are problematic in real-life applications. Various proposals have been made for how to eliminate some...

  8. [Weight loss in overweight or obese patients and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica

    2012-01-01

    to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.

  9. Weighted comparison of two cumulative incidence functions with R-CIFsmry package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we propose a class of flexible weight functions for use in comparison of two cumulative incidence functions. The proposed weights allow the users to focus their comparison on an early or a late time period post treatment or to treat all time points with equal emphasis. These weight functions can be used to compare two cumulative incidence functions via their risk difference, their relative risk, or their odds ratio. The proposed method has been implemented in the R-CIFsmry package which is readily available for download and is easy to use as illustrated in the example. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bound state equation for the Nakanishi weight function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carbonell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bound state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude was expressed by Nakanishi using a two-dimensional integral representation, in terms of a smooth weight function g, which carries the detailed dynamical information. A similar, but one-dimensional, integral representation can be obtained for the Light-Front wave function in terms of the same weight function g. By using the generalized Stieltjes transform, we first obtain g in terms of the Light-Front wave function in the complex plane of its arguments. Next, a new integral equation for the Nakanishi weight function g is derived for a bound state case. It has the standard form g=Ng, where N is a two-dimensional integral operator. We give the prescription for obtaining the kernel N starting with the kernel K of the Bethe–Salpeter equation. The derivation is valid for any kernel given by an irreducible Feynman amplitude.

  11. Validity of common ultrasound methods of fetal weight estimation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Accuracy of some ultrasound equations used in our locality for fetal weight estimation is doubtful. Objective: To assess the accuracy of common ultrasound equations used for fetal weight estimation. Subjects and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on selected Nigerian obstetric population at ...

  12. Validity of common ultrasound methods of fetal weight estimation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accuracy of some ultrasound equations used in our locality for fetal weight estimation is doubtful. Objective: To assess the accuracy of common ultrasound equations used for fetal weight estimation. Subjects and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on selected Nigerian obstetric population at Central ...

  13. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Breslin, Florence J; Lynch, Anthony M; Patrician, Trisha M; Martin, Laura E; Lepping, Rebecca J; Powell, Joshua N; Yeh, Hung-Wen Henry; Befort, Christie A; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Hammad, Muhannad; Chan, Timothy C Y; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, using l2 distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the predicted weights and IOM weights

  15. ON WEIGHTED GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH QUADRATIC FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider certain types of weighted generalized functions associated with nondegenerate quadratic forms. Such functions and their derivatives are used for constructing fundamental solutions of iterated ultra-hyperbolic equations with the Bessel operator and for constructing negative real powers of ultra-hyperbolic operators with the Bessel operator.

  16. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Hemophilic knee arthritis;. Partial weight bearing;. Functional walking;. Quadriceps muscle isometric strength;. Quadriceps training exercise program. Abstract Recurrent joint bleeding in persons with hemophilia is known to lead to joint damage associated with pain, loss of range of motion and function.

  17. COMPARISON OF THE COMPLETE FOURIER DIRECT MRI WITH EXISTING DIFFUSION WEIGHTED MRI METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Alpay

    2011-01-01

    The Complete Fourier Direct (CFD) MRI method introduced in earlier work for modeling the diffusion weighted MRI signal is compared with the existing methods. The preservation of Hermitian symmetry in the diffusion weighted MRI signal without affecting its energy is the key point that differentiates CFD–MRI from the existing methods. By keeping the correct Fourier relationship intact, the joint distribution function is represented ‘as it is’, without any constraints, e.g. being symmetric. The ...

  18. A novel weight determination method for time series data aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Paiheng; Zhang, Rong; Deng, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Aggregation in time series is of great importance in time series smoothing, predicting and other time series analysis process, which makes it crucial to address the weights in times series correctly and reasonably. In this paper, a novel method to obtain the weights in time series is proposed, in which we adopt induced ordered weighted aggregation (IOWA) operator and visibility graph averaging (VGA) operator and linearly combine the weights separately generated by the two operator. The IOWA operator is introduced to the weight determination of time series, through which the time decay factor is taken into consideration. The VGA operator is able to generate weights with respect to the degree distribution in the visibility graph constructed from the corresponding time series, which reflects the relative importance of vertices in time series. The proposed method is applied to two practical datasets to illustrate its merits. The aggregation of Construction Cost Index (CCI) demonstrates the ability of proposed method to smooth time series, while the aggregation of The Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) illustrate how proposed method maintain the variation tendency of original data.

  19. Prior weight loss exacerbates the biological drive to gain weight after the loss of ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Foright, Rebecca M; Presby, David M; Johnson, Ginger C; Houck, Julie A; Houser, Jordan L; Oljira, Robera; MacLean, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Both the history of obesity and weight loss may change how menopause affects metabolic health. The purpose was to determine whether obesity and/or weight loss status alters energy balance (EB) and subsequent weight gain after the loss of ovarian function. Female lean and obese Wistar rats were randomized to 15% weight loss (WL) or ad libitum fed controls (CON). After the weight loss period, WL rats were kept in EB at the reduced weight for 8 weeks prior to ovariectomy (OVX). After OVX, all rats were allowed to eat ad libitum until weight plateaued. Energy intake (EI), spontaneous physical activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured with indirect calorimetry before OVX, immediately after OVX, and after weight plateau. Changes in energy intake (EI), TEE, and weight gain immediately after OVX were similar between lean and obese rats. However, obese rats gained more total weight and fat mass than lean rats over the full regain period. Post-OVX, EI increased more (P ≤ 0.03) in WL rats (58.9 ± 3.5 kcal/d) than CON rats (8.5 ± 5.2 kcal/d), and EI partially normalized (change from preOVX: 20.5 ± 4.2 vs. 1.5 ± 4.9 kcal/day) by the end of the study. As a result, WL rats gained weight (week 1:44 ± 20 vs. 7 ± 25 g) more rapidly (mean = 44 ± 20 vs. 7 ± 25 g/week; P < 0.001) than CON Prior obesity did not affect changes in EB or weight regain following OVX, whereas a history of weight loss prior to OVX augmented disruptions in EB after OVX, resulting in more rapid weight regain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. A troposphere tomography method considering the weighting of input information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingzhi; Yao, Yibin; Yao, Wanqiang

    2017-12-01

    Troposphere tomography measurement using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) generally consists of several types of input information including the observation equation, horizontal constraint equation, vertical constraint equation, and a priori constraint equation. The reasonable weightings of input information are a prerequisite for ensuring the reliability of the adjustment of the parameters. This forms the focus of this research, which tries to determine the weightings, including the observations, for the same type of equation and the optimal weightings for different types of equations. The optimal weightings of the proposed method are realized on the basis of the stable equilibrium relationship between different types of a posteriori unit weight variances, which are capable of adaptively adjusting the weightings for different types of equations and enables the ratio between the two arbitrary a posteriori unit weight variances to tend to unity. A troposphere tomography experiment, which was used to consider these weightings, was implemented using global positioning system (GPS) data from the Hong Kong Satellite Positioning Reference Station Network (SatRef). Numerical results show the applicability and stability of the proposed method for GPS troposphere tomography assessment under different weather conditions. In addition, the root mean square (RMS) error in the water vapor density differences between tomography-radiosonde and tomography-ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are 0.91 and 1.63 g m-3, respectively, over a 21-day test.

  1. Spin-weighted Green's functions in a conical space

    OpenAIRE

    Linet, B.

    1996-01-01

    We give an analysis of the spin-weighted Green's functions well-defined in a conical space. We apply these results in the case of a straight cosmic string and in the Rindler space in order to determine generally the Euclidean Green's functions for the massless spin 1/2 field and for the electromagnetic field. We give also the corresponding Green's functions at zero temperature. However, except for the scalar field, it seems that these Euclidean Green's functions do not correspond to the therm...

  2. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent joint bleeding in persons with hemophilia is known to lead to joint damage associated with pain, loss of range of motion and function. The researcher was motivated by the essence of the importance of partial weight bearing program in rehabilitation of lower limb conditions and the lack of literatures regarding ...

  3. Weighted approximation of continuous functions by sequences of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work we obtain, under suitable conditions, theorems of Korovkin type for spaces with different weight, composed of continuous functions defined on unbounded regions. These results can be seen as an extension of theorems by Gadjiev in [4] and [5]. Keywords. Korovkin theorem; positive linear operators; ...

  4. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while changes were not significant in group (B). Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Conclusion: Weight loss ameliorates inflammatory cytokines and markers of endothelial function in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.

  5. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bariatric surgery decreased CRP ,IL-6 and increased the circulating level of adiponectin32-36. Reductions in pro- inflammatory cytokines concentrations after weight loss is explained by reduction in fat mass37. Concerning the markers of endothelial function, the ob- servation in this study indicated a significant reduction in.

  6. Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-07-13

    Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial.

  7. Action-angle formulation of generalized, orbit-based, fast-ion diagnostic weight functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the usually complicated and anisotropic nature of the fast-ion distribution function, diagnostic velocity-space weight functions, which indicate the sensitivity of a diagnostic to different fast-ion velocities, are used to facilitate the analysis of experimental data. Additionally, when velocity-space weight functions are discretized, a linear equation relating the fast-ion density and the expected diagnostic signal is formed. In a technique known as velocity-space tomography, many measurements can be combined to create an ill-conditioned system of linear equations that can be solved using various computational methods. However, when velocity-space weight functions (which by definition ignore spatial dependencies) are used, velocity-space tomography is restricted, both by the accuracy of its forward model and also by the availability of spatially overlapping diagnostic measurements. In this work, we extend velocity-space weight functions to a full 6D generalized coordinate system and then show how to reduce them to a 3D orbit-space without loss of generality using an action-angle formulation. Furthermore, we show how diagnostic orbit-weight functions can be used to infer the full fast-ion distribution function, i.e., orbit tomography. In depth derivations of orbit weight functions for the neutron, neutral particle analyzer, and fast-ion D-α diagnostics are also shown.

  8. Decision making generalized by a cumulative probability weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lindomar Soares; Destefano, Natália; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2018-01-01

    Typical examples of intertemporal decision making involve situations in which individuals must choose between a smaller reward, but more immediate, and a larger one, delivered later. Analogously, probabilistic decision making involves choices between options whose consequences differ in relation to their probability of receiving. In Economics, the expected utility theory (EUT) and the discounted utility theory (DUT) are traditionally accepted normative models for describing, respectively, probabilistic and intertemporal decision making. A large number of experiments confirmed that the linearity assumed by the EUT does not explain some observed behaviors, as nonlinear preference, risk-seeking and loss aversion. That observation led to the development of new theoretical models, called non-expected utility theories (NEUT), which include a nonlinear transformation of the probability scale. An essential feature of the so-called preference function of these theories is that the probabilities are transformed by decision weights by means of a (cumulative) probability weighting function, w(p) . We obtain in this article a generalized function for the probabilistic discount process. This function has as particular cases mathematical forms already consecrated in the literature, including discount models that consider effects of psychophysical perception. We also propose a new generalized function for the functional form of w. The limiting cases of this function encompass some parametric forms already proposed in the literature. Far beyond a mere generalization, our function allows the interpretation of probabilistic decision making theories based on the assumption that individuals behave similarly in the face of probabilities and delays and is supported by phenomenological models.

  9. Assessment of a simple ultrasonographic method in estimating fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating fetal weight in utero, for better management of pregnancy and appropriate timing of delivery especially in high-risk pregnancies is necessary. Our purpose to evaluate a simple method in estimating fetal weight in Iranian pregnant patients and also to compare was with a previous western study. This study was carried out in Arash hospital, Tehran university of medical sciences in 1996-99. In a descriptive-analytic study that was done prospectively on 464 pregnant patients, ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter (BPD, mean abdominal diameter (MAD, and femur length (FL performed close to delivery was conducted. Birth weight also was identified. Statistical analysis was done using multiple linear regression on the data and also student's T-test for comparison. Mean birth weight was 2320 gr. The outcome of linear regression analysis was the following model: Weight (gr=95.8×FL (cm+25×MAD (cm-15.6×BPD (cm-4632.1. The effect of all parameters were statistically significant (P<0.02. A fetal weight estimating table was also developed. T-test analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05 in some final ranks of table (Weight estimations>4000 gr in comparison with the Rose and Mc callum study. Our study showed that ultrasound using the sum of BPD, MAD and FL is a precise method in fetal weight estimation. Application of other biometric measurements may be needed for better elucidation especially in small and large for gestational age fetuses.

  10. Functional methods in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hokkanen, Veli-Matti

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, functional methods have become central to the study of theoretical and applied mathematical problems. As demonstrated in this Research Note, functional methods can not only provide more generality, but they can also unify results and techniques and lead to better results than those obtained by classical methods. Presenting entirely original results, the authors use functional methods to explore a broad range of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic boundary value problems and various classes of abstract differential and integral equations. They show that while it is crucial to choose an appropriate functional framework, this approach can lead to mathematical models that better describe concrete physical phenomena. In particular, they reach a concordance between the physical sense and the mathematical sense for the solutions of some special models. Beyond its importance as a survey of the primary techniques used in the area, the results illuminated in this volume will prove valuable in a wealth ...

  11. Selecting Methods of the Weighting Factors of Local Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Postnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers calculation methods of weight coefficients of local criteria for the person to make decision (PMD. Methods can be used by a decision-maker to form the integrated criteria in the form of the additive, multiplicative, minimax, nonlinear or combined convolution of local criteria, different in degree of importance, as well as to carry out a comparative assessment of the studied alternative options on their basis, range these options, and choose the best option among them.The paper classifies the calculation methods of weight coefficients of criteria and distinguishes three groups, namely: methods based on the paired comparison of criteria, methods based on the analytical interrelation of indicators of criteria preference, and methods based on the formalistic approach. Among the methods based on paired comparison of criteria the following ones are distinguished: a classical method of paired comparison of criteria, and methods of paired comparison of criteria based on the fixed, floating, and exponential floating preferences of criteria. The last two methods of criteria comparison are respectively basic for the practical use of both a method of hierarchy analysis and a multiplicative method of hierarchy analysis. The paper considers in detail calculation methods of weight coefficients of criteria using analytical dependences of interrelation between the indicators of criteria importance based on an arithmetic and geometrical progression. The considered formal methods include the method of consecutive comparison of criteria known as a Cherchmen's method – Akoffa, method and a method of basic criterion.It is shown that when using methods of paired comparison of criteria or methods based on the interrelation of weight coefficients of criteria obeyed to an analytical or geometrical progression with the strictly ranging criteria K K K ......K K 1 2 3 n-1 n , a difference in weight coefficients of the most important and least important

  12. A Unified Weighted Least Norm Method for Redundant Manipulator Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A redundant manipulator usually has multiple kinematic solutions at the velocity level and can be used to optimize other criteria. Although the pseudo inverse of the Jacobian matrix generates a solution with the least 2 norm (LN, it does not consider other constraints imposed by the system or the environment. The general weighted least norm (GWLN method handles these general constraints via the concept of virtual joints, but this is not always feasible when the number of constraints exceeds the degrees of freedom. This paper proposes a unified weighted least norm method (UWLN to unify the LN and the GWLN methods. The UWLN method merges the constraint tasks into a quadratic criterion that poses no limitations on the number of constraint tasks. It also generates a least 2 norm solution when all constraints are deactivated, thereby unifying the LN and GWLN methods. A comparative simulation on a 7-DoF planar manipulator demonstrates the validity of the algorithm.

  13. Weighted compactness function based label propagation algorithm for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weitong; Zhang, Rui; Shang, Ronghua; Jiao, Licheng

    2018-02-01

    Community detection in complex networks, is to detect the community structure with the internal structure relatively compact and the external structure relatively sparse, according to the topological relationship among nodes in the network. In this paper, we propose a compactness function which combines the weight of nodes, and use it as the objective function to carry out the node label propagation. Firstly, according to the node degree, we find the sets of core nodes which have great influence on the network. The more the connections between the core nodes and the other nodes are, the larger the amount of the information these kernel nodes receive and transform. Then, according to the similarity of the nodes between the core nodes sets and the nodes degree, we assign weights to the nodes in the network. So the label of the nodes with great influence will be the priority in the label propagation process, which effectively improves the accuracy of the label propagation. The compactness function between nodes and communities in this paper is based on the nodes influence. It combines the connections between nodes and communities with the degree of the node belongs to its neighbor communities based on calculating the node weight. The function effectively uses the information of nodes and connections in the network. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve good results in the artificial network and large-scale real networks compared with the 8 contrast algorithms.

  14. Evaluation of an inverse distance weighting method for patching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... There are three main techniques for estimating missing meteoro- logical data, namely, empirical methods, statistical methods and function-fitting methods (Xia et al., 1999). The application of patching methods is dependent on the length of the gap, the sea- son, climatic region, density of stations, and the ...

  15. Identification of Multimodel LPV Models with Asymmetric Gaussian Weighting Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of linear parameter varying (LPV systems by utilizing a multimodel structure. To improve the approximation capability of the LPV model, asymmetric Gaussian weighting functions are introduced and compared with commonly used symmetric Gaussian functions. By this mean, locations of operating points can be selected freely. It has been demonstrated through simulations with a high purity distillation column that the identified models provide more satisfactory approximation. Moreover, an experiment is performed on real HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning to further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Method for Solving LASSO Problem Based on Multidimensional Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ChunRong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the data mining, the analysis of high-dimensional data is a critical but thorny research topic. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm avoids the limitations, which generally employ stepwise regression with information criteria to choose the optimal model, existing in traditional methods. The improved-LARS (Least Angle Regression algorithm solves the LASSO effectively. This paper presents an improved-LARS algorithm, which is constructed on the basis of multidimensional weight and intends to solve the problems in LASSO. Specifically, in order to distinguish the impact of each variable in the regression, we have separately introduced part of principal component analysis (Part_PCA, Independent Weight evaluation, and CRITIC, into our proposal. We have explored that these methods supported by our proposal change the regression track by weighted every individual, to optimize the approach direction, as well as the approach variable selection. As a consequence, our proposed algorithm can yield better results in the promise direction. Furthermore, we have illustrated the excellent property of LARS algorithm based on multidimensional weight by the Pima Indians Diabetes. The experiment results show an attractive performance improvement resulting from the proposed method, compared with the improved-LARS, when they are subjected to the same threshold value.

  17. Method for performing cerebral perfusion-weighted MRI in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswad, Tarek; Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto; Gudinchet, Francois [University of Lausanne (CH). Radiology Department, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Wintermark, Pia; Moessinger, Adrien [University of Lausanne, Division of Neonatology, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Cerebral perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in neonates is known to be technically difficult and there are very few published studies on its use in preterm infants. In this paper, we describe one convenient method to perform PWI in neonates, a method only recently used in newborns. A device was used to manually inject gadolinium contrast material intravenously in an easy, quick and reproducible way. We studied 28 newborn infants, with various gestational ages and weights, including both normal infants and those suffering from different brain pathologies. A signal intensity-time curve was obtained for each infant, allowing us to build perfusion maps. This technique offered a fast and easy method to manually inject a bolus gadolinium contrast material, which is essential in performing PWI in neonates. Cerebral PWI is technically feasible and reproducible in neonates of various gestational age and with various pathologies. (orig.)

  18. Time-weighted averaging for nitrous oxide: an automated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, W A; Rivera, O; Howard, R

    1980-11-01

    An automated method of obtaining a time-weighted average of nitrous oxide levels in an operating room was compared with a standard method. The automated method consisted of electronic integration of the voltage output of a nitrous oxide analyzer using a multimeter-microprocessor. The standard method utilized a bag and pump to collect a room air sample, which was subsequently analyzed with a nitrous oxide analyzer. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.99) between the two methods. It is concluded that the automated method is an accurate alternative and offers institutions a simple, cost-effective method of monitoring and documenting results of pollution control programs in anesthetizing locations.

  19. Dynamic airspace configuration method based on a weighted graph model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yangzhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for dynamic airspace configuration based on a weighted graph model. The method begins with the construction of an undirected graph for the given airspace, where the vertices represent those key points such as airports, waypoints, and the edges represent those air routes. Those vertices are used as the sites of Voronoi diagram, which divides the airspace into units called as cells. Then, aircraft counts of both each cell and of each air-route are computed. Thus, by assigning both the vertices and the edges with those aircraft counts, a weighted graph model comes into being. Accordingly the airspace configuration problem is described as a weighted graph partitioning problem. Then, the problem is solved by a graph partitioning algorithm, which is a mixture of general weighted graph cuts algorithm, an optimal dynamic load balancing algorithm and a heuristic algorithm. After the cuts algorithm partitions the model into sub-graphs, the load balancing algorithm together with the heuristic algorithm transfers aircraft counts to balance workload among sub-graphs. Lastly, airspace configuration is completed by determining the sector boundaries. The simulation result shows that the designed sectors satisfy not only workload balancing condition, but also the constraints such as convexity, connectivity, as well as minimum distance constraint.

  20. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  1. Executive functioning in low birth weight children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S E; DeBoer, M D; Scharf, R J

    2018-01-01

    Poor executive functioning is associated with life-long difficulty. Identification of children at risk for executive dysfunction is important for early intervention to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study is designed to examine relationships between birthweight and executive functioning in US children during kindergarten. Our hypothesis was that children with higher birthweights would have better executive function scores. We evaluated data from 17506 US children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2011 cohort. Birthweight and gestational age were obtained by parental survey. Executive functions were directly assessed using the number reverse test and card sort test to measure working memory and cognitive flexibility, respectively. Teacher evaluations were used for additional executive functions. Data were analyzed using SAS to run all linear and logistical regressions. For every kilogram of birthweight, scores of working memory increased by 1.47 (Pexecutive functioning. As birthweight increases executive function scores improve, even among infants born normal weight. Further evaluation of this population including interventions and progression through school is needed.

  2. The Boundary Function Method. Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The boundary function method is proposed for solving applied problems of mathematical physics in the region defined by a partial differential equation of the general form involving constant or variable coefficients with a Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary condition. In this method, the desired function is defined by a power polynomial, and a boundary function represented in the form of the desired function or its derivative at one of the boundary points is introduced. Different sequences of boundary equations have been set up with the use of differential operators. Systems of linear algebraic equations constructed on the basis of these sequences allow one to determine the coefficients of a power polynomial. Constitutive equations have been derived for initial boundary-value problems of all the main types. With these equations, an initial boundary-value problem is transformed into the Cauchy problem for the boundary function. The determination of the boundary function by its derivative with respect to the time coordinate completes the solution of the problem.

  3. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Toft Kristensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow-up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P<0.01 and patients had gained weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P=0.02. Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P=0.13 and weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P=0.71. Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r=0.43, P<0.01. Conclusion. Two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory reference range. Weight gain of patients who are biochemically euthyroid after hemithyroidectomy may be a clinical manifestation of a permanently decreased metabolic rate.

  4. Weighted Chebyshev distance classification method for hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, S.; Erer, I.; Ersoy, O.

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of classification is to partition the surface materials into non-overlapping regions by using some decision rules. For supervised classification, the hyperspectral imagery (HSI) is compared with the reflectance spectra of the material containing similar spectral characteristic. As being a spectral similarity based classification method, prediction of different level of upper and lower spectral boundaries of all classes spectral signatures across spectral bands constitutes the basic principles of the Multi-Scale Vector Tunnel Algorithm (MS-VTA) classification algorithm. The vector tunnel (VT) scaling parameters obtained from means and standard deviations of the class references are used. In this study, MS-VT method is improved and a spectral similarity based technique referred to as Weighted Chebyshev Distance (WCD) method for the supervised classification of HSI is introduced. This is also shown to be equivalent to the use of the WCD in which the weights are chosen as an inverse power of the standard deviation per spectral band. The use of WCD measures in terms of the inverse power of standard deviations and optimization of power parameter constitute the most important side of the study. The algorithms are trained with the same kinds of training sets, and their performances are calculated for the power of the standard deviation. During these studies, various levels of the power parameters are evaluated based on the efficiency of the algorithms for choosing the best values of the weights.

  5. Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnák, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.hrivnak@fjfi.cvut.cz, E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, CZ-115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Walton, Mark A., E-mail: jiri.hrivnak@fjfi.cvut.cz, E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments and labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.

  6. Based on Penalty Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual response surface for simultaneously optimizing the mean and variance models as separate functions suffers some deficiencies in handling the tradeoffs between bias and variance components of mean squared error (MSE. In this paper, the accuracy of the predicted response is given a serious attention in the determination of the optimum setting conditions. We consider four different objective functions for the dual response surface optimization approach. The essence of the proposed method is to reduce the influence of variance of the predicted response by minimizing the variability relative to the quality characteristics of interest and at the same time achieving the specific target output. The basic idea is to convert the constraint optimization function into an unconstraint problem by adding the constraint to the original objective function. Numerical examples and simulations study are carried out to compare performance of the proposed method with some existing procedures. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and has exhibited clear improvement over the existing approaches.

  7. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  8. Computational prediction of protein function based on weighted mapping of domains and GO terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhixia; Guo, Maozu; Dai, Qiguo; Wang, Chunyu; Li, Jin; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method, SeekFun, to predict protein function based on weighted mapping of domains and GO terms. Firstly, a weighted mapping of domains and GO terms is constructed according to GO annotations and domain composition of the proteins. The association strength between domain and GO term is weighted by symmetrical conditional probability. Secondly, the mapping is extended along the true paths of the terms based on GO hierarchy. Finally, the terms associated with resident domains are transferred to host protein and real annotations of the host protein are determined by association strengths. Our careful comparisons demonstrate that SeekFun outperforms the concerned methods on most occasions. SeekFun provides a flexible and effective way for protein function prediction. It benefits from the well-constructed mapping of domains and GO terms, as well as the reasonable strategy for inferring annotations of protein from those of its domains.

  9. A Nonlocal Method with Modified Initial Cost and Multiple Weight for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenyong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new nonlocal cost aggregation method for stereo matching. The minimum spanning tree (MST employs color difference as the sole component to build the weight function, which often leads to failure in achieving satisfactory results in some boundary regions with similar color distributions. In this paper, a modified initial cost is used. The erroneous pixels are often caused by two pixels from object and background, which have similar color distribution. And then inner color correlation is employed as a new component of the weight function, which is determined to effectively eliminate them. Besides, the segmentation method of the tree structure is also improved. Thus, a more robust and reasonable tree structure is developed. The proposed method was tested on Middlebury datasets. As can be expected, experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the classical nonlocal methods.

  10. Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. Methods In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p Results Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P Conclusion Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight loss exceeded 5% there was a significantly reduced resection rate to detect, but the changes were significantly more substantial if weight loss was 10% or more. We propose that a weight loss of 10% be defined as

  11. Accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Nasiri, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Accurate patient weight is an important factor in the emergency and operating room departments. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients. Settings and Design: Education of hospitals, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is prospective observational study. Nursing staff were asked to estimated weight that knows about a similar person weight on the operating room and matched together, then told his/her guests. They were measured total body weight before anesthesia and then patient head and legs weight after anesthesia. The main outcome was mean weight of these methods and percent accuracy in weight estimation for each group recorded. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistically used. Results: Overall, 57.3% (243/425) of operating personnel estimations were equal with actual weight. 35.4% (150/425) of the estimations were less 10 kg than the actual weight and only 7.3 (31/425) of the estimations were above 5 kg of actual weight. The accuracy of overall estimations by operating personnel and its comparison to the accuracy of legs weight, head, and sum weight by a similar method is demonstrated. Conclusions: Despite having no formula in the critical intensive care and anesthesia region for estimation anesthetized, for comatose patient weight. We can use this formula, but where possible, should be based on measured weight for drug dose calculation and this is not possible, combination of these formulas is suitable. PMID:25885980

  12. Exact Membership Functions for the Fuzzy Weighted Average

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of computing the fuzzy weighted average, where both attributes and weights are fuzzy numbers, is well studied in the literature. Generally, the approach is to apply Zadeh’s extension principle to compute α-cuts of the fuzzy weighted average from the α-cuts of the attributes and weights

  13. Quantitative assessment of susceptibility weighted imaging processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) phase processing methods and parameter selection, thereby improving understanding of potential artifacts, as well as facilitating choice of methodology in clinical settings. Materials and Methods Two major phase processing methods, Homodyne-filtering and phase unwrapping-high pass (HP) filtering, were investigated with various phase unwrapping approaches, filter sizes, and filter types. Magnitude and phase images were acquired from a healthy subject and brain injury patients on a 3T clinical Siemens MRI system. Results were evaluated based on image contrast to noise ratio and presence of processing artifacts. Results When using a relatively small filter size (32 pixels for the matrix size 512 × 512 pixels), all Homodyne-filtering methods were subject to phase errors leading to 2% to 3% masked brain area in lower and middle axial slices. All phase unwrapping-filtering/smoothing approaches demonstrated fewer phase errors and artifacts compared to the Homodyne-filtering approaches. For performing phase unwrapping, Fourier-based methods, although less accurate, were 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the PRELUDE, Goldstein and Quality-guide methods. Conclusion Although Homodyne-filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping followed by HP filtering approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios. PMID:24923594

  14. The domain Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Jules W.; Schmidt, K. E.

    1986-09-01

    An implementation of the domain Green's function Monte Carlo algorithm is described. Unlike the short time approximation, the method is variational and exact within the limits of the fixed node approximation. The systems investigated include LiH, Be in the ground and first excited states, a study of the C2v insertion pathway of Be into H2, and H2O. We predict a barrier of 0.190 hartree for the insertion reaction with a statistical accuracy of ±2%. Better than 90% of the correlation energy is recovered in each case, which makes these some of the most accurate computations to date.

  15. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  16. Comment on: `Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions', by Mohammad Hossein Ghalehnoee, Abdolhamid Ansari and Ahmad Ghorbani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Saeed; Renaut, Rosemary A.

    2017-10-01

    The recent paper of Ghalehnoee et al., `Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions', discusses weighting functions for the compact inversion of gravity data. We studied the paper with great interest but deduced that the paper presents minor changes to already published methods. In the manuscript, the model weighting function is the product of three diagonal matrices, that is, a depth weighting matrix, a compactness constraint and a scaling matrix. The authors claim that the scaling matrix is new and introduce the notation `kernel weighting'. Based on our knowledge and understanding of the ideas, not only all the matrix weighting matrices have been used before but also their combination has been used in many published research papers. Here we explain why we believe that the ideas in Ghalehnoee et al. are not new.

  17. Spatial modelling of population concentration using geographically weighted regression method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajat Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possibilities of applying the geographically weighted regression method in mapping population change index. During the last decade, this contemporary spatial modeling method has been increasingly used in geographical analyses. On the example of the researched region of Timočka Krajina (defined for the needs of elaborating the Regional Spatial Plan, the possibilities for applying this method in disaggregation of traditional models of population density, which are created using the choropleth maps at the level of statistical spatial units, are shown. The applied method is based on the use of ancillary spatial predictors which are in correlation with a targeted variable, the population change index. For this purpose, spatial databases have been used such as digital terrain model, distances from the network of I and II category state roads, as well as soil sealing databases. Spatial model has been developed in the GIS software environment using commercial GIS applications, as well as open source GIS software. Population change indexes for the period 1961-2002 have been mapped based on population census data, while the data on planned population forecast have been used for the period 2002-2027.

  18. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  19. Best Basis Selection Method Using Learning Weights for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonju Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face recognition field, principal component analysis is essential to the reduction of the image dimension. In spite of frequent use of this analysis, it is commonly believed that the basis faces with large eigenvalues are chosen as the best subset in the nearest neighbor classifiers. We propose an alternative that can predict the classification error during the training steps and find the useful basis faces for the similarity metrics of the classical pattern algorithms. In addition, we also show the need for the eye-aligned dataset to have the pure face. The experiments using face images verify that our method reduces the negative effect on the misaligned face images and decreases the weights of the useful basis faces in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  20. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  1. SU-F-BRD-01: A Logistic Regression Model to Predict Objective Function Weights in Prostate Cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, T; Sharpe, M [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre - UHN, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time.

  2. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  3. Statistically Generated Weighted Curve Fit of Residual Functions for Modal Analysis of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stanley Bookout

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure to modal test large structures in a free-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and stiffness at distinct degree of freedom interfaces. Due to the present damping estimate limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes of test data, the residual function has regions of irregular data, which should be a smooth curve in a second-order polynomial form. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure, which is used to predict constrained mode shapes.

  4. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  5. Weighted mean method for eddy covariance flux measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Cho, J.; Seo, H.; Oki, T.

    2013-12-01

    The study to monitor the exchange of energy, water vapor and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem has been carried out with eddy covariance method throughout the world. The monitored exchange quantity, named flux F , is conventionally determined by a mean of 1 hr or 30 min interval because no technique have been fortified to directly measure a momentary F itself at an instant of time. Therefore, the posterior analysis with this sampling should be paid attention to those spatial or temporal averaging and summation in the consideration of the sampling uncertainty. In particular, the averaging calcurated by arithmetic mean Fa might be inappropriate because the sample F used in this averaging has nonidentical inherent quality within one another according to different micrometeorological and ecophysiological conditions while those are observed under the same instruments. To overcome this issue, we propose the weighted mean Fw using a relative sampling error estimated by a sampling F and its error, and introduce Fw performance tested with EC measurements for 3 years at tangerine orchard.

  6. Effects of weight training on cognitive functions in elderly with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Martins Vital

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deterioration in cognitive functions is characteristic in Alzheimer's disease (AD and may be associated with decline in daily living activities with consequent reduced quality of life. Objective: To analyze weight training effects on cognitive functions in elderly with AD. Subjects: 34 elderly with AD were allocated into two groups: Training Group (TG and Social Gathering Group (SGG. Methods: Global cognitive status was determined using the Mini-Mental State Exam. Specific cognitive functions were measured using the Brief Cognitive Battery, Clock Drawing Test and Verbal Fluency Test. The protocols were performed three times a week, one hour per session. The weight training protocol consisted of three sets of 20 repetitions, with two minutes of rest between sets and exercises. The activities proposed for the SGG were not systematized and aimed at promoting social interaction among patients. The statistical analyses were performed with the U Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests for group comparisons. All analyses were considered statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences associated to the effects of the practice of weight training on cognition in AD patients. Conclusion: In this study, no improvement in cognitive functions was evident in elderly with AD who followed a low intensity resistance exercise protocol. Thus, future studies could evaluate the effect of more intense exercise programs.

  7. Impaired Long Distance Functional Connectivity and Weighted Network Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-01-01

    .... We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18...

  8. A Rapid Empirical Method for Estimating the Gross Takeoff Weight of a High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    During the cruise segment of the flight mission, aircraft flying at supersonic speeds generate sonic booms that are usually maximum at the beginning of cruise. The pressure signature with the shocks causing these perceived booms can be predicted if the aircraft's geometry, Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, and cruise weight are known. Most methods for estimating aircraft weight, especially beginning-cruise weight, are empirical and based on least- square-fit equations that best represent a body of component weight data. The empirical method discussed in this report used simplified weight equations based on a study of performance and weight data from conceptual and real transport aircraft. Like other weight-estimation methods, weights were determined at several points in the mission. While these additional weights were found to be useful, it is the determination of beginning-cruise weight that is most important for the prediction of the aircraft's sonic-boom characteristics.

  9. Computational Methods and Function Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Saff, Edward; Salinas, Luis; Varga, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The volume is devoted to the interaction of modern scientific computation and classical function theory. Many problems in pure and more applied function theory can be tackled using modern computing facilities: numerically as well as in the sense of computer algebra. On the other hand, computer algorithms are often based on complex function theory, and dedicated research on their theoretical foundations can lead to great enhancements in performance. The contributions - original research articles, a survey and a collection of problems - cover a broad range of such problems.

  10. A Truncated Nuclear Norm Regularization Method Based on Weighted Residual Error for Matrix Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Liu; Zhihui Lai; Zongwei Zhou; Fangjun Kuang; Zhong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Low-rank matrix completion aims to recover a matrix from a small subset of its entries and has received much attention in the field of computer vision. Most existing methods formulate the task as a low-rank matrix approximation problem. A truncated nuclear norm has recently been proposed as a better approximation to the rank of matrix than a nuclear norm. The corresponding optimization method, truncated nuclear norm regularization (TNNR), converges better than the nuclear norm minimization-based methods. However, it is not robust to the number of subtracted singular values and requires a large number of iterations to converge. In this paper, a TNNR method based on weighted residual error (TNNR-WRE) for matrix completion and its extension model (ETNNR-WRE) are proposed. TNNR-WRE assigns different weights to the rows of the residual error matrix in an augmented Lagrange function to accelerate the convergence of the TNNR method. The ETNNR-WRE is much more robust to the number of subtracted singular values than the TNNR-WRE, TNNR alternating direction method of multipliers, and TNNR accelerated proximal gradient with Line search methods. Experimental results using both synthetic and real visual data sets show that the proposed TNNR-WRE and ETNNR-WRE methods perform better than TNNR and Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm (IRNN) methods.

  11. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Construction of microRNA functional families by a mixture model of position weight matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Je-Keun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules that repress the translational processes of their target genes by binding to their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Because the target genes are predominantly determined by their sequence complementarity to the miRNA seed regions (nucleotides 2-7) which are evolutionarily conserved, it is inferred that the target relationships and functions of the miRNA family members are conserved across many species. Therefore, detecting the relevant miRNA families with confidence would help to clarify the conserved miRNA functions, and elucidate miRNA-mediated biological processes. We present a mixture model of position weight matrices for constructing miRNA functional families. This model systematically finds not only evolutionarily conserved miRNA family members but also functionally related miRNAs, as it simultaneously generates position weight matrices representing the conserved sequences. Using mammalian miRNA sequences, in our experiments, we identified potential miRNA groups characterized by similar sequence patterns that have common functions. We validated our results using score measures and by the analysis of the conserved targets. Our method would provide a way to comprehensively identify conserved miRNA functions.

  13. Application of entropy weight method in the evaluation of the road capacity of open area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyu

    2017-05-01

    Urban traffic system is an important infrastructure of the city. A reasonable road traffic system can improve the efficiency of the city and accessibility of various functional areas. First of all, we select three metrics to describe the traffic capacity of the road, which is average speed, congestion mileage ratio and intersection congestion rate. In addition, use entropy method to determine the weight of each evaluation metric. Additionally, Vissim software is used to simulate the traffic situation on the road and obtain a series of simulation data. Then based on entropy weight method, we get comprehensive score of the above metrics to analyze the impact of reticulation community which is open to the surrounding road traffic.

  14. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  15. Comparison of Four Weighting Methods in Fuzzy-based Land Suitability to Predict Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahmati

    2017-06-01

    climatic conditions like mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures during growing period as well as edaphologic properties like EC, pH, ESP, percent of clay, silt, sand, gravel, gypsum and CaCO3 content. Climatic data collected from the Shahrekord synoptic station were used to assess climatic land suitability for wheat. Qualitative land suitability evaluation was carried out using the fuzzy approach. Potential yield was calculated using the method proposed by FAO. Using MATLAB software, qualitative and quantitative land evaluation were classified based on fuzzy logic approach. In fuzzy method, climatic factors are used to achieve climatic index. Clay and sand percent were applied to calculate soil texture. To determine the membership degrees,bell membership functions were used. Parameters of function shapes were transformed to equations with variable coefficients and the best coefficients were eventually chosen based on the model determination coefficient. In evaluation method based on fuzzy logic, the weights are used for land characteristics. In fuzzy logic method, weights were calculated by four methods. These methods consist of neural network using 1 neuron and 4 neurons, multivariate and Partial Least Squares (PLS regressions. Comparison of the coefficient of determination results of multivariate regression and RMSE is carried out between observed and predicted yield. Weight calculations were conducted by using MINITAB software to PLS and multivariate regression. Also, Neurosolution 5 was used for weight calculation based on neural network. Results and Discussion: The calculated weights were differed by using the four applied methods. In all methods, the maximum weight was related to gravel, and minimum weight was related to clay. The results of land index and predicted yield calculation were different in some points (3, 6, 7, 13, 14, 19, and 21 for four methods. The coefficient of determination of calculated weights were 0.595, 0.56, 0.6 and 0.56 for neural network

  16. An investigation on slowness-weighted CCP stacking and its application to receiver function imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhe; Niu, Fenglin

    2017-06-01

    Common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions is a widely used technique to image velocity discontinuities in the mantle. The CCP imaging technique assumes that receiver functions are composed solely of P to S conversions at velocity boundaries, whose depths can be mapped out through their arrival times. The multiple reflections at shallow boundaries with large velocity contrasts, such as the base of unconsolidated sediments and the Moho, can lead to artificial structures in the CCP images. We develop a refined CCP stacking method that uses relative slowness as a weighting factor to suppress the multiples (slowness-weighted CCP stacking, SWCCP). We conduct extensive numerical tests with synthetic data to seek the best weighting scheme and to verify the robustness of the images. We apply this technique to receiver function data of NECESSArray in China and the transportable array in western U.S. and find that most of the events in the depth range of 200-400 km shown in the regular CCP images are eliminated. The SWCCP images, on the other hand, reveal a clear negative event under some parts of the two arrays, indicating the presence of low velocity layer above the 410 km discontinuity, which was reported by previous studies.

  17. Weighted analysis methods for mapped plot forest inventory data: Tables, regressions, maps and graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Linda S. Heath

    2010-01-01

    Weighted estimation methods for analysis of mapped plot forest inventory data are discussed. The appropriate weighting scheme can vary depending on the type of analysis and graphical display. Both statistical issues and user expectations need to be considered in these methods. A weighting scheme is proposed that balances statistical considerations and the logical...

  18. A Combined Weighting Method Based on Hybrid of Interval Evidence Fusion and Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of system and lack of expertise, epistemic uncertainties may present in the experts’ judgment on the importance of certain indices during group decision-making. A novel combination weighting method is proposed to solve the index weighting problem when various uncertainties are present in expert comments. Based on the idea of evidence theory, various types of uncertain evaluation information are uniformly expressed through interval evidence structures. Similarity matrix between interval evidences is constructed, and expert’s information is fused. Comment grades are quantified using the interval number, and cumulative probability function for evaluating the importance of indices is constructed based on the fused information. Finally, index weights are obtained by Monte Carlo random sampling. The method can process expert’s information with varying degrees of uncertainties, which possesses good compatibility. Difficulty in effectively fusing high-conflict group decision-making information and large information loss after fusion is avertible. Original expert judgments are retained rather objectively throughout the processing procedure. Cumulative probability function constructing and random sampling processes do not require any human intervention or judgment. It can be implemented by computer programs easily, thus having an apparent advantage in evaluation practices of fairly huge index systems.

  19. Resolving Anatomical and Functional Structure in Human Brain Organization: Identifying Mesoscale Organization in Weighted Network Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease. PMID:25275860

  20. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lohse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  1. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S; Lim, Kelvin O; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-10-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  2. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Karimian,1 Juergen Stein,2 Boris Bauer,3 Claudius Teupe1 1Department of Medicine – Cardiology, 2Department of Medicine – Gastroenterology, 3Department of Radiology, Krankenhaus Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany Background/objectives: Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler ­imaging (TDI. Subjects/methods: Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. Results: A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2 to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (p < 0.01. Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01. TDI displayed a significantly lower a′-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01. Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Conclusion: Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure

  3. Weighting factor for instantaneous source functions of a permeable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interface cannot be selected from already existing source functions, if the effects of the interface is to be accounted for. It is therefore necessary to modify the already existing source function. Hence, in this paper, already existing instantaneous source or Green's function is modified to account for the effect of a crossflow ...

  4. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method of F statistics weighting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to rapidly identify the source of water inrush in coal mine, and provide the theoretical basis for mine water damage prevention and control, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was established. The F statistics of water samples was normalized as the weight of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for determining the ...

  5. GTX Reference Vehicle Structural Verification Methods and Weight Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Dunn, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    The design of a single-stage-to-orbit air breathing propulsion system requires the simultaneous development of a reference launch vehicle in order to achieve the optimal mission performance. Accordingly, for the GTX study a 300-lb payload reference vehicle was preliminarily sized to a gross liftoff weight (GLOW) of 238,000 lb. A finite element model of the integrated vehicle/propulsion system was subjected to the trajectory environment and subsequently optimized for structural efficiency. This study involved the development of aerodynamic loads mapped to finite element models of the integrated system in order to assess vehicle margins of safety. Commercially available analysis codes were used in the process along with some internally developed spreadsheets and FORTRAN codes specific to the GTX geometry for mapping of thermal and pressure loads. A mass fraction of 0.20 for the integrated system dry weight has been the driver for a vehicle design consisting of state-of-the-art composite materials in order to meet the rigid weight requirements. This paper summarizes the methodology used for preliminary analyses and presents the current status of the weight optimization for the structural components of the integrated system.

  6. Umbilical Transposition in Functional Panniculectomy of the Massive Weight Loss Patient: Is It Aesthetic or Medically Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Williams, Susan A.; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Johnson, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We review the procedures used in panniculectomy and explore the necessity of umbilical transposition when adequately treating the medical and functional problems associated with panniculus in the massive weight loss patient. Methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with symptomatic panniculus after massive weight loss undergoing panniculectomy during the time period from November 2008 to October 2010 at Denver Health Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteri...

  7. A Weighted Average Finite Difference Method for the Fractional Convection-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A weighted average finite difference method for solving the two-sided space-fractional convection-diffusion equation is given, which is an extension of the weighted average method for ordinary convection-diffusion equations. Stability, consistency, and convergence of the new method are analyzed. A simple and accurate stability criterion valid for this method, arbitrary weighted factor, and arbitrary fractional derivative is given. Some numerical examples with known exact solutions are provided.

  8. Grouping miRNAs of similar functions via weighted information content of gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chaowang; Chen, Qingfeng; Li, Jinyan

    2016-12-22

    Regulation mechanisms between miRNAs and genes are complicated. To accomplish a biological function, a miRNA may regulate multiple target genes, and similarly a target gene may be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Wet-lab knowledge of co-regulating miRNAs is limited. This work introduces a computational method to group miRNAs of similar functions to identify co-regulating miRNAsfrom a similarity matrix of miRNAs. We define a novel information content of gene ontology (GO) to measure similarity between two sets of GO graphs corresponding to the two sets of target genes of two miRNAs. This between-graph similarity is then transferred as a functional similarity between the two miRNAs. Our definition of the information content is based on the size of a GO term's descendants, but adjusted by a weight derived from its depth level and the GO relationships at its path to the root node or to the most informative common ancestor (MICA). Further, a self-tuning technique and the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian matrix are applied to determine the optimal parameters for the spectral clustering of the similarity matrix of the miRNAs. Experimental results demonstrate that our method has better clustering performance than the existing edge-based, node-based or hybrid methods. Our method has also demonstrated a novel usefulness for the function annotation of new miRNAs, as reported in the detailed case studies.

  9. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  10. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  11. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  12. Probability Weighting Functions Derived from Hyperbolic Time Discounting: Psychophysical Models and Their Individual Level Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    A probability weighting function (w(p)) is considered to be a nonlinear function of probability (p) in behavioral decision theory. This study proposes a psychophysical model of probability weighting functions derived from a hyperbolic time discounting model and a geometric distribution. The aim of the study is to show probability weighting functions from the point of view of waiting time for a decision maker. Since the expected value of a geometrically distributed random variable X is 1/p, we formulized the probability weighting function of the expected value model for hyperbolic time discounting as w(p) = (1 - k log p)(-1). Moreover, the probability weighting function is derived from Loewenstein and Prelec's (1992) generalized hyperbolic time discounting model. The latter model is proved to be equivalent to the hyperbolic-logarithmic weighting function considered by Prelec (1998) and Luce (2001). In this study, we derive a model from the generalized hyperbolic time discounting model assuming Fechner's (1860) psychophysical law of time and a geometric distribution of trials. In addition, we develop median models of hyperbolic time discounting and generalized hyperbolic time discounting. To illustrate the fitness of each model, a psychological experiment was conducted to assess the probability weighting and value functions at the level of the individual participant. The participants were 50 university students. The results of individual analysis indicated that the expected value model of generalized hyperbolic discounting fitted better than previous probability weighting decision-making models. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  13. Predicting critical micelle concentration and micelle molecular weight of polysorbate 80 using compendial methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Alexandra C; Ilko, David; Merget, Benjamin; Gieseler, Henning; Germershaus, Oliver; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    This manuscript addresses the capability of compendial methods in controlling polysorbate 80 (PS80) functionality. Based on the analysis of sixteen batches, functionality related characteristics (FRC) including critical micelle concentration (CMC), cloud point, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value and micelle molecular weight were correlated to chemical composition including fatty acids before and after hydrolysis, content of non-esterified polyethylene glycols and sorbitan polyethoxylates, sorbitan- and isosorbide polyethoxylate fatty acid mono- and diesters, polyoxyethylene diesters, and peroxide values. Batches from some suppliers had a high variability in functionality related characteristic (FRC), questioning the ability of the current monograph in controlling these. Interestingly, the combined use of the input parameters oleic acid content and peroxide value - both of which being monographed methods - resulted in a model adequately predicting CMC. Confining the batches to those complying with specifications for peroxide value proved oleic acid content alone as being predictive for CMC. Similarly, a four parameter model based on chemical analyses alone was instrumental in predicting the molecular weight of PS80 micelles. Improved models based on analytical outcome from fingerprint analyses are also presented. A road map controlling PS80 batches with respect to FRC and based on chemical analyses alone is provided for the formulator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... functional ability and quadriceps muscle strength in children with hemophilic knee arthritis. ... hypertrophy, and subchondral cysts [3,4,10]. ..... Skeletal muscle function in patients with hemophilia A and unilateral hemarthro- sis of the knee. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:22–8. [24] Hilberg T, Herbsleb M, ...

  15. Independent Associations of Organized Physical Activity and Weight Status with Children’s Cognitive Functioning: A Matched-Pairs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Joseph P.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Bustamante, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tested whether participation in organized physical activity (active vs. inactive) or weight status (normal weight vs. overweight or obese) independently relate to hildren’s cognition, using a matched-pairs design. Design and Methods Normal weight, active children (8–11 yrs, 5th–75th percentile BMI) were recruited from extracurricular physical activity programs while normal weight inactive (5th–75th percentile BMI) and overweight inactive children (BMI ≥85th percentile) were recruited from local Augusta, Georgia area schools. Measures included the Cognitive Assessment System, anthropometrics, and parent- and self-report of physical activity. Paired t-tests compared cognition scores between matched groups of normal weight active vs. normal weight inactive (N=24 pairs), normal weight inactive vs. overweight inactive (N=21 pairs), and normal weight active vs. overweight inactive children (N=16 pairs). Children in each comparison were matched for race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Results Normal weight active children had higher Planning (M±SD=109±11 vs. 100±11, p=.011) and Attention scores (108±11 vs. 100±11, p=013) than overweight inactive children. Normal weight inactive children had higher Attention scores than overweight inactive children (105±13 vs. 93±12, p=008). When compared to normal weight inactive children, normal weight active children had higher Planning (113±10 vs. 102±13, p=008) and marginally higher Attention scores (111±11 vs. 104±12, p=06). Conclusion Findings suggest independent associations of children’s weight status with selective attention, and physical activity with higher-order processes of executive function. PMID:26252198

  16. Optimization of the autocorrelation weighting function for the time-domain calculation of spectral centroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seo; Hur, Don; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Spectral centroid from the backscattered ultrasound provides important information about the attenuation properties of soft tissues and Doppler effects of blood flows. Because the spectral centroid is originally determined from the power spectrum of backscattered ultrasound signals in the frequency domain, it is natural to calculate it after converting time-domain signals into spectral domain signals, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Recent research, however, derived the time-domain equations for calculating the spectral centroid using a Parseval's theorem, to avoid the calculation of the Fourier transform. The work only presented the final result, which showed that the computational time of the proposed time-domain method was 4.4 times faster than that of the original FFT-based method, whereas the average estimation error was negligible. In this paper, we present the optimal design of the autocorrelation weighting function, which is used for the timedomain spectral centroid estimation process, to reduce the computational time significantly. We also carry out a comprehensive analysis of the computational complexities of the FFTbased and time-domain methods with respect to the length of ultrasound signal segments. The simulation results using numerical phantoms show that, with the optimized autocorrelation weighting function, we only need approximately 3% of the full set of data points. In addition to that, because the proposed optimization technique requires a fixed number of data points to calculate the spectral centroid, the execution time is constant as the length of the data segment increases, whereas the execution time of the conventional FFT-based method is increased. Analysis of the computational complexities between the proposed method and the conventional FFT-based method presents O(N) and O(Nlog2N), respectively.

  17. Solving Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation by Variable Weights Particle Tracking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaohua; Jiang, Jianguo; Wu, Jichun

    2017-09-01

    Particle tracking method is an efficient and reliable method to solve time-fractional advection-dispersion equation, which can describe anomalous transport in heterogeneous porous media. However, this method will lead to severe fluctuation or disappearance of solutions if the concentration value is small. A variable weights method is developed to conquer the shortcoming of particle tracking method. Then, one-dimensional and two-dimensional time-fractional advection-dispersion equations are solved by the variable weights particle tracking method. Compared to traditional particle tracking method, the variable weights version may eliminate the fluctuation and improve the accuracy by orders of magnitude without more computational cost.

  18. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  19. Stability Analysis of Discrete Hopfield Neural Networks with the Nonnegative Definite Monotone Increasing Weight Function Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The original Hopfield neural networks model is adapted so that the weights of the resulting network are time varying. In this paper, the Discrete Hopfield neural networks with weight function matrix (DHNNWFM the weight changes with time, are considered, and the stability of DHNNWFM is analyzed. Combined with the Lyapunov function, we obtain some important results that if weight function matrix (WFM is weakly (or strongly nonnegative definite function matrix, the DHNNWFM will converge to a stable state in serial (or parallel model, and if WFM consisted of strongly nonnegative definite function matrix and column (or row diagonally dominant function matrix, DHNNWFM will converge to a stable state in parallel model.

  20. Improved theory of generalized meteo-ballistic weighting factor functions and their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It follows from the analysis of artillery fire errors that approximately two-thirds of the inaccuracy of indirect artillery fire is caused by inaccuracies in the determination of the meteo parameters included in fire error budget model. Trajectories calculated under non-standard conditions are considered to be perturbed. The tools utilized for the analysis of perturbed trajectories are weighting factor functions (WFFs which are a special kind of sensitivity functions. WFFs are used for calculation of meteo ballistic elements µB (ballistic wind wB, density ρB, virtual temperature τB, pressure pB as well. We have found that the existing theory of WFF calculation has several significant shortcomings. The aim of the article is to present a new, improved theory of generalized WFFs that eliminates the deficiencies found. Using this theory will improve methods for designing firing tables, fire control systems algorithms, and meteo message generation algorithms.

  1. Selection of weighting factors for quantification of PET radioligand binding using simplified reference tissue models with noisy input functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, M. D.; Koeppe, R. A.; Morris, E. D.

    2012-02-01

    Input function noise contributes to model-predicted values and should be accounted for during parameter estimation. This problem has been examined in the context of PET data analysis using a noisy image-derived arterial input function. Huesman and Mazoyer (1987 Phys. Med. Biol 32 1569-79) incorporated the effect of error in the measured input function into the objective function and observed a subsequent improvement in the accuracy of parameters estimated from a kinetic model of cardiac blood flow. Such a treatment has not been applied to the reference region models commonly used to analyze dynamic positron emission tomography data with receptor-ligand tracers. Here, we propose a strategy for selection of weighting factors that accounts for noise in the reference region input function and test the method on two common formulations of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). We present a simulation study which demonstrates that the proposed weighting approach improves the accuracy of estimated binding potential at high noise levels and when the reference tissue and target regions of interest are of comparable size. In the second simulation experiment, we show that using a small, homogeneous reference tissue with our weighting technique may have advantages over input functions derived from a larger (and thus less noisy), heterogeneous region with conventional weighting. A comparative analysis of clinical [11C]flumazenil data found a small but significant increase in estimated binding potential when using the proposed weighting method, consistent with the finding of reduced negative bias in our simulation study. The weighting strategy described here accounts for noise in the reference region input function and may improve the performance of the SRTM in applications where data are noisy and the reference region is relatively small. This technique may offer similar benefits to other models using reference region inputs, particularly those derived from the SRTM.

  2. Embeddings between weighted Copson and Cesaro function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Mustafayev, R.Ch.; Ünver, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2017), s. 1005-1132 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cesaro and Copson function spaces * embedding * iterated Hardy inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.21136/CMJ.2017.0424-16

  3. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  4. Determination of Lateral Modulation Apodization Functions Using a Regularized, Weighted Least Squares Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, work in this group has focused on the lateral cosine modulation method (LCM which can be used for next-generation ultrasound (US echo imaging and tissue displacement vector/strain tensor measurements (blood, soft tissues, etc.. For instance, in US echo imaging, a high lateral spatial resolution as well as a high axial spatial resolution can be obtained, and in tissue displacement vector measurements, accurate measurements of lateral tissue displacements as well as of axial tissue displacements can be realized. For an optimal determination of an apodization function for the LCM method, the regularized, weighted minimum-norm least squares (WMNLSs estimation method is presented in this study. For designed Gaussian-type point spread functions (PSFs with lateral modulation as an example, the regularized WMNLS estimation in simulations yields better approximations of the designed PSFs having wider lateral bandwidths than a Fraunhofer approximation and a singular-value decomposition (SVD. The usefulness of the regularized WMNLS estimation for the determination of apodization functions is demonstrated.

  5. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpta Serra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: No long-term studies of renal function evolution in morbidly obese (MO patients after weight loss are available. The aim of our work was to ascertain the long-term influence of drastic weight reduction on renal function in MO patients with obesity-related glomerular lesions. Methods: 92 MO patients with normal renal function and biopsy evidence of mild obesity-related glomerulopathy underwent bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases. Linear mixed models were applied. Results: Blood pressure dropped early after BS and remained stable thereafter. Creatinine clearance and BMI fell in the first 2 years, rose slightly after 5 years and then remained stable. Serum creatinine and albuminuria decreased throughout the follow-up period. Renal function and albuminuria evolution showed non-significant differences in relation to the number of glomerular lesions. Conclusions: Drastic weight loss in BS-treated MO patients with pre-surgical normal renal function and mild obesity-related glomerular lesions is associated with short- and long-term maintenance of normal renal function and improvement in both arterial hypertension and albuminuria.

  6. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Comparison of the Monte Carlo adjoint-weighted and differential operator perturbation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Two perturbation theory methodologies are implemented for k-eigenvalue calculations in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, MCNP6. A comparison of the accuracy of these techniques, the differential operator and adjoint-weighted methods, is performed numerically and analytically. Typically, the adjoint-weighted method shows better performance over a larger range; however, there are exceptions.

  8. Effect of weight reductions on estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Davies, Melanie J; Persson, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    creatinine. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two 56-week, randomized, double-blind trials: SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes (n=3731, without type 2 diabetes [T2D], randomized [2:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=2487] or placebo [n=1244]); SCALE Diabetes (n=846 with T2D, randomized [2:1:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=423], 1...

  9. Mean-Variance-CvaR Model of Multiportfolio Optimization via Linear Weighted Sum Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Elahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to optimizing portfolios to mean-variance-CVaR (MVC model. Although of several researches have studied the optimal MVC model of portfolio, the linear weighted sum method (LWSM was not implemented in the area. The aim of this paper is to investigate the optimal portfolio model based on MVC via LWSM. With this method, the solution of the MVC model of portfolio as the multiobjective problem is presented. In data analysis section, this approach in investing on two assets is investigated. An MVC model of the multiportfolio was implemented in MATLAB and tested on the presented problem. It is shown that, by using three objective functions, it helps the investors to manage their portfolio better and thereby minimize the risk and maximize the return of the portfolio. The main goal of this study is to modify the current models and simplify it by using LWSM to obtain better results.

  10. A method for weighted projections to the positive definite cone

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-06-24

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. We study the numerical solution of the problem (Formula presented.) , where (Formula presented.) is a symmetric square matrix, and (Formula presented.) is a linear operator, such that (Formula presented.) is invertible. With (Formula presented.) the desired fractional duality gap, and (Formula presented.) the condition number of (Formula presented.) , we prove (Formula presented.) iteration complexity for a simple primal-dual interior point method directly based on those for linear programs with semi-definite constraints. We do not, however, require the numerically expensive scalings inherent in these methods to force fast convergence. For low-dimensional problems (Formula presented.), our numerical experiments indicate excellent performance and only a very slowly growing dependence of the convergence rate on (Formula presented.). While our algorithm requires somewhat more iterations than existing interior point methods, the iterations are cheaper. This gives better computational times.

  11. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  12. Stress relaxation functions: Methods of approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.; Gant, Frederick S.

    1994-04-01

    A new method of determining Prony series coefficients is presented. This method, the domain of influence method (DOI), capitalizes on characteristics of the exponential decay curve to adjust its parameters to fit a set of data. This method was applied to viscoelastic stress relaxation data. The method is general and can be used to develop exponential decay curves to represent other types of data where appropriate. The DOI method does not include any error correction within itself. To improve the results of the DOI method some form of error correction is necessary. The nonlinearity of the Prony series does not lend itself to common methods of error minimization. Optimization methods can be applied to this problem. These methods use the functional behavior of the problem under study to minimize or maximize some characteristic of the problem. Here the function minimized was an error function between the DOI estimated Prony series and the viscoelastic data. Optimization was achieved by adjusting the Prony series coefficients to minimize that error. The DOI method was encoded in FORTRAN and integrated with commercially available optimization routines to produce a tool called Viscoelastic Coefficient Determination or VCD. A description of this code including a discussion of the salient features is presented. An example is used to demonstrate the DOI method, illustrate the operation of VCD, and demonstrate the capabilities of the method and the software. A code listing appears in the appendix.

  13. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  14. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    ... was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes...

  15. Depth-weighted Inverse and Imaging methods to study the Earth's Crust in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Inversion means solving a set of geophysical equations for a spatial distribution of parameters (or functions) which could have produced an observed set of measurements. Imaging is instead a transformation of magnetometric data into a scaled 3D model resembling the true geometry of subsurface geologic features. While inversion theory allows many additional constraints, such as depth weighting, positivity, physical property bounds, smoothness, focusing, imaging methods of magnetic data derived under different theories are all found to reduce to either simple upward continuation or a depth-weighted upward continuation, with weights expressed in the general form of a power law of the altitude, with the half of the structural index as exponent. Note however that specifying the appropriate level of depth weighting is not just a problem in these imaging techniques but should also be considered in standard inversion methods. We will also investigate the relationship between imaging methods and multiscale methods. A multiscale analysis is well suitable to study potential fields because the way potential fields convey source information is strictly related to the scale of analysis. The stability of multiscale methods results from mixing, in a single operator, the wavenumber low-pass behaviour of the upward continuation transformation of the field with the enhancement high-pass properties of n-order derivative transformations. So, the complex reciprocal interference of several field components may be efficiently faced at several scales of the analysis and the depth to the sources may be estimated together with the homogeneity degrees of the field. We will describe the main aspects of both the kinds of interpretation under the study of multi-source models and apply either inversion or imaging techniques to the magnetic data of complex crustal areas of Southern Italy, such as the Campanian volcanic district and the Southern Apennines. The studied area includes a Pleistocene

  16. Numerical methods for hyperbolic differential functional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Ciarski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the initial boundary value problem for quasilinear first order partial differential functional systems. A general class of difference methods for the problem is constructed. Theorems on the error estimate of approximate solutions for difference functional systems are presented. The convergence results are proved by means of consistency and stability arguments. A numerical example is given.

  17. Exponential function method for solving nonlinear ordinary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new approach, named the exponential function method (EFM) is used to obtain solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients in a semi-infinite domain. The form of the solutions of these problems is considered to be an expansion of exponential functions with unknown coefficients.

  18. Presurgical Weight Is Associated with Pain, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety among Gastric Bypass Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Wedin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and obesity are significant public health concerns in the United States associated with significant levels of health-care expenses and lost productivity. Previous research suggests that obesity is a risk factor for chronic pain, mainly due to excessive weight placed on the joints. However, the obesity-pain relationship appears to be complex and reciprocal. Little work to date has focused on the relationship between weight and pain among patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. Patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss at a large southeastern academic medical center ( completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression scale (CESD-10, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher pain-on-average ratings, higher functional impairment due to pain across the domains of physical activity, mood, walking ability, relationships, and enjoyment of life. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher BAI scores, but weight was not related to depression. Findings suggest that bariatric surgery candidates report a moderate amount of pain prior to surgery and that presurgical weight is associated with higher pain, increased functional impairment due to pain, and increased anxiety. Anxiety was found to mediate the relationship between increased weight and pain.

  19. Newton's method for stochastic functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wrzosek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we apply Newton's method to stochastic functional differential equations. The first part concerns a first-order convergence. We formulate a Gronwall-type inequality which plays an important role in the proof of the convergence theorem for the Newton method. In the second part a probabilistic second-order convergence is studied.

  20. Carboplatin dosing in overweight and obese patients with normal renal function, does weight matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekhart, Corine; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the potential utility of alternative weight descriptors in the Cockcroft-Gault equation to more accurately predict carboplatin clearance in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Clearance values obtained from

  1. Rheological properties of poly (vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of average molecular weight and its applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Ragnar

    characterized regarding their viscosimetric properties in ethanol. Average molecular weights (Mw, Mn, and Mz) have been determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then used in a numerical method to evaluate the viscosity average molecular weight (Mv) via the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation...

  2. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  3. A weighted power framework for integrating multisource information: gene function prediction in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Pal, Sankar K

    2012-04-01

    Predicting the functions of unannotated genes is one of the major challenges of biological investigation. In this study, we propose a weighted power scoring framework, called weighted power biological score (WPBS), for combining different biological data sources and predicting the function of some of the unclassified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. The relative power and weight coefficients of different data sources, in the proposed score, are estimated systematically by utilizing functional annotations [yeast Gene Ontology (GO)-Slim: Process] of classified genes, available from Saccharomyces Genome Database. Genes are then clustered by applying k-medoids algorithm on WPBS, and functional categories of 334 unclassified genes are predicted using a P-value cutoff 1 ×10(-5). The WPBS is available online at http://www.isical.ac.in/~ shubhra/WPBS/WPBS.html, where one can download WPBS, related files, and a MATLAB code to predict functions of unclassified genes.

  4. Physical function and properties of quadriceps femoris muscle after bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytinen, T; Liikavainio, T; Pääkkönen, M; Gylling, H; Arokoski, J P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss on physical function, the properties of quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM), and the subjective disabilities of the subjects with excessive weight. Thirteen female and three male subjects were studied before and 8.8 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGP) operation. The health-related quality of life (RAND-36) and the self-reported disease-specific joint symptoms (WOMAC) were estimated. The objective physical function was evaluated with sock, repeated sit-to-stand, 6-minute walk, stair ascending and descending and timed up and go tests and the properties of the QFM were measured with ultrasound. The average weight loss was 27.3 kg. Objectively measured physical function improved after RYGP operation. Physical functioning, physical role functioning and general health domain scores of the RAND-36 were significantly improved. The stiffness and function scores were lower after RYGP operation in knee OA subjects. The subcutaneous fat thickness and the absolute muscle thickness of QFM decreased, but the ratio of muscle cross sectional area/total body weight did not change. The fat and connective tissue proportion in the QFM muscle were significantly increased. The RYPG-surgery-induced weight loss exerts a positive impact on physical function but a negative impact on a muscle structure.

  5. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a

  6. Assessment of allograft function using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing a non-invasive method such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI could be used as a feasible and reproducible modality in the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. We assessed the functional status of the renal allograft by DWMRI and its applicability in assessment of graft dysfunction on all end-stage renal transplant patients who attained normal renal function on the 7 th day post-transplantation. Follow-up imaging of the recipient allograft was performed at the end of 90 and 180 days and in case of graft dysfunction. Kidney biopsies were performed to correlate with the corresponding MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps of the cortex and medulla were obtained by studying the DWMRI. The ADC values were significantly lower in the medulla compared with the cortex in normal donor kidneys and normally functioning transplanted kidneys, while they decreased significantly when rejection occurred. The reduction in ADC values occurred both in the cortex and in the medulla, and correlated with the degree of rejection on the kidney biopsies. The ADC values increased significantly during the recovery from rejection. We conclude that DWMRI can be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of transplant patients during acute rejection.

  7. The Weighted Square Integral Inequalities for the First Derivative of the Function of a Real Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shashiashvili

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the square integral estimate for the derivative of the convex function by Shashiashvili (2005 to the case of the family of the weight functions, satisfying certain conditions. This kind of generalization is especially valuable in the problems of mathematical finance for construction of the discrete time hedging strategies.

  8. The Weighted Square Integral Inequalities for the First Derivative of the Function of a Real Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the square integral estimate for the derivative of the convex function by Shashiashvili (2005 to the case of the family of the weight functions, satisfying certain conditions. This kind of generalization is especially valuable in the problems of mathematical finance for construction of the discrete time hedging strategies.

  9. Weight-Gain Velocity in Newborn Infants Managed with the Kangaroo Method and Associated Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Raquel Guimarães; de Azevedo, Daniela Vasconcelos; de Almeida, Paulo César; de Almeida, Nádia Maria Girão Saraiva; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Kangaroo method helps promote maternal breastfeeding and adequate growth of low birthweight preterm infants. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between weight-gain velocity during use of the Kangaroo method and maternal and infant variables. Methods A nested cross-sectional study in a cohort of newborn infants managed using the Kangaroo method was carried out at a reference center for the method in Brazil. Data on low birthweight and preterm infants managed using the Kangaroo Method (n = 78) and on their respective mothers (n = 70) was collected between January and July 2014. Maternal and infant variables were associated and correlated with weight-gain velocity (g/kg/day) at each phase of the method (p Kangaroo method. Birthweight of under 1500 g was associated with a lower likelihood of inadequate weight-gain velocity of the newborn at phase 1 (OR = 0.1; 95 % CI 0.01-0.78; p = 0.012). In phase 3, maternal age was directly correlated with weight-gain velocity. Conclusions Weight-gain velocity was associated with maternal (age) and infant (gestational age at birth, birthweight, weight for gestational age at birth, length of hospital stay and five-minute Apgar score) variables. Knowledge of the factors influencing weight-gain velocity and its behavior at each phase of the method can help guide conduct toward potentializing factors that promote adequate weight-gain.

  10. Extensive complementarity between gene function prediction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulin, Vedrana; Šmuc, Tomislav; Supek, Fran

    2016-12-01

    The number of sequenced genomes rises steadily but we still lack the knowledge about the biological roles of many genes. Automated function prediction (AFP) is thus a necessity. We hypothesized that AFP approaches that draw on distinct genome features may be useful for predicting different types of gene functions, motivating a systematic analysis of the benefits gained by obtaining and integrating such predictions. Our pipeline amalgamates 5 133 543 genes from 2071 genomes in a single massive analysis that evaluates five established genomic AFP methodologies. While 1227 Gene Ontology (GO) terms yielded reliable predictions, the majority of these functions were accessible to only one or two of the methods. Moreover, different methods tend to assign a GO term to non-overlapping sets of genes. Thus, inferences made by diverse genomic AFP methods display a striking complementary, both gene-wise and function-wise. Because of this, a viable integration strategy is to rely on a single most-confident prediction per gene/function, rather than enforcing agreement across multiple AFP methods. Using an information-theoretic approach, we estimate that current databases contain 29.2 bits/gene of known Escherichia coli gene functions. This can be increased by up to 5.5 bits/gene using individual AFP methods or by 11 additional bits/gene upon integration, thereby providing a highly-ranking predictor on the Critical Assessment of Function Annotation 2 community benchmark. Availability of more sequenced genomes boosts the predictive accuracy of AFP approaches and also the benefit from integrating them. The individual and integrated GO predictions for the complete set of genes are available from http://gorbi.irb.hr/ CONTACT: fran.supek@irb.hrSupplementary information: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An improved analysis/synthesis capability based on dual methods - ACCESS 3. [for minimum weight design of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, L. A.; Fleury, C.

    1979-01-01

    Approximation concepts and dual method algorithms are combined to create a new method for minimum weight design of structural systems. Approximation concepts convert the basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem into a sequence of explicit primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to nonnegativity constraints. The dual method is successfully extended to deal with pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable problems. The power of the method presented is illustrated with numerical results for example problems, including a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.

  12. Development of a conceptual flight vehicle design weight estimation method library and documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew S.

    The state of the art in estimating the volumetric size and mass of flight vehicles is held today by an elite group of engineers in the Aerospace Conceptual Design Industry. This is not a skill readily accessible or taught in academia. To estimate flight vehicle mass properties, many aerospace engineering students are encouraged to read the latest design textbooks, learn how to use a few basic statistical equations, and plunge into the details of parametric mass properties analysis. Specifications for and a prototype of a standardized engineering "tool-box" of conceptual and preliminary design weight estimation methods were developed to manage the growing and ever-changing body of weight estimation knowledge. This also bridges the gap in Mass Properties education for aerospace engineering students. The Weight Method Library will also be used as a living document for use by future aerospace students. This "tool-box" consists of a weight estimation method bibliography containing unclassified, open-source literature for conceptual and preliminary flight vehicle design phases. Transport aircraft validation cases have been applied to each entry in the AVD Weight Method Library in order to provide a sense of context and applicability to each method. The weight methodology validation results indicate consensus and agreement of the individual methods. This generic specification of a method library will be applicable for use by other disciplines within the AVD Lab, Post-Graduate design labs, or engineering design professionals.

  13. Acquisition of multi-spectral flash image using optimization method via weight map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-Seok; Kim, Dae-Chul; Kwon, Oh-Seol; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2013-02-01

    To acquire images in low-light environments, it is usually necessary to adopt long exposure times or to resort to flashes. Flashes, however, often induce color distortion, cause the red-eye effect and can be disturbing to the subjects. On the other hand, long-exposure shots are susceptible to subject-motion, as well as motion-blur due to camera shake when performed with a hand-held camera. A recently introduced technique to overcome the limitations of the traditional lowlight photography is the use of the multi-spectral flash. Multi-spectral flash images are a combination of UV/IR and visible spectrum information. The general idea is to retrieve the details from the UV/IR spectrum and the color from the visible spectrum. Multi-spectral flash images, however, are themselves subject to color distortion and noise. In this work, a method of computing multi-spectral flash images so as to reduce the noise and to improve the color accuracy is presented. The proposed method is a previously seen optimization method, improved by introducing a weight map used to discriminate the uniform regions from the detail regions. The optimization target function takes into account the output likelihood with respect to the ambient light image, the sparsity of image gradients, and the spectral constraints for the IR-red and UV-blue channels. The performance of the proposed method was objectively evaluated using longexposure shots as references.

  14. Improved method for synthesis of low molecular weight protamine–siRNA conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RNAi technology has aroused wide public interest due to its high efficiency and specificity to treat multiple types of diseases. However, the effective delivery of siRNA remains a challenge due to its large molecular weight and strong anionic charge. Considering their remarkable functions in vivo and features that are often desired in drug delivery carriers, biomimetic systems for siRNA delivery become an effective and promising strategy. Based on this, covalent attachment of synthetic cell penetrating peptides (CPP to siRNA has become of great interest. We developed a monomeric covalent conjugate of low molecular weight protamine (LMWP, a well-established CPP and siRNA via a cytosol-cleavable disulfide linkage using PEG as a crosslinker. Results showed that the conjugates didn't generate coagulation, and exhibited much better RNAi potency and intracellular delivery compared with the conventional charge-complexed CPP/siRNA aggregates. Three different synthetic and purification methods were compared in order to optimize synthesis efficiency and product yield. The methodology using hetero-bifunctional NHS–PEG–OPSS as a crosslinker to synthesize LMWP–siRNA simplified the synthesis and purification process and produced the highest yield. These results pave the way towards siRNA biomimetic delivery and future clinical translation.

  15. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  16. Method of making low work function component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Vance [Niskayuna, NY; Weaver, Stanton Earl [Northville, NY; Michael, Joseph Darryl [Delmar, NY

    2011-11-15

    A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

  17. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in Dilepton Final States with the Neutrino Weighting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilchenko, Yuriy [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The top quark is the heaviest fundamental particle observed to date. The mass of the top quark is a free parameter in the Standard Model (SM). A precise measurement of its mass is particularly important as it sets an indirect constraint on the mass of the Higgs boson. It is also a useful constraint on contributions from physics beyond the SM and may play a fundamental role in the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. I present a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel using the Neutrino Weighting Method. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at Tevatron with √s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the DØ detector. Kinematically under-constrained dilepton events are analyzed by integrating over neutrino rapidity. Weight distributions of t$\\bar{t}$ signal and background are produced as a function of the top quark mass for different top quark mass hypotheses. The measurement is performed by constructing templates from the moments of the weight distributions and input top quark mass, followed by a subsequent likelihood t to data. The dominant systematic uncertainties from jet energy calibration is reduced by using a correction from `+jets channel. To replicate the quark avor dependence of the jet response in data, jets in the simulated events are additionally corrected. The result is combined with our preceding measurement on 1 fb-1 and yields mt = 174.0± 2.4 (stat.) ±1.4 (syst.) GeV.

  18. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ECBC-TR-1506 NIST-TRACEABLE NMR METHOD TO DETERMINE QUANTITATIVE WEIGHT PERCENTAGE PURITY OF MUSTARD (HD) FEEDSTOCK SAMPLES David J...McGarvey RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE William R. Creasy LEIDOS, INC. Abingdon, MD 21009-1261 Theresa R. Connell EXCET, INC...Jan 2012–May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock

  19. A New Global Regression Analysis Method for the Prediction of Wind Tunnel Model Weight Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Bridge, Thomas M.; Amaya, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    A new global regression analysis method is discussed that predicts wind tunnel model weight corrections for strain-gage balance loads during a wind tunnel test. The method determines corrections by combining "wind-on" model attitude measurements with least squares estimates of the model weight and center of gravity coordinates that are obtained from "wind-off" data points. The method treats the least squares fit of the model weight separate from the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Therefore, it performs two fits of "wind- off" data points and uses the least squares estimator of the model weight as an input for the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Explicit equations for the least squares estimators of the weight and center of gravity coordinates are derived that simplify the implementation of the method in the data system software of a wind tunnel. In addition, recommendations for sets of "wind-off" data points are made that take typical model support system constraints into account. Explicit equations of the confidence intervals on the model weight and center of gravity coordinates and two different error analyses of the model weight prediction are also discussed in the appendices of the paper.

  20. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  1. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0.......13) and weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P = 0.71). Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r = 0.43, P thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory...

  2. A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé

    2013-02-01

    Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance to the input points. It matches the expected time bound of the best known randomized algorithm for this problem. Our approach relies on Coles improved parametric searching technique. As a direct application, our result yields the first O(nlogn)-time algorithm for computing a k-center of a set of n weighted points on the real line. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. The effect of method of handling and season on weight loss, water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of handling method and season on water holding capacity, weight loss, cooking loss and colour of retail beef. Four handling methods which corresponded to the commercial methods of handling retail meat were selected. They were beef sample kept uncovered on ...

  4. Minimizing convex functions by continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for minimizing convex functions, defined on general Banach spaces, which are associated with an appropriate complete metric space of vector fields. We show that there exists an everywhere dense open set in this space of vector fields such that each of its elements generates strongly convergent trajectories.

  5. Penalty parameter of the penalty function method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Cheng Yong; Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    The penalty parameter of penalty function method is systematically analyzed and discussed. For the problem that Deb's feasibility-based rule doesnot give the detailed instruction as how to rank two solutions when they have the same constraint violation, an improved Deb's feasibility-based rule...

  6. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  7. Improved cardiac function and dietary fatty acid metabolism after modest weight loss in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Noll, Christophe; Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Kunach, Margaret; Bouffard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Langlois, Marie-France; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2014-06-15

    Using a novel positron emission tomography (PET) method with oral administration of 14(R,S)-[¹⁸F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (¹⁸FTHA), we recently demonstrated that subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) display an impairment in cardiac function associated with increased myocardial uptake of dietary fatty acids. Here, we determined whether modest weight loss induced by lifestyle changes might improve these cardiac metabolic and functional abnormalities. Nine participants with IGT, enrolled in a one-year lifestyle intervention trial, were invited to undergo determination of organ-specific postprandial dietary fatty acids partition using the oral ¹⁸FTHA method, and cardiac function and oxidative metabolic index using PET [¹¹C]acetate kinetics with ECG-gated PET ventriculography before and after the intervention. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of waist circumference, with reduced postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides excursion. We observed a significant increase in stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction associated with reduced myocardial oxidative metabolic index and fractional dietary fatty acid uptake. Modest weight loss corrects the exaggerated myocardial channeling of dietary fatty acids and improves myocardial energy substrate metabolism and function in IGT subjects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Peating at 3 years. The apparent ineffectiveness of dieting and weight-control behaviors may reflect misconceptions about what constitutes healthy eating or energy-dense foods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place

  9. Constructing inverse probability weights for continuous exposures: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Moodie, Erica E M; Auger, Nathalie; Kaufman, Jay S

    2014-03-01

    Inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models with binary exposures are common in epidemiology. Constructing inverse probability weights for a continuous exposure can be complicated by the presence of outliers, and the need to identify a parametric form for the exposure and account for nonconstant exposure variance. We explored the performance of various methods to construct inverse probability weights for continuous exposures using Monte Carlo simulation. We generated two continuous exposures and binary outcomes using data sampled from a large empirical cohort. The first exposure followed a normal distribution with homoscedastic variance. The second exposure followed a contaminated Poisson distribution, with heteroscedastic variance equal to the conditional mean. We assessed six methods to construct inverse probability weights using: a normal distribution, a normal distribution with heteroscedastic variance, a truncated normal distribution with heteroscedastic variance, a gamma distribution, a t distribution (1, 3, and 5 degrees of freedom), and a quantile binning approach (based on 10, 15, and 20 exposure categories). We estimated the marginal odds ratio for a single-unit increase in each simulated exposure in a regression model weighted by the inverse probability weights constructed using each approach, and then computed the bias and mean squared error for each method. For the homoscedastic exposure, the standard normal, gamma, and quantile binning approaches performed best. For the heteroscedastic exposure, the quantile binning, gamma, and heteroscedastic normal approaches performed best. Our results suggest that the quantile binning approach is a simple and versatile way to construct inverse probability weights for continuous exposures.

  10. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  11. A note on the modified q-Genocchi numbers and polynomials with weight (\\alpha,\\beta) and their interpolation function at negative integers

    OpenAIRE

    Araci, Serkan; Açikgöz, Mehmet; Qi, Feng; Jolany, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper concerns to establish modified q-Genocchi numbers and polynomials with weight ({\\alpha},{\\beta}). In this paper we investigate special generalized q-Genocchi polynomials and we apply the method of generating function, which are exploited to derive further classes of q-Genocchi polynomials and develop q-Genocchi numbers and polynomials. By using the Laplace-Mellin transformation integral, we define q-Zeta function with weight ({\\alpha},{\\beta}) and by presenting a lin...

  12. Hyaluronated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active targeting: influence of conjugation method and hyaluronic acid molecular weight on the nanovector properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Valentina; Zonari, Daniele; Cannito, Stefania; Marengo, Alessandro; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Malatesta, Manuela; Carton, Flavia; Boschi, Federico; Berlier, Gloria; Arpicco, Silvia

    2018-01-31

    We have prepared and evaluated the physico-chemical and biological properties of four different hyaluronated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) samples (MSN/HA). Hyaluronic acid (HA) with two different molecular weights (200 and 6.4 kDa) was used for the conjugation of aminopropyl-functionalized MSN (NH 2 -MSN), following two different procedures. Namely, samples HA200A and HA6.4A were prepared by reacting activated HA with NH 2 -MSN (method A), while samples HA200B and HA6.4B were obtained carrying out HA activation in the presence of the nanoparticles (method B). The four samples showed similar hydrophilicity, but clear differences in the HA loading, textural properties, surface charge and stability of the suspensions. More in detail, conjugation using low molecular weight HA with method A resulted in low HA loading, with consequent scarce effects on dispersity and stability in physiological media. The highest yield and corresponding best performances were obtained with method B using high molecular weight HA. HA loading and molecular weight also influenced in a concerted way the biological response towards the MSNs of CD44 target cancer cells (CD44 + ) and control cells (CD44 - ): MDA-MB-231 and A2780, respectively. The absence of cytotoxicity was assessed. Moreover, the targeting ability of the best performing MSN/HA was confirmed by cellular uptake studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheological properties of poly(vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of molecular weight

    OpenAIRE

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Nielsen, Lotte; Ndoni, Sokol

    2014-01-01

    Different grades of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were studied as dispersant for gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO) in ethanol-based colloidal dispersions. The average molecular weights Mw, Mn, and Mz were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then used in a numerical method to evaluate the viscosity molecular weight (Mv) via an empirically modified Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation. The MHS equation parameters (a and K), and the polydispersity correction factor (qMHS) we...

  14. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation methods and correction factors for body weight in Mangalarga Marchador horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Amorim Caetano de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of six body weight (BW estimating methods in Mangalarga Marchador horses (MM (n = 318: method A - tape placements at three different positions around the thoracic girth; B - Crevat and Quetelec's formula; C - Hall's formula; D - Hintz and Griffiths’ table; E - Santos’ table; and F - Cintra's formula. For additional analyses, gender, age, and gestational stage were considered. Estimated average BW was compared to the actual scale weight by the paired T test, mean predicted error, and determination coefficient. In the general population, methods A (position 3, B, and C estimated BW that were different from that of the scale. Method A, at positions 1 and 2, was more accurate in predicting the scale weight results compared with all other methods. For pregnant mares, the tape in positions 1 and 2 in method A did not differ from those of the scale. Method A in positions 1 and 2 and the table (method E may be used to estimate the BW of males and females of different ages and/or gestational stages. To use Methods B and C, correction factors are necessary to precisely estimate the body weights in this breed.

  16. Hamming Distance Method with Subjective and Objective Weights for Personnel Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Md Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicriteria decision making (MCDM is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW’s. In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW’s. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW’s.

  17. Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights for personnel selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, R; Ahmad, M Z; Abu, M S; Jusoh, M S

    2014-01-01

    Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW's). In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW's. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon's entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW's.

  18. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a set of empirical relations for the weight estimation of the secondary structure and non-structural items. A conceptual design study on a stable (5% static margin), 400-passenger blended wing body ai...

  19. Characterization and prediction of chemical functions and weight fractions in consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Isaacs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents. We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos. We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties. We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-based chemical prioritization.

  20. Pulmonary and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese subjects and changes following a structured weight reduction program: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Held

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is rising. Obesity can lead to cardiovascular and ventilatory complications through multiple mechanisms. Cardiac and pulmonary function in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of structured dietary programs on cardiac and pulmonary function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine lung and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese adults and to evaluate whether weight loss positively affects functional parameters. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated bodyplethysmographic and echocardiographic data in asymptomatic subjects undergoing a structured one-year weight reduction program. RESULTS: 74 subjects (32 male, 42 female; mean age 42±12 years with an average BMI 42.5±7.9, body weight 123.7±24.9 kg were enrolled. Body weight correlated negatively with vital capacity (R = -0.42, p<0.001, FEV1 (R = -0.497, p<0.001 and positively with P 0.1 (R = 0.32, p = 0.02 and myocardial mass (R = 0.419, p = 0.002. After 4 months the study subjects had significantly reduced their body weight (-26.0±11.8 kg and BMI (-8.9±3.8 associated with a significant improvement of lung function (absolute changes: vital capacity +5.5±7.5% pred., p<0.001; FEV1+9.8±8.3% pred., p<0.001, ITGV+16.4±16.0% pred., p<0.001, SR tot -17.4±41.5% pred., p<0.01. Moreover, P0.1/Pimax decreased to 47.7% (p<0.01 indicating a decreased respiratory load. The change of FEV1 correlated significantly with the change of body weight (R = -0.31, p = 0.03. Echocardiography demonstrated reduced myocardial wall thickness (-0.08±0.2 cm, p = 0.02 and improved left ventricular myocardial performance index (-0.16±0.35, p = 0.02. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (+0.14, p = 0.03 and pulmonary outflow acceleration time (AT +26.65±41.3 ms, p = 0.001 increased. CONCLUSION: Even in asymptomatic individuals obesity is associated with abnormalities in pulmonary and cardiac function and increased myocardial mass. All the

  1. The performance evaluation model of mining project founded on the weight optimization entropy value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chao; Chen, Shou

    2017-01-01

    According to the traditional entropy value method still have low evaluation accuracy when evaluating the performance of mining projects, a performance evaluation model of mineral project founded on improved entropy is proposed. First establish a new weight assignment model founded on compatible matrix analysis of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy value method, when the compatibility matrix analysis to achieve consistency requirements, if it has differences between subjective weights and objective weights, moderately adjust both proportions, then on this basis, the fuzzy evaluation matrix for performance evaluation. The simulation experiments show that, compared with traditional entropy and compatible matrix analysis method, the proposed performance evaluation model of mining project based on improved entropy value method has higher accuracy assessment.

  2. Tide forecasting method based on dynamic weight distribution for operational evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-wei Qiu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of operational evaluation factors for tide forecasting, the relationship between the evaluation factors and the weights of forecasters was examined. A tide forecasting method based on dynamic weight distribution for operational evaluation was developed, and multiple-forecaster synchronous forecasting was realized while avoiding the instability cased by only one forecaster. Weights were distributed to the forecasters according to each one's forecast precision. An evaluation criterion for the professional level of the forecasters was also built. The eligibility rates of forecast results demonstrate the skill of the forecasters and the stability of their forecasts. With the developed tide forecasting method, the precision and reasonableness of tide forecasting are improved. The application of the present method to tide forecasting at the Huangpu Park tidal station demonstrates the validity of the method.

  3. FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION OF FP AND DC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Kaluža

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of organizations today use information-communication technologies (ICT for building an information system (IS. IS is assembled of hardware, software, network resources, organizational and human resources. In IS development process, complexity is crucial for evaluating quantities of resources needed (time, people, money, equipment. Complexity of an IS can be evaluated and/or measured in different phases of development. There are many methods for measuring complexity, but mostly used and thoroughly described method is Function Point Analysis (FP. The opposite method, Database Complexity (DC, does not measure all the aspects of IS, but it could evaluate system complexity depending on the database complexity. DC method is intended to be used for measuring semantic complexity of the IS database, and can be shown by counting attributes A and foreign keys F. This paper describes a very high correlation between FP and DC methods, and defines a function which can in 95% of accuracy express FP values from measured DC values.

  4. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  5. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD...... patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training...

  6. 48 CFR 215.404-72 - Modified weighted guidelines method for nonprofit organizations other than FFRDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modified weighted guidelines method for nonprofit organizations other than FFRDCs. 215.404-72 Section 215.404-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY...

  7. [Implication of inverse-probability weighting method in the evaluation of diagnostic test with verification bias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Leni; Zhang, Shaokai; Zhao, Fanghui; Qiao, Youlin

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate and adjust the verification bias existed in the screening or diagnostic tests. Inverse-probability weighting method was used to adjust the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests, with an example of cervical cancer screening used to introduce the Compare Tests package in R software which could be implemented. Sensitivity and specificity calculated from the traditional method and maximum likelihood estimation method were compared to the results from Inverse-probability weighting method in the random-sampled example. The true sensitivity and specificity of the HPV self-sampling test were 83.53% (95%CI:74.23-89.93)and 85.86% (95%CI: 84.23-87.36). In the analysis of data with randomly missing verification by gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity calculated by traditional method were 90.48% (95%CI:80.74-95.56)and 71.96% (95%CI:68.71-75.00), respectively. The adjusted sensitivity and specificity under the use of Inverse-probability weighting method were 82.25% (95% CI:63.11-92.62) and 85.80% (95% CI: 85.09-86.47), respectively, whereas they were 80.13% (95%CI:66.81-93.46)and 85.80% (95%CI: 84.20-87.41) under the maximum likelihood estimation method. The inverse-probability weighting method could effectively adjust the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test when verification bias existed, especially when complex sampling appeared.

  8. Thermal performance of functionally graded parabolic annular fins having constant weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, Vivek Kumar; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Bhowmick, Shubhankar [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2014-10-15

    The proposed work reports the performance of parabolic annular fins of constant weight made of functionally graded materials. The work involves computation of temperature gradient, efficiency and effectiveness of such fins and compares the performances for different functionally graded parabolic fin profiles obtained by varying grading parameters and profile parameters respectively keeping the weight of the fins constant. The functional grading of thermal conductivity is based on a power function of radial co-ordinate which consists of parameters, namely grading parameters, varying which different grading combinations are studied. A general second order ordinary differential equation has been derived for all the profiles and material grading. The efficiency and effectiveness of the annular fins of different profile and grading combinations have been calculated and plotted and the results reveal the dependence of fin performance on profile and grading parameter.

  9. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  10. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time.

  11. Radial basis function networks with linear interval regression weights for symbolic interval data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shun-Feng; Chuang, Chen-Chia; Tao, C W; Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Hsiao, Chih-Ching

    2012-02-01

    This paper introduces a new structure of radial basis function networks (RBFNs) that can successfully model symbolic interval-valued data. In the proposed structure, to handle symbolic interval data, the Gaussian functions required in the RBFNs are modified to consider interval distance measure, and the synaptic weights of the RBFNs are replaced by linear interval regression weights. In the linear interval regression weights, the lower and upper bounds of the interval-valued data as well as the center and range of the interval-valued data are considered. In addition, in the proposed approach, two stages of learning mechanisms are proposed. In stage 1, an initial structure (i.e., the number of hidden nodes and the adjustable parameters of radial basis functions) of the proposed structure is obtained by the interval competitive agglomeration clustering algorithm. In stage 2, a gradient-descent kind of learning algorithm is applied to fine-tune the parameters of the radial basis function and the coefficients of the linear interval regression weights. Various experiments are conducted, and the average behavior of the root mean square error and the square of the correlation coefficient in the framework of a Monte Carlo experiment are considered as the performance index. The results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed structure.

  12. Uncertainty plus Prior Equals Rational Bias: An Intuitive Bayesian Probability Weighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several…

  13. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain.To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors.PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review.Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included.Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up.Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  14. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A; Szabo, Amanda N; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A; Ptomey, Lauren T; Honas, Jeffery J; Herrmann, Stephen D; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  15. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 weight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, whereas no changes were evident regarding any of the measured heart rate variability indices. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and improved (p<0.05 mental flexibility and shifting set, whereas no changes were observed in working memory, visuospatial discrimination, and spatial orientation ability. Fasting also increased (p<0.05 anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  16. Hybridization of Sensing Methods of the Search Domain and Adaptive Weighted Sum in the Pareto Approximation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the relatively new and rapidly developing class of methods to solve a problem of multi-objective optimization, based on the preliminary built finite-dimensional approximation of the set, and thereby, the Pareto front of this problem as well. The work investigates the efficiency of several modifications of the method of adaptive weighted sum (AWS. This method proposed in the paper of Ryu and Kim Van (JH. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Wan is intended to build Pareto approximation of the multi-objective optimization problem.The AWS method uses quadratic approximation of the objective functions in the current sub-domain of the search space (the area of trust based on the gradient and Hessian matrix of the objective functions. To build the (quadratic meta objective functions this work uses methods of the experimental design theory, which involves calculating the values of these functions in the grid nodes covering the area of trust (a sensing method of the search domain. There are two groups of the sensing methods under consideration: hypercube- and hyper-sphere-based methods. For each of these groups, a number of test multi-objective optimization tasks has been used to study the efficiency of the following grids: "Latin Hypercube"; grid, which is uniformly random for each measurement; grid, based on the LP  sequences.

  17. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  18. Titanium microgram weight low to 50 mg and measurement based on exchange weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Dong, Lei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    The microgram weights have wide applications in the mechanical testing of nano- and bio-material sensors. They are increasing the requirement of small force and mass below 1 mg among the researchers, industry and bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this paper, the current research status is presented, both from the measurement method and manufacture of microgram weights. The commonly used material for micro-weights is stainless steel and aluminum. Now NIM has developed another kind of microgram weights with titanium alloy. For the reason that it has smaller size than normal material like aluminum, special designed exchange weighing pan was used in measurement, which solved the problems that the weighing hooks cannot carry up and down the wire shape microgram weight. Then this kind of microgram weights was tested in subdivision measurement on an automatic mass comparator. It showed good performance in the experiment, which extends the choice for the industrial and metrological user. The uncertainty evaluation of micro-weight values range from 0.05 mg to 0.5 mg with standard uncertainty between 0.2 g and 0.1 μg.

  19. Effects of weight regain following intentional weight loss on glucoregulatory function in overweight and obese adults with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Caroline S; Katula, Jeffery A; Goff, David C; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-01-01

    To assess the extent to which initial, intentional weight loss-associated improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action are diminished with weight regain. 138 overweight and obese (BMI: 32.4±3.9kg/m(2)), adults (59.0±9.7 years), with pre-diabetes were followed through a 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 18-month weight maintenance period, or usual care control condition. Longitudinal change in weight (baseline, 6, 24 months) was used to classify individuals into weight pattern categories (Loser/Maintainer (LM), n= 50; Loser/Regainer (LR), n=51; and Weight Stable (WS), n=37). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and model adjusted changes, by weight pattern category, were assessed. LMs and LRs lost 8.3±4.7kg (8.7±4.5%) and 9.6±4.7kg (10.2±4.7%) during the first 6 months, respectively. LM continued to lose 1.1±3.4kg over the next 18 months (9.9±6.5% reduction from baseline; pWeight change was directly associated with change in all DM risk factors (all pweight (from baseline to 24 months) achieved in the LR group, 24-month changes in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR did not differ between WS and LR groups. Conversely, LM saw sustained improvements in all measured DM risk factors. Significant weight loss followed by weight loss maintenance is associated with sustained improvements in FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR; conversely, even partial weight regain is associated with regression of initial improvements in these risk factors towards baseline values. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trajectory modeling of gestational weight: A functional principal component analysis approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglu Che

    Full Text Available Suboptimal gestational weight gain (GWG, which is linked to increased risk of adverse outcomes for a pregnant woman and her infant, is prevalent. In the study of a large cohort of Canadian pregnant women, our goals are to estimate the individual weight growth trajectory using sparsely collected bodyweight data, and to identify the factors affecting the weight change during pregnancy, such as prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary intakes and physical activity. The first goal was achieved through functional principal component analysis (FPCA by conditional expectation. For the second goal, we used linear regression with the total weight gain as the response variable. The trajectory modeling through FPCA had a significantly smaller root mean square error (RMSE and improved adaptability than the classic nonlinear mixed-effect models, demonstrating a novel tool that can be used to facilitate real time monitoring and interventions of GWG. Our regression analysis showed that prepregnancy BMI had a high predictive value for the weight changes during pregnancy, which agrees with the published weight gain guideline.

  1. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m2), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m2) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m2) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t50) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  2. Alternative growth functions for predicting body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks: Lomolino equation and extreme value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, A; Murawska, D; Golian, A; Mottaghitalab, M; Gitoee, A; Lopez, S; France, J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, 2 alternative growth functions, the Lomolino and the extreme value function (EVF), are introduced and their ability to predict body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks evaluated. A comparative study was carried out of these equations with standard growth functions: Gompertz, exponential, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten. Goodness of fit of the functions was evaluated using R(2), mean square error, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, whereas bias factor, accuracy factor, Durbin-Watson statistic, and number of runs of sign were the criteria used for analysis of residuals. Results showed that predictive performance of all functions was acceptable, though the Richards and exponential equations failed to converge in a few cases for both male and female ducks. Based on goodness-of-fit statistics, the Richards, Gompertz, and EVF were the best equations whereas the worst fits to the data were obtained with the exponential. Analysis of residuals indicated that, for the different traits investigated, the least biased and the most accurate equations were the Gompertz, EVF, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten, whereas the exponential was the most biased and least accurate. Based on the Durbin-Watson statistic, all models generally behaved well and only the exponential showed evidence of autocorrelation for all 3 traits investigated. Results showed that with all functions, estimated final weights of males were higher than females for the body, carcass, and breast weight profiles. The alternative functions introduced here have desirable advantages including flexibility and a low number of parameters. However, because this is probably the first study to apply these functions to predict growth patterns in poultry or other animals, further analysis of these new models is suggested.

  3. Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B

    2010-04-01

    A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable.

  4. Robust geographically weighted regression with least absolute deviation method in case of poverty in Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, Rawyanil; Andriyana, Yudhie; Jaya, I. G. N. Mindra

    2017-03-01

    Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a development of an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression which is quite effective in estimating spatial non-stationary data. On the GWR models, regression parameters are generated locally, each observation has a unique regression coefficient. Parameter estimation process in GWR uses Weighted Least Squares (WLS). But when there are outliers in the data, the parameter estimation process with WLS produces estimators which are not efficient. Hence, this study uses a robust method called Least Absolute Deviation (LAD), to estimate the parameters of GWR model in the case of poverty in Java Island. This study concludes that GWR model with LAD method has a better performance.

  5. A new method of weight choice in InSAR least squares unwrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weike

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The de-coherence phenomena such as Low-SNR radar signal, shadows and layover caused by topography, etc., causing phase data discontinuity, makes the result of unwrapping phase inaccuracy or even completely wrong. Based on the analysis of influencing factors to weight choice, this thesis develops a new method to choose the weights based on the measure of the confidence in the frequency domain. Experiments show that it could overcome the defect of sub-estimate to the slope of least squares method very well, which has a better rationale, stability and performance.

  6. The effect of different weight functions on calibrating corrosion measurements using KNN technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Yaman; Shafie, A'fza; Mustaffa, Zahiraniza Bt; Idris, Naila Rusma Binti

    2016-11-01

    Pipeline corrosion scan devices have different accuracies which may affect the reliability of corrosion measurements used to investigate the pipeline's integrity assessment. In this paper K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) interpolation technique was used to enhance the accuracy of corrosion measurements collected by two corrosion scan devices. Considering that KNN is a weighted interpolator, the use of the proper weight function will raise the chance of representing the original points correctly. The effect of using various weight functions within (KNN) were tested to determine the most appropriate interpolator for calibrating corrosion metrics. The comparison has relied on the effect of the weight function on the neighbor points, the position of the interpolator, and the error between the original and the enhanced metrics using the interpolation technique. (KNN) interpolation showed the potential to enhance corrosion measurements collected by several scan devices with different accuracies. This enhancement will be used to improve the integrity assessment report that depends on the disturbed corrosion metrics of oil and gas pipelines, to decide whether the pipeline is fit for service or needs certain maintenance.

  7. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  8. Pre- to post-diagnosis weight change and associations with physical functional limitations in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arissa; Weltzien, Erin; Kwan, Marilyn; Castillo, Adrienne; Caan, Bette; Kroenke, Candyce H

    2014-12-01

    We investigated pre- to post-diagnosis weight change and functional limitations in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. A cohort of 1,841 early-stage breast cancer survivors provided information on pre- and post-diagnosis weight and physical function on average 2 years post-diagnosis. The mean number of limitations for each BMI category and each weight change category were compared using the Wilcoxon test. Cross-sectional associations between weight change, from 1 year prior to diagnosis to 2 years post-diagnosis, and functional limitations were determined using logistic regression. Women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) had significantly higher physical limitations compared to women with BMI functional limitations depended on pre-diagnosis BMI and comorbidity status. Among women without comorbidity, large weight loss (≥10% of pre-diagnosis weight) in normal-weight women was associated with higher risk of functional limitations, whereas among overweight/obese women, large weight loss appeared to be associated with a lower risk of limitations. Among women with comorbidity, moderate weight loss in overweight/obese women was associated with a higher risk of a moderate/severe physical limitation. Large weight gain was associated with a higher risk of physical functional limitations, but associations between weight loss and functional limitations may depend on initial BMI and comorbidity status. In this study we found that both weight loss and weight gain among breast cancer survivors were associated with a higher risk of physical functional limitations. Weight maintenance, therefore, may be an important factor in preventing and/or reducing the risk of functional decline in breast cancer survivors.

  9. Method Maximizing the Spread of Influence in Directed Signed Weighted Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Tselykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for maximizing the spread of influence, based on the identification of significant factors of the total energy of a control system. The model of a socio-economic system can be represented in the form of cognitive maps that are directed signed weighted graphs with cause-and-effect relationships and cycles. Identification and selection of target factors and effective control factors of a system is carried out as a solution to the optimal control problem. The influences are determined by the solution to optimization problem of maximizing the objective function, leading to matrix symmetrization. The gear-ratio symmetrization is based on computing the similarity extent of fan-beam structures of the influence spread of vertices v_i and v_j to all other vertices. This approach provides the real computational domain and correctness of solving the optimal control problem. In addition, it does not impose requirements for graphs to be ordering relationships, to have a matrix of special type or to fulfill stability conditions. In this paper, determination of new metrics of vertices, indicating and estimating the extent and the ability to effectively control, are likewise offered. Additionally, we provide experimental results over real cognitive models in support.

  10. A polygon-based locally-weighted-average method for smoothing disease rates of small units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Duell, Eric; Demidenko, Eugene; Onega, Tracy; Wilson, Benjamin; Hoftiezer, David

    2007-09-01

    Disease rates for geographic areas with small populations may be unstable. Therefore, accurate nonparametric methods for smoothing or stabilizing rates are needed. We propose an innovative locally-weighted-average method as an easy tool for disease surveillance. Our approach has several important advantages over existing locally-weighted-average methods. One advantage is that the buffer zone is created based on a polygon rather than centroid. Second, the buffer distance is determined by a user-specified population threshold. Third, a weighting factor that accounts for variability in the rate is used in the smoothing process. We further propose a variance-driven procedure to reduce arbitrariness in selecting the population threshold, and a binary search technique to quickly and precisely find the buffer distance according to the specified population threshold. Lastly, we develop a software tool using ArcObjects (ESRI, Redland, CA) to implement this method. Our method was applied to town-level lung cancer incidence rates for New Hampshire. A comparison with a traditional point-based method indicated that our method produced less under- and over-smoothing. Our method and the software tool are suitable for researchers and public health workers who want to apply geographic information systems to map smoothed disease rates for exploratory purposes.

  11. Global weights of coastal erosion risk factors using AHP method: A case study of Setiu Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Azzah; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab; Abdullah, Lazim; Ahmad, Muhammad Fadhli

    2017-08-01

    Coastal erosion is one of the global problems which also one of the national's environmental major concerns. The coastal erosion can be easily happened if the sea level rises along with the frequent and huge storms. There are various risk factors that can be related with coastal erosion such as tidal range, storm surge, wave height and etc. However, the relative weights for these risk factors are still inconclusive. Thus, this paper aims to determine the relative global weights of risk factors that contribute to coastal erosion using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Three decision makers were invited to provide judgments for pair-wise comparison matrices of the method. The global weights were obtained using the concept of group decision making environment. The result shows that the most influencing risk factor is shoreline evolution with the highest weightage (20.74%) compared to the other factors.

  12. Adolescent Weight Status: Associations With Structural and Functional Dimensions of Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard, Heidi Hjort; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Rasmussen, Mette

    2017-04-01

    To examine the associations between weight status and structural and functional dimensions of social relations among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys. Analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behavior in School-aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual framework for the study of social relations. Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3.27, 1.25-8.56, 3 days/week: 3.32, 1.28-8.61, and 4 days/week: 3.23, 1.17-8.92, respectively vs. 5 days/week). Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with being bullied (2.62, 1.55-4.43). Among boys, overweight/obese weight status was associated with infrequent (1 to 2 days vs. every day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close same-sex and opposite-sex friends, mother/father as confidant, and perceived classmate acceptance. This study shows that overweight/obese adolescents have higher odds of numerous poor social relations than their normal-weight peers both in terms of structural and functional dimensions of social relations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate an online weight management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katherine; Dennison, Laura; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the use of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of the Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR) programme, an e-health intervention designed to support sustainable weight loss. The studies outlined also explore how human support might enhance intervention usage and weight loss. Mixed methods were used to develop and evaluate POWeR. In the development phase, we drew on both quantitative and qualitative findings to plan and gain feedback on the intervention. Next, a feasibility trial, with nested qualitative study, explored what level of human support might lead to the most sustainable weight loss. Finally, a large community-based trial of POWeR, with nested qualitative study, explored whether the addition of brief telephone coaching enhances usage. Findings suggest that POWeR is acceptable and potentially effective. Providing human support enhanced usage in our trials, but was not unproblematic. Interestingly, there were some indications that more basic (brief) human support may produce more sustainable weight loss outcomes than more regular support. Qualitative interviews suggested that more regular support might foster reliance, meaning patients cannot sustain their weight losses when support ends. Qualitative findings in the community trial also suggested explanations for why many people may not take up the opportunity for human support. Integrating findings from both our qualitative and quantitative studies provided far richer insights than would have been gained using only a single method of inquiry. Further research should investigate the optimum delivery of human support needed to maximize sustainable weight loss in online interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is evidence that human support may increase the effectiveness of e-health interventions. It is unclear what level of human support might be optimal or how human support improves effectiveness. Triangulation of

  14. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System Using Entropy Weight Method Based on HOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set of feasible combinations obtained from HOMER. For this purpose, a multi-objective function, which comprises four crucial and representative indices, is formulated by applying the weighted sum method. The entropy weight method is employed as a quantitative methodology for weighting factors calculation to enhance the objectivity of decision-making. Moreover, the optimal design of a stand-alone PV/wind/battery/diesel HES in Yongxing Island, China, is conducted as a case study to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Both the simulation and optimization results indicate that, the optimization method is able to identify the best trade-off configuration among system reliability, economy, practicability and environmental sustainability. Several useful conclusions are given by analyzing the operation of the best configuration.

  15. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Sevda; Stein, Juergen; Bauer, Boris; Teupe, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m(2) to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) (p < 0.01). Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01). TDI displayed a significantly lower a'-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01). Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure and heart rate and partially normalize diastolic dysfunction.

  16. Weight Gain After VEPTR Surgery May Be From Nutritional Optimization Rather Than Improvement In Pulmonary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Shlykov, Maksim A; Robbins, Christopher B; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S; Burke, Michelle C

    2017-03-23

    Prospective comparative study. To evaluate whether weight percentile (WP) increases after VEPTR insertion, and whether WP correlates with nutrition labs and pulmonary function. Children with thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS) often have "failure to thrive" (WP ≤5). Previous authors have reported an increase in WP after VEPTR surgery. Weight gain was hypothesized to be secondary to improved pulmonary function. The presence of a correlation between WP, and nutrition labs and pulmonary function tests (PFT) after VEPTR insertion has not been studied. Demographic, nutrition, radiographic, and PFT data were collected on 35 VEPTR patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The relationship between WP, and nutrition labs and pulmonary function was analyzed. Preoperative WP was ≤5 (PREOP≤5) in 13 patients (37%) and >5 (PREOP>5) in 22 patients (63%). Although all children gained weight, the PREOP≤5 group was more likely to have an increase in WP (P = 0.014). Sixty-eight percent of the PREOP>5 group had a decrease in WP and 32% of the PREOP>5 patients met the criteria for failure to thrive at final follow-up. Overall, there was no change in the number of children with a WP ≤5 (13 vs 15). Forty-two percent of the children who maintained or increased their WP had a gastrostomy tube, compared to 19% of those who decreased their WP. Seventy-three percent of the patients with failure to thrive at final follow-up did not have a gastrostomy tube. No significant correlations were found between WP and nutrition labs, radiographic measures, or PFTs. We did not find an overall change in WP after VEPTR insertion. We did not find any correlation between WP and nutrition labs or pulmonary function. Weight gain after VEPTR surgery may be secondary to nutritional optimization in high-risk patients. Children who do not have failure to thrive at presentation also require attention. 2.

  17. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  18. Galerkin and weighted Galerkin methods for a forward-backward heat equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.

    1997-01-01

    Galerkin and weighted Galerkin methods are proposed for the numerical solution of parabolic partial differential equations where the diffusion coefficient takes different signs. The approach is based on a simultaneous discretization of space and time variables by using continuous finite element

  19. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a structured...

  20. Effects of preservation method on length and weight of pond raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to investigate the effects of two preservatives, 70% alcohol and 10% formalin and freezing method on the length and weight of preserved specimens of tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) and African mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio). The results showed different effects. Formalin showed the least effect. However ...

  1. Density and dry weight of pigweed by various weed control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates effects of various weeds control methods and nitrogen fertilizer resources on density and dry weight of pigweed and the performance of corn forage as factorial in full random block design with 3 repetitions in research farm of Ferdowsi Mashhad University in 2014. The test treatments include weed ...

  2. Weight Loss with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Melissa; Xie, Mikey; Durmush, Ertugrul; Leung, Dominic Y; Wong, Vincent W

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an increasingly prevalent health issue, with no specific management options. We examined the impact of weight loss with sleeve gastrectomy on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Eight obese patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing sleeve gastrectomy had left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function assessed by global longitudinal strain (GLS) and septal early diastolic velocity (e') using echocardiography, before and 9 months after surgery. Following surgery, mean weight loss was 28.0 ± 16 kg; body mass index (BMI) decreased from 44 ± 9 to 35 ± 6 kg/m(2) (p weight lost (ρ = 0.81, p = 0.015). LV septal e' velocities increased, and LV filling pressures decreased after surgery. Weight loss with sleeve gastrectomy in obese patients with type 2 diabetes is effective in improving glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes and results in significant improvement in both systolic and diastolic myocardial function.

  3. [Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio G; Pessolano, Fernando A; Suárez, Adrián A; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC) was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga), esophageal pressure (Pes), thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max). Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi) were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP), abdominal pattern (AP) and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1) The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2) Only with 6 kg (NP and AP) the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001), 3) the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects). Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  4. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  5. Weighting analysis of pellet quality attributes using Multi Response Signal to Noise (MRSN) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhan, A.; Widodo, I. D.; Amin, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Quality of pellets, one form of animal feed, is not only measured by the nutritional content but also by its physical form. The physical strength of the pellet is determined from crushing and not easily moldy. Both quality characteristics are measured by reliability (pellet durability index) and resistance (water content percentage). In order to improve the quality of pellet, this study applied Multi Response Signal to Noise (MRSN) method. The weight of product quality attributes used will influence the method in determining the selected alternatives. To accommodate the weighting of dynamic product quality attributes, this study also ran weighting sensitivity analysis of product quality attributes. The results showed that the combination of factor level that produced the optimal pellet is A2, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G2 or combination of production process run with vapor pressure 1.9 bar, temperature conditioner 80 ° C, 3.5mm pellet diameter mold, cooler temperature 30 ° C, time in cooler 2 minutes, roller distance 1.5 cm, mixing time 175 seconds. This optimum combination can increase PDI percentage by 2.132% and decrease difference to target of water content by 0.234%. The optimum factor level combination will change if the weight for % PDI rises to be more than 0.77228 or decreases to be less than 0.00561, or in other words, the optimum combination will not change if the weight for % PDI is in the range 0.00561 - 0.77228.

  6. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  7. Functions of Uni- and Multi-citations: Implications for Weighted Citation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To test basic assumptions underlying frequency-weighted citation analysis: (a Uni-citations correspond to citations that are nonessential to the citing papers; (b The influence of a cited paper on the citing paper increases with the frequency with which it is cited in the citing paper. (2 To explore the degree to which citation location may be used to help identify nonessential citations. Design/methodology/approach: Each of the in-text citations in all research articles published in Issue 1 of the Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST 2016 was manually classified into one of these five categories: Applied, Contrastive, Supportive, Reviewed, and Perfunctory. The distributions of citations at different in-text frequencies and in different locations in the text by these functions were analyzed. Findings: Filtering out nonessential citations before assigning weight is important for frequency-weighted citation analysis. For this purpose, removing citations by location is more effective than re-citation analysis that simply removes uni-citations. Removing all citation occurrences in the Background and Literature Review sections and uni-citations in the Introduction section appears to provide a good balance between filtration and error rates. Research limitations: This case study suffers from the limitation of scalability and generalizability. We took careful measures to reduce the impact of other limitations of the data collection approach used. Relying on the researcher’s judgment to attribute citation functions, this approach is unobtrusive but speculative, and can suffer from a low degree of confidence, thus creating reliability concerns. Practical implications: Weighted citation analysis promises to improve citation analysis for research evaluation, knowledge network analysis, knowledge representation, and information retrieval. The present study showed the importance of filtering out nonessential

  8. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenga, KJ; Sinha, R.; Small, DM

    2012-01-01

    Objective Stress is associated with increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food, and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to impact amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. Design Fourteen overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as t...

  9. Kindergarten classroom functioning of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Taylor; Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly A; Anselmo, Marcia G; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive, behavioral, and learning problems are evident in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, learning progress, and classroom characteristics. EPT/ELBW children require more teacher support and are less able to engage in instructional activities than their NBW classmates. Associations of classroom functioning with developmental history and cognitive and behavioral traits suggest that these factors may be useful in identifying the children most in need of special educational interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Multi-level Fuzzy Evaluation Method for Smart Distribution Network Based on Entropy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Song, Xiaohui; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Smart distribution network is considered as the future trend of distribution network. In order to comprehensive evaluate smart distribution construction level and give guidance to the practice of smart distribution construction, a multi-level fuzzy evaluation method based on entropy weight is proposed. Firstly, focus on both the conventional characteristics of distribution network and new characteristics of smart distribution network such as self-healing and interaction, a multi-level evaluation index system which contains power supply capability, power quality, economy, reliability and interaction is established. Then, a combination weighting method based on Delphi method and entropy weight method is put forward, which take into account not only the importance of the evaluation index in the experts’ subjective view, but also the objective and different information from the index values. Thirdly, a multi-level evaluation method based on fuzzy theory is put forward. Lastly, an example is conducted based on the statistical data of some cites’ distribution network and the evaluation method is proved effective and rational.

  11. Simulation of Foam Divot Weight on External Tank Utilizing Least Squares and Neural Network Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of divot weight in the insulating foam, associated with the external tank of the U.S. space shuttle, has been evaluated using least squares and neural network concepts. The simulation required models based on fundamental considerations that can be used to predict under what conditions voids form, the size of the voids, and subsequent divot ejection mechanisms. The quadratic neural networks were found to be satisfactory for the simulation of foam divot weight in various tests associated with the external tank. Both linear least squares method and the nonlinear neural network predicted identical results.

  12. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Santanasto, Adam J.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Mark A. Newman; Taylor, Christopher A.; Maria Mori Brooks; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Newman, Anne B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL) or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA) program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor stren...

  13. Effects of surgical and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer on sexuality, cognitive functions, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Moggio, Giulia; Peano, Elisa; Sgandurra, Paola; Ponzone, Riccardo; Nappi, Rossella E; Sismondi, Piero

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment negatively affect the important aspects of a woman's life such as sexual health, cognitive functions, body image, and weight. Abrupt estrogen deficiency following chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy plays an important role in worsening of sexuality. To evaluate the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual functioning, cognitive function, and body weight in premenopausal women. Thirty-five women with a premenopausal diagnosis of breast cancer who are candidate to adjuvant treatment completed validated questionnaires on menopausal symptoms, sexuality, partner relationship, depression, body image, and cognitive functions after surgery (T0), then after chemotherapy or at least 6 months of endocrine therapy (T1), and after 1 year (T2). In addition, gynecological and dietological examinations were performed. The following validated questionnaires were used: Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Body Attitude Test, McCoy revised Italian version McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire, Cues for Sexual Desire Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Numeric Matrix Test and Rey auditory-verbal learning test, to measure cognitive functions, a recall 24 H questionnaire to evaluate food intake, Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire and Eating Attitude Test-40, while anthropometric and plicometry data were assessed by a dietitian. Low levels of sexual functioning were registered at baseline; a further decrease in sexual activity, quality of the partnered relationship, desire, and arousability was demonstrated at T1 and T2. We found a significant increase in hot flushes and anxiety. Nonsignificant deterioration of body image was demonstrated. Although women reported losing memory and concentration, "chemobrain" effect was not demonstrated as cognitive tests improved after 6 months, probably because of "learning effect." Women who had undergone chemotherapy gained weight and fat disposition was typically android. Young women

  14. A hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method in landslide susceptibility analysis on the Wuyuan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Ilia, Ioanna; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chong

    2017-08-01

    The present study proposed a hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence model for constructing a landslide susceptibility map in the Wuyuan area, China, where disastrous landslide events have occurred. The model combines the knowledge of experts obtained through a fuzzy logic approach and a hybrid weight of evidence method. The estimated knowledge-based fuzzy membership value of each environmental variable is combined with data-based conditional probabilities to derive fuzzy posterior probabilities and landslide susceptibility. The developed model was compared with a landslide susceptibility map produced using the data-driven weight of evidence method, based on 510 landslide and non-landslide sites. The sites were identified by analyzing airborne imagery, field investigation and previous studies. Landside susceptibility for these sites was analyzed using 10 geo-environmental variables: slope, aspect, lithology, soil, rainfall, plan curvature, the normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to faults. The resultant hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method showed high predictive power, with the area under the success and predictive curves being 0.770 and 0.746, respectively. Additional analyses showed that the developed model could work effectively even with limited data.

  15. Establishing energy requirements for body weight maintenance: validation of an intake-balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Hirezi, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Smith, Steven; Bray, George; Redman, Leanne

    2017-06-26

    Experimentally establishing a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement is an important component of metabolism research. At present, the reference approach for measuring the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from foods required for body weight maintenance in non-confined subjects is the doubly-labeled water (DLW)-total energy expenditure (TEE) method. In the current study, we evaluated an energy-intake weight balance method as an alternative to DLW that is more flexible and practical to apply in some settings. The hypothesis was tested that MEI from foods observed in a group of subjects maintaining a constant energy intake while keeping their weight within ±1 kg over 10 days is non-significantly different from DLW-measured TEE (TEEDLW). Six non-obese subjects evaluated as part of an earlier study completed the inpatient protocol that included a 3-day initial adjustment period. The group body weight coefficient of variation (X ± SD) during the 10-day balance period was 0.38 ± 0.10% and the slope of the regression line for body weight versus protocol day was non-significant at 1.8 g/day (R2, 0.002, p = 0.98). MEI from foods observed during the 10-day balance period (2390 ± 543 kcal/day) was non-significantly different (p = 0.96) from TEE measured by DLW (2373 ± 713 kcal/day); the MEI/TEEDLW ratio was 1.03 ± 0.15 (range 0.87-1.27) and the correlation between MEI from foods and TEEDLW was highly significant (R2, 0.88, p = 0.005). A carefully managed 10-day protocol that includes a constant MEI level from foods with weight stability (±1 kg) will provide a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement similar to that obtained with DLW. This approach opens the possibility of conducting affordable weight balance studies, shorter in duration than those previously reported, that are needed to answer a wide range of questions in clinical nutrition. Trial registration The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  16. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  17. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  18. Structural social support predicts functional social support in an online weight loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kevin O; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Bernstam, Elmer V; Thomas, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    Online weight loss programmes allow members to use social media tools to give and receive social support for weight loss. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of social media tools and the perception of specific types of support. To test the hypothesis that the frequency of using social media tools (structural support) is directly related to perceptions of Encouragement, Information and Shared Experiences support (functional support). Online survey. Members of an online weight loss programme. The outcome was the perception of Encouragement (motivation, congratulations), Information (advice, tips) and Shared Experiences (belonging to a group) social support. The predictor was a social media scale based on the frequency of using forums and blogs within the online weight loss programme (alpha = 0.91). The relationship between predictor and outcomes was evaluated with structural equation modelling (SEM) and logistic regression, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI and duration of website membership. The 187 participants were mostly female (95%) and white (91%), with mean (SD) age 37 (12) years and mean (SD) BMI 31 (8). SEM produced a model in which social media use predicted Encouragement support, but not Information or Shared Experiences support. Participants who used the social media tools at least weekly were almost five times as likely to experience Encouragement support compared to those who used the features less frequently [adjusted OR 4.8 (95% CI 1.8-12.8)]. Using the social media tools of an online weight loss programme at least once per week is strongly associated with receiving Encouragement for weight loss behaviours. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  20. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  1. A novel orthoimage mosaic method using the weighted A* algorithm for UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maoteng; Zhou, Shunping; Xiong, Xiaodong; Zhu, Junfeng

    2017-12-01

    A weighted A* algorithm is proposed to select optimal seam-lines in orthoimage mosaic for UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) imagery. The whole workflow includes four steps: the initial seam-line network is firstly generated by standard Voronoi Diagram algorithm; an edge diagram is then detected based on DSM (Digital Surface Model) data; the vertices (conjunction nodes) of initial network are relocated since some of them are on the high objects (buildings, trees and other artificial structures); and, the initial seam-lines are finally refined using the weighted A* algorithm based on the edge diagram and the relocated vertices. The method was tested with two real UAV datasets. Preliminary results show that the proposed method produces acceptable mosaic images in both the urban and mountainous areas, and is better than the result of the state-of-the-art methods on the datasets.

  2. An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R.

    1999-08-01

    Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet. Vapor pressures of water, methanol, and ethanol are measured over temperature ranges of 4-90 °C. The enthalpy and entropy of vaporization and boiling points, calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, agree well with published values. The vapor pressures of aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol plotted against mole fractions of water give positive deviations from Raoult's law, but concentrations were identified from which molecular weights of the alcohols could be calculated. These molecular weights are not significantly different from published values. Sources of error in the method are analyzed. A procedure for use in secondary schools is outlined.

  3. APPLYINGRANK POSITIONAL WEIGHT METHOD TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OFLINE BALANCING IN A HOME THEATRE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Lidya Maukar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the current situation along the production line of a Home Theatre, a method of line balancing should be implememented. The difference of workload is the cause problem which affects the output produced. This leads to an idle time in the production process resulting in loss of production capacity. This research uses a method of Rank Positional Weight to solve the problem. The aim of this research is to get a proposed line with a higher efficiency than the imbalance workload in the current situation. This research is started with collecting the time study and calculate the standard time. Followed by calculation of efficiencies, construction of yamazumi’s chart and precedence diagram, application of Rank Positional Weight Method, and last is calculation of efficiency of the proposed line.

  4. Identification of influential spreaders in online social networks using interaction weighted K-core decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-garadi, Mohammed Ali; Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have become a vital part of everyday living. OSNs provide researchers and scientists with unique prospects to comprehend individuals on a scale and to analyze human behavioral patterns. Influential spreaders identification is an important subject in understanding the dynamics of information diffusion in OSNs. Targeting these influential spreaders is significant in planning the techniques for accelerating the propagation of information that is useful for various applications, such as viral marketing applications or blocking the diffusion of annoying information (spreading of viruses, rumors, online negative behaviors, and cyberbullying). Existing K-core decomposition methods consider links equally when calculating the influential spreaders for unweighted networks. Alternatively, the proposed link weights are based only on the degree of nodes. Thus, if a node is linked to high-degree nodes, then this node will receive high weight and is treated as an important node. Conversely, the degree of nodes in OSN context does not always provide accurate influence of users. In the present study, we improve the K-core method for OSNs by proposing a novel link-weighting method based on the interaction among users. The proposed method is based on the observation that the interaction of users is a significant factor in quantifying the spreading capability of user in OSNs. The tracking of diffusion links in the real spreading dynamics of information verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method for identifying influential spreaders in OSNs as compared with degree centrality, PageRank, and original K-core.

  5. Acoustic transmission in non-uniform ducts with mean flow. I - The method of weighted residuals. II - The finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.; Astley, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of acoustic transmission through nonuniform ducts containing a high-speed subsonic flow is studied by means of the method of weighted residuals in the form of a modified Galerkin method and a Galerkin formulation of the finite element method. The method of weighted residuals is shown to employ the basis functions generated from eigenvalue calculations for the case of no flow, and is verified by comparison with exact eigenvalue calculations in the uniform duct case and numerical solutions of the one-dimensional form of the equations in the nonuniform duct case. The finite element scheme based on both the Galerkin method and the residual least squares method and employing eight-noded isoparametric elements is presented and used to investigate multimodal propagation by the coupling of the solution in the duct nonuniform section to modal expansions in uniform sections. Comparison of the results of the two methods reveals them to be in substantial agreement, and predicts the importance of multimodal interactions at high Mach numbers.

  6. About One Approach to Determine the Weights of the State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies methods of determining weight coefficients, also called coefficients of criteria importance in multiobjective optimization (MOO. It is assumed that these coefficients indicate a degree of individual criteria influence on the final selection (final or summary assessment: the more is coefficient, the greater is contribution of its corresponding criterion.Today in the framework of modern information systems to support decision making for various purposes a number of methods for determining relative importance of criteria has been developed. Among those methods we can distinguish a utility method, method of weighted power average; weighted median; method of matching clustered rankings, method of paired comparison of importance, etc.However, it should be noted that different techniques available for calculating weights does not eliminate the main problem of multicriteria optimization namely, the inconsistency of individual criteria. The basis for solving multicriteria problems is a fundamental principle of multi-criteria selection i.e. Edgeworth - Pareto principle.Despite a large number of methods to determine the weights, the task remains relevant not only for reasons of evaluations subjectivity, but also because of the mathematical aspects. Today, recognized is the fact that, for example, such a popular method as linear convolution of private criteria, essentially, represents one of the heuristic approaches and, applying it, you can have got not the best final choice. Carlin lemma reflects the limits of the method application.The aim of this work is to offer one of the methods to calculate the weights applied to the problem of dynamic system optimization, the quality of which is determined by the criterion of a special type, namely integral quadratic quality criterion. The main challenge relates to the method of state space, which in the literature also is called the method of analytical design of optimal controllers.Despite the

  7. The Equivalent Linearization Method with a Weighted Averaging for Analyzing of Nonlinear Vibrating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Anh

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the Equivalent Linearization Method (ELM with a weighted averaging, which is proposed by Anh (Anh, 2015, is applied to analyze some vibrating systems with nonlinearities. The strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillator with third, fifth, and seventh powers of the amplitude, the other strongly nonlinear oscillators and the cubic Duffing with discontinuity are considered. The results obtained via this method are compared with the ones achieved by the Min-Max Approach (MMA, the Modified Lindstedt - Poincare Method (MLPM, the Parameter - Expansion Method (PEM, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The obtained results demonstrate that this method is very convenient for solving nonlinear equations and also can be successfully exerted to a lot of practical engineering and physical problems.

  8. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton SD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen D Anton1,2, Todd M Manini1, Vanessa A Milsom2, Pamela Dubyak2, Matteo Cesari3, Jing Cheng4, Michael J Daniels5, Michael Marsiske2, Marco Pahor1, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh1, Michael G Perri21Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Area di Geriatria, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.Methods: Participants (n = 34 were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5] or (ii educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]. In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i body weight, (ii walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test, (iii the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, and (iv knee extension isokinetic strength.Results: Participants randomized

  9. A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Steven William

    A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the

  10. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. IV. Effects of carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, G Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD, respectively) was measured for sounds of different carrier frequency using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,1046-1057]. Listeners made lateralization judgments following brief trains of filtered impulses (Gabor clicks) presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging from ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials. Individual clicks within each train varied by an additional ±100 μs ITD or ±2 dB ILD to allow TWF calculation by multiple regression. In separate conditions, TWFs were measured for carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Consistent with past studies, TWFs demonstrated high weight on the first click for stimuli with short interclick interval (ICI = 2 ms), but flatter weighting for longer ICI (5-10 ms). Some conditions additionally demonstrated greater weight for clicks near the offset than near the middle of the train. Results support a primary role of the auditory periphery in emphasizing onset and offset cues in rapidly modulated low-frequency sounds. For slower modulations, sensitivity to ongoing high-frequency ILD and low-frequency ITD cues appears subject to recency effects consistent with the effects of leaky temporal integration of binaural information.

  11. The Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) model and method: Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloniatis, Alexander; Ali, Irena; Neville, Timothy; La, Phuong; Macleod, Iain; Zuparic, Mathew; Kohn, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a novel model and associated data collection method to examine how a distributed organisation of military staff who feed a Common Operating Picture (COP) generates Situation Awareness (SA), a critical component in organisational performance. The proposed empirically derived Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) model draws on two scientific models of SA, by Endsley involving perception, comprehension and projection, and by Stanton et al. positing that SA exists across a social and semantic network of people and information objects in activities connected across a set of tasks. The output of SAWN is a representation as a weighted semi-bipartite network of the interaction between people ('human nodes') and information artefacts such as documents and system displays ('product nodes'); link weights represent the Endsley levels of SA that individuals acquire from or provide to information objects and other individuals. The SAWN method is illustrated with aggregated empirical data from a case study of Australian military staff undertaking their work during two very different scenarios, during steady-state operations and in a crisis threat context. A key outcome of analysis of the weighted networks is that we are able to quantify flow of SA through an organisation as staff seek to "value-add" in the conduct of their work. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  13. Successful weight reduction improves left ventricular diastolic function and physical performance in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Sabine; Fischer, Marcus; Strack, Christina; Schmitz, Gerd; Loew, Thomas; Lahmann, Claas; Baessler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). However, little is known about the impact of successful weight reduction (WR) on diastolic function and physical performance.Obese subjects (øBMI 40.2 ± 8.6 kg/m(2)) underwent a 1-year WR program comprising diet and lifestyle components. Echocardiography and exercise capacity (6-minute walk) were performed at baseline and after 1 year. The distribution of weight reduction was split at the sample median and subjects were dichotomized in "successful WR" (% WR ≥ median, corresponding to a weight loss of 8%) and "failed-WR" (% WR obese subjects, 71 had LVDD at baseline. Obese patients with successful WR improved their MetS alterations, including fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adipokines, blood pressure levels, and epicardial fat thickness. The same was not true for obesity with failed WR. Subjects with successful WR demonstrated significant improvement in echocardiographic LVDD parameters (median [interquartile range]): Δe' (2,5 [-1.0, 4.7], P severe obesity, successful long-term WR was associated with improved LV diastolic function and exercise capacity.

  14. A review of the history, development and application of auditory weighting functions in humans and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Yost, William; Burkard, Robert; Finneran, James J; Reichmuth, Colleen; Mulsow, Jason

    2017-03-01

    This document reviews the history, development, and use of auditory weighting functions for noise impact assessment in humans and marine mammals. Advances from the modern era of electroacoustics, psychophysical studies of loudness, and other related hearing studies are reviewed with respect to the development and application of human auditory weighting functions, particularly A-weighting. The use of auditory weighting functions to assess the effects of environmental noise on humans-such as hearing damage-risk criteria-are presented, as well as lower-level effects such as annoyance and masking. The article also reviews marine mammal auditory weighting functions, the development of which has been fundamentally directed by the objective of predicting and preventing noise-induced hearing loss. Compared to the development of human auditory weighting functions, the development of marine mammal auditory weighting functions have faced additional challenges, including a large number of species that must be considered, a lack of audiometric information on most species, and small sample sizes for nearly all species for which auditory data are available. The review concludes with research recommendations to address data gaps and assumptions underlying marine mammal auditory weighting function design and application.

  15. Analysis of Nested Case-Control Study Designs: Revisiting the Inverse Probability Weighting Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryung S

    2013-11-01

    In nested case-control studies, the most common way to make inference under a proportional hazards model is the conditional logistic approach of Thomas (1977). Inclusion probability methods are more efficient than the conditional logistic approach of Thomas; however, the epidemiology research community has not accepted the methods as a replacement of the Thomas' method. This paper promotes the inverse probability weighting method originally proposed by Samuelsen (1997) in combination with an approximate jackknife standard error that can be easily computed using existing software. Simulation studies demonstrate that this approach yields valid type 1 errors and greater powers than the conditional logistic approach in nested case-control designs across various sample sizes and magnitudes of the hazard ratios. A generalization of the method is also made to incorporate additional matching and the stratified Cox model. The proposed method is illustrated with data from a cohort of children with Wilm's tumor to study the association between histological signatures and relapses.

  16. Implementation of ranked positional weight method (RPWM) for double-sided assembly line balancing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzas, M. F. M. A.; Bareduan, S. A.; Zakaria, M. Z.; Ghazali, S.; Zairi, S.

    2017-09-01

    Line balancing is about arranging a production line so that there is an even flow of production from one work station to the next. There is an urge to achieve high productivity, improve the level of efficiency and reducing expenditure cost in a manufacturing process. The aim of this study to minimize the number work station for assembly line balancing. It is also to solve the assembly line balancing problem by using Ranked Positional Weight Heuristic Method. This study is focused of double sided type assembly line balancing by using Ranked Positional Weight Heuristic Method and focused to automotive industry. Based on this study, the result shows the efficiency increases from 86% to 92%. Besides that, the result shows the number of workstations also can be minimizing from 17 workstations to 16 workstations.

  17. Executive function and weight status in children: A one-year longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2017-02-01

    There is considerable evidence for an association between obesity and impaired executive function (EF) in adolescents and adults. However, little research has examined EF in overweight or obese children. Furthermore, data on EF in underweight individuals is lacking. In addition, there is no consensus on the directionality of the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EF, and longitudinal studies are rare. Thus, the present study examined whether children differ in their performance on a battery of EF tasks depending on their weight status (underweight, normal-weight, overweight), and investigated the longitudinal cross-lagged associations between EF and BMI. Hot EF (delay of gratification, affective decision-making), cool EF (attention shifting, inhibition, working memory [WM] updating), and BMI were assessed in 1,657 German elementary-school children at two time points, approximately one year apart. Overweight children exhibited slightly poorer attention shifting, WM updating, and affective decision-making abilities as compared to normal-weight children. Unexpectedly, they did not show any deficits in inhibition or delay of gratification. EF levels of underweight children did not differ significantly from those of normal-weight children. Furthermore, poor attention shifting and enhanced affective decision-making predicted a slightly higher BMI one year later, and a higher BMI also predicted poorer attention shifting and WM updating one year later. The latter association between BMI and subsequent EF scores, however, diminished when controlling for socioeconomic status. Results indicate that hot and cool EF plays a role in the weight development of children, and might be a promising factor to address in preventive interventions.

  18. Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geeta; Noohu, Majumi Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Cryotherapy, in the form of ice massge is used to reduce inflammation after acute musculoskeletal injury or trauma. The potential negative effects of ice massage on proprioception are unknown, despite equivocal evidence supporting its effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of cooling on weight discrimination ability and hence the performance in footballers. The study was of same subject experimental design (pretest-posttest design). Thirty male collegiate football players, whose mean age was 21.07 years, participated in the study. The participants were assessed for two functional performance tests, single leg hop test and crossed over hop test and weight discrimination ability before and after ice massage for 5 minutes on hamstrings muscle tendon. Pre cooling scores of Single Leg Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 166.65 (± 10.16) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 167.25 (± 11.77) cm. Pre cooling scores of Crossed Over Hop Test of the dominant leg in the subjects was 174.14 (± 8.60) cm and post cooling scores of the dominant leg was 174.45 (± 9.28) cm. Pre cooling scores of Weight Discrimination Differential Threshold of the dominant leg in the subjects was 1.625 ± 1.179 kg compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg 1.85 (± 1.91) kg. Pre cooling scores of single leg hop and crossed over hop test of the dominant leg in the subjects compared with post cooling scores of the dominant leg showed no significant differences and it was also noted that the weight discrimination ability (weight discrimination differential threshold) didn't show any significant difference. All the values are reported as mean ± SD. This study provides additional evidence that proprioceptive acuity in the hamstring muscles (biceps femoris) remains largely unaffected after ice application to the hamstrings tendon (biceps femoris).

  19. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method

    OpenAIRE

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and methods: Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questi...

  20. Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.

    2006-12-18

    We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)

  1. Effects of moderate and subsequent progressive weight loss on metabolic function and adipose tissue biology in humans with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; YOSHINO, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; HE, SONGBING; Okunade, Adewole L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Although 5%?10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1?0.9% (n=19), 10.8?1.3% (n=9) and 16.4?2.1% (n=9) weight loss, and weight maintenance (n=14) on metabolic outcomes. Five percent weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and ?-cell function, without a concomitant change in sys...

  2. Improved grey world color correction method based on weighted gain coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bin; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Luo, Xiaoyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2014-10-01

    Grey world algorithm is a simple but widely used global white balance method for color cast images. However, this algorithm only assumes that the mean values of the R, G, and B components tend to be equal, which may lead to false alarms in some normal images with large areas of single color background, for example, images in ocean background. Another defect is that grey world algorithm may cause luminance variations in the channels having no cast. We note that though different in mean values, standard deviations of the three channels are supposed to converge in color cast images, which is not suitable for those false alarms. Based on this discrepancy, through a mathematical manipulation both on mean values and standard deviations of the three channels, a novel color correction model is proposed by weighting the gain coefficients in grey world model. All the three weighted gain coefficients in the proposed model tend to be 1 on images containing large single color regions so as to avoid false alarms. For the color cast images, the channel existing color cast is given a weighted gain coefficient much less than 1 to correct color cast, while the other two channels are distributed weighted gain coefficients approximately equal to 1 thus to ensure that the proposed model has little negative effects on channels with no color cast. Experiments show that our model presents better performance in color correction.

  3. A new EEG synchronization strength analysis method: S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Pu, Weiting; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Gu, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    Synchronization is an important mechanism for understanding information processing in normal or abnormal brains. In this paper, we propose a new method called normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (NWPMI) for double variable signal synchronization analysis and combine NWPMI with S-estimator measure to generate a new method named S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (SNWPMI) for analyzing multi-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization strength. The performances including the effects of time delay, embedding dimension, coupling coefficients, signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and data length of the NWPMI are evaluated by using Coupled Henon mapping model. The results show that the NWPMI is superior in describing the synchronization compared with the normalized permutation mutual information (NPMI). Furthermore, the proposed SNWPMI method is applied to analyze scalp EEG data from 26 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 20 age-matched controls with normal cognitive function, who both suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proposed methods NWPMI and SNWPMI are suggested to be an effective index to estimate the synchronization strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF TONE AND HAND FUNCTIONS IN CEREBRAL PALSY: INHIBITIVE WEIGHT BEARING SPLINT AS AN ADJUNCT MODALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Manoharrao; Sujit Kumar; Akshataa Atul

    2014-01-01

    A CP child who manifests spasticity in upper extremity, interferes with hand function and hand development. Weight Bearing promotes the development of mature arm and development of hand skills. The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of the inhibitive weight bearing splint for cerebral palsy patients in management of tone and hand functions. The performance of the splint was observed using EDPA scale, hand tracing and functional activity of ball play on the cer...

  5. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. IV. Effects of carrier frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, G. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD, respectively) was measured for sounds of different carrier frequency using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,1046–1057]. Listeners made lateralization judgments following brief trains of filtered impulses (Gabor clicks) presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging from ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials. In...

  6. Dynamic Establishment of Weight of Enterprise’s Internal Function Based on AHP and QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern enterprise management strives to become effective and pragmatic, usually, KPI is the most essential key indicator for the enterprise examination department. However, because the supporting and bearing roles of KPI for different departments are different, no a rather scientific quantification for the weight between them is available, unbalanced examination weights between indicators and departments usually exists. Here, it is with balanced score card to breakdown enterprise’s key tasks, card the performance indicators supporting enterprise’s key tasks, and utilize AHP and QFD method to dynamically establish a standard for measuring each department’s indicators so as to provide a basis for enterprise’s scientific examination.

  7. Methods of Constructing a Blended Performance Function Suitable for Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two methods for constructing an approximate performance function of a desired parameter using correlated parameters. The methods are useful when real-time measurements of a desired performance function are not available to applications such as extremum-seeking control systems. The first method approximates an a priori measured or estimated desired performance function by combining real-time measurements of readily available correlated parameters. The parameters are combined using a weighting vector determined from a minimum-squares optimization to form a blended performance function. The blended performance function better matches the desired performance function mini- mum than single-measurement performance functions. The second method expands upon the first by replacing the a priori data with near-real-time measurements of the desired performance function. The resulting blended performance function weighting vector is up- dated when measurements of the desired performance function are available. Both methods are applied to data collected during formation- flight-for-drag-reduction flight experiments.

  8. Maternal Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Fetal Markers of Metabolic Function and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Fisher, Mandy; Morriset, Anne-Sophie; Monnier, Patricia; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William; Platt, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures. Further, the association between PFAS exposures and indicators of metabolic function (i.e., leptin and adiponectin) has received limited attention. We examined associations between first-trimester maternal plasma PFAS concentrations and birth weight and cord blood concentrations of leptin and adiponectin using data on 1,705 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada birth cohort study that recruited women between 2008 and 2011. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify associations and calculate credible intervals. Maternal perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight z score, though the null value was included in all credible intervals (log10 β = −0.10, 95% credible interval: −0.34, 0.13). All associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were of small magnitude and centered around the null value. Follow-up in a cohort of children is required to determine how the observed associations manifest in childhood. PMID:28172036

  9. The Relationship between Birth Weight, Birth Height, and Dental Development by Demirjian’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Anbiaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Like other measures of human development, dental development is not in complete accordance to chronological age. Investigations show that dental age can be affected by gender, race, systemic conditions, and some other factors and consequently, be different in people of the same chronological age. A correct estimation of dental age and its development in children is of great importance to design the appropriate dental treatment plan. One of the factors predicted to influence dental development is the physical status of newborn, of which, the most common indices are birth weight and height. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these two factors on the dental development of permanent teeth in children of both genders. Methods: The dental ages of 211 of 4-14 year old healthy children were calculated using their panoramic radiographs according to Demirjian’s method. Birth weight, height, and date were recorded from the vaccination certificate. The dental development rate was obtained by subtracting chronological age from dental age. Pearson correlation tests and regression analysis were conducted in both genders. Results: the correlation between dental development and birth weight and birth height was positive, when separated by gender; this correlation was only significant among females. Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between physical status of newborn and the development of permanent teeth. This should be taken into consideration when designing dental treatment plans for children

  10. The Relationship between Birth Weight, Birth Height, and Dental Development by Demirjian’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakiba Afzalinasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Like other measures of human development, dental development is not in complete accordance to chronological age. Investigations show that dental age can be affected by gender, race, systemic conditions, and some other factors and consequently, be different in people of the same chronological age. A correct estimation of dental age and its development in children is of great importance to design the appropriate dental treatment plan. One of the factors predicted to influence dental development is the physical status of newborn, of which, the most common indices are birth weight and height. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these two factors on the dental development of permanent teeth in children of both genders. Methods: The dental ages of 211 of 4-14 year old healthy children were calculated using their panoramic radiographs according to Demirjian’s method. Birth weight, height, and date were recorded from the vaccination certificate. The dental development rate was obtained by subtracting chronological age from dental age. Pearson correlation tests and regression analysis were conducted in both genders. Results: the correlation between dental development and birth weight and birth height was positive, when separated by gender; this correlation was only significant among females. Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between physical status of newborn and the development of permanent teeth. This should be taken into consideration when designing dental treatment plans for children.

  11. On modified finite difference method to obtain the electron energy distribution functions in Langmuir probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Se-Hun; Yoo, Tae-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-06-01

    A modified central difference method (MCDM) is proposed to obtain the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in single Langmuir probes. Numerical calculation of the EEDF with MCDM is simple and has less noise. This method provides the second derivatives at a given point as the weighted average of second order central difference derivatives calculated at different voltage intervals, weighting each by the square of the interval. In this paper, the EEDFs obtained from MCDM are compared to those calculated via the averaged central difference method. It is found that MCDM effectively suppresses the noises in the EEDF, while the same number of points are used to calculate of the second derivative.

  12. On modified finite difference method to obtain the electron energy distribution functions in Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook, E-mail: joykang@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Se-Hun; Yoo, Tae-Ho [Seoul Science High School, 63, Hyehwa-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-530 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A modified central difference method (MCDM) is proposed to obtain the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in single Langmuir probes. Numerical calculation of the EEDF with MCDM is simple and has less noise. This method provides the second derivatives at a given point as the weighted average of second order central difference derivatives calculated at different voltage intervals, weighting each by the square of the interval. In this paper, the EEDFs obtained from MCDM are compared to those calculated via the averaged central difference method. It is found that MCDM effectively suppresses the noises in the EEDF, while the same number of points are used to calculate of the second derivative.

  13. Solving 3D relativistic hydrodynamical problems with weighted essentially nonoscillatory discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugner, Marcus; Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Weyhausen, Andreas; Brügmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods coupled to weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) algorithms allow high order convergence for smooth problems and for the simulation of discontinuities and shocks. In this work, we investigate WENO-DG algorithms in the context of numerical general relativity, in particular for general relativistic hydrodynamics. We implement the standard WENO method at different orders, a compact (simple) WENO scheme, as well as an alternative subcell evolution algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the different numerical schemes, we study nonrelativistic, special relativistic, and general relativistic test beds. We present the first three-dimensional simulations of general relativistic hydrodynamics, albeit for a fixed spacetime background, within the framework of WENO-DG methods. The most important test bed is a single Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff star in three dimensions, showing that long term stable simulations of single isolated neutron stars can be obtained with WENO-DG methods.

  14. Robust Template Decomposition without Weight Restriction for Cellular Neural Networks Implementing Arbitrary Boolean Functions Using Support Vector Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Lon Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.

  15. Cuckoo search with Lévy flights for weighted Bayesian energy functional optimization in global-support curve data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  16. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  17. Impaired long distance functional connectivity and weighted network architecture in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a disconnection syndrome, which leads to cognitive impairment due to the disruption of functional activity across large networks or systems of interconnected brain regions. We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18) and age-matched healthy volunteers (N = 21). We found that patients had reduced amplitude and regional homogeneity of low-frequency fMRI oscillations, and reduced the strength of functional connectivity, in several regions previously described as components of the default mode network, for example, medial posterior parietal cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In patients with severe AD, functional connectivity was particularly attenuated between regions that were separated by a greater physical distance; and loss of long distance connectivity was associated with less efficient global and nodal network topology. This profile of functional abnormality in severe AD was consistent with the results of a comparable analysis of data on 2 additional groups of patients with mild AD (N = 17) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 18). A greater degree of cognitive impairment, measured by the mini-mental state examination across all patient groups, was correlated with greater attenuation of functional connectivity, particularly over long connection distances, for example, between anterior and posterior components of the default mode network, and greater reduction of global and nodal network efficiency. These results indicate that neurodegenerative disruption of fMRI oscillations and connectivity in AD affects long-distance connections to hub nodes, with the consequent loss of network efficiency. This profile was evident also to a lesser degree in the patients with less severe cognitive impairment, indicating that the potential of resting

  18. Sigmoid-weighted linear units for neural network function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Stefan; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2018-01-11

    In recent years, neural networks have enjoyed a renaissance as function approximators in reinforcement learning. Two decades after Tesauro's TD-Gammon achieved near top-level human performance in backgammon, the deep reinforcement learning algorithm DQN achieved human-level performance in many Atari 2600 games. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we propose two activation functions for neural network function approximation in reinforcement learning: the sigmoid-weighted linear unit (SiLU) and its derivative function (dSiLU). The activation of the SiLU is computed by the sigmoid function multiplied by its input. Second, we suggest that the more traditional approach of using on-policy learning with eligibility traces, instead of experience replay, and softmax action selection can be competitive with DQN, without the need for a separate target network. We validate our proposed approach by, first, achieving new state-of-the-art results in both stochastic SZ-Tetris and Tetris with a small 10 × 10 board, using TD(λ) learning and shallow dSiLU network agents, and, then, by outperforming DQN in the Atari 2600 domain by using a deep Sarsa(λ) agent with SiLU and dSiLU hidden units. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockene Ira S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1 a high fiber diet and 2 the American Heart Association (AHA diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885

  20. Monsplasty after massive weight loss: Assessment of its aesthetic and functional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechevy, L; Gourari, A; Carloni, R; Sauvaget, F; Bertheuil, N; Goga, D

    2016-02-01

    Massive weight loss frequently leads to a ptosis or a pubic bulge. This deformation is a source of functional as well as aesthetic discomfort, and it also has psychological repercussions. We have analyzed the degree of satisfaction reported by 23 female patients having undergone a monsplasty procedure and have also proposed a decisional algorithm designed to facilitate surgical care according to type of pubic deformation. This is a one-year prospective study involving 23 female patients having undergone a monsplasty procedure following massive weight loss. The interventions were all carried out in standardized fashion by the same surgeon according to stage of deformation. Analysis of the patients' degree of aesthetic and functional satisfaction was performed using a questionnaire filled out during preoperative and postoperative consultations, the latter taking place 6 months to one year after the operation. It included a self-esteem assessment based on the Rosenberg scale, appraisal of functional benefits (clothing, sexual activity, daily physical activities, intimate hygiene) and evaluation of the pubis in aesthetic terms. Assessment of impact on self-esteem revealed average improvement of 10.08 points, rising from 25.87 to 35.95. All of the patients, without exception, were satisfied or very satisfied with the impact of monsplasty on the different items under evaluation. stage 3 and stage 4 patients were particularly sensitive to improvement involving personal hygiene, physical activities and the clothes they wore. In most cases, they likewise reported a positive impact on their sexual experience. Abdominoplasty or body lift without monsplasty can entail long-lasting aesthetic and functional discomfort. Thorough preoperative semiological analysis is essential to optimized surgical care conducive to successful integration of the monsplasty. An appropriate caretaking attitude enhances both the aesthetic result and patient self-esteem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  1. Service evaluation of weight outcomes as a function of initial BMI in 34,271 adults referred to a primary care/commercial weight management partnership scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not clear if behaviour change programmes are more or less effective for weight management in people with high BMIs than for those who are moderately overweight. An earlier service evaluation reported on the rate and extent of weight loss in a primary care/commercial weight management organisation partnership scheme, in 34,271 patients were referred by their health care professionals to a UK commercial weight management organisation, Slimming World for 12 weekly sessions. This project updated that service evaluation by examining weight loss outcomes as a function of initial BMI in the same 34,271 patients. Findings Patients referred to the scheme (n = 34,271) were categorised by BMI groups <30 kg/m2, 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2. Mean weight losses after 12 weekly sessions were 2.9, 3.6, 4.1, and 4.8 kg for each BMI category respectively. Regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, relative to the <30 kg/m2 group, absolute weight losses were 0.8, 1.4 and 2.4 kg more for the 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2 groups, respectively (all p<0.001). Percent weight loss was similar in each BMI category: 3.7%, 4.0%, 4.0% and 3.9%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions This service evaluation demonstrates that 12 week referral to a commercial organisation is as effective for people with high BMIs as for those who are moderately overweight. PMID:23618381

  2. Basic methods of linear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pryce, John D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to the themes of mathematical analysis, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Topics include operators, function spaces, Hilbert spaces, and elementary Fourier analysis. Numerous exercises and worked examples.1973 edition.

  3. Functional Element Test Tool and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-03

    functional element 6 involved in the run test case step 8 6 of a test. SAFE test tool 7 10 preferably operates in several selectable modes of...options 9 (e.g., data initiation buttons) are displayed as dictated by 10 each test case. The run test case step 86 is then performed 11 under...19 object functional element being tested during run test case step 20 8 6 would be maintained via SAFE test tool 10 for later 21 comparison or

  4. Modern Methods for Weight Control: The Physiology and Psychology of Dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Kelly D.; Steen, Suzanne Nelson

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses the physiological and psychological factors that influence the regulation of body weight and reviews several approaches to weight loss. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary program for weight control is proposed. (Author/MT)

  5. SIMPLE METHOD OF SIZE-SPECIFIC DOSE ESTIMATES CALCULATION FROM PATIENT WEIGHT ON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchijima, Akiko; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Takahito; Tsushima, Yoshito; Ogura, Akio

    2017-07-28

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new and simple methodology for calculating mean size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) over the entire scan range (mSSDE) from weight and volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). We retrospectively analyzed data from a dose index registry. Scan areas were divided into two regions: chest and abdomen-pelvis. The original mSSDE was calculated by a commercially available software. The conversion formulas for mSSDE were estimated from weight and CTDIvol (SSDEweight) in each region. SSDEweight were compared with the original mSSDE using Bland-Altman analysis. Root mean square differences were 1.4 mGy for chest and 1.5 mGy for abdomen-pelvis. Our method using formulae can calculate SSDEweight using weight and CTDIvol without a dedicated software, and can be used to calculate DRL to optimize CT exposure doses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. FOREST COVER ANALYSIS THROUGH THE WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD IN THE CAMPANHA OCIDENTAL REGION - RS (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Araújo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The uncontrolled expansion of human activities may lead to a reduction in vegetation cover, an increase in erosion processes and soil sealing. The aim of this study is to examine forest cover using the Weights of evidence method based on land use maps between the years of 1996 and 2011 in the micro-region of the Campanha Ocidental located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The spatial database was constructed in SPRING software (version 5.2.1 based on LANDSAT 5 images, which were georeferenced and classified. Geophysical and socioeconomic variables were included in the database for further analysis in Dinamica EGO software (version 2.2.8. In order to parameterize the probabilistic model for the analysis of the dynamics of forest cover change, we calculated the percentage of class change through transition matrices; calculated the intervals for discretization of continuous variables; calculated the weights of evidence (W+; analyzed the correlation between the weights of the input variables for all transitions; simulated future scenarios and; validated the simulated final map based on the historical map. This model was adequate for understanding the variables that most contribute to forest cover change in the region. The results showed that the emergence of new forest areas was influenced by hypsometry, distance to sandy lands and per capita income, while deforestation by rural population and distance to the sandy lands.

  7. RGD-functionalized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Yan, Yu; Li, Jingchao; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Mignani, Serge; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration range, and display targeting specificity to glioma cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in vitro. With the relatively high r1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.4 mM-1 s-1), the Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles can be used as an efficient nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted positive MR imaging of glioma cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active RGD-mediated targeting pathway. The developed RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 NPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of different αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells or biological systems.We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration

  8. Influence of distinct asthma phenotypes on lung function following weight loss in the obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David G; Irvin, Charles G; Kaminsky, David A; Forgione, Patrick M; Bates, Jason H T; Dixon, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    There appears to be two distinct clinical phenotypes of obese patients with asthma-those with early-onset asthma and high serum IgE (TH2-high), and those with late-onset asthma and low serum IgE (TH2-low). The aim of the present study was to determine in the two phenotypes of obese asthma the effect of weight loss on small airway function. TH2-low (n = 8) and TH2-high (n = 5) obese asthmatics underwent methacholine challenge before and 12 months following bariatric surgery. Dose-response slopes as measures of sensitivity to airway closure and narrowing were measured as maximum % fall forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/FVC, respectively, divided by dose. Resting airway mechanics were measured by forced oscillation technique. Weight loss reduced sensitivity to airway closure in TH 2-low but not TH2-high obese asthmatics (pre-post mean change ± 95% confidence interval: 1.8 ± 0.8 doubling doses vs -0.3 ± 1.7 doubling doses, P = 0.04). However, there was no effect of weight loss on the sensitivity to airway narrowing in either group (P = 0.8, TH2-low: 0.8 ± 1.0 doubling doses, TH2-high: -1.1 ± 2.5 doubling doses). In contrast, respiratory resistance (20 Hz) improved in TH2-high but not in TH2-low obese asthmatics (pre-post change median interquartile range: 1.5 (1.3-2.8) cmH₂O/L/s vs 0.6 (-1.8-0.8) cmH₂O/L/s, P = 0.03). TH2-low obese asthmatics appear to be characterized by increased small airway responsiveness and abnormalities in resting airway function that may persist following weight loss. However, this was not the case for TH2-high obese asthmatics, highlighting the complex interplay between IgE status and asthma pathophysiology in obesity. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Fuzzy Simple Additive Weighting Method in the Decision Making of Human Resource Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Prasetiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Company is one of the jobs that was founded to reduce unemployment. The progress of a company is determined by the human resources that exist within the company. So, the selection of workers will join the company need to be selected first. The hardest thing in making a selection factor is the effort to eliminate the subjectivity of the personnel manager so that every choice made is objective based on the criteria expected by the company. To help determine who is accepted as an employee in the company, we need a method that can provide a valid decision. Therefore, we use Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Simple Additive Weighting method (SAW to decide to make in human resource recruitment. This method was chosen because it can provide the best alternative from several alternatives. In this case, the alternative is that the applicants or candidates. This research was conducted by finding the weight values for each attribute. Then do the ranking process that determines the optimal alternative to the best applicants who qualify as employees of the company. Based on calculations by the SAW obtained the two highest ranking results are A5 (alternative 5 and A1 (alternative 1, to obtain two candidates received.

  10. Weight Lifting and Physical Function Among Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Justin C; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    .... We conducted a post hoc analysis to explore the potential efficacy of slowly progressive weight lifting to reduce the incidence of physical function deterioration among survivors of breast cancer...

  11. Weighted bootstrapping: a correction method for assessing the robustness of phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenkov Vladimir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-parametric bootstrapping is a widely-used statistical procedure for assessing confidence of model parameters based on the empirical distribution of the observed data 1 and, as such, it has become a common method for assessing tree confidence in phylogenetics 2. Traditional non-parametric bootstrapping does not weigh each tree inferred from resampled (i.e., pseudo-replicated sequences. Hence, the quality of these trees is not taken into account when computing bootstrap scores associated with the clades of the original phylogeny. As a consequence, traditionally, the trees with different bootstrap support or those providing a different fit to the corresponding pseudo-replicated sequences (the fit quality can be expressed through the LS, ML or parsimony score contribute in the same way to the computation of the bootstrap support of the original phylogeny. Results In this article, we discuss the idea of applying weighted bootstrapping to phylogenetic reconstruction by weighting each phylogeny inferred from resampled sequences. Tree weights can be based either on the least-squares (LS tree estimate or on the average secondary bootstrap score (SBS associated with each resampled tree. Secondary bootstrapping consists of the estimation of bootstrap scores of the trees inferred from resampled data. The LS and SBS-based bootstrapping procedures were designed to take into account the quality of each "pseudo-replicated" phylogeny in the final tree estimation. A simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performances of the five weighting strategies which are as follows: LS and SBS-based bootstrapping, LS and SBS-based bootstrapping with data normalization and the traditional unweighted bootstrapping. Conclusions The simulations conducted with two real data sets and the five weighting strategies suggest that the SBS-based bootstrapping with the data normalization usually exhibits larger bootstrap scores and a higher robustness

  12. Application of Entropy Method in River Health Evaluation Based on Aquatic Ecological Function Regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-ting; Liu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xu-nuo; Wang, Jun-qiang; Guo, Liang

    2017-05-01

    With the implementation of water environment management in key basins in China, the monitoring and evaluation system of basins are in urgent need of innovation and upgrading. In view of the heavy workload of existing evaluation methods and the cumbersome calculation of multi-factor weighting method, the idea of using entroy method to assess river health based on aquatic ecological function regionalization was put forward. According to the monitoring data of songhua river in the year of 2011-2015, the entropy weight method was used to calculate the weight of 9 evaluation factors of 29 monitoring sections, and the river health assessment was carried out. In the study area, the river health status of the biodiversity conservation function area (4.111 point) was good, the water conservation function area (3.371 point), the habitat maintenance functional area (3.262 point), the agricultural production maintenance functional area (3.695 point) and the urban supporting functional area (3.399 point) was light pollution.

  13. Parameter Selection Method for Support Vector Regression Based on Adaptive Fusion of the Mixed Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression algorithm is widely used in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. A new model parameter selection method for support vector regression based on adaptive fusion of the mixed kernel function is proposed in this paper. We choose the mixed kernel function as the kernel function of support vector regression. The mixed kernel function of the fusion coefficients, kernel function parameters, and regression parameters are combined together as the parameters of the state vector. Thus, the model selection problem is transformed into a nonlinear system state estimation problem. We use a 5th-degree cubature Kalman filter to estimate the parameters. In this way, we realize the adaptive selection of mixed kernel function weighted coefficients and the kernel parameters, the regression parameters. Compared with a single kernel function, unscented Kalman filter (UKF support vector regression algorithms, and genetic algorithms, the decision regression function obtained by the proposed method has better generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy.

  14. U.S. residential consumer product information: Validation of methods for post-stratification weighting of Amazon Mechanical Turk surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    We present two post-stratification weighting methods to validate survey data collected using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Two surveys focused on appliance and consumer electronics devices were administered in the spring and summer of 2012 to each of approximately 3,000 U.S. households. Specifically, the surveys asked questions about residential refrigeration products, televisions (TVs) and set-top boxes (STBs). Filtered data were assigned weights using each of two weighting methods, termed “sequential” and “simultaneous,” by examining up to eight demographic variables (income, education, gender, race, Hispanic origin, number of occupants, ages of occupants, and geographic region) in comparison to reference U.S. demographic data from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Five key questions from the surveys (number of refrigerators, number of freezers, number of TVs, number of STBs and primary service provider) were evaluated with a set of statistical tests to determine whether either method improved the agreement of AMT with reference data, and if so, which method was better. The statistical tests used were: differences in proportions, distributions of proportions (using Pearson’s chi-squared test), and differences in average numbers of devices as functions of all demographic variables. The results indicated that both methods generally improved the agreement between AMT and reference data, sometimes greatly, but that the simultaneous method was usually superior to the sequential method. Some differences in sample populations were found between the AMT and reference data. Differences in the proportion of STBs reflected large changes in the STB market since the time our reference data was acquired in 2009. Differences in the proportions of some primary service providers suggested real sample bias, with the possible explanation that AMT user are more likely to subscribe to providers who also provide home internet service. Differences in

  15. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  16. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  17. Comparative study of some robust statistical methods: weighted, parametric, and nonparametric linear regression of HPLC convoluted peak responses using internal standard method in drug bioavailability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2013-05-01

    This manuscript discusses the application and the comparison between three statistical regression methods for handling data: parametric, nonparametric, and weighted regression (WR). These data were obtained from different chemometric methods applied to the high-performance liquid chromatography response data using the internal standard method. This was performed on a model drug Acyclovir which was analyzed in human plasma with the use of ganciclovir as internal standard. In vivo study was also performed. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response ratio data was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x i polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). This work studies and also compares the application of WR method and Theil's method, a nonparametric regression (NPR) method with the least squares parametric regression (LSPR) method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. When the assumption of homoscedasticity is not met for analytical data, a simple and effective way to counteract the great influence of the high concentrations on the fitted regression line is to use WR method. WR was found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that the y-direction error in the calibration curve will increase as x increases. Theil's NPR method was also found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and that might not be normally distributed. Most of the results showed a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy on applying WR and NPR methods relative to LSPR.

  18. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Yoshino, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; He, Songbing; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-04-12

    Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and β cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved β cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Iteration of Complex Functions and Newton's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jerry; Barnard, Roger; Cook, David; Corte, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses some common iterations of complex functions. The presentation is such that similar processes can easily be implemented and understood by undergraduate students. The aim is to illustrate some of the beauty of complex dynamics in an informal setting, while providing a couple of results that are not otherwise readily available in…

  20. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. O-hydroxy-functionalized diamines, polymides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua

    2016-01-21

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an ortho (o)-hydroxy-functionalized diamine, a method of making an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine, an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine-based polyimide, a method of making an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine imide, methods of gas separation, and the like.

  2. The influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system: conception, methods, and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy; Falchenko, Iurii; Fedorchuk, Viktor; Petrushynets, Lidiia

    2016-07-01

    This report focuses on the results of the EU project "Superlight-weight thermal protection system for space application (LIGHT-TPS)". The bottom line is an analysis of influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system (TPS). This report focuses on new methods that based on the following models: synergetic, physical, and computational. This report concentrates on four approaches. The first concerns the synergetic approach. The synergetic approach to the solution of problems of self-controlled synthesis of structures and creation of self-organizing technologies is considered in connection with the super-problem of creation of materials with new functional properties. Synergetics methods and mathematical design are considered according to actual problems of material science. The second approach describes how the optimization methods can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties. This technique enables one to find unexpected microstructures with exotic behavior (e.g., negative thermal expansion coefficients). The third approach concerns the dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of TPS l elements with complex characterizations for damages using a physical model of TPS system and a predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. Focusing is given mainly on the TPS model, mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment and software for the modeling and prediction of the influence of the free space environment. The probabilistic risk assessment method for TPS is presented considering some deterministic and stochastic factors. The last approach concerns results of experimental research of the temperature distribution on the surface of the honeycomb sandwich panel size 150 x 150 x 20 mm at the diffusion welding in vacuum are considered. An equipment, which provides alignment of temperature fields in a product for the formation of equal strength of welded joints is

  3. Estimation of relevant variables on high-dimensional biological patterns using iterated weighted kernel functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rojas-Galeano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of complex proteomic and genomic profiles involves the identification of significant markers within a set of hundreds or even thousands of variables that represent a high-dimensional problem space. The occurrence of noise, redundancy or combinatorial interactions in the profile makes the selection of relevant variables harder.Here we propose a method to select variables based on estimated relevance to hidden patterns. Our method combines a weighted-kernel discriminant with an iterative stochastic probability estimation algorithm to discover the relevance distribution over the set of variables. We verified the ability of our method to select predefined relevant variables in synthetic proteome-like data and then assessed its performance on biological high-dimensional problems. Experiments were run on serum proteomic datasets of infectious diseases. The resulting variable subsets achieved classification accuracies of 99% on Human African Trypanosomiasis, 91% on Tuberculosis, and 91% on Malaria serum proteomic profiles with fewer than 20% of variables selected. Our method scaled-up to dimensionalities of much higher orders of magnitude as shown with gene expression microarray datasets in which we obtained classification accuracies close to 90% with fewer than 1% of the total number of variables.Our method consistently found relevant variables attaining high classification accuracies across synthetic and biological datasets. Notably, it yielded very compact subsets compared to the original number of variables, which should simplify downstream biological experimentation.

  4. Prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction networks using novel features and kernel functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Ruan

    Full Text Available Since many proteins express their functional activity by interacting with other proteins and forming protein complexes, it is very useful to identify sets of proteins that form complexes. For that purpose, many prediction methods for protein complexes from protein-protein interactions have been developed such as MCL, MCODE, RNSC, PCP, RRW, and NWE. These methods have dealt with only complexes with size of more than three because the methods often are based on some density of subgraphs. However, heterodimeric protein complexes that consist of two distinct proteins occupy a large part according to several comprehensive databases of known complexes. In this paper, we propose several feature space mappings from protein-protein interaction data, in which each interaction is weighted based on reliability. Furthermore, we make use of prior knowledge on protein domains to develop feature space mappings, domain composition kernel and its combination kernel with our proposed features. We perform ten-fold cross-validation computational experiments. These results suggest that our proposed kernel considerably outperforms the naive Bayes-based method, which is the best existing method for predicting heterodimeric protein complexes.

  5. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  6. Exp-function method for solving Maccari's system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng

    2007-11-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to seek exact solutions of Maccari's system. As a result, single and combined generalized solitonary solutions are obtained, from which some known solutions obtained by extended sine-Gordon equation method and improved hyperbolic function method are recovered as special cases. It is shown that the Exp-function method provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  8. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. RESULTS: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class...... at time of birth had higher mortality rates compared with those whose fathers were high/middle class: hazard ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.67) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.83) respectively. Birth weight and childhood cognitive function were both related to father's social class and inversely associated...

  9. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  10. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M; Barbe, Mary F; de Groat, William C; Brown, Justin M; Tuite, Gerald F; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B; Braverman, Alan S; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application.

  11. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenga, K J; Sinha, R; Small, D M

    2013-02-01

    Stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to affect amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. A total of 14 overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven, autobiographical, guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are affected by stress. In contrast, whereas the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress-related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex(OFC). These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and OFC as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.

  12. Design of short length and C+L-band mismatched optical coupler with waveguide weighted by the Blackman function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ku, Yun-Sheng; Kung, Tsu-Te

    2009-01-01

    A mismatched optical coupler with waveguide weighted by the Blackman function is numerically investigated in the demand of short length, C+L-band, and low crosstalk. Utilizing the full factorial design, the structure parameters of coupling waveguide are obtained by beam propagation method. In the condition of crosstalk of -35 dB, the mismatched optical coupler with proper selected waveguide structure parameters is found to have a coupling length of 3.60 mm in the transmission wavelength ranges of C+L-band (1.53-1.61 μm). Obviously, the selection and design of waveguide structure are very important to satisfy the qualities of a mismatched optical coupler for the demand of short length, broad bandwidth, and low crosstalk.

  13. Combining existing numerical models with data assimilation using weighted least-squares finite element methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Prathish K; Manteuffel, T A; Belohlavek, M; Heys, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    A new approach has been developed for combining and enhancing the results from an existing computational fluid dynamics model with experimental data using the weighted least-squares finite element method (WLSFEM). Development of the approach was motivated by the existence of both limited experimental blood velocity in the left ventricle and inexact numerical models of the same flow. Limitations of the experimental data include measurement noise and having data only along a two-dimensional plane. Most numerical modeling approaches do not provide the flexibility to assimilate noisy experimental data. We previously developed an approach that could assimilate experimental data into the process of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations, but the approach was limited because it required the use of specific finite element methods for solving all model equations and did not support alternative numerical approximation methods. The new approach presented here allows virtually any numerical method to be used for approximately solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and then the WLSFEM is used to combine the experimental data with the numerical solution of the model equations in a final step. The approach dynamically adjusts the influence of the experimental data on the numerical solution so that more accurate data are more closely matched by the final solution and less accurate data are not closely matched. The new approach is demonstrated on different test problems and provides significantly reduced computational costs compared with many previous methods for data assimilation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional outcome. The relationship between functional

  15. Comparison of Weighted Sum Fitness Functions for PSO Optimization of Wideband Medium-gain Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkun Ma.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization has been successfully applied in antenna design. It is well-known that the cost function has to be carefully chosen in accordance with the requirements in order to reach an optimal result. In this paper, two different wideband medium-gain arrays are chosen as benchmark structures to test the performance of four PSO fitness functions that can be considered in such a design. The first one is a planar 3 element, the second one a linear 4 element antenna. A MoM (Method of Moments solver is used in the design. The results clearly show that the fitness functions achieve a similar global best candidate structure. The fitness function based on realized gain however converges slightly faster than the others.

  16. Green's Functions and the Adiabatic Hyperspherical Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rittenhouse, Seth T; Greene, Chris H

    2010-01-01

    We address the few-body problem using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. A general form for the hyperangular Green's function in $d$-dimensions is derived. The resulting Lippmann-Schwinger equation is solved for the case of three-particles with s-wave zero-range interactions. Identical particle symmetry is incorporated in a general and intuitive way. Complete semi-analytic expressions for the nonadiabatic channel couplings are derived. Finally, a model to describe the atom-loss due to three-body recombination for a three-component fermi-gas of $^{6}$Li atoms is presented.

  17. Association between neuroendocrinological parameters and learning and memory functions in adolescent anorexia nervosa before and after weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehren, Katharina; Konrad, Kerstin; Schaefer, Kerstin; Kratzsch, Juergen; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berak; Lente, Christina; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that hormones play an important role in learning and memory functions as well as in mood modulation. During the acute stage of anorexia nervosa (AN), weight loss has a significant effect on serum levels of estrogen, thyroid hormones, and cortisol. Furthermore deficits in learning and memory functions are evident in patients with eating disorders during emaciation. Hormonal and neuropsychological alterations at least partly remit during weight restoration. We investigated the association between learning and memory functions as well as mood and neuroendocrinological parameters before and after weight gain in adolescent AN. Twenty-eight female subjects with AN, diagnosed according to DSM-IV, were examined before and after weight recovery. Both investigations took place while the patients were receiving hospital treatment, and the results were compared to a control group consisting of 18 age- and IQ-matched normal-weight female adolescents also tested twice within 4 months. Verbal memory and learning were assessed by a German paper-pencil-test (LGT). We performed correlation calculations between neuropsychological functions and depressive symptoms and estrogen, cortisol and free triiodothyronine (fT₃) in the plasma at both time points. Compared to normal controls adolescents with AN performed worse in one subtest of the LGT which requires the verbal reproduction of figural material across both time points. Verbal learning was positively correlated with estrogen levels after weight recovery. Depressive symptoms of AN patients significantly decreased during weight rehabilitation and correlated negatively with fT₃ at T₁. We did not find a relationship between cortisol levels and neuropsychological functions. We observed subtle memory impairments and depressive symptoms in subjects with adolescent AN associated with starvation-induced estrogen and triiodothyronine deficits, respectively. Normalization of body weight and resuming

  18. Robust gene selection methods using weighting schemes for microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suyeon; Song, Jongwoo

    2017-09-02

    A common task in microarray data analysis is to identify informative genes that are differentially expressed between two different states. Owing to the high-dimensional nature of microarray data, identification of significant genes has been essential in analyzing the data. However, the performances of many gene selection techniques are highly dependent on the experimental conditions, such as the presence of measurement error or a limited number of sample replicates. We have proposed new filter-based gene selection techniques, by applying a simple modification to significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we considered a series of synthetic datasets with different noise levels and sample sizes along with two real datasets. The following findings were made. First, our proposed methods outperform conventional methods for all simulation set-ups. In particular, our methods are much better when the given data are noisy and sample size is small. They showed relatively robust performance regardless of noise level and sample size, whereas the performance of SAM became significantly worse as the noise level became high or sample size decreased. When sufficient sample replicates were available, SAM and our methods showed similar performance. Finally, our proposed methods are competitive with traditional methods in classification tasks for microarrays. The results of simulation study and real data analysis have demonstrated that our proposed methods are effective for detecting significant genes and classification tasks, especially when the given data are noisy or have few sample replicates. By employing weighting schemes, we can obtain robust and reliable results for microarray data analysis.

  19. Effect of a weight-based prescribing method within an electronic health record on prescribing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Regina; Barr, Wendy B; Harris, Marissa; Munshi, Shibani

    2009-11-15

    The effect of a weight-based prescribing method within the electronic health record (EHR) on the rate of prescribing errors was studied. A report was generated listing all patients who received a prescription by a clinic provider for either infants' or children's acetaminophen or ibuprofen from January 1 to July 28, 2005 (preintervention group) and from July 29 to December 30, 2005 (postintervention group). Patients were included if they were 12 years old or younger, had a prescription ordered for infants' or children's acetaminophen or ibuprofen within the EHR, and had a weight documented in the chart on the visit day. The dosing range for acetaminophen was 10-15 mg/kg every four to six hours as needed, and the regimen for ibuprofen was 5-10 mg/kg every six to eight hours as needed. Dosing errors were defined as overdosage of strength, overdosage of regimen, underdosage of strength, under-dosage of regimen, and incomprehensible dosing directions. Totals of 316 and 224 patient visits were analyzed from the preintervention and postintervention groups, respectively. Significantly more medication errors were found in the preintervention group than in the postintervention group (103 versus 46, p = 0.002). Significantly fewer strength overdosing errors occurred in the postintervention group (8.9% versus 4.0%, p = 0.028). An automated weight-based dosing calculator integrated into an EHR system in the outpatient setting significantly reduced medication prescribing errors for antipyretics prescribed to pediatric patients. This effect appeared to be strongest for reducing overdose errors.

  20. Use of a mobile social networking intervention for weight management: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices (Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help.

  1. Effects of changes in body weight on carbohydrate metabolism, catecholamine excretion, and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J; Murphy, E; Leibel, R L

    2000-06-01

    Weight gain and loss increases and decreases energy expenditure, respectively, out of proportion to changes in metabolic mass. We hypothesized that changes in energy expenditure associated with weight gain or loss were due in part to changes in catecholamine release, thyroid hormones, carbohydrate utilization, or a combination thereof. Urinary catecholamine excretion, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and results of 3-h oral-glucose-tolerance tests were examined in obese and never-obese subjects at their usual weights, during weight loss or gain, and at stable weights 10-20% below or 10% above usual. Urinary norepinephrine excretion decreased significantly during and after weight loss and increased during and after weight gain. Serum concentrations of reverse triiodothyronine increased significantly during and after weight loss, whereas serum concentrations of triiodothyronine increased significantly (by approximately 0%) during and after weight gain. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations during the oral-glucose-tolerance test increased significantly after weight gain in obese subjects. The percentage change in urinary norepinephrine excretion and in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were significantly correlated with percentage changes in energy expenditure and with each other. Changes in body weight were associated with changes in catecholamine excretion and thyroid hormones, which might-by virtue of the effects on energy expenditure-have favored a return to usual body weight. Weight gain induced more apparent insulin resistance in the obese than the never-obese subjects, suggesting a threshold effect of total body fat on this phenomenon.

  2. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  3. Measuring decision weights in recognition experiments with multiple response alternatives: comparing the correlation and multinomial-logistic-regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    Psychophysical "reverse-correlation" methods allow researchers to gain insight into the perceptual representations and decision weighting strategies of individual subjects in perceptual tasks. Although these methods have gained momentum, until recently their development was limited to experiments involving only two response categories. Recently, two approaches for estimating decision weights in m-alternative experiments have been put forward. One approach extends the two-category correlation method to m > 2 alternatives; the second uses multinomial logistic regression (MLR). In this article, the relative merits of the two methods are discussed, and the issues of convergence and statistical efficiency of the methods are evaluated quantitatively using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicate that, for a range of values of the number of trials, the estimated weighting patterns are closer to their asymptotic values for the correlation method than for the MLR method. Moreover, for the MLR method, weight estimates for different stimulus components can exhibit strong correlations, making the analysis and interpretation of measured weighting patterns less straightforward than for the correlation method. These and other advantages of the correlation method, which include computational simplicity and a close relationship to other well-established psychophysical reverse-correlation methods, make it an attractive tool to uncover decision strategies in m-alternative experiments.

  4. Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Shaheen, Seif O; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Hansell, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    Findings from previous studies investigating the relationship between birth weight and adult lung function have been inconsistent, and data on birth weight and adult lung function decline are lacking. Few studies have investigated the relation between early childhood growth and adult lung function. FEV1 and FVC were measured at ages 43 years, 53 years and 60-64 years in the 1946 British birth cohort study. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to study associations with birth weight and weight gain at age 0-2 years. Multilevel models assessed how associations changed with age, with FEV1 and FVC as repeated outcomes. 3276 and 3249 participants were included in FEV1 and FVC analyses, respectively. In women, there was a decreasing association between birth weight and FVC with age. From the multilevel model, for every 1 kg higher birth weight, FVC was higher on average by 66.3 mL (95% CI 0.5 to 132) at 43 years, but significance was lost at 53 years and 60-64 years. Similar associations were seen with FEV1, but linear change (decline) from age 43 years lost statistical significance after full adjustment. In men, associations with birth weight were null in multilevel models. Higher early life weight gain was associated with higher FEV1 at age 43 years in men and women combined but not in each sex. Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Weight Determination of Sustainable Development Indicators Using a Global Sensitivity Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Luan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development (SD evaluations have attracted considerable attention from governments and scientific communities around the world. The objective and quantitative calculation of the importance of sustainable assessment indicators is a key problem in the accurate evaluation of SD. Traditional methods fail to quantify the coupling effects among indicators. This paper presents a weight determination approach based on the global sensitivity analysis algorithm known as the extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (EFAST. This method is efficient and robust and is not only able to quantify the sensitivity of the evaluation indictors to the target, but can also quantitatively describe the uncertainties among the indictors. In this paper, we analyze the sensitivity of 18 indicators in a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model and weigh the indicators in the system according to their importance. To verify the feasibility and advantages of this new method, we compare the evaluation result with the traditional entropy method. The comparison shows that the EFAST algorithm can provide greater detail in an SD evaluation. Additionally, the EFAST algorithm is more specific in terms of quantitative analysis and comprehensive aspects and can more effectively distinguish the importance of indicators.

  6. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly ePursey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests specific food related behaviours contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they: used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n=26, healthy weight compared to obese participants (n=17, and weight loss interventions (n=12. High calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n=36, however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post- weight loss revealed small areas of convergence of activation across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory and learning such as the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus and precuneus.Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight and weight loss populations. Future studies require standardisation of dietetic variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  7. A Case Study on a Combination NDVI Forecasting Model Based on the Entropy Weight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Ming, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei

    2017-05-05

    It is critically meaningful to accurately predict NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which helps guide regional ecological remediation and environmental managements. In this study, a combination forecasting model (CFM) was proposed to improve the performance of NDVI predictions in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) based on three individual forecasting models, i.e., the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models. The entropy weight method was employed to determine the weight coefficient for each individual model depending on its predictive performance. Results showed that: (1) ANN exhibits the highest fitting capability among the four orecasting models in the calibration period, whilst its generalization ability becomes weak in the validation period; MLR has a poor performance in both calibration and validation periods; the predicted results of CFM in the calibration period have the highest stability; (2) CFM generally outperforms all individual models in the validation period, and can improve the reliability and stability of predicted results through combining the strengths while reducing the weaknesses of individual models; (3) the performances of all forecasting models are better in dense vegetation areas than in sparse vegetation areas.

  8. Binary fluid mixture of hard ellipses: Integral equation and weighted density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Khordad, R.

    2007-10-01

    We study a two-dimensional (2D) classical fluid mixture of hard convex shapes. The components of the mixture are two kinds of hard ellipses with different aspect ratios. Two different approaches are used to calculate the direct, pair and total correlation functions of this fluid and results are compared. We first use a formalism based on the weighted density functional theory (WDFT), introduced by Chamoux and Perera [Phys. Rev. E 58 (1998) 1933]. Second, in general the Percus-Yevick (PY) and the hypernetted chain (HNC) integral equations are solved numerically for the 2D fluid mixtures of hard noncircular particles. Explicit results are obtained for the fluid mixtures of hard ellipses and comparisons are made by the two approaches. Also, the results are compared with the recent Monte Carlo simulation for the one-component fluids of hard ellipses. Finally we obtained the equation of state of hard ellipses for the aspect ratio sufficiently close to 1 and compared our results with the simulations of the fluid mixtures of hard disks.

  9. Facile synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted tumor MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Li, Jingchao; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang; Shen, Mingwu

    2015-12-01

    We report the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-enabled synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in vivo. In this work, monodispersed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs were formed by decomposition of acetylacetone manganese via a solvothermal approach. The Mn3O4 NPs with PEI coating were sequentially conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, folic acid (FA)-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG), and PEG monomethyl ether. Followed by final acetylation of the remaining PEI surface amines, multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs were formed and well characterized. We show that the formed multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs with a mean diameter of 8.0 nm possess good water-dispersibility, colloidal stability, and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility in the given concentration range. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopic observation reveal that the multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs are able to target FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the FA-targeted Mn3O4 NPs can be used as a nanoprobe for efficient T1-weighted MR imaging of cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active FA-mediated targeting pathway. With the facile PEI-enabled formation and functionalization, the developed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs may be modified with other biomolecules for different biomedical imaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Normal Weight with Central Obesity, Physical Activity, and Functional Decline: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Zbehlik, Alicia J; Scherer, Emily A; Barre, Laura K; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    To identify the risks of the combination of normal body mass index (BMI) and central obesity (normal weight and central obesity (NWCO)) on physical activity and function. Longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative Study. Community based. Adults aged 60 and older at risk of osteoarthritis (N = 2,210; mean age 68, range 67.1-69.0) were grouped according to BMI (normal 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) , overweight 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2) , obese ≥30.0 kg/m(2) ). High waist circumference (WC) was defined as greater than 88 cm for women and greater than 102 cm for men. Subjects were subcategorized according to WC (five categories). Subjects with normal BMI and a large WC were considered to have NWCO (n = 280, 12.7%). Six-year changes in the Physical Component Summary of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Survey (PCS), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LL-FDI) were examined. The association between BMI and WC over 6 years was assessed (reference normal BMI, normal WC). Stratified analyses were performed according to age (60-69; ≥70). Physical component scores, PASE, and LL-FDI declined with time. Mean PASE scores at 6 years differed between the NWCO group and the group with normal BMI and WC (117.7 vs 141.5), but rate of change from baseline to 6 years was not significantly different (P = .35). In adjusted models, those with NWCO had greater decline in PCS over time, particularly those aged 70 and older than those with normal BMI and WC (time interaction β = -0.37, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.06). Normal weight and central obesity in older adults at risk of osteoarthritis may be a risk factor for declining function and physical activity, particularly in those aged 70 and older, suggesting the value of targeting those with NWCO who would otherwise be labeled as low risk. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  12. Weighting Methods and their Effects on Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model Outcomes in Water Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zardari, Noorul Hassan; Ahmed, Kamal; Shirazi, Sharif Moniruzzaman; Yusop, Zulkifli Bin

    2015-01-01

    .... Four abbreviated keywords (MCDM, MCDA, MCA, MADM) representing multi-criteria decision-making were used and these three databases were searched for different popular weighting methods for a period of 13 years (2000-2012...

  13. Is lower peripheral information weighted differently as a function of step number during step climbing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graci, Valentina; Rabuffetti, Marco; Frigo, Carlo; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    The importance of peripheral visual information during stair climbing and how peripheral visual information is weighted as a function of step number during step climbing is unclear. Previous authors postulated that the knowledge of predictable characteristics of the steps may decrease reliance on foveal vision and transfer the online visual guidance of stair climbing to peripheral vision. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate if and how the occlusion of the lower peripheral visual field influenced stair climbing and if peripheral visual information was weighted differently between steps. Ten young adult male participants ascended a 5-step staircase under 2 visual conditions: full vision (FV) and lower visual occlusion (LO). Kinematic data (100Hz) were collected. The effect of Vision and Step condition on vertical forefoot clearance was examined with a Repeated Measures 2-way ANOVA. Tukey's HSD test was used for post-hoc comparisons. A significant interaction Vision x Step and main effect of Step were found (p<=0.04): vertical forefoot clearance was greater in LO compared to FV condition only on the 1st and the 2nd steps (p<0.013) and on the last step compared to the other steps (p<0.01). These findings suggest that online peripheral visual information is more relevant when negotiating the first two steps, rather than the end of a staircase and that the steps subsequent the first few ones may require different information likely based on proprioception or working memory of the step height. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Method of making a functionally graded material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Robert J.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Walls, Claudia A.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  15. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  16. A decision support system for the promotion of Employee in Plaza Asia Method Using Weighted Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egi Badar Sambani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in a company is important because decisions taken by managers is the result of a final thought to be carried out by employees. Asia is the largest mall Plaza sepriangan east, where the assessment process includes the promotion employee attendance, productivity (work, integrity (nature, skill (ability and loyalty (faithfulness. Method Using Weighted Product (WP can help in decision-making to determine the promotion of employees in the company, as well as the appraisal process more efficient so the store manager can determine employee promotions quickly. By using decision support system that has a database, employee data can be stored in the database. So that in case of errors in inputting can be corrected without having to re-enter the data. With the Decision Support System will address the issues raised in the Plaza Asia, so the promotion process will be faster.

  17. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    ) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1–3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (−500 to −700 kCal/day) and education......, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. Results: At the 12-month followup, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1–10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model...... maintenance. Conclusions: If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate....

  18. From morbid obesity to a healthy weight using cognitive-behavioral methods: a woman's three-year process with one and one-half years of weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a national health problem regularly confronting medical professionals. Although reduced-energy (kilocalorie [kcal]) eating and increased exercise will reliably reduce weight, these behaviors have been highly resistant to sustained change. To control eating using theory-based cognitive-behavioral methods that leverage the positive psychosocial effects of newly initiated exercise as an alternate to typical approaches of education about appropriate nutrition. A woman, age 48 years, with morbid obesity initiated exercise through a 6-month exercise support protocol based on social cognitive and self-efficacy theory (The Coach Approach). This program was followed by periodic individual meetings with a wellness professional intended to transfer behavioral skills learned to adapt to regular exercise, to then control eating. There was consistent recording of exercises completed, foods consumed, various psychosocial and lifestyle factors, and weight. Over the 4.4 years reported, weight decreased from 117.6 kg to 59.0 kg, and body mass index (BMI) decreased from 43.1 kg/m(2) to 21.6 kg/m(2). Mean energy intake initially decreased to 1792 kcal/day and further dropped to 1453 kcal/day by the end of the weight-loss phase. Consistent with theory, use of self-regulatory skills, self-efficacy, and overall mood significantly predicted both increased exercise and decreased energy intake. Morbid obesity was reduced to a healthy weight within 3.1 years, and weight was maintained in the healthy range through the present (1.3 years later). This case supports theory-based propositions that exercise-induced changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood transfer to and reinforce improvements in corresponding psychosocial factors related to controlled eating.

  19. Joint association of physical activity and body weight with subsequent physical and mental functioning: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhom, Vivian; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea

    2013-03-06

    Physical inactivity and overweight are major threats to public health. However, it is not well understood to what extent physical activity might counteract the harmful effects of overweight on functioning. Thus, we examined the joint associations of leisure-time physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with subsequent physical and mental functioning over a follow-up of five to seven years. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study, which is a cohort study among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline postal survey data were collected among 40-60-year-old employees in 2000-02 (n = 8960, response rate 67%), and the follow-up data in 2007 among all baseline survey respondents (n = 7332, response rate 83%). We divided the participants into six groups according to their amount of physical activity (inactive, moderately active and highly active) and their relative weight (normal weight and overweight). Highly active normal-weight participants were used as a reference group in all the analyses. Poor functioning was defined as the lowest quartile of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey's physical and mental component summaries, with the follow-up cut-off point also applied at baseline. We used logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, baseline functioning, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, socioeconomic position and working conditions. At baseline 48% of the participants were overweight and 11% were inactive. After adjustments inactivity was associated with poor physical functioning at follow-up both among the normal-weight (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.10) and overweight (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.56-2.63) groups. Being overweight regardless of activity level was associated with poor physical functioning. Poor physical functioning was practically equally common among the highly active overweight group and the inactive normal-weight group. After adjustments, for mental functioning, only inactivity among the overweight was associated

  20. Co-analysis of brain structure and function using fMRI and diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey S; Greenberg, Adam S; Pyles, John A; Pathak, Sudhir K; Behrmann, Marlene; Schneider, Walter; Tarr, Michael J

    2012-11-08

    The study of complex computational systems is facilitated by network maps, such as circuit diagrams. Such mapping is particularly informative when studying the brain, as the functional role that a brain area fulfills may be largely defined by its connections to other brain areas. In this report, we describe a novel, non-invasive approach for relating brain structure and function using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This approach, a combination of structural imaging of long-range fiber connections and functional imaging data, is illustrated in two distinct cognitive domains, visual attention and face perception. Structural imaging is performed with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fiber tractography, which track the diffusion of water molecules along white-matter fiber tracts in the brain (Figure 1). By visualizing these fiber tracts, we are able to investigate the long-range connective architecture of the brain. The results compare favorably with one of the most widely-used techniques in DWI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI is unable to resolve complex configurations of fiber tracts, limiting its utility for constructing detailed, anatomically-informed models of brain function. In contrast, our analyses reproduce known neuroanatomy with precision and accuracy. This advantage is partly due to data acquisition procedures: while many DTI protocols measure diffusion in a small number of directions (e.g., 6 or 12), we employ a diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI)(1, 2) protocol which assesses diffusion in 257 directions and at a range of magnetic gradient strengths. Moreover, DSI data allow us to use more sophisticated methods for reconstructing acquired data. In two experiments (visual attention and face perception), tractography reveals that co-active areas of the human brain are anatomically connected, supporting extant hypotheses that they form functional networks. DWI allows us to create a "circuit diagram" and reproduce it on an individual-subject basis

  1. Fisher Scoring Method for Parameter Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Purnami; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Nugrahani Putri, Aulia

    2017-06-01

    GWOLR model combines geographically weighted regression (GWR) and (ordinal logistic reression) OLR models. Its parameter estimation employs maximum likelihood estimation. Such parameter estimation, however, yields difficult-to-solve system of nonlinear equations, and therefore numerical approximation approach is required. The iterative approximation approach, in general, uses Newton-Raphson (NR) method. The NR method has a disadvantage—its Hessian matrix is always the second derivatives of each iteration so it does not always produce converging results. With regard to this matter, NR model is modified by substituting its Hessian matrix into Fisher information matrix, which is termed Fisher scoring (FS). The present research seeks to determine GWOLR model parameter estimation using Fisher scoring method and apply the estimation on data of the level of vulnerability to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Semarang. The research concludes that health facilities give the greatest contribution to the probability of the number of DHF sufferers in both villages. Based on the number of the sufferers, IR category of DHF in both villages can be determined.

  2. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  3. Effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in a hip joint simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H A; Shen, F W; Campbell, P; Ota, T

    1999-05-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons must currently choose from several types of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups that differ in their material properties and in the methods used for their sterilization. Information on the wear resistance of these different cups may help in the selection process. This study included two separate tests for wear run on a hip simulator to investigate the effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups. Test 1 revealed nearly identical wear rates for acetabular cups with molecular weights in two distinct ranges, as well as for cups with molecular weights in the same range but with or without calcium stearate added. In Test 2, cups that were sterilized in air with gamma irradiation exhibited lower rates of wear than those sterilized with ethylene oxide, presumably due to the crosslinking induced by the irradiation. In addition, cups that were irradiated while packed in a partial vacuum to minimize oxygen absorbed in the surface layer initially showed lower rates of wear than those irradiated in air, with the wear rates becoming similar as wear penetrated the more oxidized surface layer and the more crosslinked subsurface region. Because these tests were run a few months after the irradiation, the potential effects of long-term oxidation of any residual free radicals in the irradiated materials could not be taken into account. After artificial aging to accelerate oxidative degradation of the materials, the wear rates could be markedly different. Analyses performed after wear indicated that the irradiated (i.e., crosslinked) cups exhibited a smaller proportion of, as well as shorter, fibrils in the wear debris and an increased crystallinity and melting temperature and that gamma irradiation in the low-oxygen environment reduced the level of oxidation and increased the level of crosslinking in the surface region of the cups.

  4. Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-06-14

    Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity

  5. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Fagundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extreme weight conditions (EWC groups along a continuum may share some biological risk factors and intermediate neurocognitive phenotypes. A core cognitive trait in EWC appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Differences between individuals in these areas are likely to contribute to the differences in vulnerability to EWC. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a common pattern of executive dysfunction in EWC while comparing anorexia nervosa patients (AN, obese subjects (OB and healthy eating/weight controls (HC. METHODS: Thirty five AN patients, fifty two OB and one hundred thirty seven HC were compared using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in IGT score (F(1.79; p<.001, with AN and OB groups showing the poorest performance compared to HC. On the WCST, AN and OB made significantly more errors than controls (F(25.73; p<.001, and had significantly fewer correct responses (F(2.71; p<.001. Post hoc analysis revealed that the two clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Finally, OB showed a significant reduced performance in the inhibition response measured with the Stroop test (F(5.11; p<.001 compared with both AN and HC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EWC subjects (namely AN and OB have similar dysfunctional executive profile that may play a role in the development and maintenance of such disorders.

  6. Progressive clustering based method for protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ashish; Hou, Jingyu

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, significant effort has been given to predicting protein functions from protein interaction data generated from high throughput techniques. However, predicting protein functions correctly and reliably still remains a challenge. Recently, many computational methods have been proposed for predicting protein functions. Among these methods, clustering based methods are the most promising. The existing methods, however, mainly focus on protein relationship modeling and the prediction algorithms that statically predict functions from the clusters that are related to the unannotated proteins. In fact, the clustering itself is a dynamic process and the function prediction should take this dynamic feature of clustering into consideration. Unfortunately, this dynamic feature of clustering is ignored in the existing prediction methods. In this paper, we propose an innovative progressive clustering based prediction method to trace the functions of relevant annotated proteins across all clusters that are generated through the progressive clustering of proteins. A set of prediction criteria is proposed to predict functions of unannotated proteins from all relevant clusters and traced functions. The method was evaluated on real protein interaction datasets and the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with representative existing methods.

  7. New deconvolution method for microscopic images based on the continuous Gaussian radial basis function interpolation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxue; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A deconvolution method based on the Gaussian radial basis function (GRBF) interpolation is proposed. Both the original image and Gaussian point spread function are expressed as the same continuous GRBF model, thus image degradation is simplified as convolution of two continuous Gaussian functions, and image deconvolution is converted to calculate the weighted coefficients of two-dimensional control points. Compared with Wiener filter and Lucy-Richardson algorithm, the GRBF method has an obvious advantage in the quality of restored images. In order to overcome such a defect of long-time computing, the method of graphic processing unit multithreading or increasing space interval of control points is adopted, respectively, to speed up the implementation of GRBF method. The experiments show that based on the continuous GRBF model, the image deconvolution can be efficiently implemented by the method, which also has a considerable reference value for the study of three-dimensional microscopic image deconvolution.

  8. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods...

  9. A review and content analysis of engagement, functionality, aesthetics, information quality, and change techniques in the most popular commercial apps for weight management

    OpenAIRE

    Bardus Marco; van Beurden Samantha B; Smith Jane R; Abraham Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are thousands of apps promoting dietary improvement increased physical activity (PA) and weight management. Despite a growing number of reviews in this area popular apps have not been comprehensively analysed in terms of features related to engagement functionality aesthetics information quality and content including the types of change techniques employed. Methods: The databases containing information about all Health and Fitness apps on GP and iTunes (7954 and 25491 apps)...

  10. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese particip...

  11. Complexity Quantification for Overhead Transmission Line Emergency Repair Scheme via a Graph Entropy Method Improved with Petri Net and AHP Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of emergency repair in overhead transmission line accidents, a complexity quantification method for emergency repair scheme is proposed based on the entropy method in software engineering, which is improved by using group AHP (analytical hierarchical process method and Petri net. Firstly, information structure chart model and process control flowchart model could be built by Petri net. Then impact factors on complexity of emergency repair scheme could be quantified into corresponding entropy values, respectively. Finally, by using group AHP method, weight coefficient of each entropy value would be given before calculating the overall entropy value for the whole emergency repair scheme. By comparing group AHP weighting method with average weighting method, experiment results for the former showed a stronger correlation between quantified entropy values of complexity and the actual consumed time in repair, which indicates that this new method is more valid.

  12. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Discrete Volterra equation via Exp-function method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, S-d [College of Mathematics and Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)], E-mail: zhusd1965@sina.com

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we utilize the Exp-function method to construct three families of new generalized solitary solutions for the discrete Volterra equation. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving typical discrete nonlinear evolution equations in physics.

  14. Vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for standardizing Spurling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Jian; Jin, Zhigao; Zheng, Zugen

    2010-12-01

    Although Spurling test, a foraminal compression test, is commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy, its protocol is still obscure. In undergoing this test, patients extend, laterally flex and slightly rotate neck to the symptomatic side, and then a pressure is applied on the top of patient's head by examiner. The test is scored as positive if it causes pain or tingling that starts in the shoulder and radiates distally to the elbow. But the range of neck motion and level of load are not clearly defined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be an excellent method of assessing the situation of cervical intervertebral foramen. Unfortunately the conventional MRI system is not able to fully achieve this goal because it can only examine patient in supine position while Spurling test needs to be performed in a sitting position. Here we hypothesize that vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for researching and standardizing the protocols of Spurling test. The result will provide better knowledge of the mechanism of Spurling test. Standardization of the test will improve its sensitivity and rate of reproducibility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Weighted Least-Squares Finite Element Method for Cardiac Blood Flow Simulation with Echocardiographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As both fluid flow measurement techniques and computer simulation methods continue to improve, there is a growing need for numerical simulation approaches that can assimilate experimental data into the simulation in a flexible and mathematically consistent manner. The problem of interest here is the simulation of blood flow in the left ventricle with the assimilation of experimental data provided by ultrasound imaging of microbubbles in the blood. The weighted least-squares finite element method is used because it allows data to be assimilated in a very flexible manner so that accurate measurements are more closely matched with the numerical solution than less accurate data. This approach is applied to two different test problems: a flexible flap that is displaced by a jet of fluid and blood flow in the porcine left ventricle. By adjusting how closely the simulation matches the experimental data, one can observe potential inaccuracies in the model because the simulation without experimental data differs significantly from the simulation with the data. Additionally, the assimilation of experimental data can help the simulation capture certain small effects that are present in the experiment, but not modeled directly in the simulation.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulation of Normal and Abnormal Glow Discharge Plasmas Using the Limited Weight Probability Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Makoto; Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1998-01-01

    A self-consistent Monte Carlo modelling technique has been developed to study normal and abnormal glow discharge plasmas. To simulate nonequilibrium particles, a limited weight probability method is introduced and a fine subslab system is used. These two methods are applied to a DC Ar-like gas discharge simulation. The simulations are performed for conditions corresponding to the experimental voltage and current sets of normal and abnormal glow disharges. The characteristic spatial profiles of plasmas for normal and abnormal glow discharges with high nonequilibrium electron energy distributions are obtained. The increase in the current and the voltage from the normal glow leads to the following: (1) the density peak of the ions rises in the cathode region, (2) the density peak of electrons rises and catches up with that of ions and the peak position occurs closer to the cathode simultaneously; instead of a small increase of plasma density in the bulk plasma region, (3) reversal field strength next to the cathode fall increases and (4) the two groups of the enregy distribution separates into three groups at the cathode fall edge.

  17. Weighted least-squares finite element method for cardiac blood flow simulation with echocardiographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fei; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M; Belohlavek, Marek; Heys, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    As both fluid flow measurement techniques and computer simulation methods continue to improve, there is a growing need for numerical simulation approaches that can assimilate experimental data into the simulation in a flexible and mathematically consistent manner. The problem of interest here is the simulation of blood flow in the left ventricle with the assimilation of experimental data provided by ultrasound imaging of microbubbles in the blood. The weighted least-squares finite element method is used because it allows data to be assimilated in a very flexible manner so that accurate measurements are more closely matched with the numerical solution than less accurate data. This approach is applied to two different test problems: a flexible flap that is displaced by a jet of fluid and blood flow in the porcine left ventricle. By adjusting how closely the simulation matches the experimental data, one can observe potential inaccuracies in the model because the simulation without experimental data differs significantly from the simulation with the data. Additionally, the assimilation of experimental data can help the simulation capture certain small effects that are present in the experiment, but not modeled directly in the simulation.

  18. Simulating Current-Voltage Relationships for a Narrow Ion Channel Using the Weighted Ensemble Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Joshua L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-04-14

    Ion channels are responsible for a myriad of fundamental biological processes via their role in controlling the flow of ions through water-filled membrane-spanning pores in response to environmental cues. Molecular simulation has played an important role in elucidating the mechanism of ion conduction, but connecting atomistically detailed structural models of the protein to electrophysiological measurements remains a broad challenge due to the computational cost of reaching the necessary time scales. Here, we introduce an enhanced sampling method for simulating the conduction properties of narrow ion channels using the Weighted ensemble (WE) sampling approach. We demonstrate the application of this method to calculate the current–voltage relationship as well as the nonequilibrium ion distribution at steady-state of a simple model ion channel. By direct comparisons with long brute force simulations, we show that the WE simulations rigorously reproduce the correct long-time scale kinetics of the system and are capable of determining these quantities using significantly less aggregate simulation time under conditions where permeation events are rare.

  19. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55-79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P walking speed of participants in the WL+E group significantly increased compared with that of the control group (reduction in time on the 400-meter walk test = 44 seconds; P moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle strength in obese, older adult women with mild to moderate physical impairments.

  20. A novel method of constructing compactly supported orthogonal scaling functions from splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhi Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel construction of compactly supported orthogonal scaling functions and wavelets with spline functions is presented in this paper. Let M n $M_{n}$ be the center B-spline of order n, except for the case of order one, we know M n $M_{n}$ is not orthogonal. But by the formula of orthonormalization procedure, we can construct an orthogonal scaling function corresponding to M n $M_{n}$ . However, unlike M n $M_{n}$ itself, this scaling function no longer has compact support. To induce the orthogonality while keeping the compact support of M n $M_{n}$ , we put forward a simple, yet efficient construction method that uses the formula of orthonormalization procedure and the weighted average method to construct the two-scale symbol of some compactly supported orthogonal scaling functions.

  1. Comparison of methods to study uniformity of traits: Application to birth weight in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Bijma, P; Knol, E F; Mulder, H A

    2015-03-01

    Increasing uniformity of traits is an important objective in livestock production. This study focused on the BWcomparison of a double hierarchical GLM (DHGLM) with the conventional analysis of uniformity, using within-litter variation in birth weight (BW0) in pigs as a case. In pigs, within-litter variation of BW0 is a trait in which uniformity is important in breeding practice. Traditionally, uniformity has been studied by analysis of SD or variances. In DHGLM, differences between animals are studied by analyzing the residual variance of the trait and estimating its variance components. Here we used data on BW0, recorded in 2 sow lines (Large White and Landrace), to compare the estimation of genetic parameters and breeding values for uniformity from DHGLM and traditional analysis of the variance. Comparison of DHGLM with the conventional analysis using the logarithm-transformed variance of BW0 was possible because both methods were on the same scale and the models contained the same random effects. In addition, the genetic CV at the residual SD level (GCV) was proposed as a measure expressing the potential response to selection. Three-fold cross-validation was performed to study predictive ability of both methods. The estimated GCV was highly similar using both methods. Results indicate that the SD of BW0 can be decreased by up to approximately 10% after 1 generation of selection, indicating good prospects for response to selection. The correlation between EBV (0.88 in both sow lines) obtained from both methods indicated high similarity between conventional analysis and DHGLM. Comparison of accuracies of EBV showed that the methods were comparable, with moderate accuracies achieved with approximately 100 piglets per maternal grandsire. Cross-validation also indicated very similar predictive ability in estimating EBV for BW0 variation for both methods. Therefore, it was concluded that conventional analysis and DHGLM produced highly comparable results. Still, the

  2. Comparison of the effects of weight training and hydro-gymnastics practice on the cognitive function of elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Heron Chaves; Tocantins, Bruno Almeida; Moura, Maycom do Nascimento; Carvalho, Jane Maria Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of elderly practitioners of weight training and hydro-gymnastics after a training session. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study with 20 active people between 60 and 75 years old participants of a gym in Teresina. Their memory was evaluated through the Game of Memory, Verbal Fluency and TrailMaking Test A and B before and after the training sessions. The analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The Weight Training grou...

  3. From "weight of evidence" to quantitative data integration using multicriteria decision analysis and Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Massey, Olivia; Keisler, Jeff; Rusyn, Ivan; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    "Weighing" available evidence in the process of decision-making is unavoidable, yet it is one step that routinely raises suspicions: what evidence should be used, how much does it weigh, and whose thumb may be tipping the scales? This commentary aims to evaluate the current state and future roles of various types of evidence for hazard assessment as it applies to environmental health. In its recent evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System assessment process, the National Research Council committee singled out the term "weight of evidence" (WoE) for critique, deeming the process too vague and detractive to the practice of evaluating human health risks of chemicals. Moving the methodology away from qualitative, vague and controversial methods towards generalizable, quantitative and transparent methods for appropriately managing diverse lines of evidence is paramount for both regulatory and public acceptance of the hazard assessments. The choice of terminology notwithstanding, a number of recent Bayesian WoE-based methods, the emergence of multi criteria decision analysis for WoE applications, as well as the general principles behind the foundational concepts of WoE, show promise in how to move forward and regain trust in the data integration step of the assessments. We offer our thoughts on the current state of WoE as a whole and while we acknowledge that many WoE applications have been largely qualitative and subjective in nature, we see this as an opportunity to turn WoE towards a quantitative direction that includes Bayesian and multi criteria decision analysis.

  4. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  5. A New Method for Improving the Discrimination Power and Weights Dispersion in the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kordrostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate choice of input-output weights is necessary to have a successful DEA model. Generally, if the number of DMUs i.e., n, is less than number of inputs and outputs i.e., m+s, then many of DMUs are introduced as efficient then the discrimination between DMUs is not possible. Besides, DEA models are free to choose the best weights. For resolving the problems that are resulted from freedom of weights, some constraints are set on the input-output weights. Symmetric weight constraints are a kind of weight constrains. In this paper, we represent a new model based on a multi-criterion data envelopment analysis (MCDEA are developed to moderate the homogeneity of weights distribution by using symmetric weight constrains.Consequently, we show that the improvement of the dispersal of unrealistic input-output weights and the increasing discrimination power for our suggested models. Finally, as an application of the new model, we use this model to evaluate and ranking guilan selected hospitals.

  6. Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-06-22

    We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R, the modified weight functions have range 3R. Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g(r) up to second order in the density within Percus' test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g(r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r  >  6R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r  =  2R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan-Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus-Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT.

  7. Differences in brain functional connectivity at resting state in neonates born to healthy obese or normal-weight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Andres, A; Shankar, K; Pivik, R T; Glasier, C M; Ramakrishnaiah, R H; Zhang, Y; Badger, T M; Ou, X

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers. Two weeks after delivery, the infants underwent an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination during natural sleep, which included structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans. Independent component analysis was used to identify the prefrontal lobe network, and dual regression was used to compare functional connectivity between groups. Infants born to normal-weight mothers had higher recruiting (Pweight gain and infant postmenstrual age, gender, birth weight/length, head circumference and neonatal diet. The functional connectivity strength in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex negatively correlated (P<0.05) with maternal fat mass percentage measured at early pregnancy. This preliminary study indicates that exposure to maternal obesity in utero may be associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity in the newborn offspring's brain.

  8. Functional Movement Is Negatively Associated with Weight Status and Positively Associated with Physical Activity in British Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have suggested that overweight and obesity in childhood are associated with poorer functional movement performance, no study appears to have examined this issue in a pediatric population. The relations between BMI, ambulatory physical activity and functional movement screen (FMS performance were compared in 58, 10-11-year-old children. Total FMS score was significantly, negatively correlated with BMI (=.0001 and positively related to PA (=.029. Normal weight children scored significantly better for total FMS score compared to children classified as overweight/obese (=.0001. Mean ± S.D. of FMS scores were 15.5±2.2 and 10.6±2.1 in normal weight and overweight/obese children, respectively. BMI and PA were also significant predictors of functional movement (=.0001, Adjusted 2=.602 with BMI and PA predicting 52.9% and 7.3% of the variance in total FMS score, respectively. The results of this study highlight that ambulatory physical activity and weight status are significant predictors of functional movement in British children. Scientists and practitioners therefore need to consider interventions which develop functional movement skills alongside physical activity and weight management strategies in children in order to reduce the risks of orthopaedic abnormality arising from suboptimal movement patterns in later life.

  9. LOS function and obesity: The impact of untreated obesity, weight loss, and chronic gastric balloon distension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Weeren, M.; van Eerten, P. V.

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aims: In obesity, many gastro-oesophageal reflux promoting factors are present. Weight reduction is advised to symptomatic overweight subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of untreated obesity, weight loss, and chronic gastric balloon distension on the

  10. Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Persson, Frederik; Svane, Maria S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that a large weight loss reduces muscle mass and pCr causing increase in eGFR (c...

  11. Rheological properties of poly(vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of molecular weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the viscosity molecular weight (Mv) via an empirically modified Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation. The MHS equation parameters (a and K), and the polydispersity correction factor (qMHS) were also evaluated. Molecular weight was found to affect only the amount of PVP required for achieving full...

  12. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Pieper, Carl F; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; McClure, Luisa B; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E; Bales, Connie W

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4-10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (-7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (-8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  13. Application of a weighted-averaging method for determining paleosalinity: a tool for restoration of south Florida's estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

  14. Comparison of experimental and bioelectrical impedance analysis methods in calculation of dry weight in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Emami Naini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that there is significant difference between the two methods. However, there was 98% direct correlation between them. It is concluded that bioelectrical impedance analysis could be a better alternative for accurate evaluation of dry weight in PD patients because it is a fast and cheap method and does not depend on examiner′s capability. Further studies based on the results of this method are recommended to consider this method as the gold standard.

  15. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h2, fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  16. Skeletal muscle fiber size and fiber type distribution in human cancer: Effects of weight loss and relationship to physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Michael J; Callahan, Damien M; Miller, Mark S; Tourville, Timothy W; Hackett, Sarah B; Couch, Marion E; Dittus, Kim

    2016-12-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience weight loss, with negative consequences for functionality and prognosis. The extent to which muscle atrophy contributes to weight loss, however, is not clear, as few studies have directly measured muscle fiber morphology in cancer patients. Whole body and regional tissue composition were measured, along with the cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber type of mechanically-isolated, single muscle fibers, in 19 cancer patients (8 with a history of weight loss, 11 weight-stable) and 15 non-diseased controls. Whole body fat mass was reduced in cancer patients with a history of weight loss, but no differences in whole body or leg fat-free mass were apparent. In contrast, reductions (∼20%) in single muscle fiber CSA were found in both slow-twitch, myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and fast-twitch, MHC IIA fibers in both weight-stable patients and those with a history of weight loss. Fiber type distribution showed a shift towards a fast-twitch phenotype compared to controls, which may preserve muscle function in cancer patients despite atrophy, as positive relationships were found between the fractions of hybrid MHC IIAX and I/IIA fibers and 6-min walk performance. Our results suggest that, although not apparent from whole body or regional measurements, cancer is associated with reduced skeletal muscle fiber size independent of weight loss history and a shift towards fast-twitch fibers, phenotypes that resemble adaptations to muscle disuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Some remarks on exp-function method and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, İsmail; Marinakis, Vangelis

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many important nonlinear partial differential equations arising in the applied physical and mathematical sciences have been tackled by a popular approach, the so-called Exp-function method. In this paper, we present some shortcomings of this method by analyzing the results of recently published papers. We also discuss the possible improvement of the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Determination of the Molecular Weight of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins by Using High-Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography on Line with a Triple Detector Array and Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bisio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of weight average molecular weight (Mw and molecular weight distribution represents one of the most controversial aspects concerning the characterization of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs. As the most commonly used method for the measurement of such parameters is high performance size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC, the soundness of results mainly depends on the appropriate calibration of the chromatographic columns used. With the aim of meeting the requirement of proper Mw standards for LMWHs, in the present work the determination of molecular weight parameters (Mw and Mn by HP-SEC combined with a triple detector array (TDA was performed. The HP-SEC/TDA technique permits the evaluation of polymeric samples by exploiting the combined and simultaneous action of three on-line detectors: light scattering detectors (LALLS/RALLS; refractometer and viscometer. Three commercial LMWH samples, enoxaparin, tinzaparin and dalteparin, a γ-ray depolymerized heparin (γ-Hep and its chromatographic fractions, and a synthetic pentasaccharide were analysed by HP-SEC/TDA. The same samples were analysed also with a conventional HP-SEC method employing refractive index (RI and UV detectors and two different chromatographic column set, silica gel and polymeric gel columns. In both chromatographic systems, two different calibration curves were built up by using (i γ-Hep chromatographic fractions and the corresponding Mw parameters obtained via HP-SEC/TDA; (ii the whole γ-Hep preparation with broad Mw dispersion and the corresponding cumulative distribution function calculated via HP-SEC/TDA. In addition, also a chromatographic column calibration according to European Pharmacopoeia indication was built up. By comparing all the obtained results, some important differences among Mw and size distribution values of the three LMWHs were found with the five different calibration methods and with HP-SEC/TDA method. In particular, the detection of

  19. Assessment of the Sustainable Development Capacity with the Entropy Weight Coefficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is widely accepted in the world. How to reflect the sustainable development capacity of a region is an important issue for enacting policies and plans. An index system for capacity assessment is established by employing the Entropy Weight Coefficient method. The results indicate that the sustainable development capacity of Shandong Province is improving in terms of its economy subsystem, resource subsystem, and society subsystem whilst degrading in its environment subsystem. Shandong Province has shown the general trend towards sustainable development. However, the sustainable development capacity can be constrained by the resources such as energy, land, water, as well as environmental protection. These issues are induced by the economy development model, the security of energy supply, the level of new energy development, the end-of-pipe control of pollution, and the level of science and technology commercialization. Efforts are required to accelerate the development of the tertiary industry, the commercialization of high technology, the development of new energy and renewable energy, and the structure optimization of energy mix. Long-term measures need to be established for the ecosystem and environment protection.

  20. MIMO Antenna Polynomial Weighted Average Design Method of Downward-Looking Array SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MIMO antenna polynomial weighted average design method of downward-looking array SAR was proposed from the angle of surveying and mapping in this paper, in order to solve the ill-posed problem that an equivalent virtual array can be implemented by a variety of physical transmitter-receiver arrays for bistatic MIMO linear array. For wave band, resolution, elevation precision, and working height concerned by the applications of surveying and mapping, the length of equivalent virtual array and actual physical array meeting the needs of large scale topographical mapping was solved. Then array numbers and position vectors of MIMO downward-looking array SAR of real aerial mapping platform were optimized. According to this design, some simulation experiments and comparisons were processed. The results proved the rationality and effectiveness of this array configuration by comparing the differences of 3D imaging results and the original simulation scene, counting mean and standard deviation of elevation reconstruction error eliminating the influence of shadow areas, and counting the probability of elevation reconstruction error within half a resolution of the whole scene and individual building area.

  1. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  2. Development and validation of a method to estimate body weight in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This model was validated against two samples, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey datasets and data from two previous PAWPER tape studies. The primary outcome measure was to achieve >70% of estimations within 10% of measured weight (PW10 >70%) and >95% within 20% of measured weight ...

  3. A mixed-methods investigation of psychological factors relevant to weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb-Smith, Amanda Ellen; Brindal, Emily; Chapman, Janine; Noakes, Manny

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated perceptions of and engagement with the concepts of planning and problem-solving, within a weight management sample. A total of 53 participants (62% female, 20-74 years old) completed a semi-structured interview and quantitative measures after a 16-week weight maintenance period. Preliminary weight maintainers (who had maintained losses of, at least 10% of their original weight) were compared with heavier-than-baseline participants (who had re-gained more weight than was originally lost). The maintainers exhibited stronger problem-solving skills ( p < .05). The heavier-than-baseline participants tended towards non-rational problem-solving styles. Qualitatively, the maintainers described more planning events and were more accepting of mistakes than the heavier-than-baseline participants. Implications are discussed.

  4. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  5. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.

    2016-10-01

    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  6. [EFFECTS OF WEIGHT LOSS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AND OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN MORBIDLY OBESE WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana; Carpio, Carlos; Caballero, Paloma; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Vesperinas, Gregorio; Gómez de Terreros, Francisco; Gómez Mendieta, M A; Álvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo

    2015-09-01

    obesity impacts on respiratory function and also it acts as a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). to study the effects of bariatric surgery on pulmonary function tests and on OSA in morbidly obese women over 4 years. fifteen morbidly obese women (mean body mass index [BMI] 50.52 ± 12.71 kg.m-2, mean age 40.13 ± 10.06 years) underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) in two opportunities (before and after weight loss surgery). PFT included spirometry, body plethysmography and measure of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) and of tension-time index for inspiratory muscles. Also, in both opportunities, resting arterial blood gas tensions were evaluated and a full night sleep register was performed. BMI significantly decreased after bariatric surgery (-44.07 kg.m-2 [CI 95% -38.32 - -49.81]). Also, there was a significantly increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p sleep registers, apnea hypopnea index (p = 0.001) and desaturation index (p = 0.001) were also reduced after weight loss. Improve in ERV had a significant correlation with weight loss (r = 0.774, p = 0.024). Conclussions: pulmonary function tests and apnea hypopnea index improve after bariatric surgery in mor bidly obese women. Improvement of ERV is well correlated with weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer for atmospheric remote sensing in thermal IR: atmospheric weighting functions and surface partials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, we apply the adjoint sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer in thermal IR to the general case of the analytic evaluation of the weighting functions of atmospheric parameters together with the partial derivatives for the surface parameters. Applications to remote sensing of atmospheres of Mars and Venus are discussed.

  8. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serra, Assumpta; Esteve, Anna; Navarro-Díaz, Maruja; López, Dolores; Bancu, Ioana; Romero, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    ...) and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months) was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases...

  9. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  10. A novel method for single-valued neutrosophic multi-criteria decision making with incomplete weight information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS and an interval neutrosophic set (INS are two instances of a neutrosophic set, which can efficiently deal with uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information. In this paper, we develop a novel method for solving singlevalued neutrosophic multi-criteria decision making with incomplete weight information, in which the criterion values are given in the form of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs, and the information about criterion weights is incompletely known or completely unknown. The developed method consists of two stages. The first stage is to use the maximizing deviation method to establish an optimization model, which derives the optimal weights of criteria under single-valued neutrosophic environments. After obtaining the weights of criteria through the above stage, the second stage is to develop a single-valued neutrosophic TOPSIS (SVNTOPSIS method to determine a solution with the shortest distance to the single-valued neutrosophic positive ideal solution (SVNPIS and the greatest distance from the singlevalued neutrosophic negative ideal solution (SVNNIS. Moreover, a best global supplier selection problem is used to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed method. Finally, the extended results in interval neutrosophic situations are pointed out and a comparison analysis with the other methods is given to illustrate the advantages of the developed methods.

  11. The effect of upper extremity weight bearing on upper extremity function in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects ofweight bearing on upper limb function in children with hemiplegic cerebralpalsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediatelyfollowing weight bearing exercises. A  quasi-experimental, one group pre-test,post-test design was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsyfrom a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed consentof the caretaking guardian. The intervention consisted of a standardized programof weight bearing. The Melbourne A ssessment of Upper Extremity function wasused to quantify upper extremity function of reach, grasp and manipulation and the modified A shworth grading of spasticity was used to grade and monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.  A  significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p= 0,004, wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004was noted. Statistically significant improvement in function, reach (p=0, 00, grasp (p=0, 02 manipulation (p=0, 05and overall quality of function (p= 0,003 was also found. A n overall significant effect of weight bearing exercises onupper extremity function was noted providing evidence for practice.

  12. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    . Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P = 0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P = 0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions: TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes...

  13. A new class of methods for functional connectivity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wutu

    Measuring functional connectivity from neural recordings is important in understanding processing in cortical networks. The covariance-based methods are the current golden standard for functional connectivity estimation. However, the link between the pair-wise correlations and the physiological connections inside the neural network is unclear. Therefore, the power of inferring physiological basis from functional connectivity estimation is limited. To build a stronger tie and better understand the relationship between functional connectivity and physiological neural network, we need (1) a realistic model to simulate different types of neural recordings with known ground truth for benchmarking; (2) a new functional connectivity method that produce estimations closely reflecting the physiological basis. In this thesis, (1) I tune a spiking neural network model to match with human sleep EEG data, (2) introduce a new class of methods for estimating connectivity from different kinds of neural signals and provide theory proof for its superiority, (3) apply it to simulated fMRI data as an application.

  14. Nonlinear Green's function method for unsteady transonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages to employing Green's function in describing unsteady three-dimensional transonic flows are explored. The development of the function for application to linear subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that unique solutions are possible for external flows, with all functional expressions being defined in Prandtl-Glauert space. The development of methods of using the Green's function for transonic flows is traced, noting the necessity of including the effects of significant nonlinear terms. The steady-state problem is considered to demonstrate the shock-capturing ability of the method and the usefulness of the function in the incompressible, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic areas of potential unsteady three-dimensional flows around complex configurations. Computational time is asserted to be an order of magnitude less than with finite difference methods.

  15. Weighted hurdle regression method for joint modeling of cardiovascular events likelihood and rate in the US dialysis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V

    2014-11-10

    We propose a new weighted hurdle regression method for modeling count data, with particular interest in modeling cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis. Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in this population. Our aim is to jointly model the relationship/association between covariates and (i) the probability of cardiovascular events, a binary process, and (ii) the rate of events once the realization is positive-when the 'hurdle' is crossed-using a zero-truncated Poisson distribution. When the observation period or follow-up time, from the start of dialysis, varies among individuals, the estimated probability of positive cardiovascular events during the study period will be biased. Furthermore, when the model contains covariates, then the estimated relationship between the covariates and the probability of cardiovascular events will also be biased. These challenges are addressed with the proposed weighted hurdle regression method. Estimation for the weighted hurdle regression model is a weighted likelihood approach, where standard maximum likelihood estimation can be utilized. The method is illustrated with data from the United States Renal Data System. Simulation studies show the ability of proposed method to successfully adjust for differential follow-up times and incorporate the effects of covariates in the weighting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  17. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  18. A hybrid method for the parallel computation of Green's functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik; Li, Song; Stokbro, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Quantum transport models for nanodevices using the non-equilibrium Green's function method require the repeated calculation of the block tridiagonal part of the Green's and lesser Green's function matrices. This problem is related to the calculation of the inverse of a sparse matrix. Because of t...

  19. Comparison of differential transformation method with adomian decomposition method for functional differential equations with proportional delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we will introduce two methods to obtain the numerical solutions for functional differential equations with proportional delays. The first method is the differential transformation method (DTM) and the second method is Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Moreover, we will make comparison between the solutions obtained by the two methods. Consequently, the results of our system tell us the two methods can be alternative ways for solution of the linear and nonlinear functional differential and integro-differential equations. New formulas for DTM were proven for these types of equations.

  20. Preliminary report of MR cisternography using heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroyuki; Muro, Isao; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Mamata, Yoshiaki; Komiya, Taizo; Mamata, Hatsuho; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Tsugane, Ryuichi [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Osamu

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the details of cranial nerves and vascular components in the cistern using MR cisternography (MRC). All scans were performed on a PHILIPS Gyroscan ACS-NT (1.5T) using a standard head coil. MRC was performes by heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo sequences with reversal image (TR: 6000 ms, TE: 220 ms, NEX: 4 times, matrix: 512 x 307, ETL: 23, 3 mm slice thickness, 0.3 mm slice gap). We studied 4 patients of volunteers with the following diagnosis: arachnoid cyst, facial spasm, pituitary adenoma, and CP angle tumor. The images of the VII and VIIIth nerves were clearly identified by axial and oblique coronal views along the VII and VIIIth nerves. In an oblique coronal view, the roots of the entire VII and VIIIth nerves from the internal auditory meatus to the brainstem were visualized. In the patient with facial spasm, the vascular compression at the root entry zone was proven to be in accordance with the finding obtained during the surgery. In the CP angle tumor case, it was possible to accurately discern the relationship of the tumor to the VII and VIIIth nerves as well as to the surrounding vascular and brainstem structures. In the pituitary adenoma case, MRC was useful indifining the relationship of the tumor to the chiasm, internal carotid artery and first segment of the anterior cerebral artery; however, the area surrounding the trigeminal nerve, the superior cerebello-pontine cistern, has the same intensity as the brainstem due to CSF flow artifacts. This CSF flow related artifact was attributed to high velocity signal loss. The VIth nerve and Xth and IXth nerves were observed in some volunteers. Since an average of 3 min 48 sec only is required for imaging in one direction, the clinical application of this method is considered feasible. (author)

  1. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. Results: At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p 11 years (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV1/FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes.

  2. Persistent current and Drude weight for the one-dimensional Hubbard model from current lattice density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, A; Sanvito, S

    2012-02-08

    The Bethe ansatz local density approximation (LDA) to lattice density functional theory (LDFT) for the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model is extended to current-LDFT (CLDFT). The transport properties of mesoscopic Hubbard rings threaded by a magnetic flux are then systematically investigated by this scheme. In particular we present calculations of ground state energies, persistent currents and Drude weights for both a repulsive homogeneous and a single impurity Hubbard model. Our results for the ground state energies in the metallic phase compare favorably well with those obtained with numerically accurate many-body techniques. Also the dependence of the persistent currents on the Coulomb and the impurity interaction strength, and on the ring size are all well captured by LDA-CLDFT. Our study demonstrates the value of CLDFT in describing the transport properties of one-dimensional correlated electron systems. As its computational overheads are rather modest, we propose this method as a tool for studying problems where both disorder and interaction are present.

  3. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  5. Relationships between objective physical characteristics and the use of weight control methods in adolescence: a mediating role for eating attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas Lledó, E; Sancho, L; Waller, G

    2001-09-01

    This study of non-clinical adolescent males and females examined associations of objectively measured physical characteristics with greater use of methods of weight control and considered whether the relationships between these variables might be explained by a mediating effect of a subjective characteristic--unhealthy eating attitudes. Non-clinical male and female adolescents completed measures of weight control and eating attitudes, and their physical characteristics were measured using a range of standardized anthropometry techniques. Regression analyses were used to test the role of eating attitudes as mediators in the relationship between physical characteristics and the use of weight control methods. The data were compatible with a partial mediator model, where physical characteristics influence eating attitudes, and those where attitudes drive the use of methods to control weight. However, not all of the relationship was explained by this mediator. In addition, there were different patterns of association for men and women, consistent with different patterns of bodily focus between the genders. These findings stress the importance of understanding objective physical characteristics as well as subjective eating attitudes to find out why people use different levels of weight control behaviours. Limitations, further research and potential implications for clinical and preventative programmes are discussed.

  6. General Method for Functionalized Polyaryl Synthesis via Aryne Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A method for base-promoted arylation of arenes and heterocycles by aryl halides and aryl triflates is described. Additionally, in situ electrophilic trapping of ArLi intermediates generated in the reaction of benzyne with deprotonated arenes or heterocycles has been developed, providing rapid and easy access to a wide range of highly functionalized polyaryls. Base-promoted arylation methodology complements transition-metal-catalyzed direct arylation and allows access to structures that are not easily accessible via other direct arylation methods. The reactions are highly functional-group tolerant, with alkene, ether, dimethylamino, trifluoromethyl, ester, cyano, halide, hydroxyl, and silyl functionalities compatible with reaction conditions. PMID:24893069

  7. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  8. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  9. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  10. Score Function of Distribution and Revival of the Moment Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 1118-1136 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : characteristics of distributions * data characteristics * general moment method * Huber moment estimator * parametric methods * score function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016

  11. [Comparison between different calculation methods of limbs joints function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Mu; Li, Wei; Wang, Ye-Qiong

    2011-08-01

    To analyze and compare different methods for assessment of the limbs joints function and to discuss the rationality of the methods. Eight hundred and six cases were collected from the Fujian Minzhong Forensic Appraisal Center from 2007 to 2010. These cases included injuries of large limbs joints with or without peripheral nerve injury. The loss of joint function was calculated according to the simple joint mobility method or the table method introduced in the book "Forensic Clinical Judicial Authentication Practice". The results of disability evaluation with different methods were analyzed and compared between different joints and injury patterns. In 642 cases of simple joint injuries without peripheral nerve injury, the results of disability evaluation based on simple joint mobility were the same as that based on the table. In 118 cases of joint injuries with peripheral nerve injury, all of them could be classified as disability, 33 cases (28.00%) had higher degree based on the table method than based on the simple joint mobility method. While 21 cases (17.80%) did not be evaluated as disabled based on the simple joint mobility method. The evaluation for loss of limb function would be easier, more scientific and reasonable by the direct table method than the simple joint mobility method.

  12. Accurate evaluation and analysis of functional genomics data and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of technology capable of inexpensively performing large-scale measurements of biological systems has generated a wealth of data. Integrative analysis of these data holds the promise of uncovering gene function, regulation, and, in the longer run, understanding complex disease. However, their analysis has proved very challenging, as it is difficult to quickly and effectively assess the relevance and accuracy of these data for individual biological questions. Here, we identify biases that present challenges for the assessment of functional genomics data and methods. We then discuss evaluation methods that, taken together, begin to address these issues. We also argue that the funding of systematic data-driven experiments and of high-quality curation efforts will further improve evaluation metrics so that they more-accurately assess functional genomics data and methods. Such metrics will allow researchers in the field of functional genomics to continue to answer important biological questions in a data-driven manner. PMID:22268703

  13. Effect of aquatic and land-based exercise programs on the pain and motor function of weight lifters with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Babakhani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral Syndrome (PFPS is one of the most common knee joint problems among the athletes. The present study was aimed to compare the effect of aquatic and land-based exercise methods on the pain level and motor function of the weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome. Methods: A total of twenty weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome participated in this quasi-experimental study. They were randomly divided to two groups of aquatic exercise and land-based exercise. Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Kujala Scale were used before and after the exercise period to measure the pain and motor function, respectively. To compare the pre-test and post-test scores of the participating groups, dependent t-test was used and to compare the differences between groups, ANOVA was applied. Results: The results of post-test showed a significant difference in both groups in terms of pain level and motor function compared to pre-test after eight weeks of strength exercise. However, the comparison of data indicated no significant difference between groups with regard to pain level and motor function. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, exercise in water and on land can reduce the pain and improve the performance of the patients with patellofemoral syndrome.

  14. The supersymmetry method for chiral random matrix theory with arbitrary rotation-invariant weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Vural; Kieburg, Mario; Guhr, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In the past few years, the supersymmetry method has been generalized to real symmetric, Hermitian, and Hermitian self-dual random matrices drawn from ensembles invariant under the orthogonal, unitary, and unitary symplectic groups, respectively. We extend this supersymmetry approach to chiral random matrix theory invariant under the three chiral unitary groups in a unifying way. Thereby we generalize a projection formula providing a direct link and, hence, a ‘short cut’ between the probability density in ordinary space and that in superspace. We emphasize that this point was one of the main problems and shortcomings of the supersymmetry method, since only implicit dualities between ordinary space and superspace were known before. To provide examples, we apply this approach to the calculation of the supersymmetric analogue of a Lorentzian (Cauchy) ensemble and an ensemble with a quartic potential. Moreover, we consider the partially quenched partition function of the three chiral Gaussian ensembles corresponding to four-dimensional continuum quantum chromodynamics. We identify a natural splitting of the chiral Lagrangian in its lowest order into a part for the physical mesons and a part associated with source terms generating the observables, e.g. the level density of the Dirac operator.

  15. METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE PARAMETERS OF THE POWER FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam zaka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, we present some methods for estimating the parameters of the two parameter Power function distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS and ridge regression method (RR. Sampling behavior of the estimates is indicated by a Monte Carlo simulation. The objective of identifying the best estimator amongst them we use the Total Deviation (T.D and Mean Square Error (M.S.E as performance index. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes.

  16. Application of the Characteristic Basis Function Method Using CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Pérez; Eliseo García; de Frutos, José A.; Felipe Cátedra

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic basis function method (CBFM) is a popular technique for efficiently solving the method of moments (MoM) matrix equations. In this work, we address the adaptation of this method to a relatively new computing infrastructure provided by NVIDIA, the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), and take into account some of the limitations which appear when the geometry under analysis becomes too big to fit into the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s) memory.

  17. Application of the Characteristic Basis Function Method Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic basis function method (CBFM is a popular technique for efficiently solving the method of moments (MoM matrix equations. In this work, we address the adaptation of this method to a relatively new computing infrastructure provided by NVIDIA, the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, and take into account some of the limitations which appear when the geometry under analysis becomes too big to fit into the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s memory.

  18. Sleep apnea modifies the long-term impact of surgically induced weight loss on cardiac function and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardassis, Dimitris; Grote, Ludger; Sjöström, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Karason, Kristjan

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Both conditions are proinflammatory and proposed to deteriorate cardiac function. We used a nested cohort study design to evaluate the long-term impact of bariatric surgery on OSA and how weight loss and OSA relate to inflammation and cardiac performance. At 10-year follow-up in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, we identified 19 obese subjects (BMI 31.2 ± 5.3 kg m(-2) ), who following bariatric surgery at SOS-baseline had displayed sustained weight losses (surgery group), and 20 obese controls (BMI 42.0 ± 6.2 kg m(-2) ), who during the same time-period had maintained stable weight (control group). All study participants underwent overnight polysomnography examination, echocardiography and analysis of inflammatory markers. The surgery group displayed a lower apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (19.9 ± 21.5 vs. 37.8 ± 27.7 n/h, P = 0.013), lower inflammatory activity (hsCRP 2.3 ± 3.0 vs. 7.2 ± 5.0 mg L(-1) , P weight stable obese controls. In multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 39) and controlling for BMI, the AHI remained independently associated with hsCRP (β = 0.09, P weight loss after bariatric surgery display less severe sleep apnea, reduced inflammatory activity, and enhanced cardiac function. Persisting sleep apnea appears to limit the beneficial effect of weight loss on inflammation and cardiac performance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders; Snoer, Martin; Haugaard, Steen B; Prescott, Eva

    2015-04-15

    Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD patients. Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training-attendance ≥ 60% and weight loss ≥ 5%, respectively. CFR was assessed by Doppler echocardiography of the LAD. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by arterial tonometry as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index. Most participants had impaired CFR with a mean CFR of 2.38 (SD 0.59). Twenty-six AIT and 24 LED participants completed the study per protocol with valid CFR measurements. AIT resulted in a 10.4% improvement in VO2peak and LED in a 10.6% weight loss (between group differences both P0.50). Intention-to-treat analyses showed similar results. 12 weeks' AIT and LED increased CFR by comparable magnitude; thus both interventions might impact prognosis of CAD through improvement of coronary microvascular function. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01724567. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel search method for the discovery of functional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Fidel; Lawyer, Glenn; Albrecht, Mario

    2012-01-15

    Numerous annotations are available that functionally characterize genes and proteins with regard to molecular process, cellular localization, tissue expression, protein domain composition, protein interaction, disease association and other properties. Searching this steadily growing amount of information can lead to the discovery of new biological relationships between genes and proteins. To facilitate the searches, methods are required that measure the annotation similarity of genes and proteins. However, most current similarity methods are focused only on annotations from the Gene Ontology (GO) and do not take other annotation sources into account. We introduce the new method BioSim that incorporates multiple sources of annotations to quantify the functional similarity of genes and proteins. We compared the performance of our method with four other well-known methods adapted to use multiple annotation sources. We evaluated the methods by searching for known functional relationships using annotations based only on GO or on our large data warehouse BioMyn. This warehouse integrates many diverse annotation sources of human genes and proteins. We observed that the search performance improved substantially for almost all methods when multiple annotation sources were included. In particular, our method outperformed the other methods in terms of recall and average precision.

  1. Maturation of digestive function is retarded and plasma antioxidant capacity lowered in fully weaned low birth weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Joris; De Vos, Maartje; Missotten, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Ginneken, Christa

    2013-01-14

    The digestive function of low birth weight (LBW) pigs post-weaning has been poorly studied. Therefore, newborns from eleven hyperprolific sows were weighed, weaned at 27·2 d and fed a starter diet until sampling. Sampling was done between 18 and 28 d post-weaning. An LBW piglet (n 19) was defined as a piglet having a birth weight less than 1 kg and less than the lower quartile of litter birth weights. Normal birth weight (NBW) piglets (n 13) were having a birth weight close to the mean litter birth weight. For each piglet, eighty-eight variables were determined. Data were analysed with linear models with type of piglet and litter as predictors. A principal component analysis was performed to determine the most important discriminating variables. In the LBW pig, the development of the digestive tract post-weaning was delayed: lower small-intestinal weight:length ratio due to a thinner tela submucosa and tunica muscularis and a higher secretory capacity, both in the distal jejunum. These observations might be a consequence of lower circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations (126 (se 10·0) v. 158 (se 12·0) ng/ml for LBW and NBW, respectively) and a lower density of IGF-1 receptors in the proximal small intestine. Additionally, the plasma antioxidant capacity was lower for the LBW pig. Taken together, in the LBW piglet, the normal gut maturation post-weaning was retarded and this did not seem to be related to the weaning transition as such.

  2. A weighted l0 shearlet-based method for image deblurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guomin; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Man

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposed a weighted l0 shearlet-based model for image deblurring. The main purpose of this work is to further exploiting the sparsity of the reconstructed signal. In order to achieve this goal, a generalized gradient regularizer is introduced to the model. The added regularizer can suppress artifacts effectively. The split Bregman algorithm is used to update the multi-scale weighted matrix in the each iteration. This weighted matrix can transmit the solution information in the present step to the next step by support detection. According to this procedure, the whole algorithm framework forms a learning process. Experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm yields significantly improvement in terms of PSNR. However, it also shows that more computing time is required due to the utilization of the redundant shearlet system.

  3. Body and heart : Effects of weight gain and loss on left ventricular size and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottdiener, John S; Kop, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic and hemodynamic consequences of obesity, and even overweight, adversely affect the health of millions of individuals across the world and have become a global epidemic.1 Body weight comprises both fat (FM) and fat free (lean) mass (FFM). In older adults, while lean tissue mass is

  4. The Effect of Head Mounted Display Weight and Locomotion Method on the Perceived Naturalness of Virtual Walking Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    This poster details a study investigating the effect of Head Mounted Display (HMD) weight and locomotion method (Walking-In-Place and treadmill walking) on the perceived naturalness of virtual walking speeds. The results revealed significant main effects of movement type, but no significant effects...

  5. Weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS): an improved method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Juggins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Weighted averaging regression and calibration form a simple, yet powerful method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages. Based on the concepts of niche-space partitioning and ecological optima of species (indicator values), it performs well with noisy, species-rich data

  6. Developing a Web-Based Weight Management Program for Childhood Cancer Survivors: Rationale and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Meagher, Susan; Scheurer, Michael; Folta, Sara; Finnan, Emily; Criss, Kerry; Economos, Christina; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Kelly, Michael

    2016-11-18

    Due to advances in the field of oncology, survival rates for children with cancer have improved significantly. However, these childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases and for developing these conditions at an earlier age. In this paper, we describe the rationale, conceptual framework, development process, novel components, and delivery plan of a behavioral intervention program for preventing unhealthy weight gain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A Web-based program, the Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) program, was designed by a multidisciplinary team of researchers who first identified behaviors that are appropriate targets for weight management in childhood ALL survivors and subsequently developed the intervention components, following core behavioral change strategies grounded in social cognitive and self-determination theories. The Web-based HEAL curriculum has 12 weekly self-guided sessions to increase parents' awareness of the potential impact of cancer treatment on weight and lifestyle habits and the importance of weight management in survivors' long-term health. It empowers parents with knowledge and skills on parenting, nutrition, and physical activity to help them facilitate healthy eating and active living soon after the child completes intensive cancer treatment. Based on social cognitive theory, the program is designed to increase behavioral skills (goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem-solving) and self-efficacy and to provide positive reinforcement to sustain behavioral change. Lifestyle interventions are a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Intervention programs need to meet survivors' targeted behavioral needs, address specific barriers, and capture a sensitive window for behavioral change. In addition, they should be convenient, cost-effective and scalable. Future studies are needed

  7. Interpolation functions in control volume finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, H.; Turki, S.; Nasrallah, S. Ben

    The main contribution of this paper is the study of interpolation functions in control volume finite element method used in equal order and applied to an incompressible two-dimensional fluid flow. Especially, the exponential interpolation function expressed in the elemental local coordinate system is compared to the classic linear interpolation function expressed in the global coordinate system. A quantitative comparison is achieved by the application of these two schemes to four flows that we know the analytical solutions. These flows are classified in two groups: flows with privileged direction and flows without. The two interpolation functions are applied to a triangular element of the domain then; a direct comparison of the results given by each interpolation function to the exact value is easily realized. The two functions are also compared when used to solve the discretized equations over the entire domain. Stability of the numerical process and accuracy of solutions are compared.

  8. Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao

    This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.

  9. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona; Núria Ibarrola-Jurado; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Antoni Rabassa-Soler; Monica Bulló

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months ran...

  10. An alternating least squares method for the weighted approximation of a symmetric matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, Jos M.F.; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    Bailey and Gower examined the least squares approximation C to a symmetric matrix B, when the squared discrepancies for diagonal elements receive specific nonunit weights. They focussed on mathematical properties of the optimal C, in constrained and unconstrained cases, rather than on how to obtain

  11. Drop weight impact strength measurement method for porous concrete using laser doppler velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agar-Ozbek, A.S.; Weerheijm, J.; Schlangen, E.; Breugel, K. van

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an experimental configuration that reveals the dynamic response of porous concretes in a drop weight impact test was introduced. Through the measurement of particle velocity at the interface, between the impactor and the concrete target, the dynamic response was obtained in an easily

  12. Weighted Interaction SNP Hub (WISH) network method for building genetic networks for complex diseases and traits using whole genome genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput genotype (HTG) data has been used primarily in genome-wide association (GWA) studies; however, GWA results explain only a limited part of the complete genetic variation of traits. In systems genetics, network approaches have been shown to be able to identify pathways and their underlying causal genes to unravel the biological and genetic background of complex diseases and traits, e.g., the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) method based on microarray gene expression data. The main objective of this study was to develop a scale-free weighted genetic interaction network method using whole genome HTG data in order to detect biologically relevant pathways and potential genetic biomarkers for complex diseases and traits. We developed the Weighted Interaction SNP Hub (WISH) network method that uses HTG data to detect genome-wide interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and its relationship with complex traits. Data dimensionality reduction was achieved by selecting SNPs based on its: 1) degree of genome-wide significance and 2) degree of genetic variation in a population. Network construction was based on pairwise Pearson's correlation between SNP genotypes or the epistatic interaction effect between SNP pairs. To identify modules the Topological Overlap Measure (TOM) was calculated, reflecting the degree of overlap in shared neighbours between SNP pairs. Modules, clusters of highly interconnected SNPs, were defined using a tree-cutting algorithm on the SNP dendrogram created from the dissimilarity TOM (1-TOM). Modules were selected for functional annotation based on their association with the trait of interest, defined by the Genome-wide Module Association Test (GMAT). We successfully tested the established WISH network method using simulated and real SNP interaction data and GWA study results for carcass weight in a pig resource population; this resulted in detecting modules and key functional and biological pathways

  13. Modified Cheeger and Ratio Cut Methods Using the Ginzburg-Landau Functional for Classification of High-Dimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    choice for the weight function is the Zelnik-Manor and Perona function [31] for sparse matrices : w(x, y) = e − M(x,y) 2 √ τ(x)τ(y) , (49) using τ(x...Modified Cheeger and Ratio Cut Methods Using the Ginzburg-Landau Functional for Classification of High-Dimensional Data Ekaterina Merkurjev*, Andrea...related Ginzburg-Landau functional is used in the derivation of the methods. The graph framework discussed in this paper is undirected. The resulting

  14. Systems and methods for producing low work function electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Kahn, Antoine; Meyer, Jens; Shim, Jae Won; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-07-07

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, systems and methods are provided for producing low work function electrodes. According to an exemplary embodiment, a method is provided for reducing a work function of an electrode. The method includes applying, to at least a portion of the electrode, a solution comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer; and based at least in part on applying the solution, forming an ultra-thin layer on a surface of the electrode, wherein the ultra-thin layer reduces the work function associated with the electrode by greater than 0.5 eV. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a device is provided. The device includes a semiconductor; at least one electrode disposed adjacent to the semiconductor and configured to transport electrons in or out of the semiconductor.

  15. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001......) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene....

  16. Functionalized Media and Methods of Making and Using Therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongsong (Inventor); Dillon, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, compositions, devices and kits are provided herein for separating, scavenging, capturing or identifying a metal from a target using a medium or scaffold with a selenium-containing functional group. The medium or the scaffold including the selenium-containing functional group has affinity and specificity to metal ions or compounds having one or more metals, and efficiently separates, recovers, and scavenges of the metals from a target such as a sample, solution, suspension, or mixture.

  17. Low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin in venous thromboembolism: the influence of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Schellong, Sebastian; Falga, Conxita; Zorrilla, Vanessa; Gallego, Pedro; Barrón, Manuel; Monreal, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    In patients with acute venous thromboembolism and renal insufficiency, initial therapy with unfractionated heparin may have some advantages over low-molecular-weight heparin. We used the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry data to evaluate the 15-day outcome in 38,531 recruited patients. We used propensity score matching to compare patients treated with unfractionated heparin with those treated with low-molecular-weight heparin in 3 groups stratified by creatinine clearance levels at baseline: >60 mL/min, 30 to 60 mL/min, or 60 mL/min (n = 1598 matched pairs), 30 to 60 mL/min (n = 277 matched pairs), and 60 mL/min or <30 mL/min, but not in those with levels between 30 and 60 mL/min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational Methods for Predicting Sites of Functionally Important Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Adam D.; Carlson, Heather A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and controlling biological function of proteins at the atomic level is of great importance; allosteric mechanisms provide such an interface. Experimental and computational methods have been developed to search for residue mutations that produce changes in function by altering sites of correlated motion. These methods are often observational in that altered motions are achieved by random sampling without revealing the underlying mechanism(s). We present two deterministic methods founded on structure-function relationships that predict dynamic control sites (i.e. locations that experience correlated motions as a result of altered dynamics). The first method (“static”) is based on a single structure conformation (e.g. the wild type (WT)) and utilizes a graph description of atomic connectivity. The local atomic interactions are used to compute the propagation of contact paths. This description of structure connectivity reveals flexible locations that are susceptible to altered dynamics. The second method (“dynamic”) is a comparative analysis between the normal modes of a WT structure and a mutant structure. A mapping function is defined that quantifies the significance of the motions in one structure projected onto the motions of the other. Each mode is considered up- or down-regulated according to its change in relative significance. This description of altered dynamics is the basis for a motion correlation analysis, from which the dynamic control sites are readily identified. The methods are theoretically derived and applied using the canonical system dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Both methods demonstrate a very high predictive value (p dynamic control sites. The dynamic method also produces a new hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which the DHFR mutant achieves hyperactivity. These tools are suitable for allosteric investigations and may greatly enhance the speed and effectiveness of other computational and experimental methods. PMID

  19. ESG: extended similarity group method for automated protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Meghana; Hawkins, Troy; Park, Changsoon; Kihara, Daisuke

    2009-07-15

    Importance of accurate automatic protein function prediction is ever increasing in the face of a large number of newly sequenced genomes and proteomics data that are awaiting biological interpretation. Conventional methods have focused on high sequence similarity-based annotation transfer which relies on the concept of homology. However, many cases have been reported that simple transfer of function from top hits of a homology search causes erroneous annotation. New methods are required to handle the sequence similarity in a more robust way to combine together signals from strongly and weakly similar proteins for effectively predicting function for unknown proteins with high reliability. We present the extended similarity group (ESG) method, which performs iterative sequence database searches and annotates a query sequence with Gene Ontology terms. Each annotation is assigned with probability based on its relative similarity score with the multiple-level neighbors in the protein similarity graph. We will depict how the statistical framework of ESG improves the prediction accuracy by iteratively taking into account the neighborhood of query protein in the sequence similarity space. ESG outperforms conventional PSI-BLAST and the protein function prediction (PFP) algorithm. It is found that the iterative search is effective in capturing multiple-domains in a query protein, enabling accurately predicting several functions which originate from different domains. ESG web server is available for automated protein function prediction at http://dragon.bio.purdue.edu/ESG/.

  20. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  1. An improved method for estimating the frequency correlation function

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2012-04-01

    For time-invariant frequency-selective channels, the transfer function is a superposition of waves having different propagation delays and path gains. In order to estimate the frequency correlation function (FCF) of such channels, the frequency averaging technique can be utilized. The obtained FCF can be expressed as a sum of auto-terms (ATs) and cross-terms (CTs). The ATs are caused by the autocorrelation of individual path components. The CTs are due to the cross-correlation of different path components. These CTs have no physical meaning and leads to an estimation error. We propose a new estimation method aiming to improve the estimation accuracy of the FCF of a band-limited transfer function. The basic idea behind the proposed method is to introduce a kernel function aiming to reduce the CT effect, while preserving the ATs. In this way, we can improve the estimation of the FCF. The performance of the proposed method and the frequency averaging technique is analyzed using a synthetically generated transfer function. We show that the proposed method is more accurate than the frequency averaging technique. The accurate estimation of the FCF is crucial for the system design. In fact, we can determine the coherence bandwidth from the FCF. The exact knowledge of the coherence bandwidth is beneficial in both the design as well as optimization of frequency interleaving and pilot arrangement schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2012-02-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  3. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  4. An innovative method for preparation of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan (AFWSLMWC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wu; Yao, Pingjia; Wei, Yuanan; Li, Shiqian; Lai, Fang; Liu, Xiongmin

    2008-06-01

    The ozone generated from compressed oxygen by a laboratory-scale corona discharge generator was used for the preparation of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan (AFWSLMWC). Factors affecting the percent yield of AFWSLMWC were studied in batch experiments. AFWSLMWC with a molecular weight of 4.3-13.1kDa was obtained. IR spectra demonstrated that the chemical structures of AFWSLMWC were not modified during the depolymerisation process. There was no significant change of the total degree of deacetylation (DD) of AFWSLMWC, compared with the initial chitosan. The method is promisingly suitable for scale-up manufacture of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and functional changes in left and right ventricles after major weight loss following bariatric surgery for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Carolina A; Pellikka, Patricia A; Somers, Virend K; Sarr, Michael G; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L; Korenfeld, Yoel; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2010-02-15

    Obesity and bariatric surgery have been associated with changes in ventricular function and structure. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term changes in left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function and structure in patients with morbid obesity-body mass index >or=40 kg/m(2) or >or=35 kg/m(2) with co-morbidities-who had lost weight after bariatric surgery compared to nonsurgical controls. We reviewed 57 patients with morbid obesity who had undergone gastric bypass surgery and who had undergone echocardiography before and after surgery. A reference group (n = 57) was frequency matched for body mass index (+/-2 kg/m(2)), gender, age (+/-2 years), and follow-up duration (+/-6 months). After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, the LV mass and LV mass indexed by height had decreased in the patients who had undergone bariatric surgery and had lost weight. In contrast, these measurements had increased in the patients who had not undergone bariatric surgery. The difference between these 2 groups remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. At follow-up, neither the patients nor controls showed a significant change in ejection fraction, LV myocardial performance index, or RV myocardial performance index. In the study population as a whole, multivariate analysis showed a positive correlation between the change in body weight and ventricular septum thickness (R = 0.33), posterior wall thickness (R = 0.31), LV mass (R = 0.38), RV end-diastolic area (R = 0.22), and estimated RV systolic pressure (R = 0.39), all with p values weight changes in patients with morbid obesity were associated with changes in LV structure independent of improvement in obesity-related co-morbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea. Weight loss improved the RV end-diastolic area and might prevent progression to RV dysfunction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic co-variance functions for live weight, feed intake, and efficiency measures in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, J M; Berry, D P; Matilainen, K; Sevon-Aimonen, M-L; Mantysaari, E A; Juga, J; Serenius, T; McHugh, N

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic co-variance parameters pertaining to live weight, feed intake, and 2 efficiency traits (i.e., residual feed intake and residual daily gain) in a population of pigs over a defined growing phase using Legendre polynomial equations. The data set used consisted of 51,893 live weight records and 903,436 feed intake, residual feed intake (defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake), and residual daily gain (defined as the difference between an animal's actual growth rate and its expected growth rate) records from 10,201 growing pigs. Genetic co-variance parameters for all traits were estimated using random regression Legendre polynomials. Daily heritability estimates for live weight ranged from 0.25 ± 0.04 (d 73) to 0.50 ± 0.03 (d 122). Low to moderate heritability estimates were evident for feed intake, ranging from 0.07 ± 0.03 (d 66) to 0.25 ± 0.02 (d 170). The estimated heritability for residual feed intake was generally lower than those of both live weight and feed intake and ranged from 0.04 ± 0.01 (d 96) to 0.17 ± 0.02 (d 159). The heritability for feed intake and residual feed intake increased in the early stages of the test period and subsequently sharply declined, coinciding with older ages. Heritability estimates for residual daily gain ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (d 188) to 0.42 ± 0.03 (d 101). Genetic correlations within trait were strongest between adjacent ages but weakened as the interval between ages increased; however, the genetic correlations within all traits tended to strengthen between the extremes of the trajectory. Moderate to strong genetic correlations were evident among live weight, feed intake, and the efficiency traits, particularly in the early stage of the trial period (d 66 to 86), but weakened with age. Results from this study could be implemented into the national genetic evaluation for pigs, providing comprehensive

  7. A cross sectional study investigating weight management motivations, methods and perceived healthy eating and physical activity influences in women up to five years following childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Lisa; Rollo, Megan E; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Burrows, Tracy L; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Blumfield, Michelle; Collins, Clare E

    2017-06-01

    to explore motivations for weight change, weight loss methods used and factors perceived to influence healthy eating and physical activity for weight management following childbirth, and to evaluate differences by socio-demographic, weight status and pregnancy characteristics. cross-sectional online survey completed from May to August 2013. Australian women (n=874, aged 32.8±4.5 years, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index 25.6±5.7kg/m(2)) aged 18-40 years who had given birth in the previous 5 years MEASUREMENTS: women self-reported socio-demographic, weight status and pregnancy characteristics. Those who reported being unhappy at their current weight ranked their most to least important reasons for wanting to change their weight from a list of nine options. Weight control methods used in the previous two years were reported from a list of 12 options. Perceived healthy eating and physical activity factors influencing weight management were assessed across 20 items using a five-point Likert scale. the most prevalent motivators reported for weight change were to improve health (26.1%) and lift mood (20.3%). Three-quarters (75.7%) of women reported having used at least one weight loss method in the previous two years. Time constraints due to family commitments, enjoyment of physical activity and healthy eating, motivation and cost were factors most commonly reported to influence weight management. Body mass index, parity, education, household income and time since last birth were related to motivations for weight change, weight loss methods used and/or factors perceived to influence weight management. weight management support provided by health professionals should consider women's expressed motivators and factors influencing weight management, along with differences in sociodemographic, pregnancy and weight status characteristics, in order to engage women at this life-stage and facilitate adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Weighted next reaction method and parameter selection for efficient simulation of rare events in biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhouyi; Cai, Xiaodong

    2011-07-25

    The weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (wSSA) recently developed by Kuwahara and Mura and the refined wSSA proposed by Gillespie et al. based on the importance sampling technique open the door for efficient estimation of the probability of rare events in biochemical reaction systems. In this paper, we first apply the importance sampling technique to the next reaction method (NRM) of the stochastic simulation algorithm and develop a weighted NRM (wNRM). We then develop a systematic method for selecting the values of importance sampling parameters, which can be applied to both the wSSA and the wNRM. Numerical results demonstrate that our parameter selection method can substantially improve the performance of the wSSA and the wNRM in terms of simulation efficiency and accuracy.

  9. Executive functions in very-low-birth-weight young adults: a comparison between self-report and neuropsychological test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-05-01

    Executive functions are goal-directed control mechanisms that modulate the operation of other cognitive processes. Preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW: birth weightexecutive function than their term born peers. The objective of this study is to examine if VLBW young adults had more self-reported attention/ executive problems and lower neuropsychological test results than controls. Furthermore, to investigate the relationship between self-reported attention/executive problems, general cognitive ability (IQ) and test results. Forty-two VLBW [mean birth weight 1237 (219) grams, and gestational age 29.3 (2.4) weeks] and 63 term born controls at age 19 years completed The BRIEF-A self-report of attention/executive functions in everyday life. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III was used to obtain IQ scores; subtests from Delis-Kaplan were used to assess attention/executive function. There were no differences between the VLBW young adults and controls on any of the BRIEF-A measures, but the VLBW subjects had lower scores on 8 of the 18 neuropsychological subtests (pexecutive function in daily life than controls despite lower results on several neuropsychological tests.

  10. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The characteristic function, a method-specific alternative to the Horwitz function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Horwitz function is compared with the characteristic function as a descriptor of the precision of individual analytical methods. The Horwitz function describes the trend of reproducibility SDs observed in collaborative trials in the food sector over a wide range of concentrations of the analyte. However, it is imperfectly adaptable for describing the precision of individual methods, which is the role of the characteristic function. An essential difference between the two functions is that the characteristic function can accommodate a detection limit. This makes it a useful alternative when the precision of a method down to a detection limit is of interest. Many characteristic functions have a simple mathematical form, the parameters of which can be estimated with the usual resources. The Horwitz function serves an additional role as a fitness-for-purpose criterion in the form of the Horwitz ratio (HorRat). This use also has some shortcomings. The functional form of the characteristic function (with suitable prescribed parameters) is better adapted to this task.

  12. Impact of Birth Weight and Smoking on Lung Function in Patients with Asthma, COPD, and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Lindner, Karolina; Dobek, Rafał; Panaszek, Konrad; Obojski, Andrzej; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Ichnowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is an important factor for determining the development of the respiratory system. The majority of research analyzed the impact of BW on lung function in youth. BW influence and smoking on lung function in adults with asthma and COPD is an interesting issue. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships between BW, smoking, and lung function in adult healthy individuals and diagnosed with asthma or COPD. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were divided into 5 groups: 123 healthy non-smokers, 180 healthy smokers, 72 non-smoking asthmatics, 57 smoking asthmatics, and 47 COPD patients. Relationships between 4 BW quartiles and lung function was analyzed with respect to smoking. Impact analyzes of BW, smoking, and asthma on FVC% revealed that asthma is the only significant differentiating factor in this spirometric parameter (p smoking.

  13. Impact of weight loss on physical function with changes in strength, muscle mass, and muscle fat infiltration in overweight to moderately obese older adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanasto, Adam J; Glynn, Nancy W; Newman, Mark A; Taylor, Christopher A; Brooks, Maria Mori; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL) or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA) program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB). Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  14. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  15. Exp-Function Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  16. Exp-function method for solving fractional partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  17. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  18. Maternal salivary cortisone to cortisol ratio in late pregnancy: An improved method for predicting offspring birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meredith; Thayer, Zaneta

    2017-04-01

    Overexposure to maternal cortisol in utero has been associated with lower birth weight of offspring. In order to regulate fetal exposure to this hormone, placental expression of 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2, an enzyme that converts active cortisol to inactive cortisone, increases across pregnancy. Because of this increase in 11-βHSD2 activity, measuring maternal cortisol in isolation may not reflect actual fetal exposure to the hormone. Previous work by Hellgren et al. (2016) has shown that maternal serum cortisone:cortisol ratio was a better predictor of offspring birth weight than cortisol measured in isolation. This paper sought to replicate these results when examining maternal salivary cortisone:cortisol ratio. Data come from 55 pregnant women from Auckland, New Zealand. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in saliva samples collected at waking and prior to going to sleep on two consecutive weekdays between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. We found that salivary cortisol and cortisone followed the expected diurnal rhythm and that cortisone was higher than cortisol at both times of day. Maternal bedtime cortisone:cortisol ratio was significantly and inversely related to offspring birth weight. However, waking and bedtime cortisol, as well as waking cortisone:cortisol ratio, were unrelated to birth weight. These results show that maternal salivary cortisone:cortisol ratio, like serum cortisone:cortisol ratio, is a more sensitive biomarker for predicting infant birth weight than cortisol measured in isolation. This ratio could be a valuable, minimally-invasive measurement for future studies interested in understanding the relationship between maternal HPA-axis function and offspring birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of early weight bearing on the functional recovery of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy after bilateral proximal femoral osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Megan K; McCarthy, James J; Josephic, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluates the effects of early versus delayed weight bearing on the functional recovery of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) after they have undergone proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 25 ambulatory children with CP who underwent PFO to correct excessive hip internal rotation and intoeing. Thirteen children were permitted to weight-bear as tolerated (WBAT) immediately after surgery, and 12 were placed on non-weight bearing restrictions for 3 to 7 weeks (mean +/- SD, 30 +/- 6.7 days). There were no major complications. The children in the WBAT group initiated standing 26 days sooner and returned to baseline walking almost 4 months sooner than those on non-weight bearing restrictions. Pain at 8 days postoperatively was significantly less for the WBAT group, but pain at the time of initial standing and walking was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, early mobilization after PFOs in children with CP is safe, with reduced recovery time, and with decreased pain.

  20. Association between syndecan-1 and renal function in adolescents with excess weight: evidence of subclinical kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.R.M. Saboia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight (overweight and obesity is associated with kidney and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between syndecan-1 and renal function among adolescents with excess weight. A total of 56 students from a public school at Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, were investigated. The adolescents were submitted to anthropometric evaluation, including weight, height, blood pressure and body mass index. Blood and urine samples were collected for the determination of serum lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and the endothelial injury biomarker syndecan-1. Participants' mean age was 16±1 years (range 14-19 years, and 68% were females. Overweight was observed in 4 cases (7.1% and obesity in 7 (12.5%. Changes in serum lipid levels were more frequent in the overweight group. A positive correlation between syndecan-1 and serum creatinine (r=0.5, P=0.001 and triglycerides (r=0.37, P=0.004, and a negative correlation with glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.33, P=0.02 were found. These findings suggest that adolescents with excess weight present incipient changes at the cellular level that make them more vulnerable to the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Multi-Gaussian fitting for pulse waveform using Weighted Least Squares and multi-criteria decision making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Feng, Shuting; Meng, Max Q-H; Wang, Kuanquan

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of pulse waveform is a low cost, non-invasive method for obtaining vital information related to the conditions of the cardiovascular system. In recent years, different Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA) methods have been applied to disclose the pathological mechanisms of the pulse waveform. All these methods decompose single-period pulse waveform into a constant number (such as 3, 4 or 5) of individual waves. Furthermore, those methods do not pay much attention to the estimation error of the key points in the pulse waveform. The estimation of human vascular conditions depends on the key points' positions of pulse wave. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Gaussian (MG) model to fit real pulse waveforms using an adaptive number (4 or 5 in our study) of Gaussian waves. The unknown parameters in the MG model are estimated by the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method and the optimized weight values corresponding to different sampling points are selected by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. Performance of the MG model and the WLS method has been evaluated by fitting 150 real pulse waveforms of five different types. The resulting Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) was less than 2.0% and the estimation accuracy for the key points was satisfactory, demonstrating that our proposed method is effective in compressing, synthesizing and analyzing pulse waveforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Application of the Weighted Mean Value Method to Fredholm integral equations with Toeplitz plus Hankel kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Altürk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we study Fredholm integral equations of the second kind with Toeplitz, Hankel, and Toeplitz plus Hankel kernels. The weighted mean-value method is employed and extended to obtain numerical solutions for one-and multidimensional Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. By a successful application of this method, we first convert the integral equation into a system of algebraic equations, then solve this system and obtain promising results. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the simplicity and applicability of the method.

  3. Improved Green's function parabolic equation method for atmospheric sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) method for atmospheric sound propagation is discussed. Four types of numerical errors are distinguished: (i) errors in the forward Fourier transform; (ii) errors in the inverse Fourier transform; (iii) errors in the

  4. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  5. The functional variable method for solving the fractional Korteweg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the exact solutions for the fractional Korteweg–de Vries equations and the coupled Korteweg–de Vries equations with time-fractional derivatives using the functional variable method. The fractional derivatives are described in the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative sense. It is demonstrated that the ...

  6. The functional variable method for solving the fractional Korteweg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Korteweg–de Vries equation; coupled Korteweg–de Vries equation; functional variable method. PACS Nos 02.30.Jr; 05.45.Yv. 1. Introduction. The physical and engineering processes have been modelled by means of fractional calculus, which are found to be best described by fractional differential equations. Unfor-.

  7. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2013-06-01

    The modulating functions method has been used for the identification of linear and nonlinear systems. In this paper, we generalize this method to the on-line identification of fractional order systems based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. First, a new fractional integration by parts formula involving the fractional derivative of a modulating function is given. Then, we apply this formula to a fractional order system, for which the fractional derivatives of the input and the output can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear system. Using this method, we do not need any initial values which are usually unknown and not equal to zero. Also we do not need to estimate the fractional derivatives of noisy output. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed estimators are robust against high frequency sinusoidal noises and the ones due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, the efficiency and the stability of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical simulations.

  8. The continuous, desingularized Newton method for meromorphic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.

    For any (nonconstant) meromorphic function, we present a real analytic dynamical system, which may be interpreted as an infinitesimal version of Newton's method for finding its zeros. A fairly complete description of the local and global features of the phase portrait of such a system is obtained

  9. Fast methods for spatially correlated multilevel functional data

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, A.-M.

    2010-01-19

    We propose a new methodological framework for the analysis of hierarchical functional data when the functions at the lowest level of the hierarchy are correlated. For small data sets, our methodology leads to a computational algorithm that is orders of magnitude more efficient than its closest competitor (seconds versus hours). For large data sets, our algorithm remains fast and has no current competitors. Thus, in contrast to published methods, we can now conduct routine simulations, leave-one-out analyses, and nonparametric bootstrap sampling. Our methods are inspired by and applied to data obtained from a state-of-the-art colon carcinogenesis scientific experiment. However, our models are general and will be relevant to many new data sets where the object of inference are functions or images that remain dependent even after conditioning on the subject on which they are measured. Supplementary materials are available at Biostatistics online.

  10. Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented...... the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....

  11. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men in the UK is amongst the highest in Europe but men are less likely than women to use existing weight loss programmes. Developing weight management programmes which are appealing and acceptable to men is a public health priority. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a men-only weight management programme delivered to groups of men at top professional football clubs, encourages men to lose weight by working with, not against, cultural ideals of masculinity. To inform further development of interventions in football club settings, the current study explored who is attracted to FFIT and why overweight/obese men choose to take part. Methods A mixed-methods study analysing baseline data on 747 men aged 35–65 years with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 who were participants in a randomised controlled trial of FFIT, and data from 13 focus group discussions with 63 men who had attended the programme. Results Objectively-measured mean body mass index was 35.3 kg/m2 (sd 4.9). Overall over 90% of participants were at very high or extremely high risk of future ill-health. Around three-quarters of participants in all age groups were at ‘very high’ risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (72%, 73% and 80% of men aged 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years respectively). A further 21%, 16% and 13% were at ‘extremely high’ risk. Qualitative data revealed that the powerful ‘draw’ of the football club attracted men otherwise reluctant to attend existing weight management programmes. The location and style of delivery of early FFIT sessions fostered team spirit; men appreciated being with others ‘like them’ and the opportunity to undertake weight management in circumstances that enhanced physical and symbolic proximity to something they valued highly, the football club. Conclusions The delivery of a weight management intervention via professional football clubs attracted men at high risk of ill-health. The setting

  12. Role of surfactant molecular weight on morphology and properties of functionalized graphite oxide filled polypropylene nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various surfactants of different molecular weights, including alkylamine, poly(oxypropylene diamine (POP, and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PPgMA oligomers, were used for simultaneous funtionalization and reduction of graphite oxide (fGO. In this study, the effect of molecular weight and compatibility of the surfactants on the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites are reported. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD exhibited a definite interlayer thickness for GOA (alkylamine intercalated GO, however, the diffraction peaks were nearly suppressed for fGOs combining ODA with either POP (GOAP or PPgMA (GOAE. The uniform dispersion of the fGO flakes in the polypropylene matrix resulted in the significant increase in both the degradation temperature and the crystallization temperature. A single characteristic melting peak of monoclinic (α crystalline phase was observed from DSC traces, which was consistent with WAXD results. Dynamic mechanical analysis clearly indicated increase in both the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites due to the enhanced affinity between fGO and the polypropylene matrix. However, GOAP composite showed lower E' and Tg than GOAE because POP is less compatible with the matrix than PPgMA oligomer. Dielectric analysis also showed significant increase in both dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss at low frequency regimes with GOAE showing maximum dielectric properties. The finely dispersed GOAE and its compatibility with polymer matrix manifested the interfacial polarization, which gave rise to much greater ε' and ε" than other nanocomposites.

  13. Umbilical transposition in functional panniculectomy of the massive weight loss patient: is it aesthetic or medically necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Williams, Susan A; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Johnson, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    We review the procedures used in panniculectomy and explore the necessity of umbilical transposition when adequately treating the medical and functional problems associated with panniculus in the massive weight loss patient. Thirty-five consecutive patients with symptomatic panniculus after massive weight loss undergoing panniculectomy during the time period from November 2008 to October 2010 at Denver Health Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria consisted of insurance approval for the panniculectomy. All patients had persistent skin problems in the lower abdomen. Seven patients had additional skin problems in the skin around navel and/or mid-abdomen. Eleven patients complained of difficulty in performing activities of daily living. Nine patients had a concomitant ventral hernia repair. An infraumbilical panniculectomy was adequate in treating the medical and functional symptoms of the abdominal region in 3 patients with no need for umbilical transposition. The remaining 32 patients required a different procedure instead of only an infraumbilical panniculectomy. Among these 32 patients, 3 patients underwent panniculectomy with sacrifice of the umbilicus. Umbilical transposition following abdominal undermining was needed in the remaining 29 patients undergoing panniculectomy. Functional umbilical transposition was required to avoid unnatural displacement of the navel while treating chronic skin problems in the lower abdomen, or additional persistent skin problems around the navel or in the mid-abdomen, and to access the supraumbilical region, particularly for large ventral hernia repair during panniculectomy. Therefore, umbilical transposition in these cases was not aesthetic in nature but an integral part of achieving a functional surgical treatment.

  14. Investigating efficient methods for computing four-quark correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Alexandrou, Constantia; Berlin, Joshua; Dalla Brida, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Wagner, Marc

    2017-11-01

    We discuss and compare the efficiency of various methods, combinations of point-to-all propagators, stochastic timeslice-to-all propagators, the one-end trick and sequential propagators, to compute two-point correlation functions of two-quark and four-quark interpolating operators of different structure including quark-antiquark type, mesonic molecule type, diquark-antidiquark type and two-meson type. Although we illustrate our methods in the context of the a0(980) , they can be applied for other multi-quark systems, where similar diagrams appear. Thus our results could provide helpful guidelines on the choice of methods for correlation function computation for future lattice QCD studies of meson-meson scattering and possibly existing tetraquark states.

  15. A power function method for estimating base flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A; Stewart, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    Analytical base flow separation techniques are often used to determine the base flow contribution to total stream flow. Most analytical methods derive base flow from discharge records alone without using basin-specific variables other than basin area. This paper derives a power function for estimating base flow, the form being aQ(b) + cQ, an analytical method calibrated against an integrated basin variable, specific conductance, relating base flow to total discharge, and is consistent with observed mathematical behavior of dissolved solids in stream flow with varying discharge. Advantages of the method are being uncomplicated, reproducible, and applicable to hydrograph separation in basins with limited specific conductance data. The power function relationship between base flow and discharge holds over a wide range of basin areas. It better replicates base flow determined by mass balance methods than analytical methods such as filters or smoothing routines that are not calibrated to natural tracers or empirical basin and gauge-specific variables. Also, it can be used with discharge during periods without specific conductance values, including separating base flow from quick flow for single events. However, it may overestimate base flow during very high flow events. Application of geochemical mass balance and power function base flow separation methods to stream flow and specific conductance records from multiple gauges in the same basin suggests that analytical base flow separation methods must be calibrated at each gauge. Using average values of coefficients introduces a potentially significant and unknown error in base flow as compared with mass balance methods. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Effects of intentional weight loss on physical and cognitive function in middle-aged and older obese participants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Nasti, Gilda; Stephan, Blossom C M; Papa, Annamaria; Muscariello, Edy; Wells, Jonathan C K; Prado, Carla M; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Whether weight loss improves cognition in older obese adults is not known. The objective was to investigate the effects of intentional weight loss on physical and cognitive function in middle-aged and older obese adults attending a weight loss clinic. Eleven male and 39 female nonsmoking, adult obese (body mass index 30-50 kg/m(2)) participants were recruited. Participants were stratified by age: middle aged (30-59 years) and older aged (≥ 60 years). The weight loss target for each subject was 8% to 12% of initial body weight. Information on anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, hand-grip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Trail-Making Test (TMT) A and B were collected at baseline and after weight loss. At baseline, older participants showed a nonsignificant trend for lower global cognitive function (MMSE, SPMSQ) and significantly slower processing speed (TMT-A). Twenty-one participants completed the weight loss study. The average weight loss relative to baseline was 9.7% ± 2.1%. Weight loss was associated with significant improvements in hand-grip strength and cognitive function (MMSE, TMT-A, and TMT-B). MMSE scores improved significantly only in older obese participants (p physical function. If confirmed in future trials, weight loss can significantly affect public health strategies for the prevention of dementia as well as on the clinical management of obesity.

  17. Functional multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Kessler, Thomas M; Roth, Beat; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2014-08-01

    Little data are available on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging based assessment of renal function during upper urinary tract obstruction. We determined whether functional multiparametric kidney magnetic resonance imaging could monitor the treatment response in cases of acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction. Between January 2008 and January 2010, 18 patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi were prospectively enrolled to undergo kidney magnetic resonance imaging with conventional, blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences upon emergency hospital admission and after release of obstruction. We assessed functional imaging parameters of obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys derived from blood oxygen level dependent (apparent spin relaxation rate) and diffusion-weighted (total apparent diffusion coefficient, pure diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction) sequences during acute upper urinary tract obstruction and after its release. During acute obstruction the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction were lower in the cortex (p=0.020 and 0.031) and medulla (p=0.012 and 0.190, respectively) of obstructed kidneys compared to contralateral unobstructed kidneys. After obstruction release the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction increased in the cortex (p=0.016 and 0.004) and medulla (p=0.071 and 0.044, respectively) of formerly obstructed kidneys to values similar to those in contralateral kidneys. Total apparent diffusion coefficient and pure diffusion coefficient values did not significantly differ between obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys during or after obstruction. In our patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi functional kidney magnetic resonance imaging using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences enabled us to monitor pathophysiological changes in obstructed kidneys during

  18. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Light-weight Method for Trace Analysis to Support Fault Diagnosis in Concurrent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pietschker

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a light-weight approach to the analysis of traces of partially ordered events collected during the execution of a concurrent or distributed system through the use of XML technology. Traces contain information about the creation and termination of threads or objects and the exchange of messages and other types of communication among them. Traces are transformed according to property patterns, visualised and analysed to support fault diagnosis of concurrent systems. We present an approach using XML technology and report the findings of an initial industrial project.

  20. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for the Weighted Least Squares Estimation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    State estimation techniques effectively provide mean state estimates. However, the theoretical state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques often suffer from a lack of confidence in their ability to describe the un-certainty in the estimated states. By a reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares algorithm, it is possible to directly arrive at an empirical state error covariance matrix. This proposed empirical state error covariance matrix will contain the effect of all error sources, known or not. Results based on the proposed technique will be presented for a simple, two observer, measurement error only problem.

  1. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal...

  2. Performance evaluation method of electric energy data acquire system based on combination of subjective and objective weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen; Ding, Zhongan; Deng, Bofa; Yan, Shengteng

    2017-10-01

    According to the characteristics of electric energy data acquire system (EEDAS), considering the availability of each index data and the connection between the index integrity, establishing the performance evaluation index system of electric energy data acquire system from three aspects as master station system, communication channel, terminal equipment. To determine the comprehensive weight of each index based on triangular fuzzy number analytic hierarchy process with entropy weight method, and both subjective preference and objective attribute are taken into consideration, thus realize the performance comprehensive evaluation more reasonable and reliable. Example analysis shows that, by combination with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and triangle fuzzy numbers (TFN) to establish comprehensive index evaluation system based on entropy method, the evaluation results not only convenient and practical, but also more objective and accurate.

  3. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabow Aaron P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. Results We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder

  4. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabow, Aaron P; Leach, Sonia M; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence E; Goldberg, Debra S

    2008-04-15

    Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder, but co-occurrence data still proves beneficial. Co

  5. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM IN DIET ON LIVER FUNCTION AND BODY WEIGHT OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stanko Kanački

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main biological role of selenium is performed via enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and includes the participation in the defense mechanism of the cell membrane from the peroxide damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of added selenium in foods in varying amounts and from various sources (organic and inorganic selenium. The experiment was conducted on the broilers, and the following parameters were monitored: body weight, total serum protein and the activity of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. The study demonstrated that organically-bound selenium had the most pronounced protective property, while both forms of selenium did not significantly affect the growth and concentration of the total serum protein. Therefore, this research suggests economic benefits of organic selenium in the diet of broiler chickens. Key words: selenium, body weight, liver function, broiler chickens

  6. Efficient and accurate Greedy Search Methods for mining functional modules in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jieyue; Li, Chaojun; Ye, Baoliu; Zhong, Wei

    2012-06-25

    Most computational algorithms mainly focus on detecting highly connected subgraphs in PPI networks as protein complexes but ignore their inherent organization. Furthermore, many of these algorithms are computationally expensive. However, recent analysis indicates that experimentally detected protein complexes generally contain Core/attachment structures. In this paper, a Greedy Search Method based on Core-Attachment structure (GSM-CA) is proposed. The GSM-CA method detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks based on the edge weight and two criteria for determining core nodes and attachment nodes. The GSM-CA method improves the prediction accuracy compared to other similar module detection approaches, however it is computationally expensive. Many module detection approaches are based on the traditional hierarchical methods, which is also computationally inefficient because the hierarchical tree structure produced by these approaches cannot provide adequate information to identify whether a network belongs to a module structure or not. In order to speed up the computational process, the Greedy Search Method based on Fast Clustering (GSM-FC) is proposed in this work. The edge weight based GSM-FC method uses a greedy procedure to traverse all edges just once to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. The proposed methods are applied to the protein interaction network of S. cerevisiae. Experimental results indicate that many significant functional modules are detected, most of which match the known complexes. Results also demonstrate that the GSM-FC algorithm is faster and more accurate as compared to other competing algorithms. Based on the new edge weight definition, the proposed algorithm takes advantages of the greedy search procedure to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. Experimental analysis shows that the identified modules are statistically significant. The algorithm can reduce the

  7. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  8. A linear programming based method for the resource constrained multi-project scheduling problem with weighted earliness/tardiness costs

    OpenAIRE

    Pamay, Mehmet Berke

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the Resource Constrained Multi Project Scheduling Problem with Weighted Earliness Tardiness Costs (RCMPSPWET). In multi-project environments, the project portfolio of a company does often change dramatically in time. In this dynamic context, the arrival of a new project requires quoting a due date while keeping the disruptions to the existing plans and schedules to a minimum. The suggested solution method is an adaptation of the well known shifting bottleneck (SB) h...

  9. CLOCK 3111T/C genetic variant influences the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function: relevance to body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M-T; Bandin, C; Yang, H-W; Scheer, F A J L; Hu, K; Garaulet, M

    2017-07-24

    Humans carrying the genetic risk variant C at the circadian CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) 3111T/C have been shown to have more difficulties to achieve desired weight loss than TT carriers. We tested the hypothesis that the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function differs in CLOCK 3111C carriers, leading to reduced effectiveness in weight control. We recruited 40 overweight/obese Caucasian women (body mass index>25), 20 carrying CLOCK 3111C (CC and TC) and 20 non-carriers with matched age and body mass index who participated in a dietary obesity treatment program of up to 30 weeks. Following the treatment, ambulatory electrocardiography was continuously monitored for up to 3.5 days when subjects underwent their normal daily activities. To assess autonomic function, heart rate variability analysis (HRV) was performed hourly to obtain mean inter-beat interval between two consecutive R waves (mean RR) and s.d. of normal-to-normal heartbeat intervals (SDNN), and two parasympathetic measures, namely, proportion of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are >50 ms (pNN50), and high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) power. In the TT carriers, all tested HRV indices showed significant daily rhythms (all P-values weight loss during the treatment program had smaller amplitudes in the rhythms of mean RR (Pweight loss associations were much stronger in the C carriers as compared to the TT carriers (mean RR: P=0.028, pNN50: P=0.0002; HF: P=0.015). The daily rhythm of parasympathetic modulation may play a role in the influence of the CLOCK variation on body weight control.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 15 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.168.

  10. Relationship between weight loss and parameters of skeletal muscle function in patients with advanced cancer and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, P Cresta; Giorlando, A; Castro, M; Navigante, A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of significant weight loss on parameters of skeletal muscle function in a population of advanced cancer patients with fatigue. A cross-sectional and comparative study was designed between two arms of advanced cancer patients with fatigue (fatigue numeral scale (FNS) ≥4). A arm (n = 27) with ≥5 % weight loss in the last 6 months, and B arm (n = 22) without weight loss. Muscle strength was examined by hand grip technique and measurements of body composition by bioimpedance analysis (BIA), values of hemoglobin, albumin, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), c-reactive protein (CRP), urine creatinine, and FNS. These variables were compared between both groups and correlated within each group. here were no differences concerning parameters of muscle strength between both arms. A arm had values of CRP ≥10 ug/dl in 77 % compared with 38.5 % of B arm (p = 0.004). A arm showed a higher percentage of body cell mass (%BCM) than B arm (p = 0.005). The A arm also showed a lower percentage of fat mass (%FM) (p = 0.014) when compared to the B arm. FNS was higher in A arm (median 7 vs 5; p = 0.047). All the variables of muscle strength had a significant positive correlation. In A arm, BCM had a negative significant correlation with CRP (p = 0.021). In this study, significant weight loss and high CRP did not have influence on parameters of skeletal muscular function. We consider that further studies should be necessary, preferably with longitudinal designs to evaluate these findings.

  11. Centroid Localization of Uncooperative Nodes in Wireless Networks Using a Relative Span Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laurendeau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly ubiquitous wireless technologies require novel localization techniques to pinpoint the position of an uncooperative node, whether the target is a malicious device engaging in a security exploit or a low-battery handset in the middle of a critical emergency. Such scenarios necessitate that a radio signal source be localized by other network nodes efficiently, using minimal information. We propose two new algorithms for estimating the position of an uncooperative transmitter, based on the received signal strength (RSS of a single target message at a set of receivers whose coordinates are known. As an extension to the concept of centroid localization, our mechanisms weigh each receiver's coordinates based on the message's relative RSS at that receiver, with respect to the span of RSS values over all receivers. The weights may decrease from the highest RSS receiver either linearly or exponentially. Our simulation results demonstrate that for all but the most sparsely populated wireless networks, our exponentially weighted mechanism localizes a target node within the regulations stipulated for emergency services location accuracy.

  12. Approximation of signals (functions belonging to the weighted W(Lp,ξ(t-class by linear operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Mittal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mittal and Rhoades (1999–2001 and Mittal et al. (2006 have initiated the studies of error estimates En(f through trigonometric Fourier approximations (TFA for the situations in which the summability matrix T does not have monotone rows. In this paper, we determine the degree of approximation of a function f˜, conjugate to a periodic function f belonging to the weighted W(Lp,ξ(t-class (p≥1, where ξ(t is nonnegative and increasing function of t by matrix operators T (without monotone rows on a conjugate series of Fourier series associated with f. Our theorem extends a recent result of Mittal et al. (2005 and a theorem of Lal and Nigam (2001 on general matrix summability. Our theorem also generalizes the results of Mittal, Singh, and Mishra (2005 and Qureshi (1981-1982 for Nörlund (Np-matrices.

  13. Ankle-brachial index by automated method and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The Ankle-brachial index (ABI is a non-invasive method used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. Aims To determine the clinical features of patients submitted to ABI measurement by automatic method. To investigate association between ABI and renal function. Methods The present is a cross-sectional study. The study was performed in a private clinic in the city of Fortaleza (Ce- Brazil. For ABI analysis, we utilized automatic methodology using a Microlife device. Data collection took place from March 2012 to January 2016. During this period, ABI was measured in 375 patients aged >50 years, who had a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes or vascular disease. Results Of the 375 patients, 18 were categorized as having abnormal ABI (4.8 per cent and 357 were normal ABI (95.2 per cent. Patients with abnormal ABI showed older mean age when compared to patients with normal ABI. Among patients with normal renal function, only 0.95 per cent showed abnormal ABI; among patients with abnormal renal function, 6 per cent showed abnormal ABI. Conclusion 1 No differences were observed when comparing the groups regarding gender or the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or CAD. 2 Group with abnormal ABI had renal function greater impairment.

  14. Optimising Job-Shop Functions Utilising the Score-Function Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2000-01-01

    During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging to this ......During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging...... of a Job-Shop can be handled by the SF method....

  15. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.